CCP Handbook - Comprehensive Community Planning for First Nations in British Columbia Third Edition - Tools


Tool 1: Centre for Innovative & Entrepreneurial Leadership (CIEL) Community Life Cycle Matrix

Actualization Phase

Community is highly developed and encourages learning and innovation, while respecting history and culture. Community shares resources with others and regularly monitors itself, continuing to enhance capacity.

Action: Community undertakes regular reviews and reflection activities to maintain or enhance stage / phase.

Pre-Community or Chaos Phase

Community is undeveloped. Limited sharing of resources or recognition of value of a community.

Action: Community can (re)form through the identification of and action of influential and respected leaders (elected or unelected).

Vision Phase

Community recognizes the importance of vision and long-term planning; is able to move in this direction.

Action: Community can engage in planning, meaningful consultation of its members, and working towards the development of strategic thinking and planning, and, ultimately, identifying community-wide values, distinct community characteristics and a vision.

Emergence Phase

Community exists but has significant problems, making anything but survival and fulfilling short-term needs impossible.

Action: Community can advance through focus on small, non-political, trust-building projects to build success, respect, confidence, relationships and skills.

Why the Matrix

The challenge of developing innovative and entrepreneurial communities is in ensuring that the communities have a clear picture of where they are at and where they want to go. This enables a better match of the tools available with both the capacity of the community and the hoped for goal. For example, while strategic planning may work for some communities, the planning process may also lead to frustration and failure in other communities that do not have the necessary trust, social capital or capacity.

Who can use it

Anyone within a community or organization can begin this conversation. The Matrix can be used for geographic communities, communities of interest, or even communities within communities. One city manager used the Matrix for polling city councillors about the state of local social, arts, business, and cultural communities.

The Matrix-based process can be undertaken by a group that represents the diversity within the community. Or, it can be used to assess the differences in perceptions among various groups in the community: seniors and youth, long-time residents and new-comers; business leaders and social service agencies; service providers and clients.

How to use it

Use the Matrix to stimulate conversation in your community: Which phase are we at? Are different sectors of the community - youth, arts, business etc. - at different stages? How far have we come?

Members of the community participate in a conversation to determine together what phase or stage their community is at on the Matrix. This can be a formal or informal process. Each phase of the Matrix is accompanied by suggestions for action to progress through the stages.

Community members can identify where they want the community to be (there is an alternative!) and the incremental steps that can be taken in order to get there. Our experience has taught us that communities, like families, feel they are more dysfunctional than they really are. Knowing there are others out there like you is a liberating thought. The Matrix also provides some common language and terminology that allow those conversations to take place, and it seems to be an excellent way to show progression.

The Matrix can be self-administered or CIEL staff can facilitate a session with individuals or community groups. The Matrix works as a rough gauge to enable a community to develop a self-portrait, as it were. The Matrix harnesses the perceptions of citizens and leaders to gain an understanding of the community.


Most importantly, the community together can identify where they want to be and the incremental steps that can be taken and the resources needed by the community in order to get there. Communities can move forward or backward around the Matrix cycle. Progress can be uneven and is not necessarily linear. Some communities require huge leaps or paradigm shifts to move from one stage to another.

Additional Resources

CIEL recognizes that no community is one-dimensional and that once the conversation gets started, it can be useful to assess the different characteristics that make up a community or organization. We have entitled these "Connectivity and Co-operation"; "Vitality";

"Inclusivity and Community Values"; "Leadership"; "Strategic Capacity"; "Community Sustainability"; and "Community Entrepreneurship".

For those who wish to delve more deeply into what "makes their community tick", CIEL staff can guide a Matrix-based process that examines each of these characteristics. We are also developing a free on-line assessment that can enable a community to assess their vitality across these categories and match them with some suggested tools.

Contact the CIEL office or visit our website for more information.

T: 1-250-352-1933
F: 1-250-661-1395
Toll free: 1-800-661-1395 /

Tool 2: Components of a Proposal

Cover Letter Introduces your proposal 1 page
Title Page Professional look 1 page
Table of Contents Reference 1 page
Project Overview
(Executive Summary)
Umbrella statement of your project and summary of the entire proposal 1 page
Background About your organization and the community it serves 1 paragraph to 1 page
Project Rationale Why is this project necessary 1 to 2  pages
Project Goals & Objectives Results 1 page
Program Description Nuts and bolts of the project: activities, responsibilities, time lines 1 to 3 pages
Budget Financial description of the project plus explanatory notes 1 page
Partnerships Describe any partners that may be participating in the project, as well as
the benefits of the partnership (cost-sharing, mentorship, training, etc.)
1 paragraph to 1 page
Project Evaluation How you will measure the success/results of your project 1 to 2 pages
Follow-up Sustaining your project 1 page
Appendices Supporting documentation As required

Tool 3: Terms of Reference for a Planning Team


The purpose of the planning team is to support and guide the development of a Comprehensive Community Plan (CCP).  The planning team may continue to provide support during the implementation and monitoring/ evaluation phases of the planning process.


As much as possible, the planning team will be representative of the community as a whole and may include representatives of

  • The community at large including Elders, youths, family groups
  • Members of community groups
  • Chief and Council
  • Boards of Directors
  • Administrators, managers or staff from key departments

It is recommended that the planning team size not exceed 15 members to ensure it can carry out its work as effectively and efficiently as possible.

Commitment and Accountability

Participation in the planning team is voluntary. Planning team members are committed to making the CCP process a success and are accountable to all First Nation members. They take their voluntary role seriously and agree to attend regular planning team meetings. Planning team members are encouraged to serve on the planning team for defined periods of time. (e.g., two years)

Roles and Responsibilities

Planning Team

Led by the Planning Coordinator, the planning team will:

  • initiate and coordinate activities in the pre-planning and planning phases of the CCP process, including community involvement and communication

More specifically, the planning team will:

  • carry out or delegate research related to CCP
  • make recommendations for obtaining technical planning support (consultants), as necessary
  • coordinate fundraising and lobbying activities in support of CCP planning activities 
  • bring forward to the community and Chief and Council any recommendations or concerns regarding the effective development of a CCP
  • recommend a community and leadership endorsement process for
    the CCP
  • recommend an evaluation and revision process for the CCP
  • carry out other related tasks, as required
Planning Coordinator

The planning coordinator will act as the chair and secretary of the planning team. He/she will:

  • call, organize and chair planning team meetings
  • act as a spokesperson for the planning team
  • liaise with the community, administration, leadership, consultants and strategic partners, as required
  • guide the development and implementation of planning team work plans
  • provide direction to the planning team, as required
Recommendations and Decision-Making

The planning team will base its activities, recommendations and decisions on the direction received by the community. The planning team will endeavour to make any decisions by consensus. If consensus cannot be achieved and the decision directly affects a recommendation for the implementation or revision of the CCP, the planning team will seek community input, or include a dispute resolution clause in the plan.

Tool 4: Comprehensive Community Planning Checklist

This checklist provides a starting point to lead the community through the key steps in each planning phase.


  • ❑ Community readiness for comprehensive community planning (CCP) assessed
  • ❑ Leadership, administration and community informed of intent to engage in CCP process
  • ❑ Leadership, administration and community supportive of CCP
  • ❑ Planning coordinator identified, job description drafted
  • ❑ Planning team members identified, Terms of Reference drafted
  • ❑ Funding secured (at least for first 2 planning phases)
  • ❑ Technology support (computers, GIS, etc.) secured
  • ❑ Work plans for pre-planning and planning stages developed
  • ❑ Planning models researched/ selected
  • ❑ Possible partners identified/ informed of intent to engage in CCP
  • ❑ Technical support (consultants)  identified
  • CCP process communicated to all (newsletters, forums, etc.)


Background Information gathered on:

  • ❑ Geographic location (local and regional)
  • ❑ Language and cultural family (including fluency rates)
  • ❑ Infrastructure development (existing assets, including housing)
  • ❑ Social programs and services (list of, demand for)
  • ❑ Health programs and services (list of, demand for, rates)
  • ❑ Demographic profile (including age and gender distribution)
  • ❑ Land base (size and geographic features)
  • ❑ Natural resources (on land base, in region)
  • ❑ Governance structures (description and organizational chart)
  • ❑ Education programs and services (list of, educational attainment rates)
  • ❑ Economic profile (regionally, locally, employment rates, sectors of employment, average wages)
  • ❑ Culture (exercise of cultural traditions, level of subsistence lifestyles)
  • ❑ Existing plans and reports
  • ❑ Information gathered from community (surveys, open houses, forums, focus groups, meetings, lunches, etc.)
  • ❑ Information presented to and endorsed by community and leadership
Community Analysis — Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

Common issues and strengths identified  by the community in the key areas of:

  • ❑ Lands and resources
  • ❑ Culture
  • ❑ Social
  • ❑ Economy
  • ❑ Governance
  • ❑ Infrastructure development
  • ❑ Health
  • ❑ Community and leadership endorsement and support
Vision and Values
  • ❑ Vision statement and values developed by community
  • ❑ Community and leadership endorsement and support
Comprehensive Strategic Framework
  • ❑ Community development of strategic framework for CCP, around key planning areas relevant for the community
  • ❑ Community and leadership endorsement and support
Goals and Objectives

Common goals and objectives identified by community in the key areas of:

  • ❑ Land and resources
  • ❑ Social
  • ❑ Economy
  • ❑ Governance
  • ❑ Culture
  • ❑ Infrastructure development
  • ❑ Health
  • ❑ Community and leadership endorsement and support
Projects and Activities

Projects and Activities identified in the key areas of:

  • ❑ Land and resources
  • ❑ Social
  • ❑ Economy
  • ❑ Governance
  • ❑ Culture
  • ❑ Infrastructure Development
  • ❑ Health
  • ❑ Identification of key outcomes/results
  • ❑ Projects developed by community
  • ❑ Community and leadership endorsement and support
  • ❑ Housing
Implementation Strategy
  • ❑ Projects/activities are rated and prioritized (5-10 year period)
  • ❑ Funding secured (Nation, other sources)
  • ❑ Community endorsement of implementation strategy
  • ❑ Projects initiated
Community Endorsement
  • ❑ Community endorsement of comprehensive community plan (e.g., vote, community meeting, focus groups, traditional process)
  • ❑ Chief and Council acknowledgement and endorsement and support of Plan

Implementation and Monitoring

  • ❑ Budget prepared and resourced
  • ❑ Projects/activities initiated
  • ❑ Work plan reports prepared and appended to plan
  • ❑ Plan and project reports accessible to community
  • ❑ Progress reports communicated regularly to community (quarterly, bi-annually, or annually)
  • ❑ Evaluation conducted annually
  • ❑ Process created for adopting future revisions to plan
  • ❑ New implementation strategies created in five-year periods
  • ❑ Community involvement in, and endorsement of, new implementation strategies
  • ❑ Community Plan updated every 20 years or as required

(adapted from Community planning)

Tool 5: How and When to Engage Community Members

Tasks Roles of Participation Participation Mechanisms
  • Provide input to planning process
  • Provide input to planning team members
  • Provide input to Terms of Reference
  • Community meetings
  • Focus groups
  • Open house
  • Surveys
  • Newsletter
Gathering Background
  • Provide demographic and socio-economic data
  • Provide historical context
  • Review findings and products of planning team
  • Community meetings
  • Home visits
  • Focus groups
  • Open house
  • Surveys
  • Newsletter
  • Community planning centre
Visioning and Values
  • Express dreams of future
  • Explore community values
  • Create vision statement
  • Review findings and products of planning team
  • Community meetings
  • Home visits
  • Focus groups
  • Open house
  • Surveys
  • Newsletter
  • Community planning centre
Identifying Issues and
  • Describe community strengths and weaknesses
  • Describe opportunities and threats to community
  • Define historical processes and causes for current situation
  • Review findings and products of planning team
  • Community meetings
  • Home visits
  • Focus groups
  • Open house
  • Surveys
  • Newsletter
  • Community planning centre
Identifying Goals and
  • Identify specific community goals and objectives
  • Review findings and products of planning team
  • Community meetings
  • Home visits
  • Focus groups
  • Open house
  • Surveys
  • Newsletter
  • Community planning centre
Identifying Projects/
  • Identify specific projects and activities to achieve community goals and objectives
  • Specify results/outcomes desired
  • Review findings and products of planning team
  • Community meetings
  • Home visits
  • Focus groups
  • Open house
  • Surveys
  • Newsletter
  • Community planning centre
  • Site Visits
  • Mapping exercise
Community and Leadership
  • Participate in plan approval process
  • Community meetings
  • Focus groups
  • Surveys
  • Newsletter
  • Referendum
Monitoring & Evaluation
  • Prioritize projects and activities
  • Developing and implementation work plans
  • Participate in monitoring and evaluation of work plans
  • Provide comments and constructive criticism
  • Annual/bi-annual
  • Community meetings
  • Quarterly/bi-annual/
    annual newsletters

Tool 6: Ways to Increase Participation

Community Meetings

Community meetings are semi-formal events to request input, report on progress, or gain endorsement for stages in the planning process. Provide the community with ample notice of the meeting's date and time, location, and agenda. Distribute the results of the meeting afterward. Consider incorporating social or traditional content into the meeting, through a dinner, dance, or other traditional activity. Visual aids such as maps, charts, posters, or models can help the progress of the meeting.

Home Visits

Not everyone is able to attend community gatherings, and some members might be uncomfortable in larger settings. Informal home visits between a member of the planning team and an individual or family group is a good way to collect information throughout the planning process. Home visits and mobile presentations are one way to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to participate.

Focus Groups

A focus group is a small group of people who works through an issue in workshop sessions. They might be a special interest group of youth, managers, Elders, etc. Focus groups provide a comfortable setting to work collaboratively, include each member's input, and generate new ideas. Focus groups can seek solutions to particular problem areas; if an issue arises, draft five to six questions for the focus group to discuss in informal yet structured conversation.

Open House

An open house is an informal event with no set agenda and is accessible to the public for an extended period of time. Clear and thorough advertising is required to ensure a good turnout. Open houses encourage the involvement of individuals who may not be comfortable voicing their opinions in front of a larger group. Community members can browse displays, read through information, and make notes and suggestions on maps and flipcharts.


Community surveys are useful tools to collect data, gather opinions on options, and gauge support for the process. For mail-out surveys where the community member fills in the answers themselves, questions must be clear and concise, and not require undue effort from the individual providing feedback. For surveys conducted one-on-one with individuals by planning team members, questions can be broader and more open-ended. To collect a higher number of surveys, some communities have chosen to offer prizes with winners drawn from all returned forms.


A regularly published newsletter (weekly, monthly, each planning stage, etc.) will help keep residents and off-reserve members informed of the planning process. Establish a simple visual format to make newsletters look consistent throughout the stages of planning. Newsletters can be delivered to homes, mailed to off-reserve residents, emailed, or posted on a website. Information on proposals or projects will allow people to digest the data and have formal discussions prior to community meetings.

Community Planning Centre

A (semi)permanent planning centre or planning room in a politically neutral building may create new opportunities for discussing important issues and reaching greater numbers of community members. Encourage the community to drop in to browse displays of maps, photographs, large-scale models, and information on community planning and its importance. An anonymous suggestion box may encourage further input.


Create a community planning website to describe the planning process, give updates on the planning process, and provide contact information for planning team members. Post newsletters, meeting dates, and agendas on the site, and ensure the information is regularly updated. Provide links to other websites of your Nation (e.g., band administration website or Treaty website).


Creating a Facebook group is a great way to engage members (on reserve and off) in the planning process.

Mapping Exercise

A mapping exercise may be best conducted during focus groups, at the community planning centre, or during open houses. Begin with a base map — such as an aerial photo, blank map, or survey map — and encourage community members to draw on the map to identify areas of importance. These important areas could include subsistence areas, landmarks, flood areas, water sources, sacred sites, watershed protection areas, gravel sources, geological features/barriers, community buildings, airport, housing areas, roads, etc. The map can then be used in developing land use designations and identifying future tasks to include in the comprehensive community plan.

Site Tours

Tours of the community, reserve lands, neighbouring lands, or potential Treaty Settlement Lands may help members visualize opportunities and concerns to be addressed in the community plan. These site tours can be fun and social events, and can help to generate interest and excitement in the planning process.

Community Action Projects

Involving the community in organized collaborative projects can help to create a spirit of cooperation about planning and build pride in the community. Examples of community action projects include cleaning up a stream or old dump site; community yard cleaning day; assisting the Elders with their yards and home maintenance; beautifying a public space; or repairing community assets, such as bus shelters.

Radio Advertising and Talk Shows

Purchase a regular advertising slot on a local radio station to inform residents of upcoming community meetings and social gatherings, publicize newsletters, and provide planning updates. A talk show involving members of the planning team, community members, and political leaders can be useful for discussing important community issues.

Activity Week

Plan a community planning activity week including activities that involve people of all ages, such as:

  • Art project – children create artwork on a theme such as "This is something I like in my community"
  • Poster project – a contest to create a poster and/or logo to be featured in planning publications and materials
  • Photography workshop – collect and reproduce historical photographs of people, places and events connected to the community; take a series of "before" pictures for future comparison; create a photo essay of community participation in the planning process
  • Storytelling – provide an opportunity for Elders to relate stories of the history of the community

Regional Planning Agency

With other First Nations, develop a regional non-governmental agency to act as a planning resource and training centre. First Nations persons with a background in planning should staff the centre; provide training, support and insight into community planning; and undertake long-term broad monitoring.

Constitutional Development

The development of a community constitution can help to support planning through establishing a common community vision, ensuring public involvement in the governance and decision-making processes, and creating accountability and monitoring mechanisms.

Tool 7: Community Groups to Engage and Involve

Chief and Council

It is essential that leadership stay involved with, and supportive of, the planning process.  As Council's role is to initiate the process, provide leadership and encouragement, and direct administration through the process and implementation, they must have a working knowledge of the plan and its contents, and also represent their vision of the community.  The planning team should meet especially with Council to gather information about the community, ask for input and ideas during each stage, discuss administrative changes that will enable implementation of the plan, and obtain acknowledgement of the community's endorsement of the plan.


Band administration and staff are excellent sources of information, particularly during the more detailed planning stages of identifying strengths and issues, setting goals and objectives, and setting tasks.  Because administration will be responsible, in large part, for implementing the plan, all staff should be familiar with the plan, particularly the projects in their area of responsibility.


The Elders are an essential support structure for the planning process.  Their input should be sought out during each planning stage, particularly for traditional, cultural and historical knowledge, and their unique program and service needs.

Family Heads

Liaising with, or assembling a group of, family heads is an excellent way to disseminate planning information and generate support for the project.  Family heads could be designated to stay informed of the planning progress or sit as members of the planning team, communicate with family members and solicit their input, and provide this input back to the planning team.

Youth and Children

As "leaders of tomorrow," youth should be encouraged to participate in the planning process.  Create a youth council or focus group to provide input, and organize special youth activities in each planning stage.  The youth should be heavily involved in the visioning process, as well as in identifying goals and objectives, and program and service needs.

Community Groups

Within each community, there are numerous other groups that the planning team may be able to access, or make presentations to.  These other groups may include traditional and cultural societies, business groups, sports clubs and groups, women's support groups, religious groups, and others.


Additional considerations may include engaging on vs. off reserve members, or providing child care to encourage participation of parents. Venue, day, time of day and time of year are all important factors to ensure broad participation.

Tool 8: Communication Tips

How to Create a Supportive Environment:

  • Emphasize that it is okay to make mistakes and to speak out even if you're not sure your idea is a good one
  • Try to leave personalities out when dealing with issues
  • Let emotions be released and discussed
  • Ground rules (principles of respect) could include not cutting people off or making them feel threatened
  • Emphasize that debate is a good thing
  • Try to make sure both men and women are speaking and that people are encouraged to speak up
  • Keep information short and to the point
  • Take the time to make sure everyone understands the information coming across
  • Provide child care

How to Make an Effective Presentation:

The planning team will make a series of presentations throughout the planning process.  Some tips for an effective presentation:

  • The introduction should be attention-grabbing
  • Summarize your main points at the beginning of the presentation
  • Make sure the points flow in the right order
  • Include easy to understand visual aids
  • The conclusion should be as short as possible, and be tied to your introduction
  • Make sure everyone can see the presentation
  • Distribute a hard copy or other related documents, if applicable

How to Communicate Effectively:

  • Who are you speaking to? (Know your audience)
  • What is your most important message?
  • When is the best time to convey this message?
  • Where is the best place to have this discussion?
  • Why should they listen to you? (What is the value in your message?)
  • How can you best get the message across?
  • Keep the message clear and simple
  • Be prepared
  • Be engaging when delivering the message
  • Be natural
  • Keep the message to-the-point

How to Run an Effective Meeting:

  • Distribute an agenda to attendees prior to the meeting
  • Encourage active participation
  • Keep the meeting moving at a comfortable pace
  • At the end of the meeting, summarize the discussion and any recommendations
  • Circulate concise meeting notes to community members

How to Resolve Disputes:

  1. Define and Recognize
    1. Review the current environment
    2. Assemble information
    3. Describe the situation and review the contributing factors
    4. Specify the goal of what needs to be accomplished
  2. Search and Explore - Generate Alternatives
    1. Go beyond "either/or" solutions
    2. Identify as many solutions as possible
    3. Define criteria for decision
    4. Assess various alternatives, advantages, disadvantages and consequences
  3. Decide - Choose a Solution
    1. Select the most appropriate solution
    2. Determine implementation plans – who does what, by when?
    3. Follow-up on tasks assigned
    4. Evaluate solution and implementation
Communications Tactics Matrix
Who What information
are you sharing?
(what medium?)
How often? Message Content creator Deadline/
Off-reserve members              
Chief & Council              
Other communities,

Tool 9: Steps to Hiring a Professional Planner

In order for the CCP to be a relevant, useful document for the community, the planning team and community must lead the planning process. Many communities who are successfully implementing their plan have not engaged the services of a professional planner. In some cases, however, there may be a role for a consultant to provide expertise and contribute to building planning capacity in the community.

1.  Find a planner

You may wish to seek referrals and recommendations from other First Nations who have had positive experiences with specific planners. Try not to engage consultants with a "prepared" approach to comprehensive community planning — a good planner will listen to you, work with you and propose an approach that reflects your community's unique situation.

2.  Contact a selected list of planners

Send a one page letter to potential planning consultants asking if they would be interested in participating in your community's comprehensive community planning process. The letter should outline expectations, planning timelines and a deadline to contact you to receive the Request for Proposal.

3.  Prepare a Request for Proposal

The Request for Proposal (RFP) expands upon the one page letter and contains detailed terms of reference for the comprehensive community plan. These terms of reference will help the consultant formulate a proposed budget for the work. Details may include the number of meetings or workshops the consultant will lead, what deliverables are required (such as reports or workshop handouts), what the expected interaction with the project leaders will be, what the timeline will be, etc. Consider whether or not to reveal your budget if a consultant requests project details.  Your response may be: "I cannot reveal the budget, but it is within the costs normally associated with this type of project."

When working with consultants, it is important that the role of the consultant is that of an advisor, and not the leader or decision-maker. It is important for the consultant to help build and leave capacity in the community. When preparing the RFP and negotiating the contract, think about ways that you might integrate capacity building for your community. For example, the consultant can act as a mentor and trainer to members of the planning team, or can agree to hire interns from the community.

4.  Evaluate the consultants

Evaluate the consultants' submissions using a "matrix" with criteria to judge the submissions. If there are a number of submissions, it is often advisable to have a group/committee involved in the evaluations. If possible, evaluations should be undertaken without reference to company names (although this is sometimes impossible). As an alternative, a group/committee can evaluate the submissions but not assign company names to the final evaluation matrix, so that when presented to Chief and Council or the planning committee for review, decisions can be based on the evaluation, without knowledge of specific companies. Company names and individuals are eventually revealed, but an evaluation matrix assessing a number of important factors (without reference to the companies or individuals involved) is an invaluable tool for objective decision-making. Reference checks can then be made once the list is shorter to double check their reliability, honesty and overall fit with the community. Presentations and/or interviews can also be held with a shorter list of candidates.

5.  Develop a contract

Prepare and sign a financial contract with the consultant. The contract should contain the RFP/Terms of Reference for the planning study; the proposed work plan and time frame; the consultant's submission, based on the terms of reference; and, other details regarding liability, insurance, costs and payment schedule. The final contract should be signed by the consultant and Chief and Council.

Tool 10: Community Asset Assessment Charts

After completing the following forms, you will have an overview of the programs, services, infrastructure, utilities and capacity building assets and needs in your community.  Feel free to create similar charts to gauge other community needs and priorities.

Capital Projects and Infrastructure Assessment
  Do you
have it?
Condition Sufficient
Yes No Good Avg. Poor Yes No Yes No
Council Building                  
Community Hall                  
Elder housing                  
Fire station                  
Health Centre                  
Internet Service                  
Police Building                  
Solid waste
Youth Centre                  

Services Assessment
Resources Existing? Improvements
Category Type Yes No Yes No
Governance Community involvement        
Fire protection        
Emergency response        
Land &
Land use planning        
Social Education        
Social assistance        
Child care        
Domestic violence        
Suicide prevention        
Life skills        
Health Nutrition        
Substance abuse        
Health promotion        
Family Planning        
Culture Language        
Arts & crafts        
Economy Human resource development        
Community economic development        
Economic development corporation        
Water treatment        
Village maintenance        
Economic Development Assessment
Job/Type Number of Jobs Filled by Community Member? Time Wage
Yes No Full Part Average
Job Training, Education, and Capacity Building Assessment
Category Job Existing? Training Needed?
Yes No Yes No
Lands & Resources          
Physical Infrastructure          

Tool 11: Template – SWOT Analysis

Template – SWOT Analysis
  Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
Lands & Resources        
Infrastructure Development        

Tool 11: Sample – SWOT Analysis

Template – SWOT Analysis
  Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
  • An election code is being developed
  • Miscommunication between band sectors and entities
  • Could pass our own laws post-treaty
  • Potential remedial management because of band debt
Lands & Resources
  • A land code is currently in development
  • Land and resource managers do not communicate well
  • We are located in an area of high future land development potential
  • Increasing development may make hunting and gathering difficult
  • New health centre
    Excellent health care staff
  • Increased community awareness of health issues
  • Drug and alcohol abuse, particularly among youth
  • High rates of diabetes and obesity
  • Could deliver health services to local region
  • Reduced government funding for health promotion
  • Increasing numbers of members with post-secondary degrees returning to community
  • Increasing participation in after-school youth program
  • 65% high school dropout rate
  • No central location for youth to meet
  • Increased federal funding for life skills training
  • Can negotiate service agreements for facilities in municipality
  • Lay-offs at local plant could mean higher demand for social assistance
  • Language courses are offered in local elementary and secondary schools
  • Fluency rates in traditional language are low
  • Tourism is increasing – could provide cultural tours and activities
  • New development will result in limited access to cedar stands
  • High potential for development of reserve lands
  • Unemployment rate has dropped in recent years
  • Many members are only seasonally employed
  • Members rely too heavily on the Band for employment opportunities
  • New First Nations small business program
  • Fishing industry in decline – could impact many band members
Infrastructure Development
  • New water treatment plant has brought water quality up to standard
  • The waiting list for housing exceeds 40 applications
  • Could rent out existing facilities and vacant office space
  • Many members want to return home post-treaty – housing demand will increase

Tool 12: Visioning Questions

Questions to Get Started on the Visioning Process
1 25 – 50 years from now…
  • How do you see our community?
  • What is different, what remains the same?
  • How do you see our land?
  • How do you see our people live and interact together?
  • What activities are people engaged in?
2 What are our most treasured traditions and principles that we want to preserve and practice into the future?
3 What do you want our community to be remembered for by
generations to come?

Tool 13: Template – Goals, Objectives and Projects Tracking Chart

Goals, Objectives and Projects Tracking Chart
Key Planning Area Goals Objectives Projects/Activities Deadline / Timeframe Person Responsible

Tool 13: Sample – Goals, Objectives and Projects Tracking Chart

Goals, Objectives and Projects Tracking Chart
Key Planning Area Goals Objectives Projects/
Deadline / Timeframe Person Responsible
  • Community involvement in decision-making
  • Develop a youth council to communicate with Chief and Council
  • Financial
    • Develop a budget and find funding for youth council meetings
  • Political/
    • Develop a policy for
      Chief and Council to engage with youth council
  • Improve quality of health of community members
  • Deliver dental services on-reserve
  • Political/
    • Access preventative oral health program dollars
    • Identify dental technician to provide services
  • Enhance opportunities to exercise rights
  • Establish protected areas
  • Political/
    • Lobby governments to establish protected
    • Amend existing land use plan
Infrastructure development
  • Create more recreation facilities
  • Build a community gymnasium
  • Political/
    • Develop a business plan
  • Financial
    • Develop a budget and secure capital funds

Tool 14: Creating a Budget

When creating budgets it is important to look at three aspects of the project:

  1. Capital costs – How much to set project up (e.g. construction of a building)?
  2. Operational costs – How much will be needed to keep the project going?
  3. Project costs – How much will it cost in terms of band administration to manage the project?
Creating a Budget
Collect revenue sources
  • Include all funding sources:
  • Contribution from a group
  • Donations
  • Fund raising events
  • Sales revenue
  • Fees for service, and more
Collect expenditures
  • Contact suppliers
  • Provide appropriate detail
List employees
  • Include job description for each employee you propose to create (e.g., backhoe operator @ $50/hour)
  • Include volunteer staff – in kind activity and/or honoraria
  • Facilitator or consultant – include resume in appendices
  • List all activities
  • Example: backhoe operator:  July 1 – August 1; electrician: August 15 – Sept 1
  • Later, the timeline will fit into your weekly budget
Schedule of travel
  • Who is travelling?
  • Where is the travel?  At what rate?
  • Include rate per km, return airfare from departure point
  • Include daily meal and accommodation rate or per diem for meals only – specify.
Rent and utilities
  • Will office space be rented?
  • Monthly rate – rent for meeting conference space- rate?
  • Monthly costs for heat, power, telephone
  • Installation, hook-up costs if applicable
Equipment and furniture
  • Special equipment for project
  • Rental or purchase (project funding does not allow purchase of equipment)
Administration fee
  • State what this covers:  bookkeeping, administrator, manager support
  • Generally 10% of budget depending on support being given. (i.e., hiring a bookkeeper separately would not be as high as an admin fee)
  • Specify media costs, posters, brochures, etc.
Budget format
  • Check with funding agency to see if they have a specific format that they want you to use
  • Check specific expenditure categories
  • Funding package/ call letter would probably include direction
  • Use standard spreadsheet format
  • Revenue minus expenditures should equal zero.

Tool 15: Budget Management Checklist

Budget Management Checklist
Collect all relevant data
  • List all programs for which budgets will be prepared
  • Delegate budget responsibility   
  • Obtain all funding information
  • Have prior year financial information on hand
  • Ensure current year accounting records are up-to-date
Research cost of planned expenditures
  • Contact suppliers
  • Review policies
  • Refer to operation plan
Establish time lines for budget process
  • When will the budget be reviewed
  • What are the steps to the review?
  • Establish a time line, activities and responsibilities
Prepare a schedule of monthly cash receipts
  • Refer to monthly cash flows from all funding agencies
  • Collect all revenue agreements and calculate monthly incomes
Create supporting schedule for each expenditure category
  • Use enough detail to quantify evaluation against actual results
  • Set priorities in the event complete budget cannot be approved
Calculate total expenditures
  • Consolidate all line items onto total budget sheet for each program activity
Prepare cash budget
  • Month-by-month
  • Cash receipts less cash disbursements
  • Do not include any non-cash expenses
Arrange interim financing
  • For "timing" issues
  • Automatic overdraft arrangement with financial institution
  • Pre-arrange terms and interest rates
Or…adjust to even out flow of cash
  • Adjust timing of operations plan
    (i.e., schedule expense for another time period)
Use zero-based budgeting where applicable
  • For new programs
  • For existing programs every three years or so
  • For programs in financial difficulty
Present budget for approval
  • Take all plans, budgets and backup documentation
Compare budgeted items with actual results
  • Compare monthly budget to actuals
  • Compare year-to-date budget to actuals
Analyze variances
  • Facilitates "management by exception" process of budgeting
  • Investigate and determine causes for variances
  • Look at positive variances as well as negative variances
Make operating adjustments
  • Check original plan and budget
  • Re-forecast expenditures based on revised costs/revenues

Tool 16: Project Implementation Inventory

Asking the questions provided in this tool is a good way to get started on a project. Fill it out with as much detail as possible. When this form is completed, it can form the basis for reports to the community and administration, as well as for funding proposals.

Project Implementation Inventory
Question Answer
What is the project or program?  
Why is the project or program important?  
How does it fulfill the community's vision?  
Who will work on the project or program?  
Who can you partner with?  
How much will it cost? (budget)  
Where will the funding come from?  
How will it be completed?  
Who is the project for?  
What mentorship, training, or employment opportunities will be involved?  
Where will the project or program take place?
(location, department)
How will you know if you've achieved the objective? (identify indicators for monitoring & evaluation)  
How long will it take?  

Tool 17: Project Timeline (Bar Chart)

Before implementing a project, policy or program, it can be helpful to develop a work plan and timeframe in the form of a bar chart.  Below is a simple example bar chart for developing a youth/Elder cultural mentorship program:

Project Timeline (Bar Chart)
Project activities Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Research other mentorship programs                        
Consult Elders and youth for ideas/feedback                        
Develop proposal for program                        
Seek approvals                        
Apply for funding                        
Create mentorship/mentee forms                        
Advertise opportunity                        
Match mentors to mentees                        
Orientation for mentors                        
Launch of mentorship                        
Ongoing visits                        
Write article for newsletter                        
Write funding progress report                        

Tool 18: Project Work Plan

Project Work Plan
Project Phase / Milestones Major Task / Activities Estimated Time Frame Responsibility / Lead Required Resources Status / Comments
What are the major steps that need to be taken to achieve the goals of the project? What tasks and activities need to happen under each project phase or milestone? When does each simple action step have to be completed by?

Some timelines may already be set for you (e.g., funding application deadlines) so you will have to build your work plan around them.

(TIP: Include both the start and completion dates to help ensure enough time is budgeted to complete each task.)
Who is responsible for ensuring the action step is completed?

Each simple action/step should be allocated to a specific person (or persons) for action; this person is known as the "lead."
What might be needed in order for each step to be completed?

(e.g., is printing or administrative support required?)

This should be reviewed with the lead.

Tool 19: Decision Analysis Tool

Prioritizing and sequencing the long list of projects, policies and programs identified by community members is critical to ensuring that the time, resources and energy invested into implementation have the greatest possible benefit for the community.

There are a number of different decision tools you can use to prioritize actions, each with different uses, benefits and degrees of sophistication. Dotmocracy and the Money Game (see the next page) are very useful tools to get a quick read of top priorities. Using more specific criteria to analyse, evaluate and determine priorities for a CCP can lead to decisions that are more defensible, less risky and result in greater long- term benefits for the community.

Basic Tenants of Decision Analsysis:

  1. Values and facts are used to decide priorities, not intuition or politics.
  2. A systematic and transparent process leads to defensible actions.
  3. An inclusive and participatory process empowers individuals and the community.

Some questions to consider when prioritizing actions (policies, projects and programs) include:

  • How well will the action align with the community vision statement and high-level objectives?
  • How will an action impact our people and community? How many people will it impact?
  • Do we have the financial resources to implement this action? How likely are we to secure funding?
  • Do we have the capacity to implement this action and/or do we need to build capacity first?
  • Is there a champion? Who is interested in leading the implementation of an action?
  • Are there any timing implications? Does the issue need to be urgently addressed? Does the action address a health and safety issue?
  • What financial, environmental and/or social risks are there to consider?

For each action, you can reflect on specific criteria such as how well the community's objectives (e.g., protect land) are met, or by various implementation criteria (e.g., available resources). Both qualitative (e.g., high/medium/low) or quantitative (e.g., assigning scores between 1-5) scales can be used to rank, score and finalize community priorities. An even more sophisticated approach is to weigh each criterion. For example, how well the activity aligns with the community's values (objectives) may be more important than how long it will take to implement. A simplified ranking table can help show the tradeoffs between certain actions.


Action Protect
Enhance Culture Create Employment Score/Rank
Youth/Elder Mentorship High (25) High (25) Low (5) (55)
Housing Strategy Med (10) Low (5) Med (10) (25)
High School Tutoring Program Low (5) Med (10) Med (10) (25)
Cultural Centre High (25) High (25) High (25) (75)


Action Resources Available Capacity Available Champion to lead Score Rank
Youth/Elder Mentorship 5 5 5 15 #1
Housing Strategy 3 3 3 9 #3
High School Tutoring Program 3 3 5 11 #2
Cultural Centre 1 1 3 5 #4

Tools for Determining Priorities

There are a number of different decision tools for determining priorities including:

Dotmocracy – Each project name is written on its own blank piece of paper and taped onto a wall. Each participant is given three dots (stickers) and they can place dots next to the projects that are most important to them. Tally the dots and you will get an idea of which projects are the highest priority for the community. You could also give each participant some green dots, and some red dots – red for highest priority, green for most "do-able".

Money Talks – Each project name is written on a piece of paper and taped to the wall. A box or paper bag is placed under each project name. Each participant is given an equal amount of play money (the amount is up to you). The participants divide up their money into the projects as they see fit. At the end, the money in each bag is tallied and you will get an idea of which projects are high priority.


(Please note: The resources section provides some sources that you may find helpful. However, it is not intended to be an exhaustive list and you may wish to consult other sources.)


Decision Analysis Tool 2
Category Title Funder Description Contact
Community Development and Planning BC Capacity Initiative INAC To enhance the capacity of First Nations who have asserted Aboriginal title. Funding is available in the following areas: preparation for negotiations, consultation, management and implementation. BC Capacity Initiative


Capital Support INAC Services and funding for physical development planning in First Nations communities, including for community infrastructure, housing and facilities. The funding provides support for feasibility studies, surveys, design, construction and commissioning. INAC Capital
Management Officer

Treaty-Related Measures (TRMs) Treaties and Aboriginal Government, INAC and provincial Treaty Negotiations Office TRMs can be used in a variety of ways to move specific issues forward at treaty tables, such as studies to generate information that will expedite specific treaty negotiation issues; protection of Crown land for treaty settlements; land acquisition for treaty settlements; First Nation participation in land, resource, and park planning and management; and economic and cultural opportunity studies. 1-800-567-9604
Professional and Institutional Development INAC To develop the capacity of First Nation and Inuit communities to perform core functions of government, by funding governance-related projects at the community and institutional levels. 1-800-567-9604
New Relationship Trust New Relationship Trust The NRT is an independent non-profit organization dedicated to strengthening First Nations in BC through capacity building. A key goal of NRT's Capacity Initiatives is to provide BC First Nations with access to information and knowledge that is essential to successful Nation building. Lana Plante


New Relationship Trust
Community to Community Forums (C2C) Union of BC Municipalities, First Nations Summit The C2C Forum is a provincially and federally sponsored program in which "host" communities that hold a forum can get half of allowable costs covered. The forums are about opening lines of communication and building relationships between neighbours (local governments and First Nations). Local Government Program Services


First Nations Summit

Grant Database – Civic Info BC  Clearing house of various funding sources from federal, provincial and non-governmental sectors An electronic database providing information on sources of funding for community development in BC. Most of the programs listed are funding-oriented, however, programs that provide other forms of support are also listed. The primary focus is support for social, economic and environmental community development initiatives. Contact information for each program is provided to facilitate direct access to current and updated program information. Grant Database
Economic Development Aboriginal Business Entrepreneurship Development All Nations Development Corporation, INAC, Nuu-chah-nulth Economic Development Corporation, Tale’awtxw Aboriginal Capital Corporation Business services and support, including repayable and non-repayable financial contributions, to aboriginal individuals, associations, partnerships or other legal entities which are wholly or partly owned or controlled by Aboriginal people, on or off reserve. Aboriginal Business Entrepreneurship Development

Community Economic Development Program INAC The Community Economic Development Program (CEDP) provides core, formula-based, financial support for eligible First Nations or their mandated organizations. CEDP funding activities include economic planning and other community economic support services. INAC

Community Economic Opportunities Program INAC The Community Economic Opportunities Program (CEOP) is a proposal-driven program designed to support eligible First Nation community initiatives that will lead to community economic benefits. Eligible activities include employment and economic planning, negotiations, infrastructure and feasibility. INAC

Western Economic Diversification Western Economic Diversification WD invests in community-driven projects and other initiatives designed to increase productivity and competitiveness, and improve the quality of life in western communities. Funding is available for community projects that support at least one of WD's strategic priorities: innovation, entrepreneurship and community economic development. Western Economic Diversification

Indigenous Forestry Initiative INAC and Natural Resources Canada To enhance the capacity of First Nations to manage sustainable reserve forests and to operate and participate in forest-based businesses; to increase First Nations cooperation and partnerships; and to investigate financing mechanisms for First Nation forestry development. INAC


Indigenous Forestry
Environment The Green Source  Environment and Climate Change Canada A resource guide prepared by Environment and Climate Change Canada that identifies numerous sources of funding for environmental projects. It includes information on public and private sector programs and organizations that provide assistance, labour costs or in-kind donations to community groups. The Green Source

Land Management First Nations Land Management (FNLM) INAC A range of courses and funding for First Nations involved in land management for reserve lands through First Nations Land Management (established under the First Nations Land Management Act). This includes land holdings and transfers, additions to reserves, designations (zoning), leasing and permitting. Lands Advisory Board Resource Centre


Real Estate Foundation of BC Real Estate Foundation of BC The Real Estate Foundation of BC supports real estate and land use practices that contribute to resilient, healthy communities and natural systems. The three grant program areas of focus are: 1) Built Environment, 2) Fresh Water Sustainability, and 3) Sustainable Food Systems. Real Estate Foundation of BC

Social Development Social Development Program Management Infrastructure Initiative INAC Funding to build and/or enhance social development program capacity within First Nations, including community support and multi-community planning. INAC

Wage Subsidy, Internships
and Training
Indigenous Labour Market Programs Employment and Social Development Canada Indigenous labour market programs are available to increase workforce participation and help First Nations, Métis and Inuit people prepare for, find and maintain employment. Indigenous Labour Market Programs

Housing Internship Initiative for First Nations and Inuit Youth Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) Provides work experience and on-the-job training for First Nations youth to assist them in pursuing long-term employment in the housing industry. Work experience and on-the-job training must be related to housing activities, such as housing administration, construction, renovation, maintenance, and client counseling, among others. Housing Internship Initiative

Youth Employment Strategy INAC and First Nations Education Steering Committee Goals are to emphasize the importance of education for effective labour market participation, and provide opportunities for First Nations and Inuit youth to improve their job skills. There are four programs under the Youth Employment Strategy umbrella: Science and Technology Program; Career Promotion and Awareness Program; Student Summer Employment Opportunities Program; and Youth Work Experience Program. First Nations Education Steering Committee


First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy

Funding for Implementation Northern and Aboriginal Crime Prevention Fund Public Safety Canada In order to effect positive changes in risk and protective factors and foster crime prevention in Northern and Aboriginal communities, NACPF will support: 1) the adaptation, development and implementation of innovative and promising culturally sensitive crime prevention practices (focus on at-risk children and youth, and high-risk offenders); 2) the dissemination of knowledge and the development of tools and resources for Aboriginal and Northern populations; and 3) capacity building as a means to explore ways to develop or implement culturally sensitive crime prevention practices among Aboriginal and Northern populations. National Crime Prevention Center National Office

Programs and Services Overview and Contacts First Nations Health Authority Provides information about health-related programs and services available to First Nations and Inuit. The compendium includes program descriptions; program elements, goals and objectives; and information about different types of service providers and their qualification requirements.

Programs and Services Overview and Contacts

Species at Risk – Public Registry Environment and Climate Change Canada Several programs are available to support First Nations communities to build capacity and undertake projects related to Species at Risk. Species at Risk
BC Hydro Corporate Donations BC Hydro BC Hydro provides support to community-based, non-profit organizations and registered charities that are active in one of the key funding areas: 1) environmental sustainability, 2) youth and lifestyle, or 3) community leadership. BC Hydro
RBC – Community and Sustainability RBC RBC helps communities around the world by funding many different initiatives through donations and sponsorships. Community and Sustainability
Computers for Schools Industry Canada The Computers for Schools (CFS) Program is a national, federal government-led initiative that operates in cooperation with all provinces and territories, and the private and volunteer sectors. Program funding recipients collect, repair and refurbish donated surplus computers from public and private sector sources and distribute them to schools, public libraries, not-for-profit learning organizations and Aboriginal communities throughout Canada. Mary-Em Waddington


Industry Canada

Computers for Schools
Grants directory Canadian Subsidy Directory The Canadian Subsidy Directory (database) offers continuously updated information for non-profit organizations, businesses, municipalities, individuals and Aboriginals. The database contains more than 3,200 subsidies, grants or loans offered by various Canadian governments, agencies and foundations. Grants directory

Related Education Programs

1) First Nations Planning-Related Programs in BC

Aboriginal Bursaries Search Tool

  • The Aboriginal Bursaries Search Tool is a searchable list of more than 680 bursaries, scholarships and incentives across Canada, offered by governments, universities and colleges, private and public companies, individual Canadians, organizations and others.

Aboriginal Financial Officers Association of Canada
Ph: 1-866-722-2362

  • Introduction to Comprehensive Community Planning for First Nations
  • Strategic Planning in First Nations

Native Education Centre
Ph: 604-873-3772 ext. 328

  • Aboriginal Tourism Management Program

Nicola Valley Institute of Technology
Ph: 1-877-682-3300

  • Aboriginal Community Economic Development Program
  • Environmental Resources Technology Diploma
  • First Nations Public Administration Program

Northwest Community College
Ph: 1-877-277-2288

  • Guardian Watchman Training  (Land Stewardship)
  • First Nations Public Administration

Project Raven
Ph: 1-888-921-9939

  • The First Nation Technology Council (FNTC) delivers a wide range of technical and computer skills training to support the implementation and sustainability of CCP.  Microsoft Office training, such as MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Outlook, as well as Windows, GIS and other industry-recognized computer training is available.

Simon Fraser University (Continuing Studies)
Ph: 778-782-8000

  • Certificate in Community Capacity Building
  • Certificate in Dialogue and Civic Engagement

University of Northern British Columbia (First Nations Studies)
Ph: 604-822-0075

  • Aboriginal Community Resource Planning
  • First Nations Public Administration Certificate

University of Victoria
Ph: 250-721-6438

  • Indigenous Governance Programs
  • Certificate in the Administration of Indigenous Governments
  • Master of Arts in Indigenous Governance

2) BC Planning Programs and Certificates

Langara College
Ph: 604-323-5686

  • Applied Urban and Rural Planning Program

Simon Fraser University
Ph: 604-782-8000

  • Sustainable Community Development Certificate
  • Urban Design Certificate
  • Urban Planning courses

Social Planning and Research Council of BC
Ph: 604-718-7733

  • Community Development Education Program

University of British Columbia
Ph: 604-822-3276

  • School of Community and Regional Planning

University of Northern British Columbia
Ph: 250-960-5555

  • Environmental Planning

3) Land and Resource Management Programs in BC

Selkirk College
Ph: 250-365-7292

  • Integrated Environmental Planning Program

Simon Fraser University
Ph: 604-291-3321, 604-291-4659

Thompson Rivers University
Ph: 250-828-5467

  • Bachelor of Natural Resource Science Program

University of British Columbia
Ph: 604-822-2727

  • Wood Products
  • Conservation
  • Forest Operations
  • Forest Management
  • Forest Science

University of Northern British Columbia
Ph: 250-960-5555

  • Environmental Planning
  • Environmental Studies
  • Natural Resources and Environmental Studies

4) Economic Development Programs in BC

Sauder School of Business – University of British Columbia
Ph: 604-822-0988

  • Ch'nook Aboriginal Management Certificate Program

Simon Fraser University
Ph: 604-291-5849

  • Executive MBA in Aboriginal Business and Leadership
  • Centre for Sustainable Community Development
  • Certificate Program for Community Economic
  • Development Professionals
  • Certificate in Community Economic Development
  • Post-Baccalaureate Diploma in Community Economic Development


Assembly of First Nations – First Nations Guide to Housing Policy

Aboriginal Mapping Network
Ph:  604-682-4141 (Ecotrust Canada)

Canadian Centre for Community Renewal

Canadian Executive Services Overseas (CESO) Aboriginal Services
Ph: 604-986-4566 or 1-800-986-4566

Canadian Institute of Planners
Ph: 1-800-207-2138

Centre for Innovative and Entrepreneurial Leadership
Ph: 1-800-661-1395

Ecotrust Canada
Ph: 604-682-4141

Federation of Canadian Municipalities

First Nation Alliance 4 Land Management
Ph: 250-828-9804

First Nations in BC Resource Portal
Ph: 250-828-9804

First Nations National Building Officers Association (FNNBOA)

First Nations Technology Council
Ph: 1-888-921-9939

Fraser Basin Council
Ph: 604-488-5350

Idea Rating Sheets

Natural Resources Canada
Ph: 604-666-5313

The Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development
Ph: 604-874-8558

The Planning Institute of British Columbia
Ph: 1-866-696-5031

Social Planning and Research Council of BC (SPARC)
Ph: 604-718-7733

Statistics Canada
Ph: 1-800-263-1136

Tamarack – An Institute for Community Engagement
Ph: 519-885-5155

Union of BC Municipalities
Ph: 604-270-8226


1) Capacity Building

Aboriginal Financial Officers Association of BC First Nations Financial Code Toolbox.  North Vancouver: Aboriginal Financial Officers Association of BC, 2004.

Bopp, Michael, Judy Bopp. Recreating the World: A Practical Guide to Building Sustainable Communities. Cochrane: Four Worlds Press, 2011.

First Nations Public Service Initiative.  First Nation Administrator: Primary Duties and Core Competencies.  Vancouver: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2003.

First Nations Summit.  Capacity Assessment for First Nations: A Guidebook, Survey Instrument and Model Resource Plan.  North Vancouver: First Nations Summit.

Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development

Kaner, Sam. Facilitator’s Guide to Particpatory Decision-Making. San Francisco: Community At Work, 2007.

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.  Good Public Works Management in First Nations Communities: Building Capacity for Sound Public Works in First Nations Communities: A Planning Handbook.  Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000.

McBride, John, Graham MacDonell, Charlene Smoke and Colin Sanderson.  Rebuilding First Nations: Tools, Traditions and Relationships.  Burnaby, BC: Community Economic Development Centre at Simon Fraser University, 2002.

Phillips, Darrell. Moving Toward a Stronger Future: An Aboriginal Resource Guide for Community Development. Wanipigow: Little Black Bear & Associates, 2011.

2) Community Assessment and Program Planning

Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, BC Region. A Practical Guide to Housing: How to Access Housing Subsidies.  Ottawa: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2010.

BC Assembly of First Nations.  BC AFN Governance Toolkit: A Guide to Nation Building.  Vancouver: BC Assembly of First Nations, 2012.

Centre for Innovative and Entrepreneurial Leadership (CIEL) Community Life Cycle Matrix —

First Nations Working Group on Performance Measurement and Departmental Audit and Evaluation Branch, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.  First Nation Self-Evaluation of Community Programs: A Guidebook on Performance Measurement.  Canada: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1998. 

SWOT Analysis Tools

3) Data Collection and Mapping

Aberley, Doug, ed.  Boundaries of Home: Mapping for Local Empowerment.  Gabriola Island, BC: New Catalyst, 1993.

National Aboriginal Forestry Association, Natural Resources Canada and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. National Aboriginal Forest Resource and Land Management Guidelines: A Community Approach. Ottawa: Natural Resources Canada, and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1995.

Tobias, Terry. Chief Kerry's Moose: a guidebook to land use and occupancy mapping, research design and data collection. Union of BC Indian Chiefs and Ecotrust Canada, 2000.

Aboriginal Mapping Network

4) Community Development and Planning

British Columbia Energy Aware Committee.  A Tool Kit for Community Energy Planning in BC.  Vancouver: British Columbia Energy Aware Committee, 2006.

British Columbia Energy Aware Committee.  Community Energy & Emissions Planning: A Guide for BC Local Governments.  Vancouver: British Columbia Energy Aware Committee, 2008.

British Columbia Ministry of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation.  A Guide to Aboriginal Organizations and Services in British Columbia. Victoria: Ministry of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation, 2011.

Canada Green Building Council. Sustainable Communities Toolkit. Vancouver: Canada Green Building Council, 2012.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.  Practices of Sustainable Communities. Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 2003.

The Community Planning Resources Website

The Community Planning Website

Dalhousie University.  First Nations Community Planning Model and Workbook.  Halifax:  Cities and Environment Unit, Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Dalhousie University, 2003

Frank, Flo and Anne Smith.  The Community Development Handbook: A Tool to Build Community Capacity.  Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1999.

Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.  First Nations Communications Toolkit.  Ottawa: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2011.

Lewis, Mike and Frank Green.  Strategic Planning for the Community Economic Development Practitioner.  Vancouver: Westcoast Development Group, 1992.

Palermo, Frank, ed.  A Vision of the Future: Public Involvement in Community Planning.  Halifax: Dalhousie University Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urban and Rural Planning, 2000.

Palermo, Frank, ed.  Wamatcook: Ideas Toward a Community Plan.  Halifax: Dalhousie University Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urban and Rural Planning, 2000.

Palermo, Frank, ed.  Bear River Resource Project.  Halifax: Dalhousie University Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urban and Rural Planning, 2000.

Planning Ourselves In Group.  Planning Ourselves In: Women and the Community Planning Process: A Tool Kit for Women and Planners.  Burnaby: Planning Ourselves in Group, 1994.

Selkregg, Sheila A.  Community Strategic Plan Guide and Form: A Straightforward Way to Get What You Need.  Palmer, AK: U.S. Department of Agriculture-Rural Development, 2001.


Action Plan / Work Plan

Proposals for action, often in the form of a list of steps required, who should take them, and when.

Business Plans

The business plan is a written document that details a proposed or existing venture.  It seeks to capture the vision, goals, current status, expected needs, defined markets and projected results of the business.  Development of the business plan helps to clarify the organization's plans and direction.

Community Analysis

A collection, synthesis, and analysis of community data, employing a type of SWOT analysis.  Analysis includes identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and causes in key planning areas of governance, lands and resources, health, social, culture, economy, and infrastructure development.

Community Endorsement

Through a method best suited to a community, such as through a vote, three-reading process, or other mechanism, the community endorses the final version of the Comprehensive Community Plan.

Community Engagement

Different methods of engagement to gather community members' views and priorities can be used, such as dialogue sessions, consultation, outreach, kitchen meetings, and interviews.

Comprehensive Community Planning (CCP)

Comprehensive community planning is a holistic process that enables a community to build a roadmap to sustainability, self-sufficiency and improved governance capacity.  It is a new approach to planning, where the process is steered by the community rather than a small group or committee.

Community Profiling

Method of reaching an understanding of the needs and resources of a community with the active involvement of the community.

Community Visioning

Thinking collectively about what the future could be for a community.  Term used to describe group working processes which help a community to develop shared visions for the future of a site, area or organization.

Development Plan

Document that sets out, in writing and/or in maps and diagrams, the policies and proposals for the development and use of land and buildings in a community.

Emergency Planning

All aspects of planning for, and responding to, emergencies including natural disasters, fires and other emergency situations that may affect a whole community.

Environmental Impact Assessment

Process where all the potential impacts a development will have on the environment are identified and their significance assessed.  This is increasingly becoming a statutory requirement before planning permission is granted by a local authority.

Feasibility Study

Examination of the viability of an idea or approach, typically resulting in a report.

Focus Group

Small group of people who work through an issue in workshop sessions.


Big picture, results-oriented statements about what a community or organization wants to achieve in fulfilling its mission and mandate.

Governance Structures

The way a community organizes itself to best meet the needs of its citizens.  Governance structures include the political bodies (typically Chief and Council, Boards of Directors), administration (staff), arms-length entities (Health or Treaty Societies), and community groups.

Indian Land Registry System

Database managed by Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada containing information on all related registered land instruments, such as designations, surrenders, permits, and Certificates of Possession.


Measures used to track progress on achieving results.  Indicators for community plans typically work best, and are most meaningful, when they are chosen by the community.

Land Use Plan

A land use plan designates the general location and intensity of a particular use, and is composed of detailed maps and written text.  This plan can be used for policy and bylaw development governing uses.


A drawing representing a surface or area, used to support decision-making in planning processes.  Typical maps used in a planning process are base maps, outlining current land use and infrastructure; resource maps (including topographical, aerial photographs, traditional use maps); and land status maps, such as those available through the Registry Index Plans (RIPS).


Physical plotting of various characteristics of an area in two dimensions.  May be done individually or communally.


Stepping stones for achieving goals.  They should contain measurable targets that can be evaluated.  They should be able to meet the S.M.A.R.T test: specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and realistic time period, for achieving results.

Official Community Plan

In British Columbia, the legislative requirement for municipalities to have community plans.

Performance Measures

Measures that track progress on achieving results.  Performance measures should be clearly defined and reliable, and help to determine if progress is being made toward desired results.

Public Forum

Public meeting with an emphasis on debate and discussion.


The effect arising from something or the benefit from a course of action.

Resource Survey

Survey to identify local resources, including people, organizations, finance and equipment, among others.

Risk Assessment

Examination of risks arising from one course of action versus another course of action.  Forms the basis for risk reduction and mitigation, including recommendations on communication activities, and financial and planning best practices.

Skills Inventory

Assessment of available skills and talent, also known as a skills audit or skills survey.

Strategic Plan

A plan setting out how a community or organization will achieve its missions, goals and objectives over the long term.


Mechanisms and processes for goals to be attained.

SWOT Analysis

Determination of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats affecting a community or organization's ability to achieve its vision and mission.

Traditional Use Study

A study documenting traditional uses of an area over an extended period of time, including information based on interviews conducted with community members and research from historical documents.  Can be part of baseline information for a community aspiring to develop a community plan.


Set of beliefs or standards that an organization or community believes in and operates from.  Values guide day-to-day operations, linking operations and long term direction.

Vision Statement

Identifies the future ideal state of where the organization or community intends to be.


This is the third edition of the CCP Handbook. We welcome your feedback — please contact us with comments and suggestions at:


Community Initiatives Manager
Community Development
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
Canada, BC Region
600-1138 Melville Street,
Vancouver, BC
V6E 4S3

Phone: (604) 775-5110
Toll free: 1-800-567-9604
Fax: (604) 775-7149

Date of Printing: September 2016
Version: 3rd edition

Date modified: