ARCHIVED - The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and The Northeastern Quebec Agreement 1994 Annual Report
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Table of Contents
- Minister's Foreword
- Map of Cree, Inuit and Naskapi Communities in Quebec
- Principal Provisions of the Agreements
- Environmental and Social Protection
- Local and Regional Administrations
- Current Status of the Implementation of the JBNQA and the NEQA
- The Cree, The Inuit and The Naskapi
- Summary of Federal Government Expenditures
- Activities and Expenditures of Federal Departments and Agencies, 1993-1994
- Economic Development
- Cree-Naskapi Land Registry
- Canada Nortgage and Housing Corporation
- Human Resources Development Canada
- Health Canada
- Industry Canada
- Canadian Heritage
- Transport Canada
- Other Proposals
- Natural Resources Canada
- Solicitor General Canada
- Justice Canada
Since the signing of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA) in 1975 and the Northeastern Quebec Agreement (NEQA) in 1978, several federal departments have been active in fulfilling the federal government's obligations in developing the agreements' various structures.
As the Minister responsible for the coordination of these activities, I am pleased to present the 1994 Annual Report on implementation, in accordance with the James Bay and Northern Quebec Native Claims Settlement Act.
In 1994, progress was made toward the resolution of questions raised by the Cree concerning the implementation of the JBNQA. The second phase of the process agreed upon, in 1992, by the Canadian government and the Cree, is being executed. Discussions have commenced on a framework for the completion of the items of negotiation, leading to the conclusion of an agreement on the implementation of the JBNQA. As I stated on my recent visit with the Cree of northern Quebec, this understanding is of the highest priority, it will open the way to the full and complete implementation of the JBNQA.
In accordance with agreements signed in 1990, the Canadian government continues with the implementation of the terms of these agreements with the Inuit and Naskapi. The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development will participate in the negotiations aimed at creating a Nunavik assembly and government. In addition, the Naskapi and the Department have agreed on a five-year capital investment plan.
The JBNQA and the NEQA still pose many difficult challenges. The Canadian government, in partnership with the other signatories to the agreements, intends to meet these challenges, and in so doing, contribute to building a future that will meet the aspirations of Canada and the First Nations.
The Honourable Ronald A. Irwin, P .C., M.P.
Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA) was signed in 1975 by the Cree and Inuit peoples of Quebec, and by the governments of Quebec and Canada, the James Bay Development Corporation, the James Bay Energy Corporation and Hydro-Quebec. Three years later, in 1978, the Naskapi of Schefferville signed a similar agreement, the Northeastern Quebec Agreement (NEQA). Both are Canada's first modern treaties with Aboriginal peoples.
The signing of these Agreements was the result of a process that began in 1898, when the boundaries of Quebec were extended to the 52nd parallel. In 1912, Quebec's boundaries were again extended to the Hudson Strait in the north and to Labrador in the east. The Cree, Inuit and Naskapi peoples inhabited these vast federal territories, which until then had been known as Rupert's Land.
The 1912 federal Act concerning the extension of Quebec's boundaries carried certain obligations. One of these was to the effect that the Quebec government should come to an agreement with the Native communities on land-related issues. However, talks on these matters did not begin until 62 years later, after the Cree and Inuit of Quebec filed a motion to halt the hydro-electric development work begun in James Bay by Quebec.
In November 1973, Judge Albert Malouf of the Quebec Superior Court ordered that all work be stopped immediately, in particular because Quebec had not yet fulfilled its obligation from the 1912 Act.
The decision of Judge Malouf was reversed by the Quebec Court of Appeal in 1974. Nevertheless, it brought about negotiations, in the same year, which led to the signing of the JBNQA and the NEQA.
These two agreements represent more than the settlement of land claims. They define the rights of the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi in many areas, including land ownership and resources management, self-government, economic development, the administration of justice, health and social services and environmental protection.
As of June 30, 1994, 11,088 Cree, 7,268 Inuit and 602 Naskapi were living in the territories covered by the JBNQA and the NEQA, forming a total population of 18,958 beneficiaries.
Map of Cree
Map Of Cree, Inuit
And Naskapie Communities
Principal Provisions of The Agreements
The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and the Northeastern Quebec Agreement have opened the way for a new kind of relationship with the Native peoples of northern Quebec. Under the terms of these agreements, the Native peoples in the region have exchanged their claims, rights and territorial interests for other rights and benefits as specified in the agreements.
The compensation received by the Native communities included a payment of $225 million under the JBNQA and $9 million under the NEQA. They are also entitled to a range of services and programs to which the federal and provincial governments contribute annually. Additional lump sum payments have also been provided as a result of treaty implementation agreements and specific agreements, most of which are connected with a complementary agreement to the JBNQA.
The Cree have received:
- $50 million under the Chisasibi Agreement (1978);
- $25.5 million under the Sakami Lake Agreement (1979);
- $112 million under the La Grande Agreement (1986);
- $18 million under the Mercury Agreement (1986);
- $50 million (for the Chisasibi and Wemindji communities) under the Opimiscow-La Grande Agreement (1992).
The Inuit have received:
- $48 million under the Kuujjuak Agreement (1988);
- $22.8 million under the JBNQA Implementation Agreement (1990).
The Naskapi have received:
- $1.7 million under the NEQA Implementation Agreement (1990).
The JBNQA andNEQA divide the territory specified in the agreements into three categories (I, II, III). It also specifies the total areas of land and the rights in each category.
Category I lands are set aside exclusively for the Native communities that are signatories to the two agreements. Cree and Naskapi Category I lands are further subdivided into categories IA and IB: "A" for lands under the jurisdiction of Canada, and "B" under that of Quebec. Lands under federal jurisdiction are governed by Native institutions as defined in the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act. Lands under Quebec's jurisdiction are governed by corporations composed exclusively of Native people.
Category II lands also come under provincial jurisdiction, but the Native people participate in the management of hunting, fishing, trapping and the development of game reserves. They also have exclusive hunting, fishing and trapping rights on these lands.
Category III lands are Quebec public lands where Native and non-Native peoples may hunt and fish. However, Native people enjoy certain privileges there under the agreements. They have exclusive rights to the harvesting of certain water species and certain fur-bearing animals; they participate in the administration and development of the territory; and lastly, they enjoy a preemptive right, until the year 2015, on the game reserve applications or transfers. The Native people must, however, relinquish this right for 30 percent of game reserve applications or transfers filed by non-Natives.
The JBNQA and the NEQA identify more than 14,000 square kilometres of territory as Category I lands, 150,000 square kilometres as Category II lands and one million square kilometres as Category III lands.
Environmental And Social Protection
The JBNQA and the NEQA provide for consultative bodies to advise the governments on policies and regulations that may have impact on the environment and the social conditions of the Native communities.
For this purpose, two committees have been set up under the JBNQA: the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment for the area south of the 55th parallel, and the Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee for the area north of that parallel. Each committee includes representatives from the Native communities and from the two levels of government.
Environmental and Social Protection
The JBNQA also specifies evaluation procedures for development proposals. The Cree participate in the evaluation of projects affecting territory below the 55th parallel, whereas to the north it is the Inuit who participate. It is the responsibility of the federal Minister of the Environment, or of an administrator appointed by the Governor General in Council, to administer the evaluation process for projects involving the jurisdiction of the federal government. For matters under provincial jurisdiction, the administrator is appointed by the Quebec government. Projects having impact on Category I Cree lands come under the authority of the local Cree administrator.
The NEQA includes similar provisions assuring the Naskapi of participation in the environmental protection of the lands covered by that Agreement.
The Cree Board of Compensation, the Makivik Corporation and the Naskapi Development Corporation administer compensation funds paid under the agreements by the governments of Quebec and Canada, and by Hydro-Quebec. In this way, the three organizations are able to finance projects for the economic development of the Native communities in northern Quebec.
The agreements also specify that economic development programs, such as the Canadian Aboriginal Economic Development Strategy, offered to other Native peoples by the governments, continue to apply to the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi.
The JBNQA provided for the establishment of the Cree School Board and the Kativik School Board. Both these boards possess special powers and ensure that the educational programs provided in the area are culturally relevant.
Under the terms of the NEQA, a school has been built to fulfill the needs of the Naskapi community. The Eastern Quebec Regional School Board is in charge of its general administration. In addition, the Naskapi Education Committee performs the same advisory functions as those assigned to school committees under Quebec's Education Act.
The JBNQA and the NEQA established that Canada and Quebec would contribute to the funding of these institutions on the basis of annual operational and capital budgets subject to their approval. The proportion to be contributed by Canada was set at 75 percent of the approved budgets of the Cree School Board and the Naskapi school, and 25 percent of the approved budgets of the Kativik School Board.
Hunting, Fishing and Trapping
Composed of government and Native experts, the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Coordinating Committee reviews hunting, fishing and trapping management. It also makes recommendations to the two levels of government. Sub-committees have been formed to deal with more specific issues, such as big game, parks, fishing, game reserves, commercialization of caribou meat and land use. Native and government representatives participate on sub-committees.
Local and Regional Administrations
Since 1984, the eight Cree communities and the Naskapi community residing on lands covered by the agreements have become incorporated. Their local administrations have the power to adopt by-laws concerning the maintenance of public order, environmental protection, taxation for local purposes, roads and transportation, local business and the use of lands and resources. Quebec has also passed legislation setting up the Cree Regional Authority - which is responsible in particular for setting up services common to Cree communities - and the Cree Board of Compensation.
The Inuit communities are organized into municipalities under Quebec law. Their regional structure, the Kativik Regional Government, was established under provincial legislation. One of the duties of the Makivik Corporation is to protect the interests of the Inuit with regard to the implementation of the JBNQA.
Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act
The JBNQA and the NEQA include provisions concerning local Native administrations. In 1984, to implement the provisions applying to Indian communities, the Canadian Parliament passed the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act. This Act supersedes the Indian Act (except for matters pertaining to Indian status) and institutes a form of self-government. It also establishes the land management system for Category IA lands (Cree) and IA-N lands (Naskapi).
The Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act also brought about the creation of the Cree-Naskapi Commission, whose role is to investigate appeals concerning the Act's application. It must also produce biannual reports on the application of the Act, which are then submitted to the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development to be tabled before Parliament (its most recent report was submitted to the Minister in June 1994 and was tabled on June 22, 1994 at the House of Commons). The Cree-Naskapi Commission consists of commissioners appointed by the Governor in Council, on the recommendation of the Cree Regional Authority and the Naskapi community.
