2016–17 Departmental Results Report

QS-6385-500-EE-A1
ISSN: 2561-2492
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs, 2017

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Table of contents

Minister's message

On behalf of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), I am pleased to present the 2016–17 Departmental Results Report.

This report details steps that INAC has taken in the past fiscal year to support reconciliation with First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples.

Canada takes this process very seriously. As the Prime Minister says, renewing the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples is a sacred obligation.

Together, we are renewing the relationship, recognizing rights, advancing self-determination, and closing the socio-economic gap. Indigenous voices are being heard at the highest levels of government — and we are working together in partnership to identify and address shared priorities.

We are exploring new concepts and approaches for reaching agreements in partnership with Indigenous groups that will recognize their rights and advance their vision of self-determination for the benefit of their communities and all Canadians. This includes exploring new ways of working together at discussion tables across the country. These discussions are community-driven and respond to the unique rights, needs, and interests of Indigenous groups.

Towards relationship building, in December 2016 the Prime Minister announced permanent distinction-based bilateral mechanisms with the Assembly of First Nations, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and the Métis National Council and its Governing Members to co-develop policy on shared priorities. This joint national work is ongoing and reflects the diversity and unique priorities of First Nations, Inuit and the Métis Nation in Canada.

In May 2016, the Government of Canada fully endorsed without reservation, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, a commitment to keeping reconciliation at the heart of the federal government's actions.

In direct response to the Declaration, Canada is reviewing federal laws and policies impacting Indigenous peoples. This means working with Indigenous people to change laws that were designed and written in a paternalistic and colonial way. It is about breathing life into Section 35 of Canada's Constitution. I am proud to say that INAC is a full participant in this review.

In July 2016, in the same spirit of change and renewal, the National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations and I signed a memorandum of understanding on a process to advance a new fiscal relationship between First Nations and Canada, based on a recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership. Since 2016, Canada has also been actively engaged with self-governing Indigenous groups to co-develop a new self-government fiscal policy framework. These fiscal frameworks, along with other initiatives, will help to close socio-economic gaps, provide sufficient and predictable funding for those communities.

In terms of closing the socio-economic gap, I am proud to say that 100% of the money identified for fiscal year 2016–2017 to INAC for infrastructure, capacity building and employment strategies has been allocated. This means that people are already seeing real improvements in housing, water and wastewater infrastructure, schools, and other community infrastructure. When speaking about infrastructure, I am referring to improvements to housing, schools, water and wastewater facilities, recreational facilities, and other community infrastructure. This means that people are already seeing real changes for the better. For example, as of June 30, 2017, 26 long-term drinking water advisories affecting public systems financially supported by INAC were lifted in 22 First Nation communities.

Furthermore, in an effort to ensure that affordable food is available to all Northerners, the eligibility criteria for Nutrition North Canada were also expanded. That means that more people are now going to have access to healthy food choices, which is a key determinant of well-being. As part of the Government's ongoing commitment to improving the program, engagement sessions were held across the North in 2016 to canvas the views of community members and other stakeholders on how the program can be more transparent, cost-effective, and culturally appropriate. We are currently reviewing the Nutrition North Canada Engagement 2016 Final Report to develop options that will transform the program so that it meets the needs of Northern families. Together, we want to explore solutions developed by Northerners for Northerners.

To be meaningful, reconciliation requires transformative change. We have a unique opportunity in this country to set out ambitious visions, take bold steps, and think in new ways — all in pursuit of a better future for Indigenous people and Northerners, and a better Canada. I invite and encourage all Parliamentarians — and all Canadians — to join in this reconciliation journey.

The Honourable Carolyn Bennett,M.D., P.C., M.P.
Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs

Results at a glance

Total actual spending: $9,132,505,051
Total full-time equivalents: 4,643
Strategic OutcomesActual SpendingFull-time equivalents
The Government $1,917,239,924 862
The People $4,228,350,963 1,033
The Land and Economy $2,319,157,343 911
The North $381,379,175 361
Internal Services $286,377,646 1,476

For more information on the Department's plans, priorities and results achieved, see the "Results: what we achieved" section of this report.

Raison d'être, mandate and role: who we are and what we do

Raison d'être

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) supports Indigenous peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and Northerners in their efforts to:

  • Improve social well-being and economic prosperity;
  • Develop healthier, more sustainable communities; and
  • Participate more fully in Canada's political, social and economic development — to the benefit of all Canadians.

Mandate and role

The Department has a mandate to support Canada's Indigenous and northern peoples in the pursuit of healthy and sustainable communities, and broader economic and social development objectives. Efforts are guided by the Department's mission statement:

Working together to make Canada a better place for Indigenous and northern peoples and communities.

The mandate for Indigenous and Northern Affairs is derived from a number of sources, including the following: the Canadian Constitution; the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Act; the Indian Act (as amended over the years); statutes dealing with environmental and resource management, such as the Nunavut Planning and Project Assessment Act; the Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal Act, the Canada Petroleum Resources Act, and the Territorial Lands Act.

Along with responsibility for administering statutory and regulatory provisions of the Indian Act, INAC is also mandated to work with First Nations to implement legislation designed to provide them with jurisdictional powers outside of the Indian Act. The Department's mandate is further defined by specific statutes enabling modern treaties and self-government agreements and implementation of those agreements. For a list of all statutes, please consult INAC's website.

Policy and program practices, as well as judicial decisions, also shape the Department's mandate. INAC also provides support for services on reserves, such as education, housing, community infrastructure and social support to Status Indians on reserves; administers the land management component of the Indian Act; and executes other regulatory duties under the Indian Act.

On behalf of the Government of Canada, INAC negotiates comprehensive land claims, specific claims, as well as self-government agreements and other related processes, such as Recognition of Indigenous Rights and Self-Determination discussions, out-of-court settlements and special claims. The Department is responsible for implementing its obligations under these agreements and processes, and overseeing the implementation of obligations of other government departments flowing from these agreements through bodies like the Deputy Ministers Oversight Committee on Modern Treaty Implementation. Additionally, INAC provides support and services related to ensuring that Canada meets its duty to consult Indigenous peoples.

The Minister acts as the Government of Canada's primary interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians. The Department also supports Inuit in the pursuit of healthy and sustainable communities and broader economic and social development objectives, by providing expertise, research and training on Inuit matters to federal departments and agencies to advance Inuit issues. The newly minted Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee will help address Inuit-specific concerns in federal programming and policy development.

INAC fulfills its commitments under the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement by providing administrative support to the Indian Residential Schools Adjudication Secretariat, an arms'-length and independent body tasked with administering the Independent Assessment Process (IAP), and by participating in the IAP and ensuring payment of compensation awards as a party to the Agreement.

Through its Northern Affairs mandate, INAC is also the lead federal department for two-fifths of Canada's landmass, with a direct role in the political and economic development of the territories, and significant responsibilities for science, land, and environmental management. In the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, the territorial governments generally provide the majority of social programs and services to all Northerners, including Indigenous peoples.Footnote 1

Polar Knowledge Canada, is the new federal research organization responsible for advancing Canada's knowledge of the Arctic and strengthening Canadian leadership in polar science and technology. INAC will continue reporting on the construction of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station under Program 4.2, Northern Science and Technology until the transfer of the Station to Polar Knowledge Canada in 2017–2018. As a separate entity, Polar Knowledge Canada plans and reports on its activities, details of which may be found on its website.

For more general information about the Department, see the "Supplementary information" section of this report. For more information on the Department's organizational mandate letter commitments, see the Minister's mandate letter.

Operating context and key risks

Operating context

The Prime Minister has stated that no relationship is more important to him and to Canada than the one with Indigenous peoples, and key in advancing and promoting the issues of greatest importance to First Nations, Inuit, Métis, Non-Status Indians, and Northern communities.

INAC's responsibilities are shaped by unique demographic, socio-economic and geographic challenges and by centuries of Canadian history, including the legacy of historical and inter-generational trauma. While the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples is of vital importance, many First Nations, Métis and Inuit do not enjoy the same quality of life as other Canadians as a result of a long history of colonialism, neglect, and failed paternalistic policies towards Indigenous peoples.

Indigenous peoples in Canada continue to experience considerable inequality compared to the rest of the population. The federal government's Community Well-Being Index, which assesses socio-economic well-being at the community level, shows that the disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities has not changed in the last 30 years. In addition to lower incomes and employment rates, Indigenous peoples continue to experience higher levels of poverty, and higher rates of inadequate housing, food insecurity, poor health, substandard electricity services, poor access to digital connectivity and unsafe drinking water. Indigenous peoples also experience the lowest educational outcomes among Canadians. Some Indigenous communities — especially those located in more remote areas — experience more chronic physical and mental health issues compared to non-Indigenous communities. The rate of Indigenous children living in poverty is almost three times higher than that of Canadian children as a whole.

At the same time, a key factor in Canada's changing demographic landscape is the Indigenous population, which is young and growing twice as fast as the overall Canadian population. While this raises the challenge of an ever-increasing demand for services, it is also an unprecedented opportunity to harness the potential of Indigenous youth now and in the future.

A number of environmental issues are of concern to Northerners, the Canadian public, and the international community, including the cumulative effects of climate change, mitigating its impact on traditional lifestyles and transportation, reducing contaminants in the Arctic food chain, and remediation of contaminated sites to reduce or eliminate risks. INAC is working collaboratively with Northerners, including Inuit, First Nations, and Métis, to co-develop an Arctic Policy Framework that will address sustainable economic and social development, infrastructure, science and, that Northerners have a strong voice in international outreach to the United States and circumpolar countries around the world.

The Government of Canada is working with Indigenous peoples to renew the relationship; making real progress on shared priorities, such as housing, employment, health and mental health care, child welfare, and education; and increasing self-determination for Indigenous peoples and Northerners. To this end, the Minister of INAC and the National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations signed a memorandum of understanding in July 2016 to establish a new fiscal relationship on a nation-to-nation level with First Nations, based on the recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership. Since 2016, Canada has also been actively engaged with self-governing Indigenous groups to co-develop a new self-government fiscal policy framework. These fiscal frameworks, along with other initiatives, will help to close socio-economic gaps, provide sufficient and predictable funding for those communities.

In 2017, INAC led the establishment of permanent distinctions-based bilateral mechanisms with each of the Assembly of First Nations, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, the Métis National Council and its Governing Members to co-develop policy on shared priorities through a whole of Government approach. INAC has also established Recognition of Indigenous Rights and Self-Determination discussions with Indigenous groups to advance their community-identified priorities, and as a stepping stone towards greater self-determination.

INAC acknowledges that there is much work to be done on the journey towards reconciliation and it is learning to work with Indigenous partners in a manner that is centred on co-development. The 2015 Speech from the Throne committed to advancing reconciliation by renewing the nation-to-nation, Inuit-to-Crown, and government-to-government relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples, and working co-operatively to implement the Truth and Reconciliation Committee's Calls to Action. This led to Canada fully endorsing the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in May of 2016 and the launching of the independent National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls in September 2016.

To address these challenges and achieve meaningful reconciliation with First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples, a whole of Government approach is required, as well as the active participation of all Canadians. For the Government, this includes strong collaboration across departments and with provinces and territories, as well as re-engaging in a renewed, distinction-based approach to relationships with Indigenous peoples, based on the recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership.

INAC's internal operating environment continues to adjust and implement new and streamlined processes to support more efficient and effective program delivery and services to internal and external stakeholders. In particular, INAC is focusing on engagement with, and service delivery to, Indigenous communities, Indigenous organizations, and Indigenous peoples to support real progress on shared priorities. This includes: the development of a new results framework to plan, monitor and report on results; the strengthening of integrated planning, evaluation, and innovation to ensure resources are used optimally; and the modernizing of procurement processes to improve client service and procedural oversight. INAC is also focused on supporting other federal departments in understanding the duty to consult, and monitoring the implementation of modern treaties in a whole of Government approach.

Key risks

INAC funds or delivers programs and services to diverse groups of people and individuals who have varied and distinct needs and priorities. These programs and services are delivered to communities, large and small, urban and remote, all across the country. Most INAC services are delivered through partnerships with Indigenous communities, the provinces and territories, Indigenous organizations and organizations in the North. The Department's responsibilities are largely shaped by unique demographic and geographic factors, as well as centuries of Canadian history replete with the signing and implementation of multiple treaties.

Through the 2016 exercise to update the Corporate Risk Profile, the Department identified and assessed the most significant risks that may impede the achievement of the Department's objectives, and identified measures to mitigate these risks.

Through the year, the Department responded to its identified risks through several strategies: improving critical programs, increasing support to regional staff, improving service delivery, and developing and implementing a national reconciliation framework. Through these and other initiatives, the Department continued to ensure a respectful and productive relationship with Northerners and Indigenous peoples.

INAC's 2017–2018 Corporate Risk Profile is available online.

Legal Risk recognizes that departmental policies, programs and activities may result in litigation.

Link to the Department's programs
  • Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples
  • Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties
  • Other Claims
Link to mandate letter commitments or to government-wide and departmental priorities
  • Review of laws, policies and practices
Mitigating strategy and effectiveness
  • INAC worked to resolve departmental litigation using the most appropriate mechanism. With the ongoing objective of reconciliation, INAC and Justice Canada have increasingly made attempts to settle claims out of court instead of proceeding to trial, and continue to work together to develop a process to enhance settlement opportunities through streamlining the federal process and reviewing authorities.
  • Refinements to INAC's litigation case management system allowed for advanced search capability within a comprehensive repository of litigation, enabling more efficient, streamlined real-time reporting against the departmental litigation case inventory, and the ability to facilitate trend analysis.
  • Brought together resource allocation and priority setting using a risk-based management lens via the annual INAC-Justice Canada Memorandum of Understanding for legal services.
  • INAC standardized the litigation hold procedures for preservation of relevant information for litigation processes to ensure departmental legal obligations are met.
  • INAC continued to develop lessons learned based on experiences by collecting modern documents for key cases, to inform procedures for both document retention and collection in the context of litigation. In addition, INAC and Justice Canada have developed a best practices protocol for streamlining the document production process.
  • INAC developed risk scales to facilitate the categorization, measurement and description of the operational, business, financial and policy/program risks stemming from litigation.

Environmental Risk refers to the risk to the Department posed by human activities that impact the environment and the risk of environmental processes such as climate change.

Link to the Department's programs
  • Community Economic Development
  • Infrastructure and Capacity
  • Northern Governance and People
  • Northern Science and Technology
  • Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management
Link to mandate letter commitments or to government-wide and departmental priorities
  • Implementing the Budget 2016 essential infrastructure engagements
  • Amendment of environmental legislation
Mitigating strategy and effectiveness
  • Budget 2016 proposed $409 million to ensure communities have modern and environmentally sustainable solid waste management systems. INAC has begun by investing $112 million over two years to fund improvements to waste management on-reserve, and also initiated engagement with First Nations on longer-term options and further investments.
  • Using funding from Budget 2016, INAC implemented two new climate change adaptation programs — Climate Change Preparedness in the North, and First Nations Adapt — to address the different regional needs and priorities of the North and First Nations in the South.
  • Through the Structural Disaster Mitigation Framework, INAC supported First Nation communities in implementing activities to strengthen their infrastructure against extreme weather events and other disasters.
  • INAC continued with the remediation of high-priority contaminated sites that pose the greatest risk to human health and safety, as well as the environment, through the Contaminated Sites Program on-reserve and the Northern Contaminated Sites Program. This included the completion of remediation activities at Great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories and the remediation of the Skownan First Nation General Store in Waterhen, Manitoba, allowing for future site redevelopment by the community.
  • INAC also developed robust governance and oversight for the management of contaminated sites in the North and South, and the Northern Contaminated Sites Program improved its planning and internal control management framework in response to a November 2014 audit.
  • INAC conducted care and maintenance, and risk mitigation work, at the Giant Mine site, including deconstruction and removal of infrastructure and buildings that were at risk of collapse, and implemented certain requirements from the Environmental Assessment.
  • Adaptive management activities were undertaken to address urgent site risks, and ongoing care and maintenance was performed at the Faro Mine site. INAC also continued preparations for the submission of an Environmental Assessment in 2018.
  • INAC continued to transfer land management responsibilities to First Nations communities through the First Nations Land Management Act, land claims and self-government agreements, and devolution to Nunavut. These transfers better define the Department's environmental risk, while respecting the rights and interests of Indigenous people in the use and control of lands. They also complement INAC's ongoing regulatory oversight of the land, water, natural resources, and environment of the North, in keeping with a range of existing statutes and agreements.
  • INAC established an engagement process with First Nation communities to examine the reform of the Environmental Review Process of projects on reserve and identify priority action areas to improve the process. Engagement sessions will be held in 2017–2018.
  • INAC developed and implemented a land use planning initiative to build communities' capacity and skills in land planning, surveying and mapping. INAC provided funding to 30 First Nations for the development of their community-led land use plans and to Indigenous organizations to provide ongoing technical support and training opportunities.
  • INAC supported Environment and Climate Change Canada in implementing the Petroleum and Allied Petroleum Products Storage System Regulations by disseminating guidance materials for the safe handling of fuel. INAC also provided funding for the removal and/or replacement of non-compliant fuel tanks on reserve lands south of 60° and on lands set aside in the Yukon.
  • By coordinating Canada's contributions to international assessments of pollution and climate change in the Arctic, through the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme of the Arctic Council, INAC strengthened the scientific bases for global action on these issues and their related risks.
  • Through continuing research and monitoring of long-range contaminants in the Canadian Arctic, the Northern Contaminants Program generated data and information to assess ecosystem and human health, and inform policy for the eventual elimination of these contaminants.
  • INAC updated its Departmental Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Reduction Strategy and its Target in 2016–2017 to support continued improvement. GHG emissions from INAC's vehicles during the 2016–2017 fiscal year were 24% lower than the baseline levels in 2008–2009. INAC operates alternative fuel and hybrid vehicles where feasible and plans to begin reporting and reducing facility GHG emissions by 2018–2019.

