CCP Handbook - Comprehensive Community Planning for First Nations in British Columbia Second Edition
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Published under the authority of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and Federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians Ottawa, 2010
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© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development, 2012
Table of Contents
- Comprehensive Community Planning: An Introduction
- Comprehensive Community Planning: Step-by-Step
Within the CCP handbook, you will find Planning in Action pages where individual First Nations share their stories about how they approached planning in their communities, their challenges and successes, and their results.
Piloting the Way
Integrating Community Vision and Values
Expanding the Scope of a CCP
Implementing Quick-Start Projects
Musqueam First Nation
Monitoring and Evaluating the Plan with a Community Census
The second edition of the Comprehensive Community Planning (CCP) Handbook comes after seven years of passionate and inspiring work within the CCP community in British Columbia (BC). Since the handbook was first published in 2006, many First Nations in BC have begun their own CCP journey. A growing number of completed plans are being implemented with great success and significant benefit to the health and wellness of their communities.
With more and more communities moving into the implementation phase of CCP, the need to incorporate lessons learned and strengthen the implementation, and monitoring and evaluation sections of the handbook became obvious. In this edition, you will see that these sections have been expanded. You will also find more tools and resources to support the successful implementation of your own community's plan. Other additions to the handbook include information about social media and the CCP Mentorship Initiative, which have been instrumental to the planning success of many First Nations.
Although there have been many lessons learned over the years, some of the key aspects to a successful planning process remain the same:
- For planning to have the most meaningful and lasting effects, it must be truly community-based and community-driven; a plan that reflects the needs and desires of its people in a fundamental way has staying power.
- Meaningfully engaging everyone in the community to ensure that their voices are heard and incorporated into the plan takes a lot of time and energy – and is worth every minute!
- Planning is a core competency of good governance; the single best thing an external agent or consulting firm can do to support a community is to build the capacity of members in the nation to lead the process themselves.
We would like to acknowledge the original five communities who piloted CCP projects in 2004-6, and whose experiences formed the basis for this handbook – Okanagan, Lytton, Squiala, We Wai Kai (Cape Mudge) and Yekooche. A special thanks to Chris Derrickson from Westbank First Nation and Andrew Moore from T'Sou-ke Nation who put pen to paper to make this second edition of the CCP Handbook a reality. Finally, we would also like to thank the CCP champions in BC who have led planning work in their communities, participants from all of the past CCP workshops, and the CCP experts who have become mentors to others. The comments, stories and lessons learned they have shared have been instrumental in the development of CCP workshops and resource materials such as this handbook.
In British Columbia (BC) there are 198 Indian Bands or First Nations, their culture as varied as the province’s terrain. There are over 30 languages spoken by First Nations in BC. Language plays an important role in BC First Nation culture and identity.
Comprehensive Community Planning: An Introduction
The First Nations of British Columbia have rich and varied cultures, histories and traditions. They are becoming increasingly involved in comprehensive community planning (CCP) as a way of embracing change and planning a better future for their communities.
Comprehensive community planning is a holistic process that enables a community to build a roadmap to sustainability, self-sufficiency and improved governance capacity.
It is a community-led approach to planning, where the process is driven and owned by all community members rather than by a small group or committee. Many First Nations communities across Canada are already engaged in planning and experiencing
Planning is an important tool on the path to self-governance and building capacity in First Nations communities. Each community requires a unique approach to planning that can be adapted to their culture and traditions — it can help individual First Nations make a positive difference in addressing the specific issues of their own communities.
The CCP Handbook breaks down comprehensive community planning into manageable stages for BC communities ready to tackle the planning process.
You will find step-by-step descriptions of the entire process, and read about lessons learned by BC First Nations who have tested various approaches to community planning. The handbook includes practical tools to encourage community involvement and develop the plan based on the community's vision and goals. The final section includes funding, educational and planning resources to support the development and implementation of your community's plan.
What is Comprehensive Community Planning?
A Holistic Process
Comprehensive community planning (CCP) is a holistic process undertaken with broad community participation.
A comprehensive approach:
- enables the community to establish a vision for its future and implement projects to achieve this vision,
- helps ensure that community projects and programs are thought through, make sense and are the best use of resources,
- and integrates and links all other plans the community has produced.
Processes that are driven by the community, for the community, are more likely to result in positive change. That's why the CCP process is inclusive and represents the perspectives of all members, whether they reside within or outside the community. All members of the community, including Elders, youth, and family representatives, can offer unique and valuable perspectives on community needs, values and priorities.
A CCP addresses key planning areas, all of which are interrelated and interdependent: governance, land and resources, health, infrastructure development, culture, social issues and the economy. Consideration of all key planning areas through one unified process defines community planning as a holistic and integrated exercise that can lead to sustainable development.
Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland Commission, 1987)
Sustainable development takes a long-term view. It encompasses all areas of our lives, including the economy, the environment (lands and resources), and the social and cultural aspects of our communities, including governance, education and health. Sustainable development is the guiding principle of comprehensive community planning.
Indigenous people have a tradition of living "sustainable" lives, taking a long-term view on sharing and protecting the land, the animals and the plants so that they can sustain future generations in perpetuity. In effect, this is planning for sustainability.
Each First Nation will decide on its own what sustainability means to them and how they can use comprehensive community planning to achieve the longevity of their people, culture, environment and economy.
For more information, visit:
- An Introduction to Sustainability:
- Towards Sustainable Communities – Resources for Citizens and their Governments:
- Sustainable Communities Online:
A CCP is:
"Comprehensive" because it includes planning for all aspects of the community.
"Community" because it is a process that is driven and owned by everyone in the community.
Benefits of Planning for Your Community
Comprehensive community planning provides a framework and process for the community to explore its core values, and to establish a vision for the future and work toward achieving it.
Planning can benefit the entire community by creating positive change in a proactive way, while also protecting the values of the community. Planning can improve the performance of the band administration and any related organizations, as well as enhance the community"s governance tools and capacity.
Once in place, an effective community plan can:
- Empower the community. The community becomes more self-aware, creates its own future, and has the tools to respond to change in an effective manner.
- Improve performance. Having a plan leads to informed decision-making, combines fragmented efforts, decreases duplication, enables efficient use of resources, and identifies and solves organizational problems.