Role of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Since the signing of the agreements, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) no longer provides direct delivery of services to the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi. Its role is now to provide funding to finance communities, capital spending projects and programs delivered by Native administrations. It also participates in several plans for the management of resources and of lands covered by the agreements.
Finally, DIAND is responsible for implementing the agreements with respect to the overall obligations of the Government of Canada. In so doing, it must ensure the co-ordination of the various interventions on the part of other federal departments in their dealings with Native communities.
Current Status of the Implementation of the JBNQA and the NEQA
The implementation process of the JBNQA and the NEQA, signed in 1975 and 1978 respectively, proved to be longer and more complex than expected.
In 1981, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Indian Affairs urged the federal government to examine the problems relating to the JBNQA. The resulting depart-mental report -- the Tait Report -- reminded the federal government of the importance of fulfilling obligations That it had assumed under the terms of the agreement, and of implementing the first overall settlement of land claims in Canada which was reached in 1982. However, this report and the government measures applied as a result of it have not solved all the problems related to the implementation of the JBNQA.
In June 1986, Cabinet approved a process for the implementation of the government's obligations under the JBNQA.
Four years later, in September 1990, the federal government signed separate agreements with the Makivik Corporation and the Quebec Naskapi Band concerning the implementation of the JBNQA and the NEQA. These agreements released the federal government from certain obligations under the JBNQA and the NEQA. In return, the government agreed to provide compensation including a one-time grant of $22.8 million to the Inuit and $1.7 million to the Naskapi.
The government also made other commitments toward these communities. A number of activities were carried out under the implementation agreements signed in 1990 with the Inuit and the Naskapi. This included the setting up of various working groups and organizational structures.
The Cree, The Inuit and The Naskapi
Before beginning discussions on the implementation of the JBNQA, the federal government and the Cree agreed on a strategy on November 10, 1992. This three-stage strategy provided for a solution to urgent health and safety problems; the development of a framework for negotiations involving the Cree, the federal government and the Quebec government; and the beginning of negotiations.
As part of this process, on August 4, 1993, the federal government signed an agreement providing $34.7 million to the Cree over a seven-year period (1993-2000). This agreement relates to the improvement of health and safety conditions in Cree communities, and for the adjustment of their infrastructure capital budget.
At the end of 1994, the federal government and the Cree agreed to begin discussions aiming at identifying items for negotiation, and at defining the financial parameters that will serve to establish a framework for future negotiations. At the same time, the federal government and the Cree representatives began discussions in order to review the operational and maintenance budgets of the Cree communities.
In July 1994, the Quebec government and the Nunavik Constitutional Committee signed a global agreement to create a Nunavik assembly and government. In August 1994, the federal government agreed to participate in the negotiations. Since then, a number of meetings have been held, and the parties hope to reach an agreement in April 1995. The implementation process for the JBNQA is also continuing with the Inuit.
In the context of the implementation of the JBNQA, numerous meetings have been held between Naskapi representatives and the different federal partners on the ways and means of increasing employment for the Naskapi. These discussions should continue until the parties reach an agreement. In addition, a five year capital spending agreement with the Naskapi was completed at the end of 1994.
Summary of Federal Government Expenditures
|Indian and Northern Affairs Canada||68,489,100||95,986,527||89,536,504||109,578,050||109,448,407|
|Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation2||27,377,572||27,377,572||30,319,000||33,337,409||38,196,909|
|Human Resources Development Canada2||6,348,000||3,201,519||5,182,104||8,517,274||8,015,000|
|Fisheries and Oceans||660,000||1,277,491||1,253,6456||1,582,000||2,533,500|
|Environment Canada||74,000||84,575||815,855 4||938,718 4||884,540 4|
|Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forestry Service||391,224||309,025||502,119||730,175||728,661|
|Federal Office of Regional Development - Quebec5||nil||8,145||391,937||580,316||379,119|
|Total Federal Expenditures Between 1989 and 1994:||$741,867,030|
- These figures are provided by each department.
- Calendar year.
- Amount revised from 2,790,412 to 2,416,702
- Including the expenditures of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA).
- Report on the financial participation of the Federal Office of Regional Development - Quebec - on the Agreement territories during the years 1990-1991 to 1993-1994.
Activities and Expenditures of Federal Departments and Agencies, 1993-1994
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development contributed $46,386,155 for operations and maintenance, as well as capital expenditures on schools. These funds were transferred to the Quebec government, which distributed them to the school boards. Most of these funds ($39,091,403) went toward operations and maintenance of education services. The Cree School Board received $28,764,794, the Kativik School Board received $8,702,118, and the Eastern Quebec School Board received $1,624,491. Capital expenditures represented a total of $7,214,651. During the 1993-1994 school year 5,578 students, including 2,980 Cree, 2,452 Inuit and 146 Naskapi attended school In addition $80,101 were provided byDIAND in the form of grants for various cultural activities and as direct financing for post secondary education assistance.
Capital, Operations and Maintenance
DIAND provided capital and operating grants to the Cree and Naskapi totaling $37,706,601; this amount includes $5.5 million allocated to the Cree for the implementation of infrastructure projects related to health and safety in five communities.
Two Cree communities, Waskaganish and Wemindji, are not yet linked to the Hydro-Quebec network. Wemindji operates its own hydroelectric station and generators, with an annual operating grant provided under an agreement withDIAND that ends on March 31, 1996. However, Hydro-Quebec has begun construction of an electrical line, and completion of the link is planned for November 1995.
In Waskaganish, electricity is currently produced by four diesel generators whose operation is financed byDIAND. However, this community wishes to generate its own electricity. A tripartite technical committee with representatives from Waskaganish, Hydro-Quebec andDIAND was set up in June 1994 to identify the best form of power supply for that community.
DIAND contributed $2,835,106 for social assistance services in the communities of Mistissini, Waswanipi and Kawawachikamach. In the other communities, these services are provided by the Quebec government.
Since 1991, the federal government has financed two additional programs: the five-year National Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities (NSIPD), and the four-year Family Violence Initiative (FVI). (See table at right) During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the communities received the following amounts:
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, these three communities received the following amounts:
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the beneficiaries of the JBNQA an the NEQA received the following amounts:
Through the Canadian Abori-ginal Economic Development Strategy,DIAND contributes toward the Cree operation of Community Economic Development Organizations (CEDO), which provide technical and financial assistance for development projects.
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year,DIAND contributed the following amounts:
Resources Access Negotiations
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the communities of Chisasibi and Mistissini received $115,875 as part of the Resources Access Program (RAN), to enable them to negotiate their participation on the issues of territorial management and mining exploration.
The Cree and Naskapi communities maintain Indian membership records on behalf ofDIAND. The Department contributed $67,890 toward the maintenance of the registry during the 1993-1994 fiscal year
DIAND provided a grant of $42,000 to the Cree Regional Authority to enable it to produce an environmental issues inventory among the Cree communities. It also took certain steps related to this inventory; once potentially contaminated sites had been identified on Category IA and IA-N lands,DIAND and the Cree Regional Authority worked to detect problems likely to constitute a risk to the environment, health or safety of the Native communities. The next phase will involve detailed descriptive studies in areas where environmental problems have been confirmed, in order to assess the scale of these problems and to identify the most appropriate solutions. A federal representative appointed byDIAND continues to participate on the environmental advisory committees established by the JBNQA.
DIAND also participated in a public examination of the Great Whale Proposal, by presenting a brief on the conformity of the environmental impact study on the proposal.
Cree-Naskapi Land Registry
The Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act provides for the organization of a registry of rights and interests granted on Category IA and IA-N lands and buildings located on those lands.
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the Central Registrar continued to collaborate with the communities that already have local registration offices, namely Mistissini, Nemaska and Kawawachikamach. Furthermore, since the maintenance of a land registry service is one of the inherent aspects of selfgovernment, the Registrar also continued to work with the other Cree communities to help them complete the process of setting up their own registry offices.
The joint standing committee to study regulations suggested few changes to the Cree-Naskapi Land Regulations, to clarify certain aspects.DIAND is currently carrying out consultations with the Grand Council of the Crees (of Quebec) and with the Naskapi in this regard.
Furthermore, colour mosaics depicting the "village" sector of the James Bay Cree communities were produced in collaboration with the Geomatics Canada section of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. Designed to facilitate the management of Category IA lands, they were distributed to each community.
Finally, a course on the GIS (Geographic Information System) was given to representatives of the Mistissini and of the Grand Council of the Crees (of Quebec). The aim of the course was to illustrate the various applications of this system, which can be used for integrated resources management.
Financial Aid The Cree Regional Authority received $195,720 in financial aid fromDIAND. This amount was used to cover costs related to the negotiation of the operational and maintenance budget, as well as costs arising from participation in. various advisory committees. In addition,DIAND provided a grant of $13,500 to Mistissini for the production of a tourism development plan.
The Makivik Corporation obtained a grant of $259,113, to assist with the operational costs of agencies established to implement the JBNQA, as well as with the costs of overall Agreement implementation activities. The Corporation also received $27,600 to cover costs related to its participation on various advisory committees.
The Naskapi, for their part, received $30,000 to cover the cost of negotiations for the Job Creation Strategy, the operations and maintenance budget and the capital budget.DIAND also contributed in the area of safety, with regard to emergency measures, by providing an overall grant of $50,000 for all the Cree and Naskapi communities, to enable them to purchase radio-communications equipment.
Ouje-Bougoumou In May 1992,DIAND concluded an agreement with the Cree of Ouje-Bougoumou which included provisions for the construction of a new village at Lake Opemisca. During that year,DIAND contributed financially to the construction of houses, public facilities and infrastructures, to a socio-economic fund and to the operations and maintenance budget, and contributed 75 percent of the construction costs for a school. During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the Cree of Ouje-Bougoumou received $14,655,668, including $1,893,649 for the school.
Furthermore, under an agreement between the Quebec government and the Cree of Ouje-Bougoumou, signed on September 14, 1994,DIAND made a commitment to pay $100,000 in capital expenditures related to the installation of a telephone network.
Canada Nortgage and Housing Corporation
The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) supports a range of housing programs in northern Quebec. These programs apply mainly to public housing, non-profit housing on reserves and housing for citizens living in rural areas and in Aboriginal communities. The CMHC provides most of its funding through agreements with Aboriginal groups and the Societe d'habitation du Quebec (SHQ).
Although the CMHC continues to subsidize the annual operational costs of the projects which fall under housing programs established before 1986, no new commitments were made under these programs between 1986 and 1993. However, new housing units have been started under the terms of post-1985 housing programs.
Until the end of 1993, the post-1985 Non-Profit Housing Program provided approvals to public and private non-profit organizations, and to nonprofit cooperatives, for projects in which rent is proportional to household income. Subsidies provided on an ongoing basis make up the difference between operating costs and revenues.
The On-Reserve Non-Profit Housing Program provides subsidies to First Nations to cover a substantial portion of amortization and operating costs for housing projects. Commitments given in 1994 under this Program, offered in conjunction withDIAND, will result in 94 new housing units in northern Quebec.
In October 1994, the federal government announced a new initiative to provide funds for the construction of new housing units in the communities of the far North. The SHQ has decided to participate in this Remote Housing Program and to contribute funds. Nine dwellings were approved for construction in 1994, and will be built in 1995 in the Inuit community of Kuujjuaq.
Human Resources Development Canada
In 1994, subsidies provided by the CMHC for housing in the Aboriginal Communities amounted to $42,289,524.
|- Federal subsidies||$3,106,371||$15,465,953||$540,931||$19,113,255|
|- Number of subsidized units||639||928||70||1,637|
|- Federal subsidies||$6,386,135||$16,532,130||$258,004||$23,176,269|
|- Number of subsidized Units||709||701||24||1,434|
For the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the contributions from the Department of Human Resources Development (DHRC) to activities in Cree, Naskapi and Inuit communities amounted to $8,015,000.
Under the terms of an agreement with DHRC (previously Employment and Immigration Canada), the Kativik Regional Administration received nearly $5,000,000. This three-year agreement will end on March 31, 1995, and the Inuit are cur-rently negotiating its renewal. Under this agreement, the Inuit of northern Quebec are taking charge of the management of employment and training programs and services in their communities.
Nearly $200,000 were also invested in the Kativik region under the Community Futures Program.
The Cree and Naskapi participate in the "Pathways to Success" strategy. Under this strategy, the Cree Local Management Board received $2,532,000, and the Naskapi Local Management Board received $283,000.
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, Health Canada provided overall subsidies of $2,719,646 to the Native beneficiaries of the Agreements. This amount includes $659,680 in payments to cover uninsured health benefits for beneficiaries living away from their communities.
Nearly half the funds allocated by Health Canada to the communities benefiting from the JBNQA and the NEQA, $1,285,996, was used to conduct projects under the Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program. Through this Program, under the responsibility of the Medical Services Branch, the James Bay Cree Board of Health and Social Services received $609,959, the Nunalituqait Ikajuqatigiitut Inuit Association received $641,670, and the Naskapi received $34,367. In addition, Inuit communities received an overall sum of $149,854 for projects attached to the "Solvent Abuse" treatment program, and $15,000 under the Canadian Anti-drug Strategy.
For their projects within the "Brighter Futures" program, the Native communities shared grants of $397,114. These projects were related to one or more of the program's themes including solvent abuse, mental health, child injury prevention, parenting, child development and healthy infant development. The Cree received $149,674, the Inuit $231,815, and the Naskapi $15,625. Within the framework of the Family Violence program, the Cree received $20,323 and the Inuit $94,075.
Health Canada also provided financial support to certain in school activities. This included a grant of $82,567 to the Kativik School Board to enable it to carry out the following initiatives: development of a course in nursing, summer employment for six nursing students and "Career Days" in the schools. It also granted $15,037 to the James Bay Cree Board of Health and Social Services to develop student awareness of careers in the field of health care.
Finally, Health Canada intervened in connection with Hydro- Quebec's Great Whale hydroelectric development proposal. The Department analyzed the developer's Environmental Impact Study and presented a brief before the Federal Environmental Assessment Panel responsible for examining the impacts of Great Whale. This brief set out the Department's concerns regarding the proposal's potential health risks to Native peoples.
The role of Industry Canada in the territories covered by the JBNQA and the NEQA is to provide support for business development projects undertaken for the benefit of the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi communities. During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the Department committed expenditures of $2,573,652 for this purpose.
Funds were used for the creation, acquisition, expansion or modernization of 23 businesses. Financial assistance was also provided to four other businesses to fulfill their needs in areas such as feasibility studies, business planning, professional development and investment counseling.
The Department also contributed financially to various industrial sectors in the region, particularly the accommodation, food and beverage industries. It also provided project support in the fishing and trapping, transportation and communications sectors, the wholesale and retail trade and in business services.
Fisheries and Oceans
The Department of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada (DFO) administers several research and development programs in northern Quebec. Its responsibilities include management of the fisheries and aquatic resource habitats in collaboration with the Cree and the Inuit (the Department has little contact with the Naskapi, who fish only freshwater species which are managed by Quebec).
In November 1994, in recognition for an exemplary partnership with the Makivik Corporation, DFO Quebec Region awarded the Corporation the Deputy Minister's Commemoration Award. In fact, since the early 1980s, numerous partnership ventures have been realized, between Makivik and DFO, mainly in fisheries research and development, and resource management.
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, DFO ensured the implementation of the Native Fisheries Strategy (NFS) and the application of the beluga management plan, in collaboration with the Nunavik Municipal Corporations. Fisheries agreements were also signed with 13 of the 14 Inuit communities served.
The Department also continued implementation of the special marine fishing development programs, which are likely to generate valuable socio-economic benefits in northern Quebec. These programs are known as the Fisheries and Aquaculture Testing and Experimentation Program (FATEP) and the Quebec Federal Fisheries Development Program (QFFDP).
DFO also provided financial assistance to projects administered by the Makivik Corporation. The organization intends to develop a network through the inter-community trade program using products from hunting and fishing in Nunavik. Through its Inspection Branch, the Department also provided technical assistance in analyzing the quality of mussels in northern Quebec.
As part of the Department's Quality Management Program (QMP) the same Branch also carries out inspections of the fish processing plant located in Waswanipi. The Cree Regional Authority received a financial contribution in order to conduct commercial fishing development projects, with a view to making the plant viable.
Other projects were carried out under the Habitat Action Plan (HAP), formerly known as the Viable Fisheries Program. Through this Program, the Cree Regional Authority was thus able to measure the growth of sea grass beds in the Wemindji area, and develop a program for the monitoring of fish habitats along the Northern Route. The Inuit evaluated and restored the habitats for arctic char in Quaqtaq and Kangiqsujuaq. In a fourth project, information was gathered on fish habitats in James Bay and in southeastern Hudson Bay (from Kuujjuarapik to Inukjuak), and the locations of these habitats were mapped.
Through its Science Branch, the Department continued its activi - ties within the multidisciplinary study of the marine environment in Hudson Bay, which began in 1993. One aspect of the study was to assess the effects of changes in the flow of fresh water on the integrity of the marine environment. The Department continued the analysis of samples and data collected for that purpose in 1993. It also conducted field work as part of a research project aiming to determine the importance of terrestrial organic material transported by the Great Whale River, for the productivity of its estuary.
Research work also continued on the beluga populations in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait, in collaboration with the Makivik Corporation. This project aims to assess the level of metal contamination in beluga. A tour to several Inuit communities along the east coast of Hudson Bay was organized in order to explain the purpose of the activities (sampling, tagging, etc.), to present the results obtained and to discuss future research to be conducted on this species.
The Science Branch, in collaboration with the Fisheries and Habitat Management Branch, also held a workshop to discuss traditional and ancestral knowledge of the beluga of Nunavik. The purpose of this workshop was to develop a five-year management plan for the populations present in James Bay, Hudson Bay and Ungava, as well as in the Hudson Strait.
Lastly, in its advisory capacity concerning the environmental assessment of projects submitted to the Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP), DFO examined the Great Whale hydro-electric proposal. It also submitted a departmental opinion to the Federal Public Examination Commission, which ruled on the conformity of the proposal. DFO was called on by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development to assess the environmental impacts of a new wastewater treatment system at Waskaganish, and it participated in the review of the impact of low-altitude military flights over Agreement territories.
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the Department contributed $2,533,500 to these various projects and programs, of which $1,091,000 was connected with the activities of the Science Branch in northern Quebec.
Through its different programs, Canadian Heritage, acting through the Native Citizens' Directorate, supports a wide range of activities in northern Quebec. Its main areas, of intervention are in the operation of Native communications networks and friendship centres, the protection of Native languages and cultures, and support for Native organizations and Native womens' issues.
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, Canadian Heritage provided support, through its programs, to Native communities in northern Quebec amounting to $2,294,750.
|Canadian Heritage, Program Expenditures in 1993-1994|
|Northern Native Broadcast Access Program|
|James Bay Cree Communications Society||$371,000|
|Taqramiut Nipingat Incorportated (TNI)||1,152,000|
|Aboriginal Representative Organizations Program|
|Native Friendship Centre Program|
|Senneterre Native Friendship Centre Inc.*||145,853|
|Val-d'or Native Friendship Centre Inc.*||218,779|
|Cree Indian Friendship Centre of Chibougamou Inc.||182,316|
|Aboriginal Women's Program|
|Cree Women Council||9,100|
|Grand Council of Naskapi||6,000|
|Native Social and Cultural Development Program|
|Eastmain Band Council||10,500|
* The services provided by Native friendship centres are not offered exclusively to the agreements' beneficiaries.
The financial contributions of Transport Canada to the communities covered by the JBNQA and the NEQA took the form of allocations for capital assets, for operations and maintenance, and for the Maritime Transportation Program.
The opening of the Umiujaq airport in August 1993 signaled the end of the Northern Quebec Airport Infrastructures Construction Program. The Department's participation in this area was thus limited to a few minor projects, representing a total investment of $43,000, at the Schefferville and Eastmain airports.
Operations and Maintenance
Following an agreement between the Naskapi and the Montagnais of Schefferville, in August 1992 Transport Canada granted the operating and maintenance contract for the Schefferville airport to the Naskapi. Under this three year contract, the Naskapi received $200,235 during the 1993-1994 financial year. This initiative forms part of the Canadian Aboriginal Economic Development Strategy (CAEDS).
The contract granted to the Naskapi is modeled on those granted for the operation and maintenance of the airports at Eastmain, Waskaganish and Wemindji. These three Cree communities received a total of $586,635 during the 1993-1994 fiscal year.
Marine Transportation Program
In 1994, the Department began the second phase of preliminary studies concerning the completion of this program in Nunavik. The second phase of this feasibility study, which should be completed by April 1, 1995, has been extended to 11 other Inuit villages. During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the expenditures linked with these studies amounted to $1 million, shared equally between the Ministere des Transports du Quebec and Transport Canada.
Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) share the federal obligations relating to the implementation of measures for the protection of the environment and of the social conditions, as provided in chapters 22, 23 and 24 of the JBNQA.
With regard to chapters 22 and 23, the CEAA assisted the federal administrator, the local administrators and the federal review committees, as appropriate, in the environmental assessment of the following development proposals:
Great Whale Proposal
The evaluation of the Great Whale hydro-electric proposal continued. The proposal is subject to the federal and provincial review process set out in the JBNQA, and to federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process guidelines order (EARP). Because of the need for a concerted review assessment of the entire proposal, in January 1992, the federal and provincial governments, the Cree Regional Authority, the Grand Council of the Crees (of Quebec), the Kativik Regional Government and the Makivik Corporation signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to ensure the coordination of environmental assessment procedures.
In accordance with this Memorandum of Understanding, the four federal and provincial committees and commissions established under chapters 22 and 23 of the JBNQA and the federal panel responsible for examining the Great Whale Proposal completed a joint report on the conformity of the Environmental Impact Study (EIS) of the Great Whale Proposal. The EIS had been filed in August 1993 by Hydro-Quebec, in response to directives issued in September 1992.
The expenditures of the CEAA related to the assessment of the Great Whale Proposal amounted to $667,845 for the 1993-1994 fiscal year.
The CEAA acted as secretariat for the Federal Review Panel South of the 55th Parallel (COFEX-South) for the environmental evaluation of municipal works in Chisasibi, Eastmain and Waskaganish.
In Chisasibi, after examining the impact study, COFEX- South recommended authorization of a community sewage and wastewater treatment system. The expenditures of the CEAA related to the environmental assessment of this proposal amounted to $12,274.
In February 1994, the local administrator of Eastmain submitted to COFEX-South the impact study concerning a proposal to renew the waste-water treatment system. In April 1994, after having taken these recommendations into consideration, the administrator authorized the proposal. The CEAA's expenditures in connection with the environmental assessment of this proposal amounted to $12,011 for the 19931994 fiscal year.
The local administrator of Waskaganish initiated procedures for the assessment of a community wastewater treatment system. COFEX-South requested additional information in order to proceed with a pro-per assessment of the proposal.
Environment Canada provided representation on the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment and on the Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee. This representation was ensured through the services of consultants.
A representative of the Canadian Wildlife Service also continued to participate in the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Coordinating Committee. The representative's main interventions concerned Canada's initiatives with regard to amendments to the International Migratory Bird Convention, with the goal of making the Convention more compatible with the JBNQA. Other interven-tions concerned the conservation of birds, particularly the Canada goose, whose numbers are declining.
Lastly, the work of the Canadian Wildlife Service on the lands covered by the agreements brought to light information about the effects of hydro-electric developments on nest-ing sites of the Canada goose. The Inuit participated in some of these initiatives. Meetings were also held in order to discuss the problems related to the conservation of that species with the Cree Hunters' and Trappers' Association.
For the 1993-1994 fiscal year, expenditures by Environment Canada amounted to $109,967. This amount included $85,000 paid to the Quebec government in the form of a federal contribution toward the financing of the secretariats of the advisory committees.
Natural Resources Canada
The Department is active in the territories covered by the agreements through the Canadian Forestry Service and Geomatics Canada.
Canadian Forestry Service
The role of this Service is to implement the Forest Management Program for Indian Lands (FMPIL), in cooperation with the Cree communities. This Program enables Native people to manage their forestry resources according to a code of ethics based on Native customs. During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the FMPIL granted $728,661 to the Cree of Mistissini and Waswanipi, for activities in keeping with the Program philosophy.
In Mistissini, the Eenatuk Forestry Corporation received $357,980 for its projects, including the planting of 494,000 trees, thinning cuts on 10 hectares of forest, and the scarifying of 91 hectares. These funds enabled the Corporation to have an integrated resources management plan drawn up and to provide financial support to its technical team.
Financial contributions of $370,681 were granted to the A-Pit-See-Win cooperative of Waswanipi in order to carry out the following operations:
- planting (505,000 trees);
- scarifying (97 hectares);
- thinning (60 hectares);
- forest roads (4 km);
- mosaic cut to enhance regeneration and diversification (200 hectares);
- clearing of delimbing areas for reforestation (10 km); and
- drafting of an integrated resource management plan.
In addition, Native trainees were introduced to forestry and provided support to the technical team.
The Canadian Forestry Service is represented on the Regional Inter-departmental Committee on Environmental Assessment and thereby participates in the assessment of projects on Agreement territories, such as the Great Whale hydroelectric proposal and the Troilus mining proposal. Its role is to make recommendations and to advise the minister responsible on forestry aspects concerning both the production potential and the ecosystem.
Geomatics Canada is active on the territories covered by the agreements through its Legal Official Surveys Division. Its activities with Native communities consist mainly of the production of cartographic information and the provision of consulting services. It also supervises certain projects relating to land surveying and map production.
In contrast with other James Bay Cree villages, Ouje-Bougoumou was the only one for which, until now, the government had no large-scale cartographic information. Photographs on a scale of 1: 10,000 will be used in 1995 to produce maps and plans.
The Legal Surveys Division acted as manager in a program with costs shared betweenDIAND and the Mistissini community. The latter requires maps for development projects, whereas the Department needs additional large-scale maps to illustrate the interests granted to members of the community or to other non-Native parties.
In collaboration with the Land Surveying Service of the ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources du Quebec, the Division prepared technical descriptions of lots 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of Waswanipi. These documents, which were translated into English this year, are necessary for the final transfer of Category IA lands to the Government of Canada.
In the area of consulting services, the Legal Surveys Divi sion intervened in February 1994, in connection with the "Crina" system for the registration of Cree-Naskapi interests. In addition, in November 1994, the "Results Stage" computerized data system developed by the Division was presented to the members of the Mistissini community. The Division also collaborated with Justice Canada on the study of a draft prepared by the Quebec government in preparation for the final transfer of Category IA lands to the Canadian government.
Federal Office of Regional Development Quebec
The mission of the Federal Office of Regional Development Quebec is to contribute to the development of the economic potential of small business in general in every region of Quebec. The Federal Office administers certain financial aid programs aiming at small businesses in Quebec, one of which is the Enterprise Development Program (EDP). This Program has a tourism component whose aims include promoting and strengthening the tourism industry in northern Quebec, where a high proportion of the Cree and Inuit populations is concentrated.
During the 1993-1994 financial year, under the tourism component of the Enterprise Development Program, $260,632 was granted to the Cree communities and $118,487 was granted to the Inuit. The initiatives included a study on the establishment of a multi-purpose tourism facilities in Kuujjuaq as well as the construction of hotels in Ouje-Bougoumou and Eastmain
Solicitor General Canada
In 1994, the negotiations car-ried on by the Department of the Solicitor General with representatives of the Naskapi people and the Quebec government led to a tripartite agreement on local police services. This three-year agreement, which came into effect on April 1, 1994, provides the community of Kawawachikamach with the services of three Native police officers who benefit from support and supervision from Surete du Quebec.
The tripartite negotiations on police services, carried on with Quebec and the Cree Regional Authority, also led to an agreement. Since April 1, 1994, a three-year tripartite agreement guarantees the nine James Bay Cree communities the services of 42 Native police officers. These nine communities independently assume responsibility for local police services. The tripartite agreements with the Cree and the Naskapi enable the federal government to fulfill its obligations in the field of policing services.
During the 1993-1994 financial year, the Department paid $60,000 to the Kativik Regional Administration to enable it to consult the population and carry out research to define the police service needs and the ways of fulfilling them. In June 1994, the Administration presented a report containing a proposal on the organization of police services for northern Quebec. The Department then began tripartite negotiations with Quebec and the Kativik Regional Government.
The Department's Native Correctional Affairs Division, for its part, continued to participate both formally and informally in the Justice-Solicitor General Working Group with the Inuit of northern Quebec. The Inuit Justice Task Force completed and presented its research report entitled "Profile of Criminality in Nunavik". This research project was financed by Solicitor General Canada, which also took charge of having the report translated and printed. During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the financial contribution of the Native Correctional Affairs Division amounted to $16,271.
The Correctional Service of Canada, for its part, paid $35,000 to the liaison, group, Native Parajudicial Services of Quebec. That organization answers certain specific needs related to offenders passing through the correctional system and being released. This clientele group comes under the purview of the Correctional Service of Canada, the agency responsible for receiving and treating Cree, Inuit and Naskapi offenders incarcerated in federal prisons. The Correctional Service also invested $25,000 in various programs designed to combat drug addiction and sexual offences, and to promote education geared toward literacy as well as Native culture and spirituality.
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the Department of the Solicitor General Canada contributed the sum of $136,271 to its activities in northern Quebec.
Justice Canada worked in close collaboration with the Grand Council of the Crees (of Quebec) to implement the se-cond phase of the "Justice for the Cree" Project. Phase I consisted of research on criminality, the justice system and the police. For Phase II, public consultations are planned in the Cree communities, on the results of that research. These consultation, to be spread out over three years, have as their aim the designing and testing of local and regional initiatives in the field of justice.
During the 1993-1994 fiscal year, the Department granted $47,700 to the Grand Council of the Crees (of Quebec) to cover costs related to Phase II of the project.
In addition, a representative of the Department sits on a Justice - Solicitor General Working Group. The mission of this working group is to identify the improvements to be made to the justice system for the Inuit of northern Quebec.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada works with the communities in northern Quebec in connection with the federal certification required for any establishment that intends to export its production, wholly or in part, outside of Quebec.
In November 1993, the veterinarian responsible for plans and specifications at the Food Production and Inspection Branch (FPIB) traveled to Kangiqsualujjuaq in order to evaluate the facilities and operating protocol required to operate a caribou abatoir. He then submitted his observations and recommendations to the Makivik Corporation, which wishes to export. The Department is still awaiting an official application for accreditation to move forward on this file.
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