ARCHIVED - The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and The Northeastern Quebec Agreement 1995 Annual Report

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Author: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 
Date: 1996 
ISBN: 0-662-62174-3
QS- Q036-002-BB-A1

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Table of Contents


Minister's foreword

The Honourable Ronald A. Irwin

The year 1995 marked the 20th anniversary of the signing of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA), and as the Minister responsible for coordinating the implementation of the Agreement and the Northeastern Quebec Agreement (NEQA), I am pleased to present the 1995 Annual Report, in accordance with the James Bay and Northern Quebec Native Claims Settlement Act.

Since the signing of the JBNQA in 1975 and the NEQA in 1978, several federal departments and agencies have been actively fulfilling the federal government's obligations and have developed the various structures necessary to fulfill federal commitments in their areas of activity.

In 1995, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and the Cree signed a five-year agreement to provide close to $170 million for the operations and maintenance budget of the Cree communities. At the same time, I have begun a joint effort with the Cree to determine what needs to be done to negotiate a plan to complete implementation of outstanding issues related to the JBNQA. Me Michel Vennat, of Montréal, has been appointed to lead this exercise for Canada.

The Government of Canada took part in discussions with the Government of Quebec and the Inuit about the creation of a Nunavik assembly and regional government. The Department continues to co-chair meetings held with the Inuit and several federal departments through the Inuit Forum on JBNQA implementation. The Government of Canada also conducted talks towards two future agreements with the Naskapi: the renewal of their five-year operations and maintenance budget agreement, and a Naskapi job creation agreement.

Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to underscore the efforts of the Cree, the Inuit, the Naskapi and the Government of Canada in achieving the significant progress made to date. Our success to date is encouraging us to continue to strengthen our relationship, based on mutual respect and partnership, and to look to the future with optimism.

Signature of Ronald A. Irwin

The Honourable Ronald A. Irwin, PC., M.P.,
Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development

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Introduction

The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA) was signed in 1975 by the Cree and Inuit peoples of Quebec, the governments of Canada and Quebec, the James Bay Development Corporation, the James Bay Energy Corporation and Hydro-Québec. Three years later, in 1978, the Naskapi of Schefferville signed a similar agreement, the Northeastern Quebec Agreement (NEQA).

Two events prepared the ground for a process that would lead to the signing of these agreements. In 1898, the boundaries of Quebec were first extended north to the 52nd parallel. In 1912, Quebec's boundaries were again extended, to Hudson Strait in the north and to Labrador in the east. The Cree, Inuit and Naskapi peoples inhabited these vast federal territories known as Rupert's Land.

The 1912 Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, which established the province's current borders, carried certain obligations. Under this federal statute, the Quebec government was to reach an agreement with the Native communities on land-related issues. However, talks on these matters did not begin until 62 years later, after the Cree and Inuit of Quebec filed a motion to halt the James Bay hydro-electric development work begun in northern Quebec by the province.

In November 1973, Judge Albert Malouf of the Quebec Superior Court ordered that all work be stopped immediately, in particular because Quebec had not yet fulfilled its obligation from the 1912 Act.

The decision of Judge Malouf was reversed by the Quebec Court of Appeal in 1974. Nevertheless, it brought about negotiations, in the same year, which led to the ratification of Canada's first modern treaties with Native peoples.

The year 1995 marks the 20th anniversary of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. Since 1975, the federal government, in conjunction with JBNQA beneficiaries, has been continuing its efforts to implement fully all the provisions of this historic agreement, which serves as a model on more than one account in North America and abroad.

As of June 30, 1995, 11,428 Cree, 7,528 Inuit and 621 Naskapi made up a total population of 19,577 Native people beneficiaries of the agreements.