- Build teamwork and expertise. Planning improves communications within the First Nation's government, builds managerial and staff skills and supports capacity-building efforts.
- Coordinate future development. The planning process identifies the community's priorities for the use of its land base and territory, anticipates future infrastructure and development needs, and helps to prevent conflicting developments.
- Protect resources. The community is able to identify and protect vulnerable or valuable areas, traditions, or cultural values and practices.
- Celebrate traditions and culture. The cultural aspects of the community may be a focus of the planning process.
- Promote healing and reconciliation. Planning helps the community to work together to proactively address negative or painful community issues by establishing a positive vision for the future, and by taking the steps necessary to achieve that vision.
- Create economic opportunities. Examining and identifying sustainable economic opportunities is an essential part of creating a Comprehensive Community Plan. Having a plan in place will also help to attract investment.
The scope of comprehensive community planning may vary greatly depending on where the community's interests are in relation to matters such as treaty negotiations, approach to governance, and the extent to which it is addressing land and resource issues within its traditional territories.
"Comprehensive Community Planning is about using theories and principles from outside and incorporating our world view, to carry forward as our ancestors would have wanted."
Lydia Hwitsum, Cowichan Tribes
What's Needed to Make Planning Work
There are some basic needs that apply to all phases of the planning process:
- Community engagement and support
- Capacity building and training
- Social media
The Power of Process
It isn't every day that members are asked to contribute to a plan that includes a vision for the future of their community! The opportunity to come together to tell stories and develop a shared dream for the future can be a powerful, healing process. Don't rush to "finish" the CCP. Instead, take the time to hear from members and incorporate their ideas, building trust and respect along the way. Many First Nations have said that the process of developing the CCP has been as important, if not more important, than the plan itself.
"Planning is an opportunity to empower our community and our people. It strengthens our connection to our inner selves and to the outer world."
Gwen Phillips, Ktunaxa Nation
"We were a community that had experienced significant trauma. Through our CCP process, we have started working through those issues."
Jessie Hemphill, Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw Nation
Community Engagement and Support
Successful comprehensive community planning processes are those that are community-driven. All sectors of the community should have an opportunity to participate, including Elders, youth, and members residing within and outside the community. The plan must accommodate the needs of community members in order to have validity, credibility and member support for ongoing implementation.
With engagement, the community becomes a source of new ideas for discussion and action. Participation encourages people to take responsibility for initiating and implementing projects, and also creates momentum and sustains support. Engagement expands the leadership base of the community and presents opportunities to transfer planning and responsibility to other community members over time.
Establishing effective community engagement can be a difficult task. The following diagram provides some suggested solutions to some common challenges.
- Unaware of meeting
- Not enough notice provided
- Lack of understanding about planning process
- Meetings held at inappropriate times
- Other obligations at home or work
- No transportation/inaccessibility
- Lack of daycare/child care
- Weather related
- Create a communications strategy
- Book meeting at set time and dates
- Supply agendas to show meeting content
- Provide minutes or notes for those who were unable to attend
- Show progress with newsletters, posters
- Provide information to the public
- Use a survey rather than a meeting
- Book individual meetings, lunches, home visits at flexible times
- Provide transportation to meetings
- Provide childcare services
- Hold meetings indoors
- Non-neutral atmosphere
- Lack of interest
- Lack of leadership
- Lack of trust
- Lack of motivation
- No cooperation
- They feel their input is not important
- Defeatist attitude
- Fear of being wrong, speaking up, expressing opinions
- Assume meeting will be run by non-First Nation person
- Scared of repercussions
- Family or political domination
- Expectation they should be paid
- Friendly, welcoming attitude
- Involve people on a personal level
- Get children involved
- Neutral meeting place
- Provide focus group sessions or home visits
- Provide examples of how planning will benefit the community
- Acknowledge and appreciate participation
- Make people understand the importance of their input
- Keep giving positive feedback
- Take all ideas into consideration
- Have a facilitator
- Have a neutral chairperson
- Anonymous suggestion box
- Put personal issues aside
- Give credit to community members and acknowledge their accomplishments
- Address issues and look for solutions
Capacity Building and Training
Although First Nations have been successfully planning for generations, the concept of a community-based, community-driven plan may be new to many individuals within their communities. Members may not be familiar with the steps of developing a comprehensive community plan. Strategic partners, such as consultants, may be engaged to perform the technical work, but are typically not community members and will not be responsible for implementing the plan. That's why communities need to build the internal capacity to actively lead in planning and implementation.
A planning team consisting of community members should lead all planning activities and work closely with strategic partners. This enables planning team members to learn from their partners and build their own planning capacity. Another means of building capacity is to encourage community members to pursue post-secondary education opportunities in planning-related areas.
The planning team might engage strategic partners to hold training sessions for the team and other community members, to ensure knowledge and skill transfer on issues such as:
- The planning process and model(s),
- How to encourage community engagement,
- How to ensure community buy-in and support,
- Effective communication skills,
- Effective facilitation of group meetings,
- Preparing work plans,
- Researching information and mapping,
- Proposal writing and fundraising,
- Managing contracts (e.g. for consultants), and
- Conflict resolution.
"A comprehensive community plan has to touch every part of us."
Gwen Phillips, Ktunaxa Nation
Effective communication, both within and outside the community, provides a foundation for the successful development and implementation of a comprehensive community plan.
Effective and regular information sharing within the community ensures that the community is up-to-date on planning activities, understands the activities of the planning process and the planning team, and has the knowledge to actively participate in the process. Whether a newsletter, poster, or PowerPoint presentation, communications materials should be informative, engaging and written in plain language. Clear communications will help to foster good will towards the planning process.
Communicating outside the community — with other levels of government, private sector/industry, and academic institutions — can help your community coordinate its plan with other local or regional plans. Outside communications activities can also help your community gain support and access funds for the development and implementation of the plan. Keeping this network active after the plan has been completed can lead to cooperation, joint projects, awareness of the role of First Nations in the region, and financial support for implementation of the plan.
Developing a Communications Plan
Depending on the size and needs of your community, it may be useful to develop a full communications plan, which would include elements, such as:
- overall strategy
- goals and objectives
- target audiences
- key messages
More information about communications plans can be found in the First Nations Communications Toolkit produced by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (see reference section for more information).
Social media websites and applications allow users to interact with one another by sharing, discussing and creating content. Examples of social media platforms include Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia, blogs and YouTube. Social media is becoming more and more popular, and can be accessed on mobile phones as well as the Internet.
Social media can be a useful tool to incorporate into the development of a CCP. For example:
- Create a Facebook page or group for your community's CCP. Use it to advertise events and get feedback from community members. It's also a good way to connect with community members who may not live near the community anymore.
- Create YouTube videos to promote your CCP and get people interested.
- Use instant polling (e.g. www.polleverywhere.com) at community meetings. You can take a quick poll by asking attendees to send a text message on their cell phone.
- Start a blog to chronicle the CCP process in your community (with platforms such as Posterous, Blogger, Wordpress, or Weebly). If you are going to start a blog, commit to updating your blog at least three or four times per week, otherwise people may stop reading it. You can write a couple of posts at a time, and set the blog to "autopost" them throughout the week. Also consider linking your Facebook, YouTube channel, Twitter feed and other social media profiles to your blog, so that you only have to post something once to the blog and it will automatically update all of your social media sites.
CCP and Facebook
In the lead-up to the 2011 CCP Workshop in Penticton, Jessie Hemphill from Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw Nations launched a Facebook group to initiate planning discussions and to begin building relationships among workshop participants. Following the workshop, the conversations, questions, stories and ideas kept flowing and the number of participants doubled. You can join the dialogue by going to facebook.com, and searching for "CCP: BC First Nations."
There are many different phases involved in the comprehensive community planning (CCP) process. Considerable time and resources, both human and financial, are required to carry out a CCP process and implement the outcomes. It is essential that your community begin planning early to ensure it has adequate resources to be successful.
Resources are required for:
- Involving the community: meetings, newsletters, website, referenda or other approval processes, etc.
- Supporting the planning team: meetings; technical or computer-related equipment; photocopying, faxing, and other administrative costs; honoraria (if offered); capacity-building and training, etc.
- Identifying and updating technology needs as part of supporting planning activities.
- Working with strategic partners, particularly planning and technical consultants.
- Implementing projects: some may require retaining a project manager or someone with specialized expertise; some will require program dollars; some may be implemented through re-focusing of the efforts of existing staff and/or existing funding; others may have little or no financial cost at all.
In the early stages of CCP, identifying all of the steps involved and resources required to successfully implement your plan can be overwhelming. A first step is to discuss CCP with other First Nations, planners, or AANDC staff. They can provide information on CCP and share knowledge on relevant resources such as other First Nations involved in the CCP process.
Refer to the resources section to help you learn more about planning through educational programs, BC planning organizations and planning publications. You may also want to speak with different planning consultants to choose the right strategic partner and technical support for your community.
Communities need to identify several sources of secure, long-term funding to develop and implement the comprehensive community plan. The planning team and others should research, apply for, and secure different sources of support, such as funds from government or the private sector, contributions from your First Nation's administration and in-kind donations. Developing a good network of planning contacts can also help you to identify funding sources. Refer to the resources section for a list of funding resources for planning and planning-related processes.
Sharing of ideas and success stories between communities has been a natural part of the comprehensive community planning (CCP) process from the start. Now, a new mentorship initiative is taking that process further. The CCP Mentorship Initiative, which began in early 2012, brings First Nation planners who are new to CCP together with more experienced planning champions from other First Nation communities.
It's proving to be a win-win scenario. The communities being mentored are learning from the on-the-ground expertise, resources and tools that the mentors bring to the table. In turn, the experienced planners are finding it very rewarding to learn from and build the confidence and skill sets of the mentees, who are well-positioned to make a real difference to their people.
Perhaps one of the greatest benefits of the initiative is that the communities are developing relationships that will last a lifetime.
"Reciprocity is a word we have traditionally used among our people. It feels good to be able to offer support and, at the same time, there is so much we learn from each other."
Penticton Indian Band
"Having the support of someone who has done the process, and knows the tools and tricks really helps relieve the stress. You get into the mode of " Yes, I can do it!"
"The mentorship initiative is really a model for sustainable capacity building. It allows for more organic relationships to arise between communities and colleagues than you typically get with a consultant. It creates peer-to-peer relationships, connections between communities and friendships."
"Planning in First Nations communities needs to be culturally appropriate. It is clear that it is better to use First Nation practitioners. They understand the challenges and can suggest much more appropriate and culturally sensitive approaches."
"Who better to mentor a First Nation community than another First Nation? It's so rewarding to share cultures, ideas and processes. Not only are we learning a lot about other communities but we are creating life-long relationships."
Musqueam Indian Band
Piloting the Way
Lytton First Nation
With a population of approximately 1,950, Lytton First Nation is part of the larger Nlaka'pamux Nation and is made up of 56 reserves located at the confluence of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers in southern BC.
Building a Planning Team
Lytton First Nation developed a new approach for engaging with the membership: we formed a steering committee consisting of community members only. This approach allowed the membership to engage in open discussions without being reserved about honestly voicing their opinions, which sometimes happens in the presence of political leaders or administrative staff. As a result, a true community-based plan evolved from the membership. The leadership fully supported the initiative and listened to what had to be said. We had incredible support from Chief and Council, when the document was reviewed and we will use the information to move forward.Engaging the community
The community of Lytton is a very consultative community. Committees provide advice in many different areas, such as capital and infrastructure, service delivery, finance and governance. We incorporated this approach into our CCP process. We had participation from Elders, youth and community members at large. We shared information about CCP through the steering committee, by reporting directly to Chief and Council, and by giving updates through staff meetings, newsletters and community meetings.
Dealing with time pressures
If anyone asks how we could develop a comprehensive community plan in such a short period of time, the answer is that we had a lot of planning done before we began. We had a governance model that separates the roles of Chief and Council and administrators, and a five-year strategic plan. Also, we have solid financial management.
This CCP pilot project provided leadership skill development for the steering committee, committee chair and co-chair. The Lytton First Nation lands department had the opportunity to receive extensive training in GIS mapping and database management. We now have the ability to plot our future. The first draft of the community plan presented to Chief and Council and administration staff, gave them the opportunity to further refine their planning skills and their understanding of community members' needs. In total, more than 30 people from our community gained experience in planning.
Lytton has a five-year strategic plan, which identifies which committee will do the necessary work, based on input by committees (infrastructure, finance, etc). Each committee includes relevant staff (program managers) and councillors. They work as a team in prioritizing actions, working toward their implementation, and determining whether to invite other partners (both internal and external) and which ones. The committees will also break down the planned activities/projects identified in the strategic plan by years, as some projects are not immediately achievable.
The Administrator assists each committee in identifying funding resources. She will be informed on each committee's priorities and will, in turn, inform Chief and Council. The community will be updated on priority actions/projects at one annual meeting (at a minimum) and through the First Nation's newsletter.
Examples of success
As a result of the plan, we completed an agricultural study. AANDC's information on Lytton was 20 years outdated. We updated it. We also conducted a massive health survey on the population in the community including people with disabilities, Elders, etc. Our study contains some very interesting information. We also looked at how our organization is structured and redefined our organizational charts. We found our community has a service delivery system for almost 2,000 people. The community is working diligently to access services from different partners – other systems, local schools, etc. – not just AANDC.
The Planning Cycle: Spiral DiagramThe spiral diagram, which appears at the beginning of chapters throughout the handbook, is meant to reflect the continuous, non-linear process of planning. Although the planning process is depicted in four stages in this handbook, from pre-planning through to monitoring and evaluation, planning does not always progress neatly from one phase to the next. In fact, when you launch into a CCP process, it is more likely that the community is already implementing a project from an earlier planning process. Or, perhaps, in the midst of planning, the community decides to implement a quick-start project or go back to doing more research on community history. As the spiral illustrates, the planning process grows each time you move through the stages; more community input, greater focus, and increased knowledge add depth and richness to the planning process.
Comprehensive Community Planning: Step-by-Step
Creating a successful plan is an ongoing, step-by-step process.* Planning doesn't end at a certain point, but moves forward through each step and continues as you achieve results in your community. Planning can begin at any point in the cycle, and people can become involved in the community's planning activities at any stage.
Community involvement is essential for all stages of the planning process.
The four stages of comprehensive community planning are:
- Pre-planning Steps
- Assess community readiness
- Develop a budget, identify funding
- Build a planning team
- Build a work plan
- Planning Steps
- Gather background information
- Complete community analysis
- Create a vision statement and values
- Build a comprehensive strategic framework
- Set goals and objectives
- Identify activities and projects
- Create an implementation strategy
- Implementation Steps
- Prioritize actions (policies, programs and projects)
- Identify project management team
- Obtain necessary approvals and establish good communications and reporting plans
- Identify potential partners to support the project
- Identify funding and other resources
- Create work plans, budgets, feasibility studies and business plans
- Project management
- Learn lessons, develop best practices and celebrate successes
- Maximize community training, mentorship, capacity building and employment
- Monitoring & Evaluation Steps
- Analyze results
- Review and recommend
- Revise and update
- Share and celebrate your community's accomplishments
* Please remember that the steps suggested within this handbook are intended only as a guide, and should be modified to meet the specific needs and circumstances of your community.
Pre-planning Getting started
- Pre-planning is the time to:
- assess whether the community is ready to start planning,
- inform the community and its leaders about the planning process and gain their support, and
- prepare the groundwork for an open, inclusive and effective planning process.
- By the end of pre-planning you will have a planning team and coordinator in place, a work plan to guide the planning process, and strategies to keep the community well-informed and actively engaged in the planning process.
- The planning process is community-driven and benefits from a variety of perspectives. Pre-planning can be initiated by any community member, but works best if developed and supported by the majority of the community and its leaders.
- Encourage all members of the community to participate including Elders, youth, family heads, nation administration, chiefs, councillors and general community members. Each brings a unique point of view to the planning process and their involvement ensures that the diverse needs of the community are being considered.
- Sharing information is a key component of the pre-planning stage. People are more supportive of an idea or concept if they understand what it is about. Inform the general community, as well as Chief and Council, about the purpose of the planning process, its outcomes, and its steps and phases. Keeping the community up to date will help build support for your goals. Share information about the planning model and process, the structure of the planning team, and ways the community can participate in planning.
- Building community support can happen formally and informally. A formal process could include establishing a community mandate for undertaking comprehensive community planning, and confirming it through a referendum or some similar means. Informal processes could include generating feedback on the planning process through surveys or community meetings.
- A Planning Champion will often introduce the idea of planning to the community and leadership, and can drive the process, gain support and help build a planning team. A planning champion can be any community member. They may come forward as a result of a trigger in the community — issues such as a proposed land development, a move into the treaty process or a crisis that gets people talking. The planning champion needs to be based in the community, respected by community members and prepared for a long-term commitment to the planning process.
Finding a CCP Champion
CCP champions are more than just nine-to-five employees in the band office. They are the backbone of your community's planning process, bringing enthusiasm, curiosity and fun to the table. CCP Champions may find themselves designing posters, organizing activities for youth, having tea with Elders, researching history, cooking meals, developing surveys and arranging childcare. CCP champions bring people together, make them feel comfortable and included, and have a passion for working with and learning from members of their community. Many CCP champions have had little or no planning training when they begin. What they do have is a willingness to learn, to listen and to get out into the community to start talking to people.
"You already have natural planners in your community."
Gwen Phillips, Ktunaxa Nation
Step 1: Assess Community Readiness
Is your community ready to start the comprehensive planning process? Before taking the first steps, the community needs to assess whether or not it is capable of going through the planning process at this time. Are the necessary people, capacity and resources available?
Community readiness includes support for the process by the community and leadership. If your community is ready to go ahead, you may wish to ask Council to endorse the planning process through a Band Council Resolution or similar mechanism. From the beginning, it is important to build understanding and support by sharing information with the community and leadership.
If the planning process is postponed for now, consider developing a plan of action for getting the community ready at a future time. (See the resources section for publications and other resources)
Step 2: Develop a Budget, Identify Funding
Funding is needed throughout the planning process. Pre-planning is the time to figure out a budget for the whole process and identify potential sources of funding.
What would funds be used for? They may be needed to support a planning coordinator and trainee, for technical support, for holding community meetings, for writing and copying information updates, or for a variety of other activities that your planning committee determines will need financial support during the planning process.
Once you decide what funding is needed for, it's time to:
- develop a budget for the planning process (it doesn't need to be exact),
- identify possible funding sources (see the resources section for potential sources), and
- write proposals to those funding sources.
Build a Communications and Engagement Plan
Your community members are the foundation of your CCP. Keeping members informed, getting their input and encouraging their participation in meetings, events and working groups will be central to the success of your planning process. So, how are you going to get them involved?
Spend some time in this early planning stage developing a plan for how you will engage members in the CCP process. Will you have large community gatherings, smaller meetings, family sessions, surveys and/or one-on-one interviews? Will you join existing groups and meetings to ensure that you get to where the people are?
Next, add ideas for how you will keep everyone current on the CCP's progress. Will you share regular updates via e-mail, newsletter, website, Facebook and/or by speaking with individual community members? Will you put posters up around the community, deliver newsletters by hand and/or go door-to-door to make sure everyone hears the news?
How you engage and communicate with community members will depend on the size of your community and how they are most likely to receive information. Remember that an informed and engaged community is your best bet for a powerful planning process.
"Not one single person owns the plan. It belongs to the community."
Elaine Alec, Penticton Indian Band
Step 3: Build a Planning Team
In bringing together a planning team, you will assemble a group that represents the many different sections and areas of expertise within your community.
Together, the planning team will:
- lead the planning process,
- conduct research,
- share information with the community and other partners,
- provide updates to community and leadership on planning activities,
- work closely with any strategic partners to develop the comprehensive community plan, and
- review drafts and finalize the comprehensive community plan.
The planning team could form smaller working groups to lead different aspects of the planning process.
You may wish to draft a Terms of Reference for your planning team. This document summarizes the guiding principles of the team including the purpose and scope of the planning process, how you will engage community members, what timeframe you are considering, and roles and responsibilities.
Step 4: Research
Comprehensive community planning is unique to each group and its situation. Research can help you understand how to make the planning process relevant to your community.
Learn about comprehensive community planning by talking to other First Nations and neighbouring municipalities/districts, by using the Internet and by checking the references listed at the end of this Handbook.
Research will help you find answers to the following questions:
- What does comprehensive community planning mean?
- What are the benefits of comprehensive community planning?
- What comprehensive community planning models exist?
- Which model, or combination of models, is the best approach for our community?
- What are our key planning areas?
- What techniques can we use to ensure community engagement and support for our planning process?
- What principles will we adopt to guide our planning process?
Planning principles can act as a guide or checklist for the planning process. Principles are "accepted truths" — things that everyone believes are true and add value to what we do.
Here are some examples of principles: community- based, representative, inclusive, respectful, supported, integrated, results-based, easy to understand, and realistic.
Existing plans are central to CCP
Your community may already have plans and research sitting on the shelves from previous projects. The information in these documents will give you and your CCP team an excellent starting point for your work. Historical records, land use maps, and previously identified goals and priorities all feed into the CCP process. No one wants to repeat work that has already been done, so show the community how diligent you've been in pulling together related materials from the get-go!
Step 5: Build a Work Plan
Based on information discovered during the research step, the planning team will outline a comprehensive planning process for the community.
Then, this general outline will be developed into a more detailed work plan that sets out for each planning phase:
- What needs to be done (activities)?
- By whom (roles and responsibilities)?
- By when (timelines)?
- How much it will cost (budget)?
The tools section of this handbook contains practical tools and worksheets that can help during the pre-planning stage:
Tool 1: CIEL Community Life Cycle Matrix
A self-assessment tool from the Centre for Innovative and Entrepreneurial Leadership (CIEL) that looks at characteristics of thriving communities and helps assess readiness for the planning process
Tool 2: Components of a Proposal
Outlines the main sections of a typical funding proposal
Tool 3: Terms of Reference for a Planning Team
Example of a Terms of Reference document which outlines the planning team's goals, methods and responsibilities for the planning process
Tool 4: Comprehensive Community Planning Checklist
A detailed community planning checklist to use as a reference/guide for the entire planning process
Tool 5: How and When to Engage Community Members
Techniques for involving the community in the planning process
Tool 6: Ways to Increase Participation
Further techniques to inspire more participation from the community
Tool 7: Community Groups to Engage and Involve
A list of potential community groups who should be involved in all stages of the planning process, and how they can contribute
Tool 8: Communication Tips
Techniques for effectively communicating and sharing information with members of the community
Integrating Community Vision and Values
Westbank First Nation
Implementing a comprehensive community plan means more than just completing projects or implementing new programs. It also requires integrating the values, principles and cultural practices, identified through the planning process, into the administrative structure of your government operations, community service delivery and government organization.
Following suggestions in the comprehensive community plan and process, the Westbank First Nation placed culture and language at the heart of its planning.
Using Culture as a Framework
They used the story, How Food Was Given, and a traditional decision-making method, called Enowkinwixw, as a framework for their plan.
How Food Was Given tells of how the animal people, under the leadership of the Four Food Chiefs, prepared for the arrival of humans on earth. Following the lead of Chief Black Bear, the grand chief of all living things, Chief Spring Salmon, Chief Bitterroot and Chief Saskatoon Berry all agreed to give their lives for the humans. This story teaches principles of sacrifice, service and leadership, and the characters all embody further layers of wisdom and cultural knowledge. The community based its entire CCP plan on the Four Food Chiefs. Chief Black Bear represents governance, Chief Spring Salmon represents economy, Chief Bitterroot represents land, and Chief Saskatoon Berry represents community.
"Root the CCP in what it means to be a member of your nation."
Chris Derrickson, Westbank First Nation
Incorporating CCP values into other plans
During implementation, it became apparent that the WFN organization needed to reflect the cultural values expressed in The 2010 Westbank First Nation Community Plan. As a result, the WFN website, the Council Strategic Plan for Government Operations, and the WFN committee structure were all revised and reorganized to reflect the organization of the community plan around the Four Food Chiefs. This was accomplished in three stages.
First, the WFN website was reorganized under the Four Food Chiefs. This meant incorporating the same branding and format used in the plan, and integrating the language and cultural icons.
Second, the Chief and Council held a planning session to revise their strategic plan and align it with the Community Plan. As a result, the strategic plan uses the framework of the Four Food Chiefs to communicate Council's priorities and objectives to the members and staff.
Third, staff used the newly revised Council Strategic Plan to reorganize the committee structure of WFN under the Four Food Chiefs. Now, when the budget and annual reports are presented to the membership, they are structured around the Four Food Chiefs.
The outcome of all this work is an organizational structure that reflects the community's values, principles and culture. Chief Robert Louie remarked that, "This (CCP) is a document we can all be proud of. It represents the vision of the community and revives our culture and language in a way that is practical and relevant to our people."
Planning Creating the Plan
- In the planning stage, the community identifies its vision and values, and the specific steps that will be taken in order to realize that vision. Supported by the planning team, the community will:
- describe itself,
- analyze its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats,
- establish its vision and values,
- build a comprehensive planning framework that addresses all areas of community life (including goals and objectives, projects and activities, and priorities), and
- create a detailed plan for implementing activities and monitoring progress.
- The community must drive the planning process in determining its own vision, values, goals, objectives and activities/projects. Youth should be encouraged to become involved in the visioning process, as they are the leaders of the future. Community leaders can provide direction, encouragement and endorsement of the plan.
- Administration, including managers and staff, are excellent sources of information, particularly during the more detailed planning stages of identifying strengths and issues, developing goals, objectives and activities, and linking funds and resources to these activities. Because administration will be responsible, in large part, for implementing the plan, all managers and staff should be familiar with the plan, particularly in their areas of responsibility. It will be important for managers and staff from different departments to create effective communication processes so they can coordinate and cooperate on projects that affect a number of planning areas and departmental responsibilities.
"Understand where your community came from. Know your history and your people."
Chris Derrickson, Westbank First Nation
- The planning stage may involve strategic partners. The community may decide to hire a consultant with technical and planning expertise or use partners to help community members learn about the process and review existing planning documents. It is also useful to engage with other governments (e.g. municipalities or regional districts) or the private sector to review any plans already in place and/or to identify areas of possible cooperation.
- Once a comprehensive community plan has been developed, the plan will need to be vetted by the community. Awareness and endorsement are necessary for the plan to become a long-term guide for community development that transcends changes in political leadership. How your community endorses its plan will be specific to its circumstances and traditions. Possible options include:
- Community referendum: all eligible voters cast a ballot on whether or not they support the draft plan (the community determines the required level of approval).
- Vote at a community meeting: less formal mechanisms for approval could be a simple show of hands at a convened community meeting or a three-reading process where the plan is presented at a series of community meetings, followed by a vote during the last meeting.
- Traditional method: some communities may have an accepted traditional method of decision-making appropriate for approving the plan (e.g. the consensus of heads of families).
- Support and/or ratification from Chief and Council for the plan will help during implementation.
- Celebrate! Once the comprehensive community plan has been endorsed, a formal ceremony to celebrate is in order, where community leaders can acknowledge the community's wishes and commit to implementing the plan. This is also an opportunity to publicly communicate to others including neighbouring governments, the private sector and strategic partners, that the community now has a comprehensive community plan in place.
What does a CCP look like?
The CCP created by each community will be unique. The format for the final product should make sense for your community and for the people who will be reading and using it. Here are some examples of how CCPs can take shape:
- A printed booklet with photos and graphics
- A loose-leaf binder, so that sections can easily be removed and updated
- A spreadsheet with goals, objectives and projects
- A series of posters that outline the community vision, goals and activities
- A PowerPoint presentation highlighting the process and the plan
- Shorter, simplified versions of the above to distribute to households
Step 1: Gather Background Information
The first step in planning is to develop an understanding of the current situation in the community, including its extraordinary qualities. The planning team will need to summarize the findings in an overview document.
This step may involve research, mapping activities, and talking and meeting with community members. Start by gathering a wide range of information, including any existing plans and studies. Much of the information you need is already in your community or can be accessed from government partners. Existing material will help the team identify what gaps need to be filled in the gathered information and help them make efficient planning decisions.
Here is a sample checklist for gathering background information:
Housing and infrastructure development
Lands and resources (maps)
You can create surveys to gather community statistics and information on the interests and concerns of members. Surveys can be completed by hand, email or online using a website or Facebook page. Some communities have hired youth to go into the community with mobile devices (such as iPads or laptops) or paper surveys to get survey responses directly from each member.
When you create surveys, make sure to think carefully about what you are trying to learn, and how to ask the right questions. For example, instead of asking "Do we need a youth centre in our community?" (when it's likely that most people will say "yes") consider reframing the question to "What kind of activities or programs could we offer for youth in our community?" to get a broader response.
Here are some websites that you can use to create surveys:
- FluidSurveys.com: Since this website is Canadian-based, your data is protected under Canadian law (other websites may not protect your data).
- SurveyMonkey.com: This website can be used for free for surveys of up to 10 questions.
Step 2: Complete Community Analysis
Now you are ready to review the assembled background information and understand what needs to be changed or built on, based on the community's challenges and possibilities.
The analysis stage allows the community to:
- ask itself why its circumstances are what they are,
- understand why things work when they are successful,
- understand the root causes of its problems,
- identify how it can improve situations, and
- identify the opportunities it can take advantage of.
SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis provides a useful framework for community analysis. Ktunaxa Nation chose SWOT to mean "Start With Our Truth" as a means of openly and honestly acknowledging the causes for challenges within the community.
SWOT could be applied to each of the key planning areas – governance, lands and resources, health, social, culture, economy, and infrastructure development.
Step 3: Create Vision Statement and Values
In a community vision, members describe their hopes and dreams for their community in the future. A vision is a bold, yet realistic, picture of your community's future. For the purpose of comprehensive community planning, a time horizon of anywhere from 10 to 50 years is possible.
- refers to the elements that make up your community including people, lands and resources,
- and infrastructure is influenced by members' aspirations, interests, values, dreams, roots and potential.
To develop a vision, bring people together at community meetings or focus groups to describe, draw, paint, or act out their vision of the community's future. Another option is to use photos, pictures, maps or objects that people can organize into collages or models.
Once community members have shared their perspectives, extract the key themes or messages — the community's values. Values may include healthy community, traditional lifestyle, honesty and integrity, transparency, and responsible stewardship.
Use these values to draft some broad vision statements, including or representing as many of the themes and values as possible. Continue to hold community participation sessions to review and redraft the vision statement and community values, as necessary.
Community mapping is another effective tool in creating a community vision, particularly in focus group settings. Start with a map of your traditional territory. Fill in existing communities, infrastructure, and activities. Then fill in what the community would like to see in the future: infrastructure development, cultural zones, traditional gathering areas, economic development opportunities, and others.
“We must know who we are to know where we are going.”
Elaine Alec, Penticton Indian Band
Examples of BC First Nations' Vision Statements
"Strong healthy citizens and communities, speaking our languages and celebrating who we are and our history in our ancestral homelands, working together, managing our lands and resources as a self-sufficient, self-governing Nation."
— Ktunaxa First Nation vision statement
"We are of one heart and mind."
— Musqueam First Nation vision statement
"We are Syilx who receive our strength from our timix and encompass what is good for our livelihood. We are committed to our language and the teachings of our captiklw and respect that everyone has value and purpose to come together as one."
— Penticton Indian Band vision statement
"We will be a community with a strong and distinct culture, where our language, traditions, and the teachings of our ancestors live on throughout the generations. We will continue to be care takers of our sacred and important places. We will gather often to celebrate and support each other."
— Excerpt from Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw First Nations vision statement
"Our Creator placed us on this land to take care of our people, our land, our language, our customs, our knowledge, our culture, our title, to be ours forever and ever. Ensuring that we live in a safe, healthy, self sufficient community where cultural values and identity are consistently valued promoted and embraced by all."
— Adams Lake Indian Band vision statement
Visioning Principles Should...
- Be specific but general (not so abstract that it doesn’t have any effect, nor so rigid that it creates limitations)
- Reflect a course that can be acted upon (but does not apply to only one specific situation)
- Be inclusive and proactive in reaching out to everyone
- Be accountable – have an open and transparent visioning process
- Use traditions as a resource – draw on history and tradition to determine how to face the future
Step 4: Build a Comprehensive Strategic Framework
A comprehensive strategic framework provides the basis of the community plan. The framework is organized into planning areas, each of which contains the goals, objectives, projects/activities and desired outcomes that reflect the community vision.
To turn the community vision into a reality, you will need to develop a framework that is comprehensive enough to start addressing issues identified in all planning areas including governance, health, education, infrastructure, environment, social, culture, economy, etc.
By identifying and linking these planning areas, you will be able to most effectively build a plan that will help to begin working towards achieving the community vision.
When building a strategic framework:
- Identify and organize information under key planning areas, such as governance, lands and resources, health, social, culture, economy and infrastructure development;
- Explore how technology can be used to support and integrate each organization within the community;
- Keep the amount of information at an overview level;
- Be accurate and concise;
- Look for exceptions–concentrate on aspects that really stand out; and
- Share information with the community–prepare a display, host an open house or community dinner, etc.
The next steps will help to fill in the planning areas of the Comprehensive Strategic Framework with specific goals, objectives, projects/activities and outcomes.
Although the diagram on the right uses a framework of seven sectors, each community should chose a framework that best reflects their community. Here are some examples:
?aqam's (St. Mary’s Indian Band) Planning Framework
- Lands and Resources
- Language and Culture
- Spirit of Community
- Community Government
- Education and Learning
- Safety and Security
T’sou-ke Nation’s Planning Framework
- Energy Autonomy
- Food Self-sufficiency
- Cultural Revival
- Sustainable Economic Development
Step 5: Set Goals and Objectives
This step identifies broad community goals within each planning area and the specific objectives required to meet those goals. Goals represent the strategic pathway that the community wants to take to fulfill its vision; objectives are the stepping stones required to construct that pathway.
- a broad, general statement about what the community wants to have happen
- can be achieved within a medium timeframe
- a "pathway" toward achieving the community vision
- a specific statement of how to reach the larger goal
- can be achieved within a short timeframe
- describes what concrete actions you will take to realize each goal
- SMART (see sidebar)
- a stepping stone in the pathway toward achieving the community vision
Goals in each planning area flow from the community vision and needs identified by the community. Objectives, in turn, flow from the goals. Most goals will have several objectives. The community should set its own goals and objectives through an inclusive process, allowing all members to have input.
Well-set objectives are:
- Specific: they are not general – they state exactly what is to be achieved
- Measurable: they can be evaluated easily and demonstrably with evidence
- Attainable: they are achievable given the opportunities and constraints of our environment
- Realistic: they take current capacity into account
- Time: they are set within a clear timeframe
Examples of goals and objectives that are SMART:
Goal: Win the gold medal in hockey in the 2022 Winter Olympics
Objective: Win 20 hockey games each year before 2022
Goal: Win today’s hockey tournament
Objective: Put the puck into the net more times than the other team
To set goals and objectives, begin with the key planning areas. Use the community's vision, values and needs to guide the goal-setting discussion.
To create community goals within each key planning area, ask:
- What do we want to accomplish in this area in the next 10, 15, 20, 25 years?
- How do our vision, values and needs guide our goal setting in this planning area?
The next step is to create the objectives required to achieve the goal. Typically, several objectives may be identified to address a goal. For each goal, ask:
- What can we do to achieve this goal?
- What are the separate objectives — how many actions must take place?
When setting goals and objectives, you must know the desired outcomes or results. An outcome is a measurable change that occurs as a result of action taken to meet a goal and its objectives.
Action must be taken in order to meet the goals and objectives you have set for your community, to reach the desired outcomes and to measure your progress.
The planning process is like a funnel: you work down from the BIG picture (vision) to very specific actions and outcomes.
Step 6: Identify Activities and Projects
The next step in planning is to identify activities and projects to help achieve your goals and objectives.
Goals and objectives are usually long term, while activities and projects will become part of annual work plans of managers and staff on an operational level. It is important that everyone understands how the specific activities in their respective planning areas flow from the broad community vision, and that they understand which activities they are responsible for.
To determine activities and projects, begin with the objectives identified for each key planning area. For each objective, ask:
- What activities would support this objective?
- What measurable steps can we take in the next year to make progress?
- What resources are needed to achieve the objective?
- Human resources and skills
- Relationships and strategic partners
- Communications and public information
- Are current resources sufficient?
- Should we re-organize how we use our resources or will we have to find new resources?
- Who will lead/implement the strategic activities?