Indigenous Relationship Risk relates to fostering and maintaining the broad spectrum of relationships with Indigenous communities, persons and the organizations that represent them.

Link to the Department's programs
  • Governance and Institutions of Government
  • Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples
  • Education
  • Social Development
  • First Nations Individual Affairs
  • Urban Indigenous Participation
  • Northern Governance and People
  • Internal Services
Link to mandate letter commitments or to government-wide and departmental priorities
  • Implementing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's Call to Action
  • Modern treaties, self-government agreements and other key government structures
  • Launch the engagement strategy for a National Reconciliation Framework
  • Inquiring into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls
  • Review of laws, policies and practices
  • Implementing a new fiscal relationship
  • Enhancing First Nations Child and Family Services
  • Establishing a new First Nation Education System
  • Advancing the Métis Nation Reconciliation
  • Fostering economic development
Mitigating strategy and effectiveness
  • In July 2016, the Minister signed a memorandum of understanding with the Assembly of First Nations to guide work towards the creation of a new fiscal relationship. INAC is also collaborating with self-governing Indigenous governments on the development of a new fiscal policy framework for self-government.
  • The Reconciliation Secretariat was established in Winter 2017 to undertake priority setting, policy co-development and stock-taking with national Indigenous organizations.
  • INAC further maximized flexibilities available under the Treasury Board Transfer Payment Policy to assist in development of a nation-to-nation relationship.
  • Implemented ongoing improvements to critical programs. This included significant investments in primary and secondary education on reserve, the creation of the First Nations Waste Management Initiative, and funding investments in First Nations water infrastructure.
  • Finalized, in June 2016, a whole of Government approach to treaty implementation, including a Cabinet Directive on Modern Treaty Implementation.
  • INAC continued to focus on high-level engagements with Indigenous communities and leaders in search of a common understanding of policy and program priorities. INAC also undertook consultation and ongoing engagement with Indigenous communities and leaders to support reforms to better align programs with community needs and ensure sufficient advance notice on adjustments to funding or other significant changes, such as Descheneaux legislation and the First Nations Child and Family Services reform.
  • INAC developed an organizational process for departmental responses to the requests of the commissioners for the independent National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls, and to the recommendations of their report (anticipated for December 2018).
  • Developed a proactive strategy, in partnership with Health Canada, to seek out First Nation children who could benefit from funding under Jordan's Principle.
  • Continued to improve service delivery to First Nation individuals, including by moving towards a client-centric seamless delivery model for the Secure Certificate of Indian Status. In addition to traditional means of communications (such as Staff in Regional Offices, Indian Registry Administrators in Band Council Offices, etc.), the use of more effective public communications and better use of social media and web-based tools facilitated communication with individuals on the services and programs offered by INAC, and strengthened departmental linkages to Indigenous persons.
  • Continued with pilot projects to simplify reporting, such as the annual report initiative, which uses an online reporting portal to reduce the number of one-off reports prepared by First Nations for INAC.
  • INAC continued implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, including the provision of mental health and emotional support services.
  • Held exploratory discussion tables with Indigenous groups to help inform the development of a new Section 35 Rights Framework, which will include an updated Comprehensive Land Claims Policy, as well as self-government negotiations, Métis rights, and consultation, accommodation and other related processes.

Results: what we achieved

Strategic Outcome: The Government — Support good governance, rights and interests of Indigenous peoples

Program 1.1: Governance and Institutions of Government

Description

This Program provides support to First Nation governments, as well as Indigenous governance institutions and organizations. The intent of this support is to facilitate capacity development in the Indigenous public service, the elected leadership, and entities that administer aggregate services on behalf of or to First Nation governments and their communities. Transparent and accountable First Nation governments attract investment, create opportunities, and effectively support their citizens. Transparent and accountable institutions and organizations strengthen the fabric of Indigenous governments across Canada, assist Indigenous communities and their governments in attracting investment, and support Indigenous participation in the Canadian economy. Ultimately, good governance practices are essential for active Indigenous participation in Canadian society and the economy.

Results

Permanent bilateral mechanisms with national Indigenous organizations were announced in December 2016, and will undertake comprehensive, distinctions-based approaches with First Nations, Métis and Inuit to priority setting, policy co-development and stock-taking. These mechanisms will include annual meetings with the Prime Minister, as well as meetings with key Ministers at least twice a year. This includes the February 9, 2017, meeting between the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and the Prime Minister.

The implementation of Budget 2016's $20 million investment in the First Nations Finance Authority allowed the issuance of a $110 million debenture (i.e. loan certificate) in June 2016 to support infrastructure, housing and other public works in First Nation communities. As well, $7 million in federal funds for the First Nations Fiscal Management Act institutions contributed to the addition of 34 new First Nations to the regime, and the collection of over $86 million in property tax revenues by First Nations.

Further contributing to capacity building successes of the First Nations Financial Management Board, a three-year pilot project was launched to enhance financial management and governance capacity in four First Nations in Manitoba and one in British Columbia, in third party management. This pilot project supports these First Nations in their transition away from default prevention and management, and enables progress towards greater economic development.

The Department changed its approach and engaged on a way forward for mutual transparency and accountability between First Nations and the Government of Canada. This broader approach better reflected the Government of Canada's commitment to renew its relationship with Indigenous peoples, based on recognition.

In January 2017, the Government kicked off a five-month process of engagement with First Nations leaders, communities and organizations across the country on new approaches to support mutual transparency and accountability. A final report on this consultation process and the review of the First Nations Financial Transparency Act will follow, and will also be shared with the Working Group of Ministers on the review of laws, policies and operational practices related to Indigenous peoples.

INAC has engaged in the renewal of its fiscal relationship with First Nations. This effort, along with the Report of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Indigenous and Northern Affairs on Default Prevention and Management (2017), will feed into the renewal of its Default Prevention and Management Policy as well as its approach on Third Party Funding Agreement Management.

As well, streamlined business processes and sustainable transfer payment options were implemented in support of the administrative enhancements to the First Nations Fiscal Management Act enacted on April 1st, 2016. These changes will provide for faster scheduling and more flexible longer-term funding arrangement options. INAC also developed draft regulations to facilitate First Nations access to the framework under the Act, in collaboration with treaty First Nations, the institutions under the Act (i.e. the First Nations Tax Commission, the First Nations Financial Management Board, and the First Nations Finance Authority), and the Province of British Columbia.

INAC has collaborated with Indigenous partners under the Indigenous Community Development National Strategy to build a nationally sustainable model for community capacity development, with the planning process starting in May 2016. Within the Strategy, INAC has focused on working with Indigenous communities to develop Comprehensive Community Plans addressing their community priorities, and delivered Indigenous Community Development Training to support 157 public service employees in developing their cultural competencies. Support was also provided to Indigenous Community Development Training, aimed at competency development within the Indigenous public service.

Through programs including Band Support Funding, Professional and Institutional Development, and Band Employee Benefits, INAC continued to provide First Nations with core governance support through the creation and maintenance of strong local administration at the community level. As well, in 2016–2017, approximately $10.6 million was distributed to support First Nation governance capacity building initiatives. Departmental officials have held preliminary discussions with interested First Nations groups that may lead to the development of a partnership to explore legislative and policy reforms around First Nations by-laws.

To date, 11 First Nations have enacted matrimonial real property laws pursuant to the Family Homes on Reserves and Matrimonial Interests or Rights Act, while another 35 First Nations have enacted them as a component of their Land Code. There continues to be strong interest in this area, with 238 First Nations having sought information from the INAC-funded Centre of Excellence for Matrimonial Real Property, and 28 First Nations being funded by a pilot project to support the development and ratification of matrimonial real property laws.

INAC continued to research and analyze issues related to Indian registration, Band membership and citizenship, including through a risk assessment of the Secure Integrated Registration and Certificate Unit. The Department has identified approaches to address capacity and governance issues identified in this assessment.

The 2016 evaluation of the Governance and Institutions of Governance program revealed that the institutions established under the First Nations Fiscal Management Act are highly relevant to First Nation needs. However, it suggested that the Department collaboratively explore opportunities to address the demand and growth-driven changes in the regime, and support low-capacity First Nations seeking to enter. In response, INAC is working on funding, legislative and regulatory proposals to enhance and expand the regime and establish stable, multi-year funding for the institutions.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
First Nation governments and institutions are supported in their efforts to be transparent to their communities and membership Percentage of First Nations having adopted reporting of financial statements to their members 75% by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: 91%
2015–2016: 97%a
2014–2015: not applicableb
a The performance indicator for 2015–2016 was "Percentage of First Nations with their audited consolidated financial statements and schedule of remuneration of expenses available to their community members," and thus may not be directly comparable to current year results.
b INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
397,170,892 397,170,892 448,123,980 448,123,980 50,953,088
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects additional funding reallocated during the 2016–2017 fiscal year for Indian Government Support activities to meet demand for Indigenous Governance Institutions and Organizations services (+$41.8 million), as well as incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates to support First Nations' access to capital markets (Budget 2016) (+$10.0 million).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
419 399 (20)

Information on Program 1.1 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 1.2: Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples

Description

This Program seeks to strengthen collaboration between governments and Indigenous groups through mutual respect, trust, understanding, shared responsibilities, accountability, dialogue and negotiation concerning the rights and interests of Indigenous peoples. Partnerships will be established helping to contribute to the strengthening of the social, economic and cultural well-being of Indigenous communities to support conditions for more active participation in Canadian society. The Program also addresses reconciliation objectives, constitutional and historic obligations and public policy by: negotiating agreements that achieve clarity with respect to law-making authority and the ownership, use and control of lands and resources; addressing specific claims; dealing with special claims; developing multi-partner processes in areas identified by Indigenous groups and the federal government; and supporting effective and meaningful consultation and accommodation with Indigenous groups and their representation in federal policy and program development.

Results

With the goal of achieving reconciliation, and in support of the federal government's commitment to renewing the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples, Recognition of Indigenous Rights and Self-Determination discussions are one federal approach that seeks to advance community-identified rights, needs and interests. As of March 31, 2017, 46 discussion tables are currently underway, representing over 300 communities and over 600,000 people. These discussions, in addition to other federal processes, are intended to inform the federal policy reform process, which in turn will ultimately serve as a federal reconciliation framework for addressing section 35 rights. Tools to address section 35 rights, including the negotiation of land claims, self-government, special claims and other related processes such as out-of-court settlements, will continue to be enhanced through discussions and negotiations with Indigenous groups. It is anticipated that these processes will occur within the context of a Federal Reconciliation Framework as federal policies are reformed and renewed, and the Framework developed.

On August 16, 2016, the Government of Canada delivered a formal apology to the Sayisi Dene First Nation for the relocation of community members in the 1950s and 1960s. This apology flowed from a Final Settlement Agreement that was concluded between Canada and the Sayisi Dene First Nation in July 2016.

In 2016–2017, Canada signed ten mutually developed agreements that outline the topics and process for continued discussion. Important accomplishments include the Tla'amin Final Agreement in British Columbia covering comprehensive land claims and self-government, and the Déline Final Self-Government Agreement in Northwest Territories; these agreements came into effect on April 5, 2016 and September 1, 2016, respectively. As well, in November 2016 the Anishinabek First Nations ratified the first aggregated self-government education agreement in Ontario. The Principals of the British Columbia treaty process approved the final Multilateral Engagement Report in May 2016, which consisted of 24 proposals to improve and expedite modern treaty negotiations in the British Columbia treaty process. A working group began implementation work in June 2016; it has completed six proposals and is developing strategies to implement the remaining proposals.

INAC has also led Recognition of Indigenous Rights and Self-Determination discussions on behalf of Canada with the Métis Nation and its affiliates. The result has been three Memoranda of Understanding with the Manitoba Métis Federation, the Métis Nation of Ontario and the Métis Nation of Alberta. The Department also provided funding to support Métis rights and relationships via the renewal and enhancement of the former Powley program. This program will provide significant new resources to the Métis National Council and its Governing Members to enhance Métis self-determination and support the transition to Métis self-government, and for maintenance of objectively verifiable registries of Métis section 35 rights holders. During 2016–2017, the Department also finalized the co-development of a new Canadian Standards Association standard for the operation of the registries.

Since June 2016, departmental officials have been engaged in a Joint Technical Working Group process overseen jointly with the Assembly of First Nations and other interested parties to identify fair and practical measures to improve the specific claims process. Discussions have been positive and productive, and focused on four priority issues: funding to support claims research and development; the process for resolving claims over $150 million; the use of mediation; and public reporting. The Department reviewed claim submissions, filed claims with the Minister, assessed claims for outstanding lawful obligations and, where an obligation was found to exist, accepted claims for negotiation. When required, the Department also supported the Department of Justice in proceedings with the Specific Claims Tribunal.

The Department continued to provide assistance to federal departments/agencies in fulfilling the Crown's legal duty to consult and, where appropriate, accommodate when Crown conduct may adversely affect potential or established Aboriginal or treaty rights of Indigenous peoples. This includes strengthening the understanding of the duty to consult by developing and delivering advanced training to approximately 600 federal officials. INAC also advanced reconciliation through relationship building, including concluding the negotiation of the Abenaki consultation protocol and continuing consultation protocol negotiations with four groups across Canada. INAC also continued to provide support on Indigenous consultation and accommodation issues related to major resource projects, including the Trans Mountain Expansion project and the Energy East pipeline. INAC worked with consultation partners, including consultation practitioners and Indigenous communities, to ensure that the Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System is populated with the most useful information possible to bolster the system's utility to an expanded community of users. As a result, 1,200 new or amended records were added in the system and 400 new, unique user accounts were added.

The Department is also developing a Federal Reconciliation Framework for addressing section 35 rights through engagement and dialogue with treaty partners. INAC also continued to enhance tools to address these rights, including the negotiation of land claims, self-government, special claims, and other related processes such as out-of-court settlements, within the context of the Federal Reconciliation Framework under development.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Certainty and/or clarity of rights and interests of Indigenous peoples through strengthened collaboration between governments and Indigenous groups Number of departmental processes and programs in place that support the Crown and Indigenous groups in addressing rights and interests of Indigenous peoples, and other Crown obligations 594 by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: 684
2015–2016: not applicablea
2014–2015: not applicablea
a INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
487,447,240 487,447,240 762,065,345 566,517,198 79,069,958
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for: the settlement of special claims (+$129.6 million); the negotiation and settlement of specific claims program (+$92.2 million); the negotiation of comprehensive land claims and incremental treaty and non-treaty agreements across Canada (+$45.7 million); and Indigenous Representative Organizations (Budget 2016) (+$16.0 million). This increase is partially offset by re-profiles of funds that are not required in the current fiscal year, such as the specific claims settlement, and funding reallocated to other programs (-$202.6 million). Specific claims settlement funding cannot be used for any other purpose than for settling specific claims, but can be re-profiled to future years to be available for the intended purpose.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
234 376 142
The difference between planned and actual full-time equivalents primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates (as noted above), which allowed for retention of employees in programs that had been expected to sunset.

Information on Program 1.2 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 1.3: Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties

Description

This Program aims to create and maintain ongoing partnerships to support fulfillment of Canada's legal obligations pursuant to both pre- and post-1975 treaties, while considering ongoing rights and interests of Indigenous peoples. This Program supports Indigenous communities in articulating their interests, participating in economic activities, and managing and developing land and resources, where applicable. It also helps to demonstrate the importance of treaties and related partnerships between the Crown and Indigenous peoples. This is achieved by honouring Canada's obligations as set out in final settlement agreements and treaties, and by improving collaboration between Canada and Indigenous peoples, and between Canada and pre- and post-1975 Treaty groups. Creating and maintaining relationships and partnerships that honour pre- and post-1975 treaties contributes to strengthened, healthy, self-reliant and sustainable Indigenous communities while promoting delivery of programs and services vital to the health and advancement of Indigenous peoples.

Results

It is through the timely implementation of agreements that INAC has continued to renew the relationship with Indigenous peoples. Over the past year, the Department has maintained continuous engagement with our Indigenous treaty partners through regular meetings via the structures established by the treaties, such as Boards and Implementation Committees. Financial arrangements and implementation plans were coordinated through the administration of Fiscal Financing Agreements and transfer of expenditures to Indigenous peoples, all within the mandated time frames.

Modern treaties are a key component of Canadian nation-building. In 2016–2017, INAC continued to develop tools, including the Assessment of Modern Treaty Implications for Cabinet proposals, which ensures that federal initiatives are developed in a whole of Government approach that respects and aligns with modern treaty rights and obligations. These tools were developed in collaboration with federal departments and Indigenous treaty partners, and approved in October 2016 by the Committee of Deputy Ministers responsible for the Federal Approach to Modern Treaty Implementation.

INAC has also engaged with and sought the input of Indigenous partners in the development of the whole of Government approach to modern treaty implementation. This approach facilitates improved tracking and delivery of Canada's treaty obligations, and establishes a strong accountability framework and ongoing oversight of federal responsibilities under these important agreements. In December 2016, Indigenous governments discussed the co-development of a fiscal approach to self-government agreements and the importance of the fiscal relationship in supporting reconciliation, with Deputy Ministers from INAC and other federal departments and agencies. Development of a performance measurement framework for modern treaty implementation began in 2016–2017; once completed, it will assess the implementation status of Canada's obligations and measure the socio-economic outcomes of modern treaty peoples, through modern treaty-specific performance indicators.

INAC also initiated the rollout of the Modern Treaty Management Environment in March 2017, to replace the Treaty Obligation Monitoring System. INAC has worked with other government departments and agencies to ensure the accuracy of data included in this tool. By providing a consistent environment for reporting and analysis of implementation across all departments and agencies, this system will support the effective management of the implementation of Canada's obligations arising from comprehensive land claims (modern treaties) and self-government agreements.

Through discussions and engagement with treaty First Nation partners at treaty discussion tables, and the treaty commissions in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada continued to work collaboratively to renew Indigenous-Crown relationships based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership. INAC continued to support enhanced awareness and public understanding of treaties and the treaty relationship and the pursuit of reconciliation, through education and awareness activities developed and/or delivered by the treaty table partners and treaty commissions; these initiatives include the Office of the Treaty Commissioner in Saskatchewan and the Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba's Speakers' Bureau, as well as school materials such as the Office of the Treaty Commissioner's "Teaching Treaties in the Classroom" resource guides.

Through Budget 2016, INAC provided $80 million over two years to Inuit land claim holders for the construction and repair of housing units in Nunatsiavut, Nunavik and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region to address urgent housing needs. Inuit recipients estimate that the $80 million investment will allow them to construct 193 new housing units.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Creation and maintenance of ongoing partnerships to support treaty structuresa Percentage of meetings (implementation committee or panel meetings) held with modern treaty partners, per the terms of the treaties, in order to maintain and support open and productive intergovernmental relationships and collaborate on implementation priorities 80%b by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: 100%
2015–2016: not applicablec
2014–2015: not applicablec
Percentage of completed initiatives supporting improved understanding of pre-1975 treaties: treaty awareness sessions; facilitated dialogue between private sector and First Nations; and, facilitated dialogue between treaty partners 80%d by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: 100%
2015–2016: 90%
2014–2015: not applicablec
a Examples of treaty structures include tripartite implementation committees or panels where signatories collaborate on implementation.
b While the goal is always 100% completion of our legal obligations, this is not always possible. For example, a meeting may be canceled by another party to the treaty, which results in an obligation not being met.
c INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
d Number of treaty-related activities and initiatives committed to in the work plans varies according to the interests and capacity of the partners, and is reviewed on an annual basis.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
806,628,418 806,628,418 856,031,246 852,598,746 45,970,328
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for Inuit housing (Budget 2016) (+$25.5 million), the settlement of special claims (+$10.0 million), and to implement components of an effective government-wide approach to strengthen modern treaty implementation (+$3.1 million). The difference also reflects additional funding reallocated internally for items such as education under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and for the implementation of comprehensive claims (+$6.1 million).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
80 87 7

Program 1.4: Other Claims

Description

This Program addresses payments related to the resolution of litigation and/or out-of-court settlements for any claim that cannot be designated to any other existing INAC program. Key activities could include: the assessment of the merits of the claim; the completion of a settlement agreement where appropriate; payment of any monetary compensation and funding and implementation of related activities pursuant to the terms of a settlement agreement and/or direction by a Tribunal or court.

Results

The Government of Canada is committed to achieving reconciliation via a renewed relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples based on recognition, rights, respect, co-operation and partnership.

The Anderson et al. v. the Attorney General of Canada childhood claim and class action was settled for $50 million, with additional monies set aside for future healing and commemoration purposes. These consolidated cases were brought on behalf of former day students at five residential schools in Newfoundland and Labrador, who were not included in the 2006 Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement.

In 2016–2017, given the ongoing objective of reconciliation, INAC worked closely with the Department of Justice to emphasize negotiation over litigation, with attempts to settle claims out of court instead of proceeding to trial even in the case of claims that are not considered to have high legal risk.

In support of this approach, eight new financial settlement mandates were sought, with a total of 23 approved mandates to support out-of-court settlement negotiations in place as of March 31, 2017. As well, eight out-of-court settlements were concluded this year — the financial implications for seven of these settlements are reported under other INAC programs.

INAC continues to work with the Department of Justice to develop a process to enhance settlement opportunities through streamlining processes and reviewing authorities.

Program expenditures this year are a direct result of achieving an out-of-court settlement in the Anderson et al. case; as such, exceeding planned spending reflects the successful conclusion of a claim, and the achievement of program objectives.

Results achieveda
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
a Program 1.4, Other Claims, was retroactively added to the 2016–2017 Program Alignment Architecture; no performance measure was identified.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
0 0 50,000,000 50,000,000 50,000,000
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for the Indigenous Childhood Claims Litigation.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
0 0 0
This Program addresses payments related to the resolution of litigation and/or out-of-court settlements. Expenditures relate to the settlement amounts only; no full-time equivalents are associated with this Program.

Strategic Outcome: The People — Individual, family and community well-being for First Nations and Inuit

Program 2.1: Education

Description

This Program's overarching goal is to work in partnership with First Nations, provincial and territorial governments and other education stakeholders, to provide eligible First Nation and Inuit students with support in order to achieve educational outcomes that are comparable to those of other Canadians. The Education Program provides funding for culturally-appropriate elementary and secondary education for eligible First Nation students ordinarily resident on reserve, and financially supports post-secondary education for eligible First Nation and Inuit students.

Results

The Government of Canada is committed to making significant investments in First Nations education and to ensuring that First Nations children on reserve receive a quality education that results in improved outcomes for students.

In 2016–2017, INAC allocated over $245 million in new funding to First Nation recipients, as part of Budget 2016's substantial incremental investments in elementary and secondary education on reserve; the total investment will be $2.6 billion over five years. These new investments helped address immediate needs, while helping ensure that First Nation students living on reserve receive a culturally appropriate, high-quality education, and at the same time respecting the principle of First Nation control of First Nation education.

The Government recognizes that funding alone is not enough; improving student outcomes requires all partners involved in delivering education to work together. To help achieve meaningful gains in education outcomes for First Nations, the Government of Canada has committed to supporting the transformation of the current on-reserve education system through a respectful process of engagement and partnership with First Nations. On December 16, 2016, an agreement was signed with the Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre to create a new Manitoba First Nation School System, the first of its kind in Canada, which will begin operations in July 2017. Similar discussions will take place in other jurisdictions during 2017–2018.

Budget 2016 also committed to support the transformation of on-reserve education. To this end, the Department continued discussions and negotiations with First Nation groups, and made significant new investments in language and culture through the New Paths for Education program, in literacy and numeracy through the Strong Schools, Successful Students Initiative, and in special needs education. Additional new funding was also provided for the Martin Family Initiative's work to improve early literacy rates in eight First Nations-operated schools. In 2016–2017, 13 projects were funded at the national level under a new innovation component of the New Paths for Education program; these innovative projects sought to test new approaches in areas such as early childhood education, culturally based academic content, curriculum and skills development, and arts programming. Through these investments and engaging with First Nations, the Government of Canada is delivering on its commitment to provide sufficient, predictable and sustained funding for on-reserve education.

A key lesson learned in the implementation of these new investments was that close partnership and discussion with First Nations is critical to ensure newly available funding can be fully absorbed into communities and First Nation planning cycles. INAC has also committed to provide more flexibility in the management of funding agreements; in 2016–2017, additional types of funding approaches were made available to First Nations for the High-Cost Special Education Program. Lessons from this experience will inform future discussions with First Nations on approaches to funding.

Tripartite education memoranda of understanding, between INAC, First Nations and a provincial government, are key to improved First Nations control over education systems. On March 31, 2017, the Department, the Province of British Columbia, and the First Nations Education Steering Committee reached agreement on an 18-month extension, beyond the March 31, 2017 expiry of the Tripartite Education Framework Agreement, with renewal discussions to continue in 2017–2018.

INAC also continued to work to strengthen connections between First Nations and provincial education systems. In December 2016, the Government of Canada and the Government of Quebec concluded with Institut Tshakapesh a Tripartite Education Agreement to better support the learning needs for approximately 1,810 Innu students. In February 2017, the Government of Canada signed a Tripartite Memorandum of Understanding with the Association of Iroquois and Allied Indians and the Province of Ontario that will improve the holistic development and learning outcomes of their kindergarten to grade 12 First Nations students. This agreement will enable the development of a community-based language strategy to support curriculum development, and will strengthen collaboration between First Nations and provincial schools in the areas of professional development, data and resource sharing, the transition of students between First Nation and provincially funded schools, and parental and community engagement.

In 2016–2017, INAC also began working with various First Nations partners to implement an inclusive and comprehensive engagement process aimed at developing recommendations for strengthening First Nations education. Community-level discussions, held from November 2016 to March 2017 and led by 37 First Nation organizations, provided parents and community members with the opportunity to share their views. These discussions were supported by $3.6 million in federal funding, with additional stakeholder input coming from a nationwide survey, open from February to April 2017, launched by INAC. With support from the Assembly of First Nations' Chiefs Committee on Education, technical experts from First Nation organizations and INAC have also been meeting since early 2017 to examine key issues, identify options and make recommendations to enhance First Nations education. Looking forward, the Department is providing funding in 2017–2018 for regional First Nation organizations to hold leadership dialogue events and/or technical discussions. By sitting down with First Nations and listening to their concerns and ideas, we will be able to determine together how to improve education outcomes for First Nation students and ensure First Nation control of education in their communities.

First Nations are using the new language and culture investments to develop Indigenous language instruction and innovative cultural programming such as culture camps for students, which teach land-based activities, including paddling, orienteering and trapping, as well as traditional food preparation, beading, storytelling, and drum making. This investment is also directly funding start-up costs for language-based education: putting Elders in the classrooms; hiring Indigenous language instructors; and developing immersion curricula.

To help increase the number of Indigenous students accessing post-secondary education, over 100 projects were funded to design and deliver courses tailored to the needs of First Nations and Inuit students under the Post-Secondary Partnerships Program. Furthermore, through the Post-Secondary Student Support Program and the University and College Entrance Preparation Program, over 350 First Nations provided support to Indigenous students to continue their education in 2016–2017.

INAC also continued to work with partners to renew the First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy, which helps young people acquire essential employment skills and learn about various career options. To this end, the Department has been working closely with Employment and Social Development Canada to deliver the program and has participated in interdepartmental meetings on the implementation of recommendations to renew for the future of the Strategy. To further expand employment opportunities for young Canadians, Budget 2016 provided over $37 million for the First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy. As a result, more First Nations and Inuit youth will be able to acquire essential skills that will help them learn about job and career options, gain hands-on work experience, earn an income, and acquire the skills they will need to be successful in the workplace.

INAC worked with other federal departments and Indigenous peoples to determine the best approach to delivering high-quality early learning and child care for Indigenous children and their families by participating in the development of an Indigenous Early Learning and Child Care Framework. Engagement between the federal government and Indigenous organizations on a national framework began in the summer of 2016 through a series of conferences, engagement sessions, regional committees, as well as an online survey and a self-directed engagement toolkit developed by Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC). The development of an Indigenous Early Learning and Child Care Framework has been led by ESDC; however, INAC, Health Canada, Status of Women Canada, and the Public Health Agency of Canada have actively participated in these engagement efforts, which will continue through July 2017.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual resultsa
First Nation and Inuit students are enabled, through funding, to progress in their education Percentage of funded First Nation students ordinarily resident on reserve who graduate from high schoolb Incremental increase year after year (ongoing) 2015–2016: 40.2%
2014–2015: 37%c
2013–2014: 53%
Number of funded First Nation and Inuit Post-Secondary Student Support Program students who graduate with a post- secondary degree/diploma/certificate Incremental increase year after year (Reporting against 2012–2013 baseline data beginning in 2015–2016) 2015–2016: not availabled
2014–2015: 3,549 students
2013–2014: 3,370 students
Baseline (2012–2013): 3,589 students
Percentage of First Nation and Inuit population with post-secondary degree/certificate Incremental increase over five years relative to the 2011 National Household Survey (ongoing) First Nation
2016: not availablee
2011: 34.6%

Inuit
2016: not availablee
2011: 26.4%
a Data reflects the graduation of students from the previous academic year; this data also spans fiscal years.
b The cohort used for the calculation of graduation rate consists of all students funded through INAC Education programs, listed on the Nominal Roll. This includes grade 12 (Secondary 5 in Quebec) students ordinarily resident on reserve attending First Nations schools, and students ordinarily resident on reserve attending (and funded to attend) provincial and/or private/independent schools. The total number is adjusted to account for students who have left the school or who are remaining in the secondary system to upgrade.
c In 2014–2015, the system used to capture education data was updated to include automatically pre-filled graduation data. While this update was intended to reduce the reporting burden on funding recipients, it was discovered after one reporting cycle that it led to inaccurate data on results. To correct the data errors, this function was removed for the 2015–2016 cycle, resulting in the apparent decrease in the reported graduation rate from 2014–2015 to 2015–2016.
d Due to data collection timelines, this information is expected to be available in 2018.
e Data from the 2016 National Household Survey data is expected in Fall 2017.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
1,855,472,918 1,855,472,918 2,146,963,499 2,146,512,812 291,039,894
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for First Nations elementary and secondary education (Budget 2016) (+$245.8 million), and the First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy — Skills Link Program (Budget 2016) (+$38.1 million).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
279 292 13

Information on Program 2.1 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 2.2: Social Development

Description

This Program provides funding to five social sub-programs: Income Assistance, National Child Benefit, Assisted Living, First Nations Child and Family Services, and Family Violence Prevention. Together, these sub-programs assist First Nation individuals and communities in becoming more self-sufficient, protect individuals and families at risk of violence, provide prevention supports that allow individuals and families to better care for their children, and support greater participation in the labour market. The Program assists First Nation men, women and children to achieve greater independence and self-sufficiency in First Nation communities across Canada by providing funding for First Nations, First Nation organizations, provinces and others that provide individual and family services to on-reserve residents (and Yukon First Nation residents). These services help First Nation communities meet basic and special needs, support employability and participation in the workforce, and support the safety of individuals and families. Through these five social sub-programs, First Nations are better able to advance their own development, leverage opportunities and actively contribute to the broader Canadian economy and society.

Results

The well-being of Indigenous people, on- and off-reserve, is a focus of INAC's varied social development programming.

In 2016–2017, INAC's Family Violence Prevention Program played a role in supporting the independent National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls, including the development of an organizational process for departmental responses to the requests of the Inquiry commissioners and to report recommendations (anticipated for November 2018).

INAC's Family Violence Prevention Program supported commitments in both the Minister's mandate letter and Budget 2016 to support improved access to shelter services for victims of family violence in First Nations communities. Operational funding has been increased for the existing network of 41 INAC-funded shelters, and — in co-operation with the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation — five new shelters are being built in targeted locations to enhance access.

In addition, the Department worked with partners and stakeholders on projects on- and off-reserve to prevent family violence, and to support and protect Indigenous women and girls as set out in the 2014 Action Plan to Address Family Violence and Violent Crimes Against Indigenous Women and Girls. This includes ongoing work to support appropriate community-level services, and funding both new and continuing off-reserve family violence prevention projects. INAC also introduced multi-year funding for family violence prevention projects on-reserve and continued to seek opportunities to maximize flexibility for First Nations Child and Family Services Program funding to promote enhanced program delivery.

INAC continued to implement measures to address the 2016 orders of the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal that found the First Nations Child and Family Services Program was discriminatory, and began engagement with First Nations and other partners on program reform. This included re-establishing the National Advisory Committee on Program Reform, participating in regional tripartite/technical tables, supporting Indigenous regional organizations to undertake engagement in Quebec and Manitoba, and hosting an online survey. In addition, the Minister appointed a Special Representative who met with partners in each region to hear about wise practices and short- and long-term solutions.

Budget 2016 invested nearly $635 million over five years for the First Nations Child and Family Services Program. This includes funding to over 100 agencies to increase capacity and resources for front line service delivery, such as for intake/investigation workers and prevention/community coordinators. Further to the Budget 2016 investments, INAC increased funding for small agencies and front line support for families in need, and provided funding opportunities to agencies to identify their needs and develop and implement culturally based visions.

The Department provided $924 million in income assistance funding to help eligible individuals and families on reserve meet their basic and special needs, while also continuing to invest in individual employment readiness through Enhanced Service Delivery. Since the implementation of increased case management and pre-employment services for income assistance clients aged 18 to 24, the dependency rate has decreased from 33.6% in 2013 to 30.2% in 2017. As of March 31, 2017, more than 10,400 on-reserve young adults received case management supports and more than 7,100 young people have exited income assistance. The percentage of First Nation communities participating in Enhanced Service Delivery has increased to 34%, from 32% last year, improving the capacity of communities to deliver social programming and achieving the expected target for performance.

The Department has supported Employment and Social Development Canada and the Canada Revenue Agency in their promotion of the Canada Child Benefit on reserve, as part of efforts to ensure that benefits are available to eligible families. INAC also provided $111 million in Assisted Living funding to over 500 First Nation communities to fund non-medical, social support services on-reserve to help maintain the independence of seniors, adults with chronic illness, and children and adults with disabilities (mental and physical).

Various departmental audits and evaluations were conducted of the Social Development Program's sub-programs. Based on the results of these studies, for 2017–2018 and beyond, INAC is strengthening its internal governance structure and control activities to help manage and guide program activities. Each program will also establish appropriate integrated management frameworks, as well as common procedures and guidance tools to improve program implementation.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Communities and organizations have the capacity to deliver the social development programs provided to meet the basic, special and self-sufficiency needs of First Nations men, women and children Percentage of communities and organizations using community-leda approaches to program delivery Increasing year over year by March 31, 2017 Income Assistance Enhanced Service Delivery
2016–2017: 34%
2015–2016: 32%
2014–2015: 29%

Family Violence Prevention Program
2016–2017: not availableb
2015–2016: not applicablec
2014–2015: not applicablec
a Community-led approaches are defined as approaches that give control of the priority development process directly to the communities as per program Terms and Conditions.
b Due to data collection timelines for external partners, this information is expected to be available in 2018.
c INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
1,764,360,798 1,764,360,798 1,880,734,603 1,880,636,118 116,275,320
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for the First Nations Child and Family Services Program (Budget 2016) (+$71.0 million), the Family Violence Prevention Program (Budget 2016) (+$4.8 million), and Jordan's Principle (+$1.2 million). The increase also reflects the reallocation of resources to meet increased demand for social development programs and services (+$39.7 million).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
147 150 3

Information on Program 2.2 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 2.3: First Nations Individual Affairs

Description

This Program contributes to ensuring federal stewardship of the legislative and administrative responsibilities of the federal government pertaining to registration, membership, status cards and estates. Results are achieved through direct client services and partnerships with First Nations to determine eligibility for registration under the Indian Act, issuing proof of registration documents such as the Secure Certificate of Indian Status, and administering estates under the Indian Act. Through client-centric service delivery, the sound administration of individual affairs contributes to the well-being of First Nation individuals, families and communities.

Results

In 2016–2017, the Department continued to register individuals entitled to Indian status. As of March 31, 2017, there were a total of 974,213 Registered Indians, 38,730 of whom were registered pursuant to the passage of the Gender Equity in Indian Registration Act in 2011. As well, in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement for the Recognition of the Qalipu Mi'kmaq Band, the Department and the Federation of Newfoundland Indians completed the enrolment process in January 2017, which included the review of 100,074 applications for membership. All entitlement applications were processed within service standards.

In response to the Descheneaux decision, which found that certain sections of the Indian Act violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms equality provisions, departmental officials conducted 27 engagement sessions with treaty and First Nation organizations, regional and national Indigenous organizations, and other stakeholders to discuss the decision and proposed legislative amendments. Further consultations — focusing on broader issues related to registration, membership and citizenship — will be launched in 2017–2018, pending Parliament's approval of a bill (S-3) that will eliminate known sex-based inequities in registration under the Indian Act.

The Department has invested significant resources to date in simplifying the process to apply for the Secure Certificate of Indian Status, and continues to review and identify ways to make the Secure Certificate more accessible. The percentage of Registered Indians with an active Secure Certificate reached 19% in fiscal year 2016–2017. In order to achieve the targeted 80% by March 31, 2020, the Department will be focusing on increasing communications regarding the advantages of possessing a Secure Certificate, security features, as well as other positive aspects of the card. This is expected to result in increased demand for the Secure Certificate of Indian Status as more clients choose the Secure Certificate over the paper-laminated Certificate of Indian Status.

The Department also continued efforts to create a seamless, client-centric service delivery model for secure certificates. INAC has prepared for the implementation of a simplified application form in 2017–2018 that will replace multiple separate forms; the number of documents required will also be reduced, and aligned with those required for registration. These changes are expected to be completed in full by April 2021.

INAC also continued to make investments in information technology, such as the development of the Indian Registration and Estates Management System, and in training for staff, in order to support modernized service delivery and increase the Department's ability to reduce the inventory of registration applications within a reasonable time frame.

Under section 43(a) of the Indian Act, the Department has certain responsibilities for appointing executors and administrators of wills and estates. During 2016–2017, the Department handled 4,776 estates files for deceased First Nation individuals who were ordinarily resident on reserve; for 68% of these, non-departmental administrators were appointed. As of March 31, 2017, there were 3,725 active decedent estates files. The Department also undertook focused communications and education activities to enhance awareness of estates management among First Nation individuals and communities. In addition to holding information sessions in First Nation communities and distributing publications, a partnership with the National Aboriginal Land Managers Association was developed to support estates administration capacity.

In 2016–2017, the Department worked to review 1,500 estates with Independent Assessment Process claims under the Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement, and worked with estate beneficiaries, communities and other stakeholders to appoint administrators for estates requiring representation of a claim.

The Registration and Membership Program underwent a System under Development Risk Assessment of the Secure Integrated Registration and Certificate Unit in 2016–2017. Recommendations calling for increased clarity on unit outcomes and scope have been addressed, while approaches have been identified to address identified resourcing issues, the need for improved project documentation and a data governance plan.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Eligible, voluntary applicants are registered as Status Indians Percentage of complete registration applications for which a decision was rendered 80% by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: 84%
2015–2016: not applicablea
2014–2015: not applicablea
Registered Indians are enabled to demonstrate eligibility for programs, services and benefits to which they are entitled Percentage of Registered Indians with an active Secure Certificate of Indian Status 80% by March 31, 2020 2016–2017: 19%
2015–2016: 17%
2014–2015: not applicablea
a INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
28,911,620 28,911,620 33,513,434 32,933,548 4,021,928
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects additional resources reallocated internally for registration and membership activities such as the enrollment process of Qalipu Mi'kmaq Band and the development of the Indian Registration and Estates Management System, as well as estates management activities.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
254 258 4

Information on Program 2.3 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 2.4: Residential Schools Resolution

Description

This Program supports a fair and lasting resolution to the legacy of Indian Residential Schools through implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA) — a multi-party negotiated settlement monitored by the courts. The Program supports resolution of claims of abuse under the Independent Assessment Process (IAP) and promotes reconciliation with former students, their families and communities, and other Canadians. In addition to its legal obligations under IRSSA, INAC promotes reconciliation between the Government of Canada and Indigenous peoples, as well as between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

Results

Successful implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (the Settlement Agreement) is the responsibility of both INAC and the independent, arms-length Indian Residential Schools Adjudication Secretariat (Adjudication Secretariat).

The Adjudication Secretariat made significant progress in returning stalled claims to the regular resolution process, with 501 'lost' claimants being located and their claims re-activated. Another 436 claims referred to the Incomplete File Resolution Process have returned to the regular process or to another targeted approach, and 249 estate claims have progressed toward resolution.

INAC supported the Minister's mandate to work towards reconciliation through the implementation of the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Consistent with the Prime Minister's statement in December 2016, the Department is preparing to transfer $10 million to the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, as recommended in Call to Action 78.

In 2016–2017, INAC attended 268 first claimant hearings, 113% of the Adjudication Secretariat's revised projection of 238 first claimant hearings. The hearing projection was adjusted down from 278 by the Adjudication Secretariat based on processing assumptions of the remaining unheard/unresolved admitted claims. Also in 2016–2017, 89% (976 of 1,092) of Independent Assessment Process payments were processed within the service standards (20 calendar days after the appeal period has expired, 85% of the time), 4% higher than the 85% target for 2016–2017.

INAC also continued to work with Health Canada to ensure that demand-driven mental health and emotional support services have been provided through all phases of the Settlement Agreement. This includes the Indian Residential School Crisis Line, which provides critical and culturally appropriate support to all areas of the country, including many isolated regions where alternate services are very limited. These services help to mitigate health risks such as substance abuse, depression, suicide and family violence, arising from the trauma experienced by this population.

The Adjudication Secretariat has worked with claimants, parties to the Settlement Agreement, and other stakeholders to resolve 2,142 claims this fiscal year, for a total of 36,725 (96.4% of all claims) since the commencement of the process. During the year, 1,641 Independent Assessment Process decisions were rendered by adjudicators, including both full decisions and claim dismissals; additionally, 133 claims were resolved through negotiated settlement and 368 applications were withdrawn by the claimant or determined to be ineligible for the process.

The Group Independent Assessment Process contribution program, administered by the Adjudication Secretariat, promotes healing and reconciliation among former students, their families, and their communities. In 2016–2017, eleven groups, ranging from three to 62 members, were funded for healing and reconciliation activities such as pow-wows, healing circles, ceremonies, and more. Following a call for proposals, 20 groups representing 285 claimants will be funded in 2017–2018.

In 2016–2017, both INAC and the Adjudication Secretariat have focused on preparation for the gradual, responsible wind-down of operations that will come with the resolution of the small number of outstanding claims. The Adjudication Secretariat has begun development of the Chief Adjudicator's Completion Strategy for submission to the courts, as well as the Independent Assessment Process Final Report for the Oversight Committee, and also commenced working on a final administrative report.

In 2016–2017, INAC completed a study to examine the quality of the practices used by the Department in its role as trustee in implementing and delivering Personal Credits, which could be used for a wide range of educational programs and services. A number of challenges were identified for the use of these credits by Common Experience Payment recipients, including: tight deadlines that limited effective planning; an aging and transient target audience; outdated contact information; and a complex application and redemption process. INAC adjusted to these and other challenges through a proactive strategy to engage First Nations and Inuit community organizations, obtain up-to-date contact information, and support potential recipients.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Canada fulfills its obligations as outlined in the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement The Courts deem that Canada has satisfactorily completed its obligations under the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement Release from the Courts confirming that Canada has met its obligations under the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement by March 31, 2020 2016–2017: ongoing. This Indicator will remain in place until the courts have confirmed that Canada has met all its obligations under the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (projected to happen in 2020).
2015–2016: not applicablea
2014–2015: not applicablea
a INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
165,991,965 165,991,965 220,255,708 168,268,485 2,276,520
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for the continued implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, offset by the deferral of Independent Assessment Process settlement payments and delivery funding for continued implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
40 333 293
The difference between planned and actual full-time equivalents primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for the continued implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement. The completion timeline of the Independent Assessment Process was previously extended in response to both the influx of thousands of unanticipated applications received in the months prior to the application deadline and unforeseeable claim complexities. As a result, salary dollars were re-profiled to unfunded future fiscal years. The difference between planned and actual full-time equivalents reflects both the increased workload and extended timelines required to process and resolve these claims. Actual full-time equivalents have decreased from 449 in 2015–2016 as the overall volume of claims has decreased year-over-year. The 2016–2017 actuals represents 186 full-time equivalents for the Indian Residential Schools Adjudication Secretariat and 147.5 for the Settlement Agreement Branch.

Information on Program 2.4 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Strategic Outcome: The Land and Economy — Full participation of First Nations, Métis, non-Status Indians and Inuit individuals and communities in the economy

Program 3.1: Indigenous Entrepreneurship

Description

This Program supports and strengthens the long-term viability of Indigenous entrepreneurial business, greater participation in the economy, and improved economic prosperity for Indigenous peoples. This Program — guided by the Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development — helps create and grow viable Indigenous businesses through increasing access to capital, capacity, networks, business development services and business opportunities.

Results

The transition of the Aboriginal Business Financing Program from INAC to the National Aboriginal Capital Corporations Association initiated in 2014–2015 continues to evolve with increased success. The recently concluded two-year funding agreement between INAC and the Association (2015–2017) has demonstrated the Association's capacity to effectively manage enhanced programming in support of Aboriginal Financial Institutions and Indigenous business development. In 2015–2016 — the most recent year for which data is available — Aboriginal Financial Institutions advanced $108.5 million in loans, supporting 1,364 businesses, while creating over 4,400 jobs and contributing approximately $391 million to the Gross Domestic Product. The 2% target for Indigenous businesses created and/or expanded has been achieved with a 6% increase in 2015–2016. The Association established an information management committee to guide the development and implementation of a comprehensive Reporting Framework, to more effectively facilitate the collection of appropriate performance data.

INAC continues to support Indigenous participation as part of the Defence and National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy in collaboration with other federal departments, agencies, provinces, Irving Shipbuilding, Seaspan and Indigenous partners to develop frameworks and strategies. From 2011 to 2016, over $17 million in Grants and Contributions was provided, resulting in employment and training for Indigenous businesses.

The Association appointed new executives with a strong understanding of the needs of entrepreneurs, the ability to create and foster an adequate business environment, and the drive to provide value-added support to the Aboriginal Financial Institutions network.

The five-year Métis Economic Development Strategy, announced in Budget 2016, is an innovative policy initiative that supported the diversification and enhancement of Aboriginal Financial Institutions' business lines. Through this initiative, INAC provided a total of $5 million in 2016–2017 to eight Métis organizations and capital corporations for the following: establishing and capitalizing the first Métis Capital Corporation in British Columbia; re-capitalizing three prairie-based Métis Capital Corporations; re-capitalizing and expanding the Métis Voyageur Development Fund's lending portfolio; and supporting the Métis National Council to develop an overarching economic development policy.

Federal procurement is a key mechanism to support Indigenous entrepreneurship. Figures for 2014, released in 2016, indicate that over $227 million in federal contracts were awarded to Aboriginal businesses under the Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business, representing an increase of 127% from 2013. The Department of National Defence's health care provider services also awarded a new contract, which included an Aboriginal participation component valued at $5.4 million over four years.

To support enhanced Indigenous participation in the public and private sector, INAC funded 23 projects totaling $6,327,025 in 2016–2017. These projects focused on partnership-based approaches to business and economic development strategies (i.e., the National Economic Development Strategy with the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business and the Assembly of First Nations).

INAC also supported the development and implementation of the Aboriginal Tourism Association of Canada's National Aboriginal Tourism Strategy, "The Path Forward", which will assist in creating 50 export-ready Indigenous tourism businesses, 7,000 jobs and an additional $300 million contribution to Canada's Gross Domestic Product.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Viable Indigenous businesses are created and/or expanded Percentage increase of Indigenous businesses created and/or expanded through the support of Aboriginal Financial Institutions 2% average year-to-year increase over 5 years (from 2012 to 2016) by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: not availablea
2015–2016: 6%b
2014–2015: not availablec
a Result is based on data received from Aboriginal Financial Institutions and reported in the fall of following fiscal year. As a result, there is a one-year lag on reporting results.
b This is calculated based on an increase to 1,364 businesses, from 1,290 the previous fiscal year.
c INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
42,636,070 42,636,070 47,873,223 47,172,438 4,536,368
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates to support economic development for the Métis Nation (Budget 2016) (+$5.0 million).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
35 29 (6)

Information on Program 3.1 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 3.2: Community Economic Development

Description

This Program promotes conditions that will help improve community economic development and prosperity for Indigenous peoples. Guided by the Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development — and its vision of "Enhancing the Value of Indigenous Assets" — this Program promotes greater self-reliance and participation in the mainstream economy and community well-being. This is achieved through supports to institutions and First Nations for land and environmental management and economic development.

Results

Budget 2016 committed the Government of Canada to public investments that support Indigenous economic development and infrastructure on reserve. INAC has made investments through economic development, additions to reserve, land use planning, land and environmental management, and the facilitation of business and community readiness. These investments have supported the conditions in Indigenous communities that support their pursuit of sustainable development and long-term prosperity.

A total of 70 additions to reserve were completed in 2016-2017, which was twice what was planned. This represents an additional 65,784 acres of land available to First Nations for their use.

In 2016–2017, INAC provided more than $50 million directly to First Nation and Inuit communities to enhance their delivery of economic development services as well as their land and environmental management capacity, while supporting activities that promote economic development. Targeted investments have been used to strengthen community capacity through institutions, such as the Council for the Advancement of Native Development Officers and the National Aboriginal Land Managers Association.

As of March 31, 2017, there were 100 active First Nations in the First Nations Land Management Regime (62 in the operational phase and 38 in the developmental phase), including 10 new Nations that were approved to join the Regime in 2016–2017. First Nations at the operational phase are able to respond to new business opportunities faster and more efficiently than those whose reserves remain under the Indian Act, which could increase the potential for economic development and private investments on reserve.

In 2016–2017, a further 131 First Nations were operating under the Reserve Land and Environment Management Program. Twelve First Nations received land and environmental management certification, supporting training, capacity development, and community readiness for transitions to other sectoral self-government opportunities outside of the Indian Act.

INAC advanced the Addition to Reserve process, through the completion of a toolkit, and four training sessions with First Nations between January and March 2017. As well, two external stakeholder engagement sessions were held to identify additional tools and process opportunities to continue improving the Addition to Reserve process.

A new land use planning initiative was undertaken in 2016–2017, funded in part by Budget 2016. A total of 30 First Nations signed on, commencing development of their land use plans under the new initiative. To support these First Nations, information and training sessions were held across the country, a land use planning toolkit was created, and a new accredited land use planning, survey and mapping curriculum is being developed by the Tulo Centre in partnership with Thompson Rivers University. The National Aboriginal Land Managers Association and Natural Resources Canada are collaborating with INAC on this initiative.

INAC has supported First Nations across Canada to develop partnerships with the private sector, and pursue small and large economic development opportunities through the Community Opportunity Readiness Program. In 2016–2017, INAC invested approximately $34.5 million in 32 projects with values over $250,000. For every dollar invested by INAC, over three dollars were leveraged from the private sector and other sources outside the Department. These investments are helping to meet the commitments outlined in the mandate letter by increasing community revenue and creating jobs for Indigenous people.

On reserve, INAC supported contamination assessment and remediation activities on 175 high-priority sites. This has resulted in decreased risk to human health and safety, an increase in land available for development, and a reduction in federal liability related to contaminated sites.

Exploration and development of oil and gas resources on First Nation lands resulted in $59.6 million collected by Indian Oil and Gas Canada on behalf of First Nations. While INAC had prepared draft Indian Oil and Gas regulations, concerns raised by First Nations during the consultation process have resulted in further dialogue and revision to the proposal.

Core funding has been and continues to be provided annually to the Inuit Art Foundation. The Foundation advocates for Inuit artists throughout Inuit Nunangat and in the South, provides support to Inuit artists through professional development, and has been working to take on full responsibility for administering the Igloo Tag program. The activities of the Foundation support Inuit economic development.

Under section 67 of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, INAC must review projects on reserve to determine whether or not they are likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects. INAC reviewed a total of 1,457 projects for their environmental impacts in 2016–2017; none of the projects were identified as likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects.

An evaluation of the Lands and Economic Development Services carried out in 2015–2016 recommended that more be done to maximize their efforts. As a result, commitments were made to strengthen current funding formulas, and prepare a strategy for continued capacity development to maximize community access to programs. A fulsome engagement for the Reserve Land and Environment Management Program will occur during 2017–2018. Pre-engagement sessions in 2016–2017 helped to formulate the engagement process, areas of concentration and a discussion guide. As part of the engagement sessions, electronic voting systems will be used to allow First Nations to identify key priorities and to answer questions anonymously.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
First Nation and Inuit communities have the capacity to pursue economic development Percentage of Band-generated revenue in relation to total revenue 13% by March 31, 2017 (five year average from 2008–2009 to 2012–2013 was 13.1%) 2016–2017: not availablea
2015–2016: 15%
2014–2015: not applicableb
a Due to reporting timelines for community audits, data for this indicator are not available until midway through the next fiscal year.
b INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
209,574,311 209,574,311 316,283,070 280,792,274 71,217,963
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for the assessment, management and remediation of federal contaminated sites (Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan: Phase III and Budget 2016) (+$47.2 million), and the First Nations Land Management Regime (+$3.9 million), as well as funding provided through internal reallocations for initiatives such as the Community Opportunity Readiness Program (+$16.5 million) and increased expenditures related to court awards (+$7.8 million). These increases are offset by the deferral of activities associated with the implementation of treaty land entitlement in Saskatchewan (-$3.0 million). Specifically, a portion of the funding provided for payments to the Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipalities and to the Province of Saskatchewan for compensation for the loss of their tax base as a result of the settlement of treaty land is not required in 2016–2017 due to delays in the transfer of lands to reserve status; this deferred funding that was not required in 2016–2017 has been re-profiled to 2017–2018, when it will be available for the intended purpose.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
439 438 (1)

Information on Program 3.2 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 3.3: Strategic Partnerships

Description

This Program supports Indigenous community preparedness activities to engage with partners in economic opportunities, including the Strategic Partnerships Initiative — an innovative, horizontal program intended to align federal efforts to support Indigenous participation in complex economic opportunities, particularly large regional opportunities and major resource developments. The Strategic Partnership Initiative provides a mechanism for federal partners to collectively identify emerging opportunities, target investment decisions and streamline program application and approval processes to support Indigenous communities at the early stages of large and complex economic opportunities. In doing so, closer partnerships with non-federal partners, including provincial and territorial governments, the private sector and Indigenous communities can be built. By addressing gaps in programming, this ensures that Indigenous peoples can participate in and benefit from priority regional opportunities and major resource developments.

Results

In 2016–2017, the Strategic Partnerships Initiative continued to support Indigenous community economic readiness activities that enable participation in major economic development opportunities. Activities included early engagement and partnership development, increasing community financial capacity, skills development and training, and the provision of information and resources to help communities engage with partners and stakeholders.

In the NWT, due to impetus from the Strategic Partnerships Initiative, support from three federal departments (INAC, Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency and Natural Resources Canada) and the territorial government allowed more streamlined funding to flow to communities through a single contribution agreement managed by the territorial government.

In 2016–2017, Strategic Partnerships Initiative's $14.45 million budget supported 19 initiatives across the country in a variety of sectors including clean energy, mining, forestry, fisheries, environmental assessment and monitoring, and tourism. Over 40 partnerships were created or maintained, and more than 213 communities participated directly or indirectly in these projects. The program also leveraged over $38 million in additional funding from federal and non-federal partners. Of the 19 initiatives that were supported, 13 were delivered by INAC regional offices in partnership with provincial ministries and federal departments, and six were delivered by other federal partners.

INAC also provided support to increase Indigenous participation in West Coast Energy infrastructure developments. Additionally, via Strategic Partnerships Initiatives, INAC invested $15.11 million to support projects centered on engagement and awareness, environmental participation, jobs and growth, and fish habitat restoration. This was accomplished by working through Natural Resources Canada's Major Projects Management Office — West with Western Economic Diversification, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and Transport Canada.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Regional economic opportunities and large resource development projects impacting Indigenous communities are pursued in partnership with public and private sectors Value of federal and non-federal investments leveraged under the community readiness phase of the Strategic Partnership Initiative 1:1.5 leveraging over three years (For every $1 Strategic Partnership Initiative investment an additional $1.50 is leveraged from other sources including private and other public sectors) by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: 1:≈2.3
2015–2016: not applicablea
2014–2015: not applicablea
a INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
39,583,926 39,583,926 50,615,612 48,106,479 8,522,553
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects additional funding provided through internal reallocations for the Ring of Fire initiative and for the Strategic Partnerships Initiative (+$10.9 million). This is offset by re-profiling funds that were not required in the 2016–2017 (-$2.3 million).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
68 68 0

 

Program 3.4: Infrastructure and Capacity

Description

This Program provides funding and advisory assistance to First Nation communities for the construction, acquisition, operation and maintenance of community infrastructure assets on reserves. These assets include drinking water systems, wastewater systems and community buildings. The Program also includes support for emergency management assistance, climate change adaptation projects, and funding and advisory support for water and wastewater systems, education facilities, housing and other community infrastructure such as roads and bridges, electrification, and community buildings (these four sub-programs are collectively known as the Capital Facilities and Maintenance Program). Ultimately, this Program enables First Nations to participate more fully in the Canadian economy by establishing infrastructure that meets established standards, and the needs of First Nation communities.

Results

All Canadians expect access to clean, safe and reliable drinking water. INAC is committed to ending long-term drinking water advisories affecting INAC-funded public systems on-reserve by the end of 2021. Budget 2016 provided $1.8 billion over five years to First Nation communities to improve water and wastewater infrastructure. These investments will also ensure proper facility operation and maintenance, and will strengthen capacity by enhancing the training of water system operators.

In 2016–2017, $274.6 million in targeted funding was allocated to support 241 water and wastewater projects. Since November 2015, in collaboration with First Nations, INAC supported the resolution of 20 long-term drinking water advisories on-reserve and invested in measures to reduce the likelihood of long-term drinking water advisories returning to the same communities.

INAC continues to enhance capacity building and operator training for water and wastewater systems by implementing the Circuit Rider Training Program. The percentage of operators certified to the level of their respective water and wastewater systems marks a slight increase from the previous year, to 68% and 59% respectively. These certified operators are better able to ensure that systems meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality and Environment Canada's Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations.

INAC invests an annual average of $146 million to work with First Nations to provide safe and affordable on-reserve housing across Canada. Budget 2016 announced an additional investment of $416.6 million over two years to address the most pressing housing needs on reserve, and support capacity development initiatives and innovative approaches that are beneficial to the entire community. Construction work on 993 housing units has been completed and the remaining 2,138 units are currently in construction, lot servicing, or renovations and additions. This will improve housing conditions for thousands of First Nation families, with additional construction targeting communities with urgent housing needs to follow.

An evaluation of the On-Reserve Housing Program completed in 2016–2017 found that housing conditions have seen limited improvement, as more support is required for long-term capacity development and governance, in addition to ongoing support for construction and repairs. In response to the evaluation, INAC, with support from the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, is engaging First Nations and partners to seek input on the reform of the on-reserve housing programs to develop an effective long-term approach. Additionally, the Department is exploring options related to funding flexibility.

INAC continues to pursue new approaches for the management, financing and delivery of INAC-funded on-reserve assets. This includes working with regional offices to implement a national electrification strategy for First Nation communities currently off-grid, and working with First Nations to improve the efficiency of investments through such means as bundling school projects in northern Manitoba, Alberta and Ontario.

In 2016–2017, INAC continued to work with First Nations to improve infrastructure for their communities. With existing funding and investment made by Budget 2016 in INAC-funded infrastructure assets, the percentages of inspected water and wastewater, roads and bridges, as well as other operational community infrastructure assets that were projected to remain operational for their life-cycle met their targets ahead of time. The result for schools projected to remain operational throughout their life-cycle is slightly below the 2015 baseline. To ensure that school facilities remain operational, projects have been approved and are underway. The majority are now in either the feasibility study or design stages. As these projects are completed, results will continue to improve, on track to meeting the performance target outlined below by March 2019.

Through the First Nations Waste Management Initiative, 136 projects in approximately 247 communities totaling $14.1 million were supported. These included projects to develop solid waste management plans, divert and recycle waste and build waste infrastructure, as well as training programs to build waste management capacity.

A Follow-up Audit of Infrastructure on Reserves, approved in March 2017 (the initial audit was completed in 2014–2015), assessed the adequacy and effectiveness of the Capital Facilities and Maintenance Program with a particular focus on increased funding from Budget 2016. To respond to the Audit's recommendations, INAC is using the transition to a new Departmental Results Framework to improve performance reporting, and is also collaborating with partners to streamline and improve data collection methods, and to support the integration of financial and project information from various systems in INAC.

2016–2017 was the first year of the First Nation Adapt program, which built on the past successes of the Climate Change Adaptation program. The Program hosted four regional workshops throughout Canada to discuss past projects, talk about new opportunities for funding, as well as identify regional adaptation priorities. A total of 123 participants from 91 First Nation communities attended these workshops. The Program also provided funding support to six risk and adaptation assessments in 17 First Nation communities, meeting its goal of six to eight projects in 2016–2017. In addition, work began on three tools designed to aid First Nations in identifying and mitigating the risks associated with the effects of climate change on infrastructure and emergency management.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
First Nation communities have infrastructure that protects their health and safety Percentage of inspected INAC-funded infrastructure assets projected to remain operational for their life-cycles By March 31, 2019:

70% for schools from the 2015 baseline of 59%

74% for water/wastewater from the 2015 baseline of 74%

63% for roads and bridges from the 2015 baseline of 63%

44% for other community infrastructure from the 2015 baseline of 44%
Schools
2016–2017: 58%
2015–2016: 55%
2014–2015: not applicablea

Water/wastewater
2016–2017: 82%
2015–2016: 77%
2014–2015: not applicablea

Roads and bridges
2016–2017: 68%
2015–2016: 66%
2014–2015: not applicablea

Other community Infrastructure
2016–2017: 48%
2015–2016: 44%
2014–2015: not applicablea
Percentage of on-reserve INAC-funded First Nation drinking water systems with treated water that meets prescribed standards in the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality 87% by March 31, 2019
(2011 baseline: 46%)
2016–2017: 92%
2015–2016: 92%
2014–2015: not applicablea
Percentage of on-reserve INAC-funded First Nation wastewater systems producing treated wastewater that meets effluent quality regulations and guidelines 70% by March 31, 2019
(2012 baseline: 68%)
2016–2017: 75%
2015–2016: 80%
2014–2015: not applicablea
a INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
1,212,699,364 1,212,699,364 1,895,903,208 1,893,671,648 680,972,284
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects additional funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for First Nations infrastructure (Budget 2016) including water and wastewater, education infrastructure, on-reserve housing, community infrastructure, cultural and recreational facilities, and waste management infrastructure (+$747.6 million); to reimburse First Nations and emergency management service providers for on-reserve response and recovery activities (+$56.4 million); for Operation Return Home: Manitoba Interlake Flood Remediation and Settlement (+$22.7 million); and for the Climate Change Preparedness in the North program and First Nation Adapt program (Budget 2016) (+$3.2 million). This increase is offset mainly by funding reallocations to other departmental priorities and planned transfers from/to other government departments for joint priorities (-$149.0 million).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
189 363 174
The difference between planned and actual full-time equivalents primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for First Nations infrastructure in Budget 2016.

Information on Program 3.4 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 3.5: Urban Indigenous Participation

Description

This Program supports participation of urban Indigenous individuals and communities in the economy. It is comprised of two streams: Community Capacity Support and Urban Partnerships. The Community Capacity Support stream provides funding to urban Indigenous community organizations to deliver programs and services that are designed to remove barriers and encourage innovative partnerships. The Urban Partnerships stream is comprised of a planning component and an implementation component. The planning component supports communities with multi-stakeholder engagement (private sector, municipalities, Indigenous groups) in the design and development of regional strategic plans and the identification of community priorities. These plans are then shared with the National Association of Friendship Centres which, in turn, implements the priorities through community projects.

Results

Closing the socio-economic gap between urban Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians remains a key priority for INAC and the Government of Canada. While the Urban Aboriginal Strategy sunsetted on March 31, 2017, significant investments will continue to be made in this area through the new Urban Programming for Indigenous Peoples (see highlight box).

Budget 2017 proposes investments of $118.5 million over five years in Urban Programming for Indigenous Peoples. Combined with existing ongoing departmental funding, a total of $53 million per year will support local Indigenous and non-Indigenous service delivery organizations in the provision of holistic, culturally appropriate programming.

As per Budget 2016, the Department held a comprehensive engagement process with First Nations, Inuit and Métis to review the Urban Aboriginal Strategy, and identify how programming can better meet the needs of urban Indigenous peoples. Activities included: 21 roundtables across Canada attended by 362 urban Indigenous peoples; 1,299 responses to an online survey; 30 written submissions; and two town hall meetings. This input, along with lessons from recent evaluations and audits and other considerations, led to the creation of Urban Programming for Indigenous Peoples, as well as the development of policy options.

In 2016–2017, INAC continued to support the National Association of Friendship Centres in their administration of the Community Capacity Support and the Urban Partnerships programs. The National Association of Friendship Centres provided funding to 129 urban Indigenous organizations across Canada, and 192 initiatives received project-based funding under the Urban Partnerships program. Funded projects vary in focus, with all partners working together to enhance the employability of urban Indigenous people. This included the focus on broader social and foundational barriers to economic participation, such as providing access to child care spaces, helping to address transportation issues, and by providing training for basic life skills (e.g. literacy, numeracy, financial literacy).

INAC also continued to coordinate and facilitate partnerships and enhance collaboration with provincial and municipal governments, federal departments, urban Indigenous organizations, and other key stakeholders, through the provision of its portion of the Urban Partnerships program funding. In total, 45 projects were funded that supported regional strategic planning, partnership development and research initiatives. Ultimately, this program aims to increase the participation of urban Indigenous people in the economy.

In 2016–2017, an audit of the Urban Aboriginal Strategy Programsxii identified gaps related to the management control framework that jeopardized the ability of the programs to meet their objectives. An evaluation entitled "The Final Report: Evaluation of the Urban Aboriginal Strategy" was conducted in 2016 and found that the Strategy continues to be relevant. However, there were limitations in determining early impacts due to internal capacity, data collection challenges, and a lack of detailed reporting from the National Association of Friendship Centres. Nevertheless, the evaluation concluded that impacts can be assumed to have been of a similar scope to previous programming. By reframing wherever possible, funding organizations continued to align their previous project activity with the new Strategy's economic outcome objectives. The issues identified are being addressed through the implementation of a new Urban Programming for Indigenous Peoples program — a redesign of the former Urban Aboriginal Strategy.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Urban Indigenous participation in the economy is enhanced through collaborative planning, knowledge management and research Percentage of funding allocated to the National Association of Friendship Centres that is invested in priorities identified in regional strategic plans 100% by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: not availablea
2015–2016: not applicableb
2014–2015: not applicableb
Number of Indigenous individuals participating in community capacity support programs and services Increasing year over year (Baselines to be established by March 31, 2016) 2016–2017: not availablea
2015–2016: not applicableb
2014–2015: not applicableb
a Data for this indicator were not available for the reporting period; INAC has replaced this indicator for the 2017–2018 reporting period.
b INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
29,645,997 29,645,997 49,635,904 49,414,504 19,768,507
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects additional funding provided through Supplementary Estimates to renew the Urban Aboriginal Strategy (Budget 2016).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
13 13 0

Strategic Outcome: The North — Self-reliance, prosperity and well-being for the people and communities of the North

Program 4.1: Northern Governance and People

Description

This Program strengthens the North's communities and people by: devolving responsibilities for lands and natural resources to territorial governments; fostering effective intergovernmental relations with territorial and Inuit governments; collaborating with Inuit organizations and providing support to Territorial Commissioners; subsidizing the costs of nutritious perishable foods and other essential items in isolated northern communities; providing grants for hospital and physician services in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories; working with northern communities, governments, and organizations to address the risks and challenges posed by climate change and reduce reliance on diesel; and advancing Canadian and northern interests through circumpolar forums such as the international Arctic Council. Canadians and Northerners will benefit from territorial governments ultimately having more control over their own affairs.

Results

INAC contributed to lower food prices in Canada's isolated northern communities through the provision of the Nutrition North Canada food subsidy. On April 1, 2016, the Department implemented a point-of-sale system to demonstrate to Northerners how and when the Nutrition North Canada food subsidy is applied to their food purchases when they shop with northern retailers and suppliers registered with the program. On October 1, 2016, INAC also implemented revised community eligibility criteria to expand program coverage to all isolated northern communities that lack year-round surface transportation. As well, between March 2016 to March 2017, the Revised Northern Food BasketFootnote 2 index decreased slightly by 0.12%, compared to a decrease of 2.8% from April 2016 to March 2017 for the basket of "food purchased from stores" reported by Statistics Canada using their Consumer Price Index, suggesting the program continues to have an impact on the affordability of perishable, nutritious foods in these communities. To support the sharing of program information with the public, compliance reviews, shipping data and price reports were posted to the program website. In addition, the Department has developed an interactive map that provides users with information on where Nutrition North Canada subsidy dollars are spent, including the location of all 121 eligible communities, their community profiles and food data.

Headed by the Nutrition North Canada Advisory Board, the Nutrition North Canada 2016 public engagement process was conducted between May and December 2016. Over 20 community visits were held across the country, alongside 63 key stakeholder interviews. This was accompanied by a survey in electronic and hard-copy formats that gathered 268 responses, and a social media campaign. Key engagement findings were summarized in a What We Heard Report, which is being used to inform the co-development of policy options with key stakeholders that will guide future program updates and ensure that Nutrition North is more responsive to Northerners while remaining sustainable.

On July 9, 2016, the Minister announced the appointment of a Chief Federal Negotiator to reconvene negotiations on an Agreement-In-Principle for the devolution of management responsibilities for lands and resources in Nunavut, and negotiations were officially re-started in October 2016. Previous devolution negotiations were halted due to the 2015 federal election, leading to an expiration of the negotiating mandate prior to achieving an Agreement-In-Principle by the March 31, 2017 target. Following the October 2016 mandate renewal, the revised timeline for this milestone is October 2019, with implementation of devolution by March 31, 2023. INAC also signed a grant agreement with Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated to fund fifty percent of their costs to participate in this negotiation process.

On February 9, 2017, the Prime Minister and Inuit leaders signed the Inuit Nunangat Declaration, creating the Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee to advance shared priorities between the Inuit and the Government of Canada. At the initial meeting, the President of the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami identified reconciliation as one of many priorities that will be addressed. INAC engaged 12 interested parties regarding potential amendments to the Nunavut Act pertaining to Indigenous hunting for food game.

INAC implemented new approaches to climate change and energy in the North through two new programs. In its first year, the Climate Change Adaptation and Clean Energy program focused on engaging with stakeholders through a series of workshops on climate change adaptation, in support of the development of the Northern Adaptation Strategy (a commitment under the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change). The new Northern Responsible Energy Approach for Community Heat and Electricity (known as Northern REACHE) program supported 24 clean energy projects and engaged directly with northern communities, governments, and organizations on clean energy challenges and priorities. This engagement advances the goal of better understanding how to support community and regional efforts. Community input is also being used to inform the development of a federal plan and timeline for deploying innovative renewable energy and energy-efficient alternatives to diesel.

As part of the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group Arctic Remote Energy Network Academy project, INAC held an on-site training session in the Northwest Territories for circumpolar and Indigenous participants on renewable energy solutions. A workshop on domestic and circumpolar issues related to mental wellness and suicide prevention was also held among the Indigenous group as part of the RISING SUN project.

Multilateral work through the Artic Council and bilateral work with Canada's circumpolar neighbors on priority issues for the North also continued.

The evaluation of INAC's support for territorial and northern organizations affirmed that continued participation on the Arctic Council is crucial to the objectives in the Northern Strategy, and noted the important role of this forum in building healthy, safe, self-sufficient, and prosperous northern communities. A multilateral strategic planning exercise led by INAC has clarified guiding principles and priorities within the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group, in response to a recommendation from the evaluation. As well, another evaluation found a continuing need for INAC grants to the Government of Northwest Territories and the Government of Nunavut for health care of Indians and Inuit, and highlighted strong accountability and delivery mechanisms. The evaluation noted potential advantages to transferring administration of the grants into existing mechanisms that deliver funding to territorial governments.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Northerners have greater control over their economic and political affairs Number of final devolution agreements fully implemented with territorial governments on land and resource management Three by March 31, 2020 2016–2017: 2a
2015–2016: 2
2014–2015: 2
Affordability of perishable, nutritious food in eligible communities is strengthened Annual trend of the Revised Northern Food Basket At or below the annual trend (increase/decrease) for the Consumer Price Index basket for food by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: above annual trendb
2015–2016: below annual trend
2014–2015: not applicablec
Northern communities, governments, and organizations identify priorities for adaptation activities and reducing reliance on diesel Strategic planning identifying Northern priorities is developed Northern Adaptation Strategy completed by March 31, 2018 2016–2017: in progress
2015–2016: not applicablec
2014–2015: not applicablec
Federal plan and timeline to reduce reliance on diesel completed by March 31, 2018
a Two devolution agreements have been fully implemented in the Northwest Territories and the Yukon; the third devolution in Nunavut is at the Agreement-In-Principle phase.
b The average price of the Revised Northern Food Basket decreased by 0.12%, which was above the trend of food prices for Canada as a whole between April 2016 to March 2017.
c INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
134,894,297 134,894,297 160,333,883 157,628,707 22,734,410
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects additional funding provided through Supplementary Estimates to expand the Nutrition North Canada program (Budget 2014 and Budget 2016) (+$27.8 million), for the Northern Responsible Energy Approach for Community Heat and Electricity program (Budget 2016) (+$3.6 million), and for the Climate Change Preparedness in the North program and First Nation Adapt program (Budget 2016) (+$1.8 million), offset by funding reallocations to other departmental priorities and the re-profiling of funds that were not required in the 2016–2017 fiscal year (-$9.2 million).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
62 83 21
The difference between planned and actual full-time equivalents primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates (as noted above).

Information on Program 4.1 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 4.2: Northern Science and Technology

Description

This Program supports scientific research and technology in the North through programs and infrastructure to ensure domestic and international policy on key northern issues is better informed by a scientific knowledge base. The focus of this Program is to: research and monitor contaminants and their impacts on the ecosystem and human health through the Northern Contaminants Program; assess, manage and communicate scientific data and results, and contribute expertise to help inform public policy making and international controls on certain contaminants; and support the construction of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station. Northerners and all Canadians will benefit from a knowledge base that supports health and sustainable development and the positioning of Canada as an international leader in Arctic science and technology.

Results
As part of efforts to promote proper management of data from Arctic research and monitoring, INAC initiated the joint development of the "Principles and Guidelines for Data Management for Polar Research and Monitoring". In collaboration with the Nunavut General Monitoring Plan, Polar Knowledge Canada, and the University of Waterloo-based Polar Data Catalogue, this project will advance understanding of the polar regions, promote public awareness, and support informed decision making. Implementation will begin in 2017–2018.

In 2016–2017, INAC contributed data and expertise to national and international initiatives aimed at monitoring, assessing, and reducing or eliminating contaminants from anthropogenic sources far from the Arctic that pose a potential health risk for wildlife and people. This included support for the Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report: Human Health Assessment 2017 and assessments produced under the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme on Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern and on Biological Effects of Contaminants. The Department's prior and ongoing contributions to the Minamata Convention on Mercury supported Canada's ratification of the Convention in early spring 2017.

In support of northern science and technology, the Government of Canada approved funding for construction of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station and implementation of the associated science and technology program in May 2014. Construction of the campus began in August 2014, and — as part of Canada's 150th anniversary — is on track for grand opening celebrations in the fall of 2017. The campus will be managed by INAC until construction is complete in 2017 and, leading up to the ownership transfer, Polar Knowledge Canada staff have been working closely with INAC on the critical path for implementation.

As a leader in green technologies in the North, the Canadian High Arctic Research Station has registered with the internationally renowned LEED system. INAC engineers are working closely with construction management, procurement specialists, and a LEED consultant to achieve the LEED Gold certification. This will set the bar high for future sustainable development in the North.

Over 2016–2017, collaboration between INAC and Polar Knowledge Canada allowed for creative and innovative approaches to partnerships, community integration and problem solving. Investments in community infrastructure that are beneficial to the Canadian High Arctic Research Station campus and to the rest of the community will have lasting positive effects on local community relations in Cambridge Bay. These include upgrades to the power and water treatment plants, and other activities such as those related to the integration of Inuit artwork into the Main Research Building.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Domestic and international policy on northern health and sustainable development is better informed by a scientific knowledge base Percentage of Northern Contaminants Program datasets used in regional, national and international policy-relevant assessments and obligations under international conventions 80% by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: 90%
2015–2016: 100%
2014–2015: 100%
Canada is positioned as an international leader in Arctic science and technology Launch of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station Research station is operational by July 1, 2017 2016–2017: on targeta
2015–2016: not applicableb
2014–2015: not applicableb
a Canadian High Arctic Research Station is on target to become operational. Field and Maintenance Building construction was completed by March 2017. Enclosure of the Main Research Building; interior work is underway. Substantial completion is expected in August 2017.
b INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
47,822,067 47,822,067 63,803,749 53,832,299 6,010,232
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects additional funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for the Canadian High Arctic Research Station (+$13.3 million) and additional resources reallocated internally (+$3.4 million). This additional funding is partially offset by the deferral of activities associated with the Canadian High Arctic Research Station (-$10.0 million); this deferred funding was not required in 2016–2017, and has been carried forward and re-profiled to 2017–2018 when it will be available for the intended purpose.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
37 39 2

Information on Program 4.2 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 4.3: Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management

Description

This Program focuses on the management, sustainable development and regulatory oversight of the land, water, natural resources, and environment of the North, delivering on the Department's role as the Government of Canada's natural resource manager in Nunavut and the northern offshore and its post-devolution responsibilities in the Northwest Territories and Yukon. This Program involves: managing oil and gas resources development; supporting the sustainable management of active mineral exploration and development; supporting the sound management of contaminated sites and the few remaining INAC-managed land and water areas in the North; and ensuring the completion of territorial land-use planning including zones for conservation, development and other uses. Northerners and Canadians will benefit from economic opportunities and sustainable development.

Results

Amendments to the Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Act were proposed to Parliament in August 2016, via Bill C-17. These changes respond to an October 2015 petition by three Yukon First Nations following amendments to the Act made in 2015, and if passed by Parliament, will fulfill the terms of a March 2016 agreement to address the concerns of the First Nations.

Indigenous partners and interested stakeholders were engaged in remediation planning and implementation for contaminated sites, with over 170 community consultation events held in 2016–2017 throughout the North. Events included public meetings, meetings with affected First Nations, site tours and school outreach.

The Department initiated consultations with First Nations and governments in the Northwest Territories on a draft legislative proposal to address the injunction preventing restructuring of the Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board. The injunction was the result of a court challenge initiated by the Tlicho Government. The Department has also been working closely with the Government of the Northwest Territories and the Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board to prepare for the eventual coming into force of the development certificate provisions of the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act.

INAC also completed policy work for the development of Administrative Monetary Penalties regulations, designed to remove the financial benefit of non-compliance, for the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act, the Territorial Lands Act, and the Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal Act.

The Department remained engaged in efforts to advance multiple land use planning initiatives in Canada's North, which will result in more sustainable development while providing more certainty and predictability for developers. INAC most notably contributed to the Sahtu Land Use Plan amendment process, coordinated federal review of the interim draft Dehcho Land Use Plan, and led federal involvement in the draft Nunavut Land Use Plan process. Additionally, INAC initiated, in partnership with Indigenous organizations, two Strategic Environmental Assessments to examine the environmental impacts of potential oil and gas activity in the Beaufort Sea and in Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. Initial engagement sessions began in the six Inuvialuit and ten Baffin Bay communities.

INAC completed remediation activities at four of the 23 contaminated sites in the remediation phase, and completed the required planning to proceed with remediation at three additional sites.

Care and maintenance, and risk mitigation work, was also conducted at the Giant Mine site, including the deconstruction and removal of infrastructure and buildings that were at risk of collapse. An innovative approach to investigations was completed by using remotely controlled drones to capture video and other data from otherwise inaccessible areas of the mine, in order to complete the plans for stabilizing certain portions. As well, multiple engagement requirements from the environmental assessment were implemented as part of the development of the updated remediation plan, and the first annual report was submitted to the Giant Mine Oversight Board in October 2016. The request for proposals for the Main Construction Manager contract was posted for public tendering in early 2017, and the annual public forum was held in Yellowknife and Ndilo in March 2017.

The Department also continued its work with the Government of Yukon to manage the Faro Mine site. Notable achievements were: the optimization of the Interim Water Treatment System, which permitted the reduction of the Faro pit water level by more than two metres; and the establishment of the Kaska Faro Secretariat, which provides the ability for the Kaska Nation to build capacity and be integrated as a project partner. Engineering designs for urgent works (North Fork Rose Creek Diversion and Down Valley Hydraulic Upgrades) are on schedule, with initiation of construction planned for 2018, while development of the conceptual full closure plan is well underway in preparation for the project proposal to be submitted for environmental assessment in 2018.

INAC also conducted a review of environmental protection and mine reclamation policies for various jurisdictions, and is evaluating both short- and long-term options to address the reclamation issues for mines under federal jurisdiction.

The Department continued its work to collect Crown revenues and royalties from petroleum and mining companies for Northerners and Indigenous peoples. In 2016–2017, the Department completed audits for the Norman Wells proven area (2014) and the Snap Lake (2010) and Diavik mine sites (2010 and 2011). Furthermore, significant progress was made with collecting records for ongoing audits, which will be completed over the course of the upcoming reporting cycle. INAC has also continued work on the development of an online map selection system for mineral claims in Nunavut and will continue this work into 2017–2018.

INAC continued to authorize and enforce land and water activities in the North that are under the Department's authorities, and to work with stakeholders and institutes of public government to ensure that any potential environmental risks are mitigated and stakeholder circumstances and concerns are considered.

In 2016–2017, the Department continued to support oil and gas decision making in Canada's Arctic with the successful implementation of a new Land Administration System, which modernizes our current northern lands and rights system, and the completion of a thorough review of the Canada Petroleum Resources Act. With the completion of the review of the Act, the Department has become better informed of the interests of northern oil and gas stakeholders, with information and recommendations provided greatly assisting during ongoing consultations on offshore Arctic oil and gas exploration. The goal of these consultations is to clarify the interests and plans of stakeholders, and to inform the development of options that will shape the future of offshore oil and gas exploration in the Beaufort Sea.

INAC also continued to advance the state of environmental knowledge in Nunavut by fully committing all research funding for 2016–2017, and collecting data from all projects funded in the previous year. Key research priorities were identified and approved for the Nunavut General Monitoring Plan, based upon 54 approved socio-economic and eco-systemic value components, and $700,000 in annual funding was delivered to 14 research projects that support identified research priorities.

Results achieved
Expected resultsPerformance indicatorsTargetsActual results
Canada's responsibilities to support effective regulatory regimes in the territories are carried out in a manner that provides certainty for Indigenous people, Northerners, and project proponents Nunavut's, Northwest Territories', and Yukon's ratings on the Policy Perception Index as reported in the Fraser Institute Annual Survey of Mining Companiesa The rating on the policy perception index will be as good or better than the previous year's by March 31, 2017 Northwest Territories
2016: 75.77
2015: 69.48
2014: not applicableb

Yukon
2016: 79.61
2015: 79.16
2014: not applicableb

Nunavut
2016: 72.52
2015: 74.37
2014: not applicableb
Percentage of Nunavut and NWT projects for which the Minister is a decision maker approved within regulated timelines (Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act and Nunavut Planning and Projects Assessment Act) 100% by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: 100%c
2015–2016: 100%d
2014–2015: 100%d
Environmental stewardship of contaminated sites is responsible and sustainable Percentage of contaminated sites projects' risks rated as "very high" or "high" with mitigation strategies in place 100% by March 31, 2017 2016–2017: 100%e
2015–2016: not applicableb
2014–2015: not applicableb
a Data from this survey is provided annually and not by fiscal year.
b INAC did not include the same or a comparable performance indicator in the Performance Measurement Framework in this fiscal year.
c One project in the NWT was submitted for consolidated federal decision in February 2015; this decision was communicated to the Government of the NWT within the regulated 5-month timeline of the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act in early May 2016. In 2016–2017, no projects in Nunavut reached the decision phase for an environmental review under Part 3 of the Nunavut Planning and Project Assessment Act.
d The performance indicator for 2015–2016 and 2014–2015 was "Percentage of Nunavut projects and national interest or trans-boundary Northwest Territories projects approved within regulated timelines in process, including decisions on environmental assessments," and thus may not be directly comparable to current year results.
e The percentage is based on the project risks identified and rated to date.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
58,614,753 58,614,753 221,709,977 169,918,169 111,303,416
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for the assessment, management and remediation of federal contaminated sites (Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan: Phase III and Budget 2016) (+$168.9 million), and for the Arctic Regional Environmental Studies (Budget 2016) (+$1.7 million). This increase is partially offset by the deferral of activities associated with the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan (-$50.4 million). The associated funding has been re-profiled to future years when it will be available for the intended purpose. The difference also reflects the reallocation of funding to other departmental priorities (-$8.8 million).
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
147 239 92
The difference between planned and actual full-time equivalents primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates (as noted above).

Information on Program 4.3 lower-level is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Internal Services

Description

Internal Services are those groups of related activities and resources that the federal government considers to be services in support of programs and/or required to meet corporate obligations of an organization. Internal Services refers to the activities and resources of the 10 distinct service categories that support Program delivery in the organization, regardless of the Internal Services delivery model in a department. The 10 service categories are: Management and Oversight Services; Communications Services; Legal Services; Human Resources Management Services; Financial Management Services; Information Management Services; Information Technology Services; Real Property Services; Materiel Services; and Acquisition Services.

Results

As part of INAC's commitment to open government, an initial data inventory list and release process was developed, and 19 datasets were uploaded to the Open Government Portal — including the 2016–2017 Targeted Investments in First Nations Community Infrastructure dataset, covering INAC-funded infrastructure projects on reserve. INAC supported the government-wide implementation of the new Policy on Results by launching development of a transitional INAC Departmental Results Framework for 2018–2019. This new Framework is expected to evolve over time as program reforms, including results and indicators, are co-developed with Indigenous peoples and Northerners, and as the reconciliation agenda advances. INAC also launched two pages on Canada.ca, and corresponding Facebook and Twitter accounts, to serve as unified channels for all content about Indigenous and northern issues.

At INAC, the mean service time to resolve workplace technology device incidents is one hour, and 94% of all incidents are resolved by the first level of support. Both of these results are significantly better than other federal departments of a similar size.

In support of evidence-based policy making, INAC collaborated with key partners, such as Statistics Canada, in implementing surveys on Aboriginal peoples, and in producing over 30 research reports and statistical analyses examining the well-being gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians. INAC and Statistics Canada also developed the Remoteness Index, an innovative analytical tool that provides a consistent and transparent means of classifying remoteness, which can impact everything from community outcomes to the cost of service delivery.

Internally, departmental accountability was strengthened through: ten internal audits; management practices reviews of four regions; a preliminary survey of the Management Control Framework of Grants and Contributions; eight evaluations; seven risk assessments; thirteen financial reviews and forensic audits; and eight fraud awareness sessions. Twenty-four recipient audits were also initiated as part of INAC's transfer payment oversight responsibilities.

The benefits of a diverse workforce are particularly critical for INAC's mandate, given the Department's Indigenous representation rate is 29%, almost six times greater than labour market availability (5%). INAC has taken additional positive measures to recruit, retain and develop Indigenous employees through the 2016 Indigenous Recruitment and Retention Framework and Phase II of the Deputy Minister's Aboriginal Workforce Initiative. This latter initiative has also expanded awareness of Indigenous peoples' cultures amongst all employees.

INAC supports the Clerk of the Privy Council's focus on well-being and mental health in the workplace. The development of a workplace well-being and mental health strategy is being led by a Champion at the Associate Deputy Minister level. This work is being informed by the results of a confidential employee survey as well as employee focus groups, with the final strategy anticipated to launch by fall 2017.

In 2016–2017, INAC undertook many projects to improve and transform client services. A review of the procurement policy governance structure, and the streamlining of quality assurance and compliance processes and guidelines, complemented a reorganization of the procurement team and enhanced training for procurement officers. The establishment of a Costing Centre of Expertise strengthened financial management capacity within the Department and maximized efficiencies, while the three-year information management strategy (2016–2019) will strengthen governance structures essential to the collection, management, reporting, and safeguarding of business information. INAC also began a review of the core elements of the grants and contributions management framework, though further input and review will be required as part of the ongoing engagement and consultation process on the new fiscal relationship with First Nations, and Indigenous governments under self-government arrangements.

Technology also plays a critical role in transforming client service delivery. INAC successfully deployed the Government of Canada's enterprise document and records management systems (known as GCDOCS) within regional records offices, with rollout at national headquarters to follow. In addition, the evaluation, development and re-development of new business systems are now performed using a common platform (Shared Case Management System), while INAC's Modern Treaty Management Environment was implemented in March 2017, replacing the Treaty Obligations Management System. INAC also transitioned to the new Government of Canada self-service human resources system, My Government of Canada Human Resources (known as MyGCHR), in May 2016. In light of ongoing challenges with the Government of Canada compensation system, Phoenix, a dedicated unit has been created to monitor and address any compensation issues faced by departmental employees.

INAC also updated its staffing framework to align with the Public Service Commission's New Direction in Staffing, to focus on using flexibilities to achieve efficiencies in staffing. In addition, INAC ensured that all senior executives at the level of Assistant Deputy Minister and above completed a talent development plan in 2016–2017.

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2016–2017
Main Estimates
2016–2017
Planned Spending
2016–2017
Total authorities available for use
2016–2017
Actual spending (authorities used)
2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
224,097,504 224,097,504 310,899,391 286,377,646 62,280,142
The difference between planned spending and actual spending primarily reflects incremental funding provided through Supplementary Estimates to support Budget 2016 investments (+$6.6 million), to continue Canada's legal obligations under the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (+$4.6 million), and for the Indigenous Childhood Claims Litigation (+$3.2 million). The difference also reflects internal reallocations (+$42.7 million) to address funding pressures in: Information Technology; Legal Services (billing from the Department of Justice for work on INAC's litigation files); Management and Oversight; Financial Management; and Material Management.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2016–2017
Difference (actual minus planned)
1,434 1,476 42

Analysis of trends in spending and human resources

Actual expenditures

Departmental spending trend

Departmental spending trend

Description of the Departmental spending trend

This stacked bar graph depicts the actual spending trend from 2014 to 2017 and the forecast and planned spending trend that spans from 2017 to 2020:

  • In 2014–2015, total actual spending was $7,692 million. Of this amount, $7,500 million was voted spending and $191 million was statutory spending.
  • In 2015–2016, total actual spending was $7,955 million. Of this amount, $7, 808 million was voted spending and $148 million was statutory spending.
  • In 2016–2017, total actual spending was $9,133 million. Of this amount, $9,212 million is voted spending and $175 million is statutory spending.
  • In 2017–2018, total planned spending is $10,261 million. Of this amount, $9,904 million is voted spending, $153 million is statutory spending, $205 million is sunset programs spending (anticipated).
  • In 2018–2019, total planned spending is $9,957 million. Of this amount, $8,858 million is voted spending, $152 million is statutory spending, and $947 million is sunset programs spending (anticipated).
  • In 2019–2020, total planned spending is $9,162 million. Of this amount, $8,051 million is voted spending, $107 million is statutory spending, and $1, 004 million is sunset program spending (anticipated).

Due to rounding, figures may not add to totals shown.

Note: Additional funding for Income Assistance, First Nations Inuit and Youth Employment Strategy, and Specific Claims program (Justice at Last), which sunset in 2017–2018, has already been approved for 2017–2018 and future years, where applicable, and will be included in future Estimates (i.e. Supplementary and Main Estimates). Future year funding for both sunsetting items and new Budget 2017 initiatives will be reflected in future Estimates (i.e. Supplementary and Main Estimates).

For the period 2014–2015 to 2016–2017

INAC's Actual Spending for 2016–2017 was $9.1 billion, a net increase of approximately $1.4 billion over a three-year period from 2014–2015. This is due to in large part to:

  • major investments under Budget 2016 to improve the socio-economic conditions of Indigenous peoples and communities in the areas of education, child services, infrastructure, training and other programs (+$1.2 billion);
  • an increase in spending for specific claims settlements (+$216.5 million);
  • an increase in spending related to ongoing First Nation and Inuit programs and services to keep pace with cost drivers such as inflation and population/demand growth (+$211.9 million);
  • an increase in spending for special and other claims settlements (+$189.6 million);
  • a decrease in spending related to the implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement as the program approaches completion; (-$329.3 million); and
  • a decrease in spending related to sunsetting programs such as water and wastewater and the Urban Aboriginal Strategy (-$169.8 million). Note that the renewal of these initiatives is included in the Budget 2016 mentioned above.
For the period 2016–2017 to 2019–2020

Spending is expected to increase slightly to $9.2 billion by 2019–2020, compared to 2016–2017, primarily due to the continuation of Budget 2016 infrastructure investments as well as the planned renewal of sunsetting items.

Decisions on the renewal of the sunset initiatives will be taken in future budgets and reflected in future estimates.

Budgetary performance summary for Programs and Internal Services (dollars)
Programs and Internal Services2016–2017 Main Estimates2016–2017 Planned spending2017–2018 Planned spending2018–2019 Planned spending2016–2017 Total authorities available for use2016–2017 Actual spending (authorities used)2015–2016 Actual spending (authorities used)2014–2015 Actual spending (authorities used)
Governance and Institutions of Government 397,170,892 397,170,892 413,808,860 402,318,676 448,123,980 448,123,980 422,158,084 422,226,591
Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoplesa 487,447,240 487,447,240 1,035,735,011 1,113,356,769 762,065,345 566,517,198 176,996,399 173,531,547
Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties 806,628,418 806,628,418 873,311,740 825,895,076 856,031,246 852,598,746 1,058,167,714 749,933,655
Other Claimsb 50,000,000 50,000,000 Not applicable Not applicable
Education 1,855,472,918 1,855,472,918 2,203,184,787 2,290,705,684 2,146,963,499 2,146,512,812 1,805,134,484 1,788,854,310
Social Development 1,764,360,798 1,764,360,798 1,876,199,107 1,957,529,465 1,880,734,603 1,880,636,118 1,767,363,171 1,733,443,753
First Nations Individual Affairs 28,911,620 28,911,620 28,961,879 28,961,361 33,513,434 32,933,548 29,564,330 28,426,563
Residential Schools Resolution 165,991,965 165,991,965 196,289,577 27,396,568 220,255,708 168,268,485 316,813,828 492,880,678
Indigenous Entrepreneurshipc 42,636,070 42,636,070 47,280,254 47,280,254 47,873,223 47,172,438 40,562,630 43,027,380
Community Economic Developmentd 209,574,311 209,574,311 373,226,056 244,647,554 316,283,070 280,792,274 293,179,002 218,047,705
Strategic Partnerships 39,583,926 39,583,926 32,407,433 30,107,433 50,615,612 48,106,479 39,648,489 33,668,724
Infrastructure and Capacity 1,212,699,364 1,212,699,364 2,223,946,873 1,419,001,493 1,895,903,208 1,893,671,648 1,294,213,707 1,266,710,553
Urban Indigenous Participatione 29,645,997 29,645,997 29,582,303 29,582,303 49,635,904 49,414,504 50,336,798 49,520,444
Northern Governance and People 134,894,297 134,894,297 176,213,122 174,948,206 160,333,883 157,628,707 147,466,620 146,407,862
Northern Science and Technology 47,822,067 47,822,067 47,546,846 5,420,004 63,803,749 53,832,299 64,447,283 40,827,871
Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management 58,614,753 58,614,753 264,322,708 187,248,863 221,709,977 169,918,169 180,587,234 212,493,747
Subtotal 7,281,454,636 7,281,454,636 9,822,016,556 8,784,399,709 9,203,846,441 8,846,127,405 7,686,639,773 7,400,001,383
Internal Services 224,097,504 224,097,504 234,773,957 225,783,164 310,899,391 286,377,646 268,654,893 291,651,755
Total 7,505,552,140 7,505,552,140 10,056,790,513 9,010,182,873 9,514,745,832 9,132,505,051 7,955,294,666 7,691,653,138
a Previously entitled Aboriginal Rights and Interests (renamed Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples in the 2015–2016 Departmental Performance Report (DPR) and 2016–2017 Program Activity Architecture (PAA)).
b Created in 2016–2017, and therefore, there is no planned spending information.
c Previously entitled Aboriginal Entrepreneurship (renamed Indigenous Entrepreneurship in the 2015–2016 DPR and 2016–2017 PAA).
d Previously entitled Community Development (established under the 2014–2015 PAA).
e Previously entitled Urban Aboriginal Participation (renamed Urban Indigenous Participation in the 2015–2016 DPR and 2016–2017 PAA).

The $2.0 billion increase between planned spending ($7.5 billion) and total authorities available for use ($9.5 billion) in 2016–2017 primarily reflects additional funding provided through Supplementary Estimates for: Budget 2016 investments to improve the socio-economic conditions of Indigenous peoples and communities in the areas of education, child services, infrastructure, training and other program (+$1.2 billion); the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan: Phase III (+$200.6 million); special claims settlements (+$139.6 million); the specific claims program (+$92.6 million); the continued implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (+$62.9 million); a comprehensive and sustainable approach to on-reserve emergency management and for on-reserve response and recovery activities (+$56.4 million); the Indigenous Childhood Claims Litigation (+$56.2 million); and the negotiation of comprehensive land claims and incremental treaty and non-treaty agreements across Canada (+$45.7 million).

The $382 million difference between total authorities available for use ($9.5 billion) and actual spending ($9.1 billion) in 2016–2017 primarily reflects re-profiles of funds to future years, such as specific claims settlement funds (-$191.4 million), Independent Assessment Process settlement payments and delivery funding for continued implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (-$51.7 million), and funding related to the assessment, management and remediation of federal contaminated sites (-$50.4 million). Funding for these initiatives not required in 2016–2017 has been re-profiled to future years when it will be available for the intended purpose.

Actual human resources

Human resources summary for Programs and Internal Services (full-time equivalents)
Programs and Internal Services2014–2015 Actual2015–2016 Actual2016–2017 Planned2016–2017 Actual2017–2018 Planned2018–2019 Planned
Governance and Institutions of Government 429 407 419 399 409 406
Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples 362 364 234 376 254 254
Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties 80 80 80 87 86 71
Other Claims
Education 272 272 279 292 300 300
Social Development 144 144 147 150 159 161
First Nations Individual Affairs 233 38 254 258 259 259
Residential Schools Resolution 521 458 40 333 260 66
Indigenous Entrepreneurship 42 34 35 29 30 30
Community Economic Development 401 434 439 438 456 437
Strategic Partnerships 80 72 68 68 70 70
Infrastructure and Capacity 251 244 189 363 450 249
Urban Indigenous Participation 18 13 13 13 13 13
Northern Governance and People 70 657 62 83 88 79
Northern Science and Technology 52 42 37 39 45 33
Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management 236 226 147 239 230 230
Subtotal 3,192 3,093 2,443 3,167 3,109 2,658
Internal Services 1,457 1,431 1,434 1,476 1,518 1,491
Total 4,649 4,524 3,877 4,643 4,627 4,149
Totals may not equal due to rounding.

Expenditures by vote

For information on INAC's organizational voted and statutory expenditures, consult the Public Accounts of Canada 2017

Alignment of spending with the whole of Government framework

Alignment of 2016–2017 actual spending with the whole of Government framework
Program Spending area Government of Canada activity 2016–2017 Actual spending (dollars)
Governance and Institutions of Government Social Affairs A diverse society that promotes linguistic duality and social inclusion 448,123,980
Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples Social Affairs A diverse society that promotes linguistic duality and social inclusion 566,517,198
Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties Economic Affairs Strong economic growth 852,598,746
Other Claims Social Affairs A diverse society that promotes linguistic duality and social inclusion 50,000,000
Education Social Affairs A diverse society that promotes linguistic duality and social inclusion 2,146,512,812
Social Development Social Affairs A diverse society that promotes linguistic duality and social inclusion 1,880,636,118
First Nations Individual Affairs Social Affairs A diverse society that promotes linguistic duality and social inclusion 32,933,548
Residential Schools Resolution Social Affairs A diverse society that promotes linguistic duality and social inclusion 168,268,485
Indigenous Entrepreneurship Economic Affairs Strong economic growth 47,172,438
Community Economic Development Economic Affairs Strong economic growth 280,792,274
Strategic Partnerships Economic Affairs Strong economic growth 48,106,479
Infrastructure and Capacity Economic Affairs Strong economic growth 1,893,671,648
Urban Indigenous Participation Economic Affairs Income security and employment for Canadians 49,414,504
Northern Governance and People Social Affairs Healthy Canadians 157,628,707
Northern Science and Technology Economic Affairs An innovative and knowledge-based economy 53,832,299
Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management Economic Affairs A clean and healthy environment 169,918,169
Total spending by spending area (dollars)
Spending areaSpending areaTotal actual spending
Economic Affairs 3,501,855,988 3,395,506,557
Social Affairs 5,701,990,453 5,450,620,848
International Affairs Not applicable Not applicable
Government Affairs Not applicable Not applicable
Note: Excludes Internal Services.

Financial statements and financial statements highlights

Financial statements

INAC's financial statements [unaudited] for the year ended March 31, 2017, are available on the departmental website.

Financial statements highlights

Condensed Statement of Operations (unaudited) for the year ended March 31, 2017 (dollars)
Financial information2016–2017 Planned results2016–2017 Actual2015–2016 ActualDifference (2016–2017 actual minus 2016–2017 planned)Difference (2016–2017 actual minus 2015–2016 actual)
Total expenses 6,760,046,375 12,251,649,396 9,576,312,889 5,491,603,021 2,675,336,507
Total revenues 2,224,999 4,185,257 3,301,575 1,960,258 883,682
Net cost of operations before government funding and transfers 6,757,821,376 12,247,464,139 9,573,011,314 5,489,642,763 2,674,452,825
Totals may not match financial statements due to rounding.
Expenses by Type

Total expenses were $12,252 million in 2016–2017, representing a 28% increase from the previous year's expenses of $9,576 million. Transfer payments, the majority to Indigenous peoples and for claims and litigation, amounted to $9,354 million or 76% of total expenses. Other significant operating expenses included claims and litigation totaling $2,067 million (17%) and salaries and employee future benefit totaling $460 million (4%).

Revenues by Type

Total revenues for 2016–2017 amounted to $4.2 million, representing a 27% increase over the previous year's total revenues of $3.3 million. Respendable revenues from the provision of financial and administrative services represent $2.3 million (54%). Respendable revenues from the proceeds from the sale of surplus Crown assets, included in miscellaneous revenue, account for most of the remaining $1.9 million (46%).

Significant changes

The change in total expenses is due to an increase in the provision for claims and litigation of $3,500 million which resulted from claims with new legal risk assessment being added into the inventory.

The change in total revenues is mainly attributed to an increase in respendable revenues from the proceeds from surplus Crown assets of $1.1 million.

Condensed Statement of Financial Position (unaudited) as of March 31, 2017 (dollars)
Financial information2016–20172015–2016Difference
(2016–2017 minus 2015–2016)
Total net liabilities 20,227,345,045 17,165,114,622 3,062,230,423
Total net financial assets 1,569,183,247 1,640,561,939 (71,378,692)
Departmental net debt 18,658,161,798 15,524,552,683 3,133,609,115
Total non-financial assets 212,795,394 176,503,356 36,292,038
Departmental net financial position (18,445,366,404) (15,348,049,326) (3,097,317,078)
Totals may not match financial statements due to rounding.
Liabilities by Type

Total net liabilities were $20,227 million at the end of 2016–2017, which is an increase of $3,062 million (18%) from the previous year's total net liabilities of $17,165 million. The provision for claims and litigation represents the largest portion of liabilities at $15,064 million (74%) of total liabilities. Other significant liabilities include environmental liabilities of $3,394 million (17%), accounts payable of $763 million (4%), trust accounts of $701 million (3%), and the liability for settled claims of $204 million (1%).

Net Financial Assets by Type

Total net financial assets at the end of 2016–2017 were $1,569 million, which represents a decrease of $71 million (4%) from the previous year's total net financial assets of $1,641 million. The asset due from the Consolidated Revenue Fund accounted for $1,502 million (96%) of total financial assets and accounts receivable accounted for the remaining $67 million (4%).

Non-Financial Assets by Type

Total non-financial assets were $213 million at the end of 2016–2017 which represents an increase of $36 million (21%) from the previous year's total non-financial assets of $177 million. Tangible capital assets represent $174 million (82%) of total non-financial assets while land held for future claims settlements represents the remaining $39 million (18%).

Significant changes

The change in total liabilities is attributed to an increase in the provision for claims and litigation due to an increase in the number of claims and in the estimate of the settlement amounts.

The change in total net financial assets is due to a decrease in monies held in trust for First Nations and a decrease in accounts receivable due to the repayment of resource royalties in accordance with the Northwest Territories devolution agreement.

The change in total non-financial assets results from an increase of the capitalization of expenditures for buildings in progress of construction related to the Canadian High Arctic Research Station.

Supplementary information

Corporate information

Organizational profile

Appropriate minister: The Honourable Carolyn Bennett

Ministerial portfolio: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development

Enabling instrument: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-6

Year of incorporation: 1880

Other:

Special operating agency: Indian Oil and Gas Canada

Administrative tribunals and agencies:

  • Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  • Polar Knowledge Canada

Adjudicative and advisory bodies:

  • Specific Claims Tribunal Canada
  • National Aboriginal Economic Development Board

Reporting framework

INAC's Strategic Outcomes and Program Alignment Architecture of record for 2016–2017 are shown below.

Program Alignment Architecture

Description of INAC's 2016–2017 Program Alignment Architecture

Horizontally across the top of the chart is a list of the Department's four strategic outcomes:

  1. The Government: Support good governance, rights and interests of Indigenous peoples
  2. The People: Individual, family and community well-being for First Nations and Inuit
  3. The Land and Economy: Full participation of First Nations, Métis, Non-Status Indians and Inuit individuals and communities in the economy
  4. The North: Self-reliance, prosperity and well-being for the people and communities of the North

Under the strategic outcomes is a list of the programs that support each strategic outcome, and sub-programs that support these programs.

  1. The Government
    • Program 1.1 Governance and Institutions of Government is supported by sub-programs 1.1.1 First Nation Governments; and 1.1.2 Indigenous Governance Institutions and Organizations.
    • Program 1.2 Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples is supported by sub-programs 1.2.1 Negotiations of Claims and Self-Government Agreements; 1.2.2 Specific Claims; 1.2.3 Consultation and Accommodation; and 1.2.4 Métis Relations and Rights Management, and Non-Status Indian Relations.
    • Program 1.3 Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties.
    • Program 1.4 Other Claims (this program was retroactively added in INAC's 2016–2017 Program Alignment Architecture).
  2. The People
    • Program 2.1 Education is supported by sub-programs 2.1.1 Elementary and Secondary Education; and 2.1.2 Post-secondary Education.
    • Program 2.2 Social Development is supported by sub-programs 2.2.1 Income Assistance; 2.2.2 Assisted Living; 2.2.3 First Nations Child and Family Services; and 2.2.4 Family Violence Prevention.
    • Program 2.3 First Nations Individual Affairs is supported by sub-programs 2.3.1 Registration and Membership; and 2.3.2 Estates.
    • Program 2.4 Residential Schools Resolution.
  3. The Land and Economy
    • Program 3.1 Indigenous Entrepreneurship is supported by sub-programs 3.1.1 Business Capital and Support Services; and 3.1.2 Business Opportunities.
    • Program 3.2 Community Economic Development is supported by sub-programs 3.2.1 Lands and Economic Development Services; 3.2.2 Investment in Economic Opportunities; 3.2.3 Administration of Reserve Land; and 3.2.4 Contaminated Sites (On Reserve).
    • Program 3.3 Strategic Partnerships.
    • Program 3.4 Infrastructure and Capacity is supported by sub-programs 3.4.1 Water and Wastewater; 3.4.2 Education facilities; 3.4.3 Housing; 3.4.4 Other Community Infrastructure and Activities; 3.4.5 Climate Resilience (this program was retroactively modified in INAC's 2016–2017 Program Alignment Architecture); and 3.4.6 Emergency Management Assistance.
    • Program 3.5 Urban Indigenous Participation.
  4. The North
    • Program 4.1 Northern Governance and People is supported by sub-programs 4.1.1 Political Development and Intergovernmental and Inuit Relations; 4.1.2 Nutrition North; and 4.1.3 Climate Change Adaptation and Clean Energy.
    • Program 4.2 Northern Science and Technology is supported by sub-programs 4.2.1 Northern Contaminants; and 4.2.2 Science Initiatives.
    • Program 4.3 Northern Land, Resources, and Environmental Management is supported by sub-programs 4.3.1 Petroleum and Minerals; 4.3.2 Contaminated Sites; and 4.3.3 Land and Water Management.

Horizontally along the bottom of the chart Program 5.1 Internal Services which supports all of the Department's strategic outcomes

Supporting information on lower-level programs

Supporting information on results, financial and human resources related to INAC's lower-level programs is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Supplementary information tables

The following supplementary information tables are available on INAC's website.

Federal tax expenditures

The tax system can be used to achieve public policy objectives through the application of special measures such as low tax rates, exemptions, deductions, deferrals and credits. The Department of Finance Canada publishes cost estimates and projections for these measures each year in the Report on Federal Tax Expenditures. This report also provides detailed background information on tax expenditures, including descriptions, objectives, historical information and references to related federal spending programs. The tax measures presented in this report are the responsibility of the Minister of Finance.

Organizational contact information

  • Les Terrasses de la Chaudière
  • 10 Wellington Street, North Tower
  • Gatineau, Quebec
  • Mailing Address: Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H4
  • Email: webmaster@aadnc-aandc.gc.ca
  • General and statistical inquiries and publication distribution
  • Telephone (toll-free): 1-800-567-9604
  • TTY (toll-free): 1-866-553-0554
  • Email: InfoPubs@aadnc-aandc.gc.ca
  • Media inquiries — Communications
  • Telephone: 819-953-1160

Appendix: definitions

appropriation (crédit)
Any authority of Parliament to pay money out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund.

budgetary expenditures (dépenses budgétaires)
Operating and capital expenditures; transfer payments to other levels of government, organizations or individuals; and payments to Crown corporations.

Core Responsibility (responsabilité essentielle)
An enduring function or role performed by a department. The intentions of the department with respect to a Core Responsibility are reflected in one or more related Departmental Results that the department seeks to contribute to or influence.

Departmental Plan (Plan ministériel)
Provides information on the plans and expected performance of appropriated departments over a three-year period. Departmental Plans are tabled in Parliament each spring.

Departmental Result (résultat ministériel)
A Departmental Result represents the change or changes that the department seeks to influence. A Departmental Result is often outside departments' immediate control, but it should be influenced by program-level outcomes.

Departmental Result Indicator (indicateur de résultat ministériel)
A factor or variable that provides a valid and reliable means to measure or describe progress on a Departmental Result.

Departmental Results Framework (cadre ministériel des résultats)
Consists of the department's Core Responsibilities, Departmental Results and Departmental Result Indicators.

Departmental Results Report (Rapport sur les résultats ministériels)
Provides information on the actual accomplishments against the plans, priorities and expected results set out in the corresponding Departmental Plan.

Evaluation (évaluation)
In the Government of Canada, the systematic and neutral collection and analysis of evidence to judge merit, worth or value. Evaluation informs decision making, improvements, innovation and accountability. Evaluations typically focus on programs, policies and priorities and examine questions related to relevance, effectiveness and efficiency. Depending on user needs, however, evaluations can also examine other units, themes and issues, including alternatives to existing interventions. Evaluations generally employ social science research methods.

full-time equivalent (équivalent temps plein)
A measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person-year charge against a departmental budget. Full-time equivalents are calculated as a ratio of assigned hours of work to scheduled hours of work. Scheduled hours of work are set out in collective agreements.

government-wide priorities (priorités pangouvernementales)
For the purpose of the 2017–18 Departmental Plan, government-wide priorities refers to those high-level themes outlining the government's agenda in the 2015 Speech from the Throne, namely: Growth for the Middle Class; Open and Transparent Government; A Clean Environment and a Strong Economy; Diversity is Canada's Strength; and Security and Opportunity.

horizontal initiatives (initiative horizontale)
An initiative where two or more federal organizations, through an approved funding agreement, work toward achieving clearly defined shared outcomes, and which has been designated (for example, by Cabinet or a central agency) as a horizontal initiative for managing and reporting purposes.

Management, Resources and Results Structure (Structure de la gestion, des ressources et des résultats)
A comprehensive framework that consists of an organization's inventory of programs, resources, results, performance indicators and governance information. Programs and results are depicted in their hierarchical relationship to each other and to the Strategic Outcome(s) to which they contribute. The Management, Resources and Results Structure is developed from the Program Alignment Architecture.

non-budgetary expenditures (dépenses non budgétaires)
Net outlays and receipts related to loans, investments and advances, which change the composition of the financial assets of the Government of Canada.

performance (rendement)
What an organization did with its resources to achieve its results, how well those results compare to what the organization intended to achieve, and how well lessons learned have been identified.

performance indicator (indicateur de rendement)
A qualitative or quantitative means of measuring an output or outcome, with the intention of gauging the performance of an organization, program, policy or initiative respecting expected results.

performance reporting (production de rapports sur le rendement)
The process of communicating evidence-based performance information. Performance reporting supports decision making, accountability and transparency.

planned spending (dépenses prévues)
For Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports, planned spending refers to those amounts that receive Treasury Board approval by February 1. Therefore, planned spending may include amounts incremental to planned expenditures presented in the Main Estimates.

A department is expected to be aware of the authorities that it has sought and received. The determination of planned spending is a departmental responsibility, and departments must be able to defend the expenditure and accrual numbers presented in their Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports.

plans (plans)
The articulation of strategic choices, which provides information on how an organization intends to achieve its priorities and associated results. Generally a plan will explain the logic behind the strategies chosen and tend to focus on actions that lead up to the expected result.

priorities (priorité)
Plans or projects that an organization has chosen to focus and report on during the planning period. Priorities represent the things that are most important or what must be done first to support the achievement of the desired Strategic Outcome(s).

program (programme)
A group of related resource inputs and activities that are managed to meet specific needs and to achieve intended results and that are treated as a budgetary unit.

Program Alignment Architecture (architecture d'alignement des programmes)
A structured inventory of an organization's programs depicting the hierarchical relationship between programs and the Strategic Outcome(s) to which they contribute.

results (résultat)
An external consequence attributed, in part, to an organization, policy, program or initiative. Results are not within the control of a single organization, policy, program or initiative; instead they are within the area of the organization's influence.

statutory expenditures (dépenses législatives)
Expenditures that Parliament has approved through legislation other than appropriation acts. The legislation sets out the purpose of the expenditures and the terms and conditions under which they may be made.

Strategic Outcome (résultat stratégique)
A long-term and enduring benefit to Canadians that is linked to the organization's mandate, vision and core functions.

sunset program (programme temporisé)
A time-limited program that does not have an ongoing funding and policy authority. When the program is set to expire, a decision must be made whether to continue the program. In the case of a renewal, the decision specifies the scope, funding level and duration.

target (cible)
A measurable performance or success level that an organization, program or initiative plans to achieve within a specified time period. Targets can be either quantitative or qualitative.

voted expenditures (dépenses votées)
Expenditures that Parliament approves annually through an Appropriation Act. The Vote wording becomes the governing conditions under which these expenditures may be made.

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