Tracks of the Canada goose Tracks of the Canada goose (Branta canadensis), also known as the honker. It nests in the northern regions of Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland.
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Map of Cree, Inuit and Naskapi communities in Quebec

Map of Cree, Inuit and Naskapi communities in Quebec

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Principal provisions of the agreements

The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and the Northeastern Quebec Agreement are more than merely land claim settlements. They have paved the way for a new kind of relationship with the Native peoples of northern Quebec, introducing a form of self-government.

Under the terms of these agreements, the Native peoples in the region have exchanged their claims, rights and territorial interests for other rights and benefits, as specified in the agreements.

The JBNQA and NEQA define the land regime applicable to the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi as well as their rights in such areas as resource management, economic development, police and administration of justice, health and social services, and environmental protection.

As compensation, the Cree and Inuit nations received $225 million under the JBNQA, and the Naskapi nation received $9 million under the NEQA. They are also entitled to a range of services and programs to which the federal and provincial governments contribute annually. Additional lump-sum payments have also been provided as a result of treaty implementation agreements and specific agreements, most of which are connected with a complementary agreement to the JBNQA.

The Cree have received:

The Inuit have received:

The Naskapi have received:

Tracks of the arctic fox Tracks of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). It inhabits the arctic tundra and plain, from the treeline to the icepack.

Lands

A land regime divides the territory of the beneficiaries under the JBNQA and NEQA agreements into three categories (I, II, III). It also specifies the total areas of land and the rights in each category.

Category I lands are set aside exclusively for the Native communities that are signatories to the two agreements. Cree and Naskapi Category I lands are further subdivided into categories IA and IB: "A " for lands under the jurisdiction of Canada, and "B " for those under that of Quebec. To distinguish them from Cree lands, Naskapi lands are classified as IA-N and IB-N. Lands under federal jurisdiction are governed by Native institutions as defined in the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act. Lands under Quebec's jurisdiction are governed by corporations composed exclusively of Native people.

Category II lands come under provincial jurisdiction, but the Native people participate in the management of hunting, fishing and trapping and the development of outfitting operations. They also have exclusive hunting, fishing and trapping rights on these lands.

Category III lands are Quebec public lands where Native and non-Native peoples may hunt and fish. However, Native people enjoy certain privileges on these lands under the agreements. They have exclusive rights to the harvesting of certain aquatic species and certain fur-bearing animals; they participate in the administration and development of the territory; and last, they enjoy a right of first refusal, until the year 2015, in the event of applications to transfer or set up new outfitting operations. The Native people must, however, relinquish this right for 30 per-cent of transfers or new operations proposed by non-Natives.

The JBNQA and the NEQA identify more than 14,000 square kilometres of territory as Category I lands, 150,000 square kilometres as Category II lands and one million square kilometres as Category III lands.

Environmental and Social protection

The JBNQA and the NEQA provide for consultative bodies to advise the governments on policies and regulations that may have an impact on the environment and the social conditions of the Native communities.

For this purpose, two committees have been set up under the JBNQA: the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment for the area south of the 55th parallel, and the Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee for the area north of that parallel. Each committee includes representatives from the Native communities and from the two levels of government.

The JBNQA also specifies evaluation procedures for development proposals. The Cree participate in the evaluation of projects affecting territory below the 55th parallel, whereas to the north it is the Inuit who participate. It is the responsibility of the federal Minister of the Environment, or of an administrator appointed by the Governor in Council, to administer the evaluation process for projects involving the jurisdiction of the federal government. For matters under provincial jurisdiction, the administrator is appointed by the Quebec government. Projects having an impact on Category I Cree lands come under the authority of the local Cree administrator.

The NEQA includes similar provisions assuring the Naskapi of participation in the environmental protection of the lands covered by that agreement.

Economic Development

Three organizations administer compensation funds paid under the agreements by the governments of Quebec and Canada, and by Hydro- Québec. The Cree Board of Compensation, the Makivik Corporation and the Naskapi Development Corporation thus finance projects for the economic development of the Native communities in northern Quebec.

The agreements also specify that, in the same way as other Native peoples, the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi continue to benefit from economic development programs offered by the governments.