- Who will be responsible for completing work plans?
To ensure activities and projects are completed, include them as part of work plans for administration and staff. Always write down who will be responsible for completing the work plans and when they will be completed, and check in on a regular basis to measure progress.
The table below gives an example of the planning process from vision to outcomes.
|Community Vision and values||Goals||Objectives||Projects/
|Strong and effective self-government
Accountability, transparency, effectiveness
organizational/governance structure of our First Nation by 2017 to support accountability, transparency and effectiveness of government operations
|Revise policies and procedures of each department by
Restructure departments as necessary by
|Establish committee(s) to guide the reorganization process by
|Report on new governance structure and policies, and an action plan that is to be implemented|
Plan for Housing in your CCP
Housing is an integral part of community development and impacts the well-being of individuals. If your CCP includes high-level goals and objectives for housing in your community, you may consider developing an in-depth housing plan to support implementation. Here are some tips to think about:
- To be effective, the housing plan should be a shared vision of what the community's housing will look like in the future.
- When you are setting out to engage with the community about the CCP, plan to talk about the housing needs of the community as part of the process.
- Some things to think about – How many people rent their homes and how many own them? Does the community need multi-family homes, single-family homes, Elders housing and/or singles housing?
Quality of construction, adequate sizing, design and financial viability are major considerations to be addressed for ensuring safe and affordable housing in communities.
Community-based housing plans may include policies, home occupant agreements, administrative processes, financial requirements, alternative designs and infrastructure needs.
For more information, please reference the Assembly of First Nations and First Nations National Building Officers Association resources, and A Practical Guide to Housing: How to Access Housing Subsidies at the back of the handbook.
Step 7: Create an Implementation Strategy
Ideally, by the end of Step 6, the planning team will have developed a comprehensive strategic framework including goals, objectives, actions/projects and desired outcomes in each planning area. Now, the implementation strategy will describe how to make this framework a reality.
A thorough implementation strategy includes priorities, indicators of success (accomplished objectives and reached desired outcomes), responsibilities, timeframes, and required resources and support for implementation.
To create an implementation strategy, the first step is to prioritize the activities and projects identified by the community and to set the agenda for short, medium, and long-term action.
For each activity or project identified under each key planning area, the following questions can help prioritize activities:
- Community benefit
- Does the project address an urgent issue?
- Will the project benefit the majority of the community?
- Is the project/activity part of basic infrastructure, health or safety?
- How will the project impact future generations?
- Will the project/activity lead to greater sustainability?
- Community capacity
- Do we have the ability to undertake this project/activity ourselves?
- Does the project utilize and build on local resources (i.e. labour, materials)?
- Is this in the short-term? Long-term?
- What opportunities exist for training, education and capacity-building?
- Technical feasibility
- Is the project realistic? Can it be done?
- What is the timeframe for completion?
- Cost and affordability
- What is the overall cost of the project? This may include capital costs, the cost of strategic partners, annual operation costs, social costs and environmental costs.
- What other unpredicted costs might emerge?
- Does the project require infrastructure improvements (water, sewer, fire protection, roads)?
- What sources of funding or other support exist?
These questions will help you identify which projects and activities will be key priorities, and which ones can wait a while before being implemented. After assessing the activities and projects, group them according to anticipated time frame:
- Short-term: To be acted on immediately (within the next five years). The implementation strategy should focus on these projects/activities.
- Medium-term: To be acted on in a timeframe between five and 10 years. These tasks will provide a framework for the development of the next implementation plan.
- Long-term: To be acted on in a timeframe between 10 and 20 years. These should be identified in the Comprehensive Community Plan, but not in any great detail — circumstances can change dramatically over the next 10 years.
Monitoring & Evaluation
Another purpose of the implementation strategy is to identify a process for ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the Comprehensive Community Plan. The following could be included in a monitoring and evaluation strategy:
- Regular timelines for evaluation
- Process for monitoring and evaluation
- Community involvement
- Process for accepting revisions to the Comprehensive Community Plan
The tools section of this Handbook contains practical tools and worksheets that can help during the planning stage:
Tool 9: Steps to Hiring a Professional Planner
A tool for developing the terms and conditions for hiring a consultant
Tool 10: Community Asset Assessment Charts
A series of worksheets for identifying the existing assets in the community
Tool 11: SWOT Analysis
A tool for creating an understanding of where the community is now, and to identify what could influence its future goals
Tool 12: Visioning Questions
Sample questions to get the community thinking about their ideal vision of the future
Tool 13: Goals, Objectives and Projects Tracking Chart
A chart to record, link and monitor goals, objectives and projects/activities
Tool 19: Decision Analysis Tool
A tool for prioritizing projects, policies and programs
Have you wondered what happens when you’ve completed most of the projects identified in your CCP?
Maybe that seems like a long way off for your community. However, if there is a commitment to see the plan through, you may one day realize that many of projects are completed and objectives are being met. That means it’s time to update the plan.
Squiala First Nation has been compared to the little train that could. In a very short period, this small band of 189 members has completed the majority of the projects outlined in their comprehensive community plan. This process took only six years and successful implementation was the key to getting it done.
Squiala First Nation is located adjacent to the city of Chilliwack. For years, there was talk of extending city roads through the reserve. Squiala saw this as an opportunity and began to engage the city in negotiations. This capital investment would bring services and increased traffic through the reserve lands. So they set to work creating a land use plan with funds provided by the city. After finishing the land use plan, it was evident they needed more than just a blueprint for land development. They also needed to include other community aspirations.
Getting Started on CCP
The comprehensive community plan process started in 2005 with pilot funding from AANDC. Membership engagement was simple. Having a small membership was a benefit, and they took only a year to complete the CCP and finished their plan in March of 2006. Through this process, they also revamped the land use plan. As they finished their planning, the road and services came through the reserve and so did the development of Eagle Landing, a large commercial development which included a Wal-Mart, Shell Gas Station, movie theater and a number of small businesses.
The Squiala First Nation Community Plan identified a number of large projects to complete. Tammy Bartz, the band manager and only employee at the time, was the planning champion. Upon completion of the plan she transitioned to the implementation champion, a role she says is crucial to successful implementation. "You have to have an implementation champion. If you don’t, the CCP is going to go nowhere."
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