Manitoba Floods 2011 - First Nations Recovery Needs Assessment

Table of contents

1. Introduction

In June 2013, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) asked the Canadian Red Cross (CRC) to conduct an assessment of the long-term needs of the evacuees from the 2011 Manitoba flooding. The needs assessment was carried out over a period of three weeks by trained and experienced Red Cross personnel with a particular expertise in disaster relief and recovery.

The assessment team worked with the communities devastated by the flooding, with AANDC, and with a number of other key stakeholders, including the Manitoba Association of Native Firefighters (MANFF). This report reflects the collective input of over 200 individuals, stakeholders and partners, many of whom were directly involved in the emergency efforts. This needs analysis will identify any gaps in the recovery process, and highlight appropriate recovery interventions.

2. Objective and Scope

The objective of this assessment is to identify the long-term recovery needs of six First Nations communities— Ebb and Flow, Dauphin River, Peguis, Lake St. Martin, Pinaymootang, and Little Saskatchewan—that are still affected by the 2011 floods. The report also considers the services currently provided to evacuees by governmental, intergovernmental, and non-governmental agencies.

The scope of the assessment includes these aspects:

3. Background

In the spring of 2011, southern Manitoba was hit by severe flooding, which extended from south of Winnipeg to the Interlake Region. The flooding affected more than 8,000 people, and resulted in hundreds of millions of dollars in damage over a wide area: north as far as The Pas, south as far as the U.S. border, west as far as Saskatchewan, and east as far as Lac Du Bonnet. Lakes in that area reached record levels, including Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipeg, Lake St. Martin, Dauphin Lake, Lake Winnipegosis, and Lake of the Prairies; in the Shoal Lakes region, several lakes blended into one. The Assiniboine and Souris Rivers swelled to 400-year flood levels, and the Red River rose to levels only seen twice in the last 150 years. The Red River floodway operated for a record 66 days (the previous record was 47 days in 2009). In some locations, floodwaters did not recede for months.

The devastating impact on individuals, families and communities was unprecedented. Manitoba's Emergency Operations Centre was open for a record 103 days, and many local and province-wide States of Emergency were declared (including 70 States of Local Emergencies, and 32 Prevention Orders). In total, 35 municipalities and 14 First Nations communities in the region were affected. The toll on the latter communities was significant, disrupting the lives of more than 4,000 people. At the present time (July 2013), some 2,000 of these people, from six communities (including Ebb and Flow, Dauphin River, Lake St. Martin, Little Saskatchewan, Peguis, and Pinaymootang) are still impacted. Some (the exact number is unknown) have returned to their homes, even though these are in unsafe conditions.

Map of Southern Manitoba, showing the six First Nations communities affected by the flooding
View text version of Map of Southern Manitoba, showing the six First Nations communities affected by the flooding

Map of Southern Manitoba, showing the six First Nations communities affected by the flooding around Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis and Lake Manitoba: Ebb and Flow, Dauphin River, Lake St. Martin, Little Saskatchewan, Peguis, and Pinaymootang.

3.1 Response History

In Manitoba, two groups are responsible for emergency response. The Emergency Measures Organization (EMO) provides services to non-First Nations communities, while MANFF provides assistance to First Nations communities. EMO was in operation from the onset of the flooding, and was responsible for coordinating services during the emergency phase. Its efforts were supplemented by help from several other organizations, including regional health authorities, inter-governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, and the Red Cross.

During the initial emergency phase, the immediate needs of evacuees were met by all organizations, and leadership and coordination were managed effectively. EMO and MANFF were able to provide adequate help, and other organizations supported their work when gaps in services were identified. As well as providing emergency assistance, the Red Cross was asked by AANDC to help registering evacuees from the Lake Manitoba and Pinaymootang First Nations communities. This ensured the orderly processing of evacuees, and created a record to reunite families later. The Pinaymootang Band Council also asked the CRC to operate a "congregate shelter" in the community, to provide a temporary home for evacuees until proper accommodations could be found for them.

EMO and MANFF continued their support throughout the response effort, helping to evacuate displaced people into permanent or temporary shelters.

MANFF has a mandate from AANDC to support all First Nations evacuees by finding them shelter, either in private homes or in hotels. In conjunction with EMO and AANDC, MANFF also provides financial support to evacuees, under the Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements guidelines of Public Safety Canada. Evacuees billeted in private homes receive a monthly allowance to cover their housing and incidental "per diem" expenses, such as meals and personal hygiene. Those lodged in hotels receive only an allowance for incidental expenses, paid weekly.

Meals for hotel evacuees are paid for through a voucher system managed by MANFF coordinators. The daily allowance is $50, and vouchers are provided for specific meal times (nightly snacks are also made available). The per diem rates are currently set at $4 for adults and $3.20 for children, to both evacuees lodged in private accommodations and those in hotels. (The allowance to home-based evacuees was much higher—some $20 a day for an adult — until December 2012, when it was reduced to match the amount paid to hotel based evacuees.)

As per the agreement between MANFF and AANDC, these are the only services currently being provided by MANFF to evacuees.

3.2 Ongoing Canadian Red Cross Programs

The Canadian Red Cross takes part in several coordination forums, and works with tribal councils to help First Nations communities. As well, it continues to provide social support to both First Nations and non- First Nations communities, through a range of programs that address health, community, and social issues (such as Violence and Abuse Prevention). The CRC also partners with other groups and agencies—such as the Interlake Reserves Tribal Council, and the West Region Tribal Council—to provide information sessions on practical topics such as mould remediation, and on mental health topics such as self-care, stress management, substance addiction, gang awareness, and the availability of community services. Over 45 sessions have been held and more than 800 people have been reached.

In addition, the CRC's Community Grants program helps communities devastated by flooding, by providing resources to strengthen community resiliency and capacity. Examples include the Elders and Youth Sharing Circle at Dauphin River, the Christmas Gathering at Lake St. Martin, and the Elders Breakfast and Storytelling at Pinaymootang. (However, these grants are made possible by donations from the public received during the emergency, and will soon come to an end.) Another valuable CRC partnership is with MANFF, to offer First Nations evacuees recreational activities such as bingo and circus tickets.

4. Demographics

Information on the social makeup of the affected communities comes from Statistics Canada and AANDC. (The former information gives a breakdown by demographic factor, but is less current (2006); the AANDC information is from 2013.) The 2006 census figures from Statistics Canada show that the combined population of the six First Nations communities covered by this report is 5,556.The 2013 AANDC figures indicate a current combined population of 19,395.

The largest segment is young people aged 5 to 29.The average individual income across five communities (excluding Dauphin River) is $3,595 per annum; and the unemployment rate is 36.6%.

Table 1: Demographic Factors
  Dauphin River Ebb and Flow Lake St. Martin Little Saskatchewan Peguis Pinaymootang
TOTAL POPULATION (as of 2006) 84 1,189 505 445 2,513 904
Age 0–4   185 65 50 230 75
Age 5–29   600 245 250 1,085 455
Age 30+   400 175 125 1,165 365
LANGUAGE (as of 2006)   1,185 505 435 2,485 895
% mother tongue an Aboriginal language   26.2% 37.6% 24.1% 3.6% 43%
% knowledge of an Aboriginal language   31.2% 43.6% 42.5% 4.6% 39.1%
15yrs and over (as of 2006)
  700 320 255 1,745 610
% no certificate, diploma or degree   69.2% 68.8% 72.5% 54.1% 54.1%
% high school certificate or equivalent   15.7% 10.9% 9.8% 16.6% 15.6%
LABOUR FORCE (as of 2006)   230 130 115 860 225
% unemployed   32.6% 30.8% 30.4% 30.2% 58.8%
MEDIAN INCOME (2006)   $7,280 $1,636 $1,172 $3,664 $4,224
TOTAL POPULATION (MaY 2013) 328 2,856 2,438 1,155 9,527 3,091


5. Methodology

5.1 Background

To conduct this assessment, the CRC not only worked with organizations such as AANDC, MANFF, and other key stakeholders (see Appendix A); it also engaged with over 200 individuals from communities devastated by the flooding, to ensure that the report reflected the perspectives of the people most affected. Primary and secondary data, including qualitative data, and interviews with key informants, were gathered and reviewed. The resulting analysis was based on answering these questions:

  • What strategies and programs are currently in place to help people hit by the floods?
  • What long-term effects—such as the loss of their homes and communities— do these people still continue to suffer, two years after the floods?
  • Which unmet needs can be identified— immediate, short-term and long term— with a view to improving recovery efforts for individuals and communities?

The assessment team used a variety of research techniques to gather information from evacuees, including questionnaires, one-on-one interviews, focus group discussions, and social media such as Facebook, Tumblr and Twitter.

Since the affected population was identified (in an earlier 2013 study, Red Cross Recovery: Manitobans Working Together For a Better Tomorrow, Manitoba Floods 2011) as being roughly 2,000 people, the team aimed to capture the views of between 100 and 240 people. (Statistically speaking, a sample size of 100 would give a confidence level of 90% and leave a margin of error of about 8%; while a sample size of 240 would leave a margin of error of 5%).

The CRC team created a questionnaire (see Appendix B) that focused on the five areas of enquiry that are standard in international recovery practices: shelter, health, community, livelihood, and safety and protection. The questions were a mix of closed and open-ended, to allow the researchers to gather as much data as possible. The table below shows which questions concern which areas.

Table 2: Questionnaire Topics
HEALTH 6, 12, 13, 14, 15
COMMUNITY 10, 11, 16
LIVELIHOOD 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

5.2 Assessment Approach

In pursuit of its mandate to provide disaster relief or recovery assistance, the Red Cross follows a standard community-based approach. As the first step of the recovery phase, the CRC reaches out to communities and public authorities —a critical step in all Red Cross operations.

In this case, the team first initiated contact with the Chiefs and Councils of all the First Nations communities, in order to introduce itself, explain the recovery assessment process, and seek permission to speak with evacuees. Because people were spread out over a large geographic area, the leaders recommended that the CRC team would interact with the communities through in-person visits, face-to-face meetings, pre planned gatherings, and social-media forums.

During a period of three weeks, from June 20 to July 11, the assessment team visited five communities (except Ebb and Flow). Interviews were conducted, individually or in groups, either in the communities themselves (with people who had stayed there during the floods, or returned there since), or outside the communities (with people who had been relocated). Respondents were asked to fill out a questionnaire; if this was a problem for them, the questions were asked verbally by a team member. The questionnaire was also made available online: a link to it, and to the contact information for the assessment team, was posted in each community through their leaders and Facebook pages.

5.3 Key Informants and Stakeholders

The goal of the assessment was to speak directly with as many community members as possible, as well as with key stakeholders and partners involved in the response. The CRC team explained the assessment process to all affected individuals and groups as part of its interview process. The questions asked of stakeholders and partners focused on these issues:

  • The challenges and successes they encountered in the recovery process.
  • Their current role or mandate in assisting First Nations communities.
  • Their future plans.
  • Their perceptions of First Nations recovery needs.

The assessment team considered certain factors when deciding what priority to place on meetings with stakeholders (see Appendix C).The two main determinants were:

  • The value of the information the individuals or organizations could provide. This information could be triangulated with primary and secondary data from other sources, to confirm facts and validate assumptions.
  • The value of the organization's existing or future partnership with the Red Cross, coupled with the desire to strengthen or establish a future relationship.

These factors were used to identify certain priority levels, in terms of obtaining input from people or groups, as outlined below.

Priority Level A

  • First Nations individuals and communities affected by the floods.
  • Agencies closely or directly involved in assisting the communities.

Priority Level B

  • Agencies with limited involvement in the response.

Priority Level C

  • Agencies with a very limited involvement in the response and subsequent recovery process.

6. Findings

Because published resources on the needs of people affected by the flooding were limited, the Red Cross interviewed a number of agencies that had conducted their own assessments. These agencies shared the information they had (though many of their reports were for internal use only, and some of the information could only be shared verbally). Several existing Red Cross documents on community demographics, recovery systems, and needs were also analyzed.

The team's findings were organized into the five standard areas of enquiry listed earlier: community, shelter, health, safety and protection, and livelihood. These factors are considered vital to a community's recovery needs. The categories are broad in scope and are not mutually exclusive, since some needs overlap several categories.

From the team's discussions with individuals, community leaders and stakeholders, it became clear that qualitative, or anecdotal, data was just as important as quantitative data. As a result, equal weight was given to questionnaires and answers obtained through discussions. In total, 47 key stakeholders were interviewed, representing 24 agencies, and roughly 50 individuals involved in the recovery operation. As well, 195 questionnaires were received from affected First Nations members.

6.1 Community

A major theme that emerged from the needs assessment was the loss of community. This is especially an issue in rural First Nations communities, where kinship ties remain strong. Separation from family and friends, the inability to exercise their culture, the loss of belief systems, the devastation wrought on the natural landscape, and the lack of contact with their traditional lands — these were all potent issues to the people who suffered from them. The frustration of their need to connect with their communities, and the associated feeling of loss of identity, had a serious effect on the resiliency and wellbeing of many individuals: these problems contributed to a range of mental-health issues, such as depression. Unmet needs related to community were cited twice as often by respondents as the second most important issue, which was health.

Of the people interviewed, about half said that they still do have some opportunities to get together with one another. However, many expressed concern about their frustrated desire to connect with others, and about their sense of loss of community. One woman in her 60s said that she experienced "confinement" and "loss of freedom." She said that many of the men feel they have lost their friends: "They feel like they do not belong in a new place, are very stressed, and want to go back."

In one focus group, the lack of communication was mentioned in relation to the loss of community. Participants experienced difficulty getting in touch, and staying in contact, with community coordinators, MANFF, and their Chiefs and Councils.

A woman in her 40s said she came back to the reserve, after being evacuated, so that her children could go to their usual school; but the roads were so bad on the reserve that they missed school there as well. She still goes to community get-togethers at the school, even though her children are no longer school-aged, just so she can connect with others. Another woman of the same age said: "We are displaced. We have lost communication. We don't see each other as much. We have lost a lot of elders and young people. All our family gatherings are no longer. We lost everything."

Many such stories were gathered during the assessment, in addition to opinions from key stakeholders that highlighted "loss of community" as one of the most common grievances they heard. The two other biggest issues were shelter and health.

Table 3: Responses to Question #11:
"What changes has your family experienced as a result of the flooding?"

6.2 Shelter

The research team interpreted "shelter" in its broadest sense: as a safe, secure and healthy living environment, rather than as temporary or permanent housing. (Some people who had been moved to new permanent homes said that houses do not equal homes; the new abodes only contributed to their sense of fragmentation.) For many people, their sense of community is very much linked to their housing. Two years after the flood, the questionnaires and group discussions revealed, the housing situation continues to affect people's mental health and sense of well-being.

The loss of their homes and belongings was the most common answer to Question #14: "What is your biggest loss?" It was cited twice as often as "community." Most respondents were in rental accommodations; of those surveyed, 18 were staying in hotels. There was an even split between those who felt that their current housing met their needs, and those who felt that it did not. In terms of their long term housing plans, 74 out of 194 respondents said they had left the reserve but planned to return; 64 were not sure, and 34 planned to remain there.

The assessment team spoke with a number of people who had either stayed in, or returned to, their homes during the two-year period. Because they were no longer considered evacuees, these people received few or no services. However, the unsafe condition of their homes (due to mould, water damage and unsafe water) put themselves and their families at risk for serious health problems. They were also affected in other areas, such as community, livelihood, and safety and protection.

Of the post-flood situation, one man in his 50s said: "We are living in a condemned house with rotting floors. Water quality at home is no longer drinkable. The government's plan for a town site with houses clustered is not acceptable to us."

Table 4: Responses to Question #14:
"What is your biggest loss as a result of the floods, and how are you coping?"

6.3 Health

Each of the six First Nations communities had a local health system, headed by a community health director who referred patients to outside clinics and hospitals when necessary. This system was disrupted by the flood, and the health directors were displaced—some are still evacuees to this day. As a result, the strain on local health care is great, and has been observed by several stakeholders and community leaders. (The exception is Pinaymootang, which was able to maintain its own system, and even to provide health services to neighbouring communities.)

For many evacuees, being displaced from the reserve into the southern part of the province— particularly to Winnipeg— means that lack of access to health information is a recurring problem. Many people have no idea how to get in touch with non-reserve health services; and they report having trouble knowing how to access the services they need, when they are no longer supported by their community health directors.

In response to Question #6—"How hopeful are you about the future?" —161 out of 194 evacuees (representing 83% of respondents), said that they were "somewhat" or "very" hopeful. Just over half the respondents (105) said that their health had stayed the same or improved (Question #12), and most said that they were able to reach the health services they needed (Question #13). The most common issue mentioned was the management of chronic health concerns. As well, for those who still lived on the reserve, or who had returned home, a serious health risk was sanitation and water quality—which in some places had been an issue even before the flooding.

Dietary changes featured prominently as a health concern, especially among displaced evacuees who were unable to eat healthy traditional foods, and had to consume hotel fare and fast foods. Such people reported an increase in symptoms of diabetes and high blood pressure. These dietary changes affected their culture and mental well-being, as well as their physical health: they were no longer able to hunt and fish for food to supplement their diet, as they had before.

Another frequently raised area of concern was the psychosocial impact of being displaced and separated from family and friends. Several respondents mentioned a "grief and counsel workshop" held earlier in 2013 as a successful initiative, and said they would like to see more such support for their ongoing issues (as well as support for the trauma resulting from the flood). Many people expressed a real interest in, and need for, help in dealing with their anxiety and stress.

6.4 Safety and Protection

During the assessment, a small number of evacuees said that they were worried about the issue of safety and protection. This viewpoint was confirmed by key stakeholders that provide services related to security, and were contacted by evacuees with concerns about that issue. The biggest concern appeared to be the risk for young people—particularly those displaced to urban centres like Winnipeg— of getting involved with gangs, drugs, or weapons (and then bringing those problems to the reserve community). Whether the risk was real or only perceived, these issues were mentioned a number of times. Some respondents also said that opportunities for engaging in such negative behaviours are still less common on reserves; but that they were concerned about a possible change in culture, and the impact on future generations.

Other safety concerns, raised by a few people, included the health risks of mould, contaminated water, and more wild animals in communities as a result of the floods.

6.5 Livelihood

The issue of livelihood includes current and future needs related to individuals' capabilities, assets and activities for generating income and securing a living, including matters such as education, training and employment.

According to Statistics Canada, more than half the people affected by the floods are on social assistance; only 25% or so are employed. Two years after the event, a sizable proportion of communities still live on financial assistance. In response to Question #3—"Does it cost you more to live now than before the 2011 flooding?" —86% of evacuees said that their cost of living is higher than before the disaster. This increase is partly associated with the expenses of urban life, and of no longer having an extended family to rely on for help and support. The new high cost of living has also created increased stress, anxiety, and a general sense of uncertainty and hopelessness about the future.

Several respondents said that money was never an issue when they lived in their own homes on the reserve; others commented on their loss of income from seasonal employments such as fishing or hunting. (The flooding affected traditional fishing areas and hunting lands, driving fish and animals away.) Some people said they had to stay on the reserves to keep their jobs, even though their homes were flooded or mouldy.

In response to Question #2—"If you have been training or going to school, has your education been disrupted as a result of the flooding?"— nearly all people who were in school before the floods indicated that their education had not been disrupted. In terms of Question #4—"Are you interested in training?"— most respondents said they would continue their education, and were interested in receiving training in employment skills.

7. Conclusion

Disaster management in the recovery phase is a complex process, yet one that is critical in the task of helping people whose lives have been devastated to return to some level of normalcy. The findings from this assessment suggest that the initial phase of the response to the Manitoba flooding was efficiently managed; but that once the emergency phase was past, the recovery process became fragmented. Even today, after two years, many gaps remain: the situation of the people affected, and their long-term recovery needs, continue to be a humanitarian challenge.

It is important to re-focus the recovery efforts, and to address the holistic needs of the First Nations communities with an overall plan— one based on the guiding principle of ensuring that community cohesion occupies a central place. This refocusing will allow partners and stakeholders in the recovery process to learn valuable lessons about developing and testing recovery systems, and will enable the adoption of more best practices.

Some of the lessons learned from the Manitoba experience include these insights:

This analysis suggests that there are four main courses of action that should be undertaken by all partners and stakeholders in the recovery process: supporting community leaders; putting in place mechanisms to coordinate services; addressing the physical, emotional and social health of community members; and working to resolve shelter issues. Future efforts should ideally focus on these areas.

7.1 Leadership Support for Rebuilding Sense of Community

Community leaders (such as Chiefs and Councils) must be supported in their efforts to rebuild social networks, and to create a secure environment for community members. Dialogue between all parties should be facilitated, healing processes encouraged, and collective trust rebuilt. Devastated communities have a powerful need for institutional stability: they require the long-term presence of supportive organizations. These groups can help communities to re-empower themselves by developing their own capacity in vital areas such as information resources, education, training, and job skills. The concept of leadership can also be extended to the next generation through youth leadership programs.

7.2 Coordination Mechanisms

An important aspect of humanitarian efforts is not just building trust, but also developing coordination mechanisms. Partners and stakeholders in the recovery process must play a liaison role between communities and key stakeholders (such as government bodies and partners). One potential strategy is to have a designated "point person" that the community can count on to deal with issues of concern. This person might also help to establish or strengthen relationships between stakeholders and communities, in order to establish rapport.

7.3 Health Initiatives

Communities hit by disasters require a concentrated focus on the physical, emotional and social health of their people. This focus must encompass a wide range of elements —such as shelter needs, health structures, education services, and information resources — that are all vital to the health and well-being of the people affected. Aspects that should be addressed include:

  • Improving health and managing chronic conditions, though activities aimed at ensuring access to health services, social support mechanisms, and promoting mental-wellness activities (such as recreation, and other ways to cope with anxiety and stress).
  • Fostering a sense of community between evacuees, especially those displaced to Winnipeg. For example, a partnership with the Indian and Metis Friendship Centre there, to organize community gatherings, would be beneficial.
  • Ensuring that communities and their leaders understand what support services and programs are available—including support from neighbouring communities.

7.4 Shelter Issues

In situations of crisis, housing is a basic human need. People displaced by disaster require not just a safe and healthy place to live, but also some means of maintaining their dignity. The matter of shelter includes immediate issues such as providing safe water and proper sanitation, information about coping with mould damage, and waste management. Longer-term issues include settlement planning, building new housing, and community structures.

One shelter need that this assessment has identified is for some form of liaison between federal, provincial and community agencies that provide help to evacuees. Another need is to create mechanisms for people to be actively involved in the process of making decisions about community housing—decisions about matters such as site clearances, demolition, rebuilding and construction. Should evacuees move to new homes, or attempt to reclaim their old ones? What options are there for housing, based on affordability and needs? Many such decisions depend on the mechanics of funding.

7.5 Going Forward

As this assessment reveals, as yet there is no comprehensive recovery plan for the six First Nations communities affected by the Manitoba flooding. This fact was highlighted by several stakeholders as the main reason for the relatively fragmented support provided so far. The interviews and observations made here show that the people hardest hit by the disaster have been deeply traumatized by the losses of their homes and their communities. It is vital that AANDC should take the lead in bringing together the strengths of the various service-providing agencies with the aim of creating a recovery network.


Appendix A - Interview List


Lake St. Martin

  • Dennis Cameron, Advisor for LSM Chief and Council

Little Saskatchewan

  • Hector Shorting, Chief
  • Albert Shorting, Councillor (Social)
  • Rosalind (Lucy) Prudin, Councillor (Education)
  • Wilfred Anderson, Councillor
  • Leroy Thompson, Councillor
  • Eleanor Shorting, Councillor (Recording Secretary)


  • Glenn Hudson, Chief
  • Darlene Bird, Councillor
  • Ryan McCorrister, Finance
  • William Sutherland, Emergency Operations Centre Coordinator


  • John Sanderson, Councillor
  • Brian Sanderson, Councillor
  • Tammy Woodhouse, Community Flood Coordinator
  • Sandra Thompson, Financial Officer

Manitoba Government

Aboriginal and Northern Affairs

  • Paul Doolan, A/Executive Director

Emergency Measures Organization

  • Lee Spencer, A/Executive Director Emergency Measures Organization
  • Shane McKenzie, Manager Disaster Financial Assistance
  • Christa Jacobucci, A/Director of Recovery

Interlake-Eastern Regional Health Authority

  • Doreen Fey, Vice President, Primary Care
  • Pat Olafson, Regional Director Mental Health & Crisis Services

Winnipeg Regional Health Authority

  • Nancy Parker, Director, Crisis Services Adult Mental Health Program

Manitoba Legislature

  • Don Norquay, Deputy Minister, Strategic Partnerships

Manitoba Health

  • Fran Schellenberg, Executive Director Mental Health and Spiritual Care, Healthy Living, Seniors & Consumer Affairs
  • NikkiIsaac, Program Specialist, Mental Health and Spiritual Care, Healthy Living, Seniors &Consumer Affairs

Office of Disaster Management, Manitoba Health

  • Gerry Delorme, A/Deputy Minister, Emergency Measures Manitoba Health

Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation

  • Dave Patsack, Policy &Client Services Coordinator

Government of Canada

Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada

  • Nancy Kearnan, Associate Regional Director General
  • Stephen White, Senior Advisor Manitoba Region
  • Carmen Kardoes, Regional Director, Governance & Community Development, Manitoba Region

Health Canada (First Nations and Inuit Health Branch)

  • Pam Smith A'Regional Director
  • Doug Mercer, Director Health Programs and Governance
  • Joe Tyson, Assistant Director of Nursing
  • Rick Orto, Manager Environmental Health
  • Tim Ness, Environmental Health Officer
  • Cameron Barlishen, Assistant Manager, Non-Insured Health Benefits

Public Safety Canada

  • Cameron Buchanan, Regional Manager, Emergency Management Prairie Region
  • Nadine Stiller, Regional Director Prairies, Emergency Management & Regional Operations


Manitoba Association of Native Firefighters

  • Derek Bushie, Emergency Operations Officer
  • Branden Gregorchuk, Registration Officer
  • Jessica Sutherland, Private Accommodations
  • Angel Compton, Emergency Operations Assistant

Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs

  • Brian Saulnier, Project Manager Housing & Infrastructure

Indian and Metis Friendship Centre of Winnipeg

  • Jim Sinclair, Executive Director

Mennonite Disaster Service

  • Dan Klassen, Manitoba Representative

Salvation Army

  • Debbie Clarke, Emergency Disaster Services Director

Misty Lake Lodge and Conference Centre

  • Retha Dykes, Manager
  • Michael Bruneau, Owner

Viewpoints Research Limited

  • Leslie Turnbull, Partner

University of Prince Edward Island

  • Stacey MacKinnon, PhD, Psychology Department

Manitoba Canadian Red Cross

  • Shawn Feely, Director
  • Cheryl Baldwin, Provincial Disaster Management Lead
  • Ellen Fitzsimmons, Training and Education Coordinator
  • Rebecca Utrich, RespectEd Provincial Lead
  • Alvin Patten, Recovery Team
  • Leanne Wainwright, Recovery Team

Greg McVicker

  • Former IERHA Psychosocial Flood Recovery Facilitator

Appendix B - Canadian Red Cross Assessment Questionnaire 2013

The purpose of this questionnaire is to help the Canadian Red Cross determine what your current and long-term needs are as a result of the 2011 flooding. The results of this survey will be kept completely confidential.

Band Name:


Currently Located:



1. What is your main source of income?

  • Student
  • Employed
  • Social assistance
  • Self-employed
  • Other. Please specify.

2. If you have been training or going to school, has your education been disrupted as a result of the flooding?

  • Yes
  • No

3. Does it cost you more to live now than before the 2011 flooding?

  • Yes
  • No

4. Are you interested in training?

  • Yes
  • No

5. What are your long-term plans?

  • Remain on reserve
  • Move back to the reserve
  • Not sure
  • Other. Please explain

6. How hopeful are you about the future?

  • Very hopeful
  • Somewhat hopeful
  • Not hopeful

7. What type of housing are you currently located in?

  • Own home
  • Hotel
  • Family/friends
  • Rented accommodations
  • Other. Please explain.

8. Does your current housing meet your needs?

  • Yes
  • No
  • If yes, please explain

9. Do you feel safe where you are living now?

  • Yes
  • No
  • If yes, please explain.

10. Do you have opportunities to gather with other members of your community?

  • Yes
  • No
  • If yes, please explain.

11. What changes has your family experienced as a result of the flooding?

12. Has your health changed since the 2011 flood?

  • Improved
  • Worsened
  • Stayed the same

13. Are you able to get the health services you need?

  • Yes
  • No

14. What is your biggest loss as a result of the floods and how are you coping?

15. Please check the three areas you feel you need the most help in.

  • Housing
  • Finances
  • Transportation
  • Health
  • Employment
  • Meeting with Family/Friends
  • Clothing/Food
  • Education
  • Training Other

16. What are your preferred ways of receiving information? Check all that apply.

  • Mail
  • Posters
  • E-mail
  • Social Media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr)
  • Flyers/Newsletters
  • Radio
  • Phone calls
  • Meetings

Thank you for participating in this questionnaire.

Appendix C: Determining Stakeholder/Partner Priority

(*= individuals or organizations interviewed by the CRC assessment team)

Priority 1

First Nations Communities

  • Chief and Council, individual members, Health Authority Councillor and local health administrative staff person, Senior Executive Officer, Housing Authority Councillor and local housing administrative staff, FN Schools
    • Lake St. Martin*
    • Little Saskatchewan*
    • Pinaymootang*
    • Dauphin River*
    • Ebb and Flow
    • Peguis*

First Nations Organizations

  • Manitoba Association of Native Firefighters (MANFF)*
  • Interlake Reserves Tribal Council
  • West Region Tribal Council
  • Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs*
  • Grand Chief MB

Federal Entities

  • Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC)*
  • First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada (FNIHB)*
  • Public Safety Canada

Provincial Entities

  • Aboriginal and Northern Affairs (ANA)*
  • Manitoba Health, Office of Disaster Management (ODM)*
  • Emergency Measures Organization (EMO)*
  • Ministry of Social Services (Family Services)

Client Shelter Locations

  • Misty Lake Lodge*
  • Ashern Motor Inn*
  • Fort Garry Estates
  • Garden City
  • Interim Village
  • Interlake Motel
  • Club Regent
  • Mainstay Suites Hotel*
  • Place Louis Riel
  • Suite Hotel
  • Portage La Prairie
  • Riviera Campground
  • Thriftlodge Hotel
  • Victoria Inn Hotel and
  • Convention Centre*

Priority 2

  • Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives (MAFRI)
  • Manitoba Farm and Rural Support Services
  • Indian and Metis Friendship Centre*
  • Salvation Army*
  • Winnipeg Regional Health Authority*
  • Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation*
  • Tribal Police
  • Manitoba Health*
  • Interlake Eastern Regional Health Authority*
  • Prairie Mountain Regional Health Authority
  • Water Stewardship
  • Mennonite Disaster Services (MDS)*

Priority 3

  • RCMP
  • CMHC (Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp)
  • Board of Education
  • City of Winnipeg
  • Manitoba Addictions Foundation
  • Samaritan's Purse


AANDC Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (Federal Ministry)
ANA Aboriginal and Northern Affairs (Provincial Ministry)
AMC Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs
CMHC Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
CRC The Canadian Red Cross
DFA Disaster Financial Assistance
EMO Emergency Measures Organization
FNIHB First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada
IERHA Interlake-Eastern Regional Health Authority
IMFC Indian and Metis Friendship Centre of Winnipeg
IRTC Interlake Reserves Tribal Council Inc.
IRHA Interlake Regional Health Authority
MANFF Manitoba Association of Native Firefighters
MAFRI Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives
MASC Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation
MDS Mennonite Disaster Service
ODM Office of Disaster Management, Manitoba Heath
PHAC Public Health Agency of Canada
PSC Public Safety Canada
WRTC West Region Tribal Council
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