Education

The JBNQA provided for the establishment of the Cree School Board and the Kativik School Board. Both these boards, which operate under Quebec's jurisdiction, possess special powers and ensure that the educational programs are culturally relevant to the communities.

Under the terms of the NEQA, educational services for the Naskapi are provided for by a school created to fulfil the needs of the Naskapi community. The Eastern Quebec Regional School Board is in charge of its general administration. In addition, the Naskapi Education Committee was set up to perform the same advisory functions as those assigned to school committees under the Education Act at the time, and now known as the Education Act for the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi Native Persons.

The JBNQA and the NEQA established that Canada and Quebec would contribute to the funding of these institutions on the basis of annual operational and capital budgets, subject to their approval. The proportion to be contributed by Canada was set at 75 percent of the approved budgets of the Cree School Board and the Naskapi school, and 25 percent of the approved budgets of the Kativik School Board.

Hunting, Fishing and Trapping

The Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Coordinating Committee was created under the agreements. Composed of government and Native experts, the Committee reviews hunting, fishing and trapping management. It also makes recommendations to the two levels of government. Subcommittees, made up of Native and government representatives, have been formed to deal with more specific issues, such as big game, parks, fishing, outfitting operations, marketing of caribou meat and land use.

Canada goose
The Canada goose occupies a very important place in
Aboriginal culture and traditions. It is one of the many wildlife
species found on the territory covered by the JBNQA and NEQA.

Local and Regional Administrations

Since 1984, the Cree communities and the Naskapi community residing on lands covered by the agreements have become incorporated. Their local administrations have the power to adopt by-laws concerning the maintenance of public order, environmental protection, taxation for local purposes, roads and transportation, local business and the use of lands and resources. The Cree Board of Compensation and the Cree Regional Authority – which is responsible, in particular, for organizing common services for the Cree communities – were created under Quebec legislation. The Inuit communities are organized into municipalities under Quebec law. The Kativik Regional Government is their regional structure. The Makivik Corporation was set up, in part, to protect the interests of the Inuit with regard to the implementation of the JBNQA. Both organizations were established under provincial legislation.

Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act

Local Native administrations are set up under the terms of the agreements. The provisions applying to Indian communities are implemented under the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act, passed by the Parliament of Canada in 1984. This Act supersedes the Indian Act (except for matters pertaining to Indian status). It institutes a form of self-government and establishes the land management system for Category IA lands (Cree) and IA-N lands (Naskapi).

Cree-Naskapi Commission

The Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act also brought about the creation of the Cree-Naskapi Commission, whose role is to investigate appeals concerning the Act's application. It must also produce biannual reports on the application of the Act following hearings. These reports are submitted to the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development to be tabled in Parliament. The Cree-Naskapi Commission is made up of no more than three commissioners appointed by the Governor in Council, on the recommendation of the Cree Regional Authority and the Naskapi community.

Role of the department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development

Since the signing of the agreements, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) no longer provides direct delivery of services to the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi. Its role is now to provide funding to finance communities, capital spending projects and programs delivered by Native administrations. It also participates in several plans for the management of resources and of lands covered by the agreements.

Finally, DIAND is responsible for implementing the agreements with respect to the overall obligations of the Government of Canada. In so doing, it must ensure the coordination of the various activities on the part of other federal departments and agencies in their dealings with Native communities.

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Current Status of the Implementation of the Agreements

Background

The implementation process of the JBNQA and the NEQA, signed in 1975 and 1978 respectively, proved to be longer and more complex than expected.

In 1981, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Indian Affairs urged the federal government to examine the problems relating to the JBNQA. Following the tabling of a departmental report - the Tait Report - in 1982, the federal government instituted a series of measures designed to solve all the problems related to the implementation of the Agreement. However, some problems remain.

In June 1986, Cabinet approved a process for implementing the government's obligations under the JBNQA.

Four years later, in September 1990, the federal government signed separate agreements with the Makivik Corporation and the Quebec Naskapi Band on the implementation of the JBNQA and the NEQA. These agreements released the federal government from certain obligations under the JBNQA and the NEQA. In return, the government awarded a one-time grant of $22.8 million to the Inuit and $1.7 million to the Naskapi.

The government also made other commitments to these communities. A number of activities have been carried out under the implementation agreements signed in 1990 with the Inuit and the Naskapi, and various working groups and organizational structures have been set up.

Tracks of the woodland caribou Tracks of the woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). It inhabits the coniferous boreal forest, the subarctic taïga and the arctic or alpine tundra.

The Cree

At the end of 1994, the federal government and the Cree agreed to begin discussions that would serve to establish a framework for implementing the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. In July 1995, the federal government initiated a process designed to settle certain unresolved issues pertaining to the JBNQA. A federal negotiator was appointed, and discussions began with the Cree of Quebec and the Quebec government to determine the topics of discussion for future negotiations. At the same time, on September 11, 1995, the federal government and the Cree representatives ratified a five-year agreement (1995-2000) worth close. to $170 million for the operations and maintenance budgets of the Cree communities. Other activities related to the implementation of the JBNQA are also continuing in the context of bilateral negotiations or existing programs.

The Inuit

In July 1994, the Nunavik Constitutional Committee and the Quebec government signed a global agreement to create a Nunavik assembly and government. On invitation from Quebec and the Inuit, the federal government agreed to participate in the discussions. The Quebec government appointed a new negotiator and offered to broaden the mandate to include the matter of a new funding arrangement. Many meetings were held, enabling the parties to reach an agreement on certain matters. Negotiations were suspended in 1995 and should resume early in 1996. The federal government will continue to take part.

The JBNQA Implementation Agreement, concluded between Canada and the Inuit of Nunavik in September 1990, provided for regular meetings to review the progress made in implementing federal obligations and also called for coordination of the various types of federal activity. This process led to the creation of the Inuit Forum in 1993. In 1995, meetings took place, and various subjects were discussed. Most discussions resulted in follow-up activities and meetings between the parties. The major issues dealt with during regular talks over the year were related to studies conducted on the Marine Infrastructure Program and on training and employment services.

The Naskapi

The NEQA Implementation Agreement, concluded between Canada and the Naskapi Band of Quebec on September 13, 1990, included provisions pertaining to the renewal of the five-year operations and maintenance agreement. Negotiations have taken place and should culminate in the signing of an agreement between DIAND and the Naskapi during 1996. In connection with the job Creation Strategy, meetings between the different federal partners and the Naskapi have enabled a number of projects and studies to be completed. The parties hope to reach an agreement on this soon.

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Summary of Federal Government Expenditures,1 ($) 1990-1995

  1990-1991 1991-1992 1992-1993 1993-1994 1994-1995
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 95,986,527 89,536,504 109,578,050 109,448,407 109,493,0232
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation3 27,377,572 30,319,000 33,337,409 38,196,909 42,289,524
Human Resources Development Canada 3,201,519 5,182,104 8,517,274 8,015,000 8,599,218
Health Canada 1,418,165 1,685,876 2,186,641 2,719,646 4,119,744
Industry Canada 2,395,477 357,654 844,213 2,573,652 3,720,246
Solicitor General 32,500 5,000 60,000 1,362,712 2,913,253 4
Canadian Heritage 2,360,314 2,393,187 2,416,702 2,294,750 2,258,260
National Defence5 (see note) (see note) (see note) (see note) 1,986,600
Fisheries and Oceans 1,277,491 1,253,645 1,582,000 2,533,500 1,959,100
Transport Canada 7,600,000 4,900,000 674,650 1,329,870 1,452,271
Environment Canada 84,575 815,855 6 938,718 6 884,540 6 650,527 6
Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forestry Service 309,025 502,119 730,175 728,661 429,700
Federal Office of Regional Development - Quebec 8,145 391,937 580,316 379,119 250,367
Justice Canada 45,550 nil 70,000 47,700 40,000
TOTAL 142,096,860 137,342,881 161,516,148 169,288,025 180,161,833
TOTAL FEDERAL EXPENDITURES BETWEEN 1990 AND 1995: $ 790,405,747

1 These figures are supplied by the departments.
2 Including a $113,880 contribution from Environment Canada for the inventory of environmental Issues among the Cree communities.
3 Calendar year. The financial data from previous years were brought forward to bring the calendar years used by the CMHC closer in line with the fiscal years of other departments and agencies ending March 31 rather than December 31.
4 Increase as the result of agreements concluded with the Cree and Naskapt in 1994.
5 Financial data from the Department for the territory covered by the agreements for 1990-1991 to 1993-1994 was not available for the report. The 1994-1995 expenses included a contribution of $833,300 from Environment Canada and of $833,300 from Transport Canada.
6 Including the expenses of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency.

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Activities and expenditures of federal departments and agencies, 1994-1995

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development spent a total of $109,493,023 on its activities among Cree, Inuit and Naskapi communities covered by the JBNQA and the NEQA.

Education

DIAND contributed $49,350,745 for education expenses during the 1994-1995 fiscal year.

Most of these funds - $41,844,836 - went toward the cost of education services. The Cree School Board received $30,862,539, the Kativik School Board received $9,311,267, and the Eastern Quebec School Board received $1,671,030. A contribution of $6,844,868 was made for capital expenditures. These funds were distributed to the school boards through the Quebec Department of Education.

During the 1994-1995 school year, 5,764 students were registered at the pre-school, elementary and secondary levels. The Cree School Board had 3,056 students, the Kativik School Board had 2,550, and 158 students attended the Naskapi school.

DIAND also contributed $270,078 as direct financing for post-secondary education assistance. In addition, the Department contributed $390,963 for various cultural activities. The Cree received $194,376 for this purpose, and the Inuit, $196,587.

Capital, Operations and Maintenance

A total of $46,561,390 was spent on capital, operations and maintenance during the 1994-1995 fiscal year.

DIAND provided capital grants, during the 1994-1995 fiscal year, to the Cree and Naskapi totalling $17,439,107. This amount includes $7,700,00 for projects related to health, sanitation and safety in five Cree communities.

An additional $4,570,000 was allocated for infrastructures. Waskaganish received $4,370,000 for work related to the drinking water supply and wastewater treatment. Oujé-Bougoumou obtained $100,000 to install a telephone system. The Naskapi community received $100,000 to upgrade a transmission line.

Tracks of the American mink Tracks of the American mink (Mustela vison). It lives in the forests and scrub near streams and lakes. It can be found almost everywhere in northern Quebec up to the treeline.

The Department allocated a further $1,098,100 under the First Nations Infrastructures Initiatives component of the National Infrastructure Improvement Program. The Cree communities of Whapmagoostui, Mistissini and Chisasibi received $1,043,100 for municipal infrastructure projects. The Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach received $55,000 to extend the water and sewer systems.

DIAND also contributed $23,404,723 to subsidize operations and maintenance in Cree and Naskapi communities. In addition, the community of Chisasibi received $50,000 toward the cost of training treatment plant operators.

three aerated ponds
View of three aerated ponds used for sewage treatment in Waskaganish.

The Department allocated a further $1,098,100 under the First Nations Infrastructures Initiatives component of the National Infrastructure Improvement Program. The Cree communities of Whapmagoostui, Mistissini and Chisasibi received $1,043,100 for municipal infrastructure projects. The Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach received $55,000 to extend the water and sewer systems.

DIAND also contributed $23,404,723 to subsidize operations and maintenance in Cree and Naskapi communities. In addition, the community of Chisasibi received $50,000 toward the cost of training treatment plant operators.

Electricity

The Cree communities of Wemindji and Waskaganish are not yet linked to the Hydro- Québec grid. Wemindji operates its own hydroelectric generating station and separate diesel generators with an annual operating grant provided under an agreement with DIAND that ends on March 26, 1996. In November 1995, Hydro-Québec informed the community of Wemindji that it was ready to link the community to its grid.

In Waskaganish, electricity is currently produced by four diesel generators whose operation is financed by DIAND. However, this community wishes to generate its own electricity. The technical committee composed of representatives from Waskaganish, Hydro-Québec and DIAND that was set up in June 1994 submitted its report in September 1995. Among its other recommendations, the Committee suggested that an energy efficiency program be implemented for the generators currently in use. The representatives are continuing to discuss this matter.

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the communities received the following amounts:

Waskaganish

  • Operations and maintenance
  • Major repairs
$1,718,268
501,744

Sub-total:

$2,220,012

Wemindji

  • Grant
  • Soil decontamination
$1,100,000
950,000

Sub-total:

$2,050,000

Eastmain

  • Soil decontamination
$195,870

TOTAL

$4,465,882

Social Services

The Quebec government provides social assistance services for most of the communities located in the area covered by the agreements. DIAND contributed $3,398,056 for delivery of social assistance services in the communities of Mistissini, Waswanipi and Kawawachikamach.

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, these three communities received the following amounts:

Mistissini
$1,268,670
Waswanipi
$1,155,629
Kawawachikamach
$973,757
TOTAL
$3,398,056

The federal government also finances two additional social service programs: the National Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities (NSIPD) and the Family Violence Initiative (FVI).

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the beneficiaries of the JBNQA and the NEQA received the following amounts:

  NSIPD FVI Total
Cree $21,346 $140,938 $162,284
Inuit 25,744 169,200 194,944
Naskapi 1,764 11,635 13,399
Total $48,854 $321,733 $370,627

Economic Development

DIAND participates in the economic development of Aboriginal peoples by contributing to the opera-tion of Community Economic Development Organizations (CEDOs), which were created under the Canadian Aboriginal Economic Development Strategy (CAEDS) and provide technical and financial assistance for projects.

Although the Strategy ended March 31, 1995, the Department is continuing to support economic development in accordance with CAEDS standards.

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, DIAND contributed the following amounts:

Cree
$898,810
Inuit
$885,440
Naskapi
$47,720
TOTAL
$1,831,970

Environment

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, DIAND and Environment Canada jointly provided $227,600 to the Cree Regional Authority for continuing work on the inventory of environmental issues among the Cree communities. Detailed descriptive studies and analyses of the health and environmental risks were conducted at sites where contamination was detected in 1994. The studies will make it possible to establish priorities among the inventoried sites. The Naskapi received $6,550 from the Department for projects related to the inventory.

The Cree and Naskapi communities also received financial assistance from DIAND through the Indian Environmental Assistance Fund (IEAF). During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the Cree Regional Authority received $20,000 to produce a directory of environmental services. The Naskapi received $10,450 to conduct an environmental impact assessment of a tire recycling project and $25,000 to cover the cost of their participation in the public hearings on low-level military flights in Quebec and Labrador.

Installation of a monitoring well
Installation of a monitoring well for a detailed site characterization
in a Cree community.

Resource Access Negotiations

The Cree communities of Chisasibi and Mistissini received $60,250 during the 1994-1995 fiscal year, under the Resource Access Negotiations Program (RAN), to negotiate agreements in the areas of territorial management and mining. The Department also awarded $55,000 to the Kativik Regional Development Council to allow the Inuit communities of Salluit and Kangiqsujuaq to negotiate economic spin-offs from the Raglan mining project in the areas of land transport and distribution of petroleum products.

Indian Registration

The Cree and Naskapi communities work with DIAND to maintain Indian registration records. The Department contributed $77,684 toward the maintenance of the registry during the 1994-1995 fiscal year.

Cree-Naskapi Land Registry

The Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act provides for the organization of a registry of rights and interests granted on Category IA and IA-N lands and on buildings located on those lands.

During 1995, the communities of Whapmagoostui, Wemindji and Chisasibi opened local registration offices. These three offices are in addition to those already open in Mistissini, Nemaska and Kawawachikamach. Local registrars were given an information session on the practical aspects of operating the registration system. The Cree-Naskapi Land Registry Regulations, to which amendments were made in sections 31(4) and 32(1) in 1994, were the subject of discussions between the legal representatives of the Cree and Naskapi and the joint standing committee to study regulations to clarify certain other provisions.

Financial Aid

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the Cree Regional Authority received $381,400 in financial aid from DIAND: $371,400 was used to cover costs related to the negotiation of the operations and maintenance budget and $10,000 was used to cover the cost of attending a conference on tourism.

The Makivik Corporation obtained a grant of $262,113 to assist with the operational costs of agencies established to implement the JBNQA, as well as with the costs of overall implementation activities. The Corporation also received $27,000 to cover costs related to its participation in various advisory committees, and $300,000 to cover part of the cost of the negotiations for the assembly and government of Nunavik.

The Naskapi, for their part, received $95,000 to cover part of the cost of negotiations for the Job Creation Strategy, the operations and maintenance budget and the capital budget.

Oujé-Bougoumou

Under the agreement signed in 1992 by DIAND and the Cree of Oujé-Bougoumou, the Department gave the village an operations and maintenance grant of $1,965,766 during the 1994-1995 fiscal year. When the agreement expired, and pursuant to the negotiations conducted during 1995, the Cree of Oujé-Bougoumou were included in the overall operations and maintenance budget for Cree communities.

The agreement included provisions for the construction of a new village at Lake Opemisca. It was chosen as a model Aboriginal village, and the Cree of Oujé-Bougoumou received a United Nations 50. Communities Award in 1995 as one of the communities around the world that best exemplify the objectives of the UN. This is a crowning achievement for the community, whose expression of an ideal received special mention in the Human Settlement category. The prize was awarded to the community's representatives during a special ceremony in New York on September 24, 1995.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation

The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, acts directly in eight of the nine Cree communities in Quebec, and also in the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach, through its on-reserve housing program (section 95 of the National Housing Act). This program provides funds to cover a large portion of housing operating costs, over periods of up to 25 years. Beneficiaries of this program pay rent geared to their income levels. CMHC also acts as an advisor to these communities, supporting them in the planning, building, management and maintenance of their housing. There are approximately 3,200 section 95 housing units in operation within the various Native communities in Quebec, including over 1,400 within the Cree and Naskapi communities.

The Inuit housing program, for its part, is administered by the Société d'habitation du Québec (SHQ) under the Canada-Quebec Social Housing Agreement. Over 1,600 housing units currently receive operating subsidies, which are cost-shared by the federal and provincial governments. Beneficiaries of this program also pay rent geared to their income levels.

In 1995, a specific initiative approved in 1994 enabled nine Inuit households from the community of Kuujjuaq to participate in the construction and financing, and become the owners, of their homes. This was a first in this part of Quebec. CMHC paid for slightly more than half of the housing construction costs, while the SHQ will pay for a portion of the operating costs. The program was largely designed by the Kativik Regional Government and received a great deal of support from the community of Kuujjuaq.

Model single-family dwelling in Mistissini.
Model single-family dwelling in Mistissini.

In 1994, subsidies provided by the CMHC for housing in the Aboriginal communities amounted to $42,289,524.

Housing Programs in Northern Quebec1, 1994
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
Pre-1986 Programs
Federal subsidies $3,106,371 $15,465,953 $540,931 $19,113,255
Number of subsidized units 639 928 70 1,637
 
Post-1985 Programs
Federal Subsidies $6,386,135 $16,532,130 $258,004 $23,176,269
Number of subsidized Units 709 701 24 1,434

1 For the Cree and the Naskapi, programs and criteria for subsidies are different from those applicable to the Inuit.

Human Resources Development Canada

Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) intends to work toward its goal of promoting greater autonomy for Native communities. These communities are seeking control over tools for improving their workers' employability, upgrading their workers' skills to meet labour market requirements and fostering community development.

The Department and the Kativik Regional Government (KRG) have renewed the services agreement, giving KRG responsibility for the delivery of employment and training programs and services for all communities within its jurisdiction. KRG received $5 million during the 1994-1995 fiscal year.

The Cree entered negotiations with HRDC to reach overall agreement on the devolution of responsibility for employment and training programs and services, which are currently provided by the Department on Cree territory. Negotiations begun in June 1995 aim for implementation on the devolution agreement by April 1, 1996.

The Cree and the Naskapi participated in the "Pathways to Success" national strategy. During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the Cree Local Aboriginal Management Board received $3,215,218 and the Naskapi Local Aboriginal Management Board, $384,000.

Health Canada

For the 1994-1995 fiscal year, Health Canada provided $4,119,744 for various projects and activities to Cree, Inuit and Naskapi beneficiaries of the agreements. The sum of $664,103 went toward the provision of NonInsured Health Benefits to beneficiaries living away from their communities.

Nearly one third of funds allocated by Health Canada to the beneficiaries of the agreements – $1,292,496 – was used to carry out projects related to the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program. The Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay received $613,008, the Nunalituqait Ikajuqatigiitut Inuit Association $644,878 and the Naskapi $34,610. As well, through projects funded by the Solvent Abuse component of the program, the Nunalituqait Ikajuqatigiitut Inuit Association and the Maison Anarraapik respectively received $32,900 and $75,000.

Twenty-one percent of the funds allocated by Health Canada - $881,937 - were used by the communities to carry out projects under the Brighter Futures program, including the Prenatal Nutrition component. The sum of $412,675 was allocated to the Cree; the Kativik Regional Board of Health and Social Services received the sum of $440,292, and the Naskapi received $28,970.

Health Canada provided $939,705 for a series of projects under the Building Healthy Communities Strategy - Mental Health - and the Kativik Regional Board of Health and Social Services received $494,592. The Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay was allocated $445,113 for a variety of community activities.

In the area of family violence, the Inuit received $78,416 to carry out 11 projects. For AIDS prevention, the Inuit received $30,000. As well, the Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay received $25,483 for their family violence projects.

The sum of $6,725 was provided to the Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay for the development of student careers awareness material in the area of health care. The Kativik School Board received $92,979 for various activities.

Health Canada also participated in the financing of the First Nations of Quebec and Labrador Health and Social Services Commission since its creation in March of 1994. Two representatives - one from the community of Akulivik, the other from Kawawachikamach - sit on the Commission's Board of Directors.

Industry Canada

Industry Canada invested a total of $3,720,246 during fiscal year 1994-1995 to support 28 business and economic development projects for the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi of the region.

Funding was provided for the establishment, acquisition or expansion of 15 businesses. Ten other businesses received financial assistance for a range of business services including feasibility studies, marketing studies and post-investment advice. In addition, funding was allocated for three economic development research projects under the Research and Advocacy component of Aboriginal Business Canada.

This funding was invested in a diverse range of industrial sectors in the region. The most active sector was that of food and beverage services, but the Department also funded projects in the accommodation, agriculture, transportation, forestry/logging, fishing/trapping, manufacturing, tourism and business service sectors.

Solicitor General Canada

In 1995, the Department of the Solicitor General Canada concluded negotiations with the Government of Quebec and the Kativik Regional Government. On July 1, 1995, the parties signed a tripartite agreement, ending March 31, 1998, on policing services north of the 55th parallel.

The agreement allowed for the creation of the Kativik Regional Police Force, responsible for policing services in the 14 Northern Village Corporations and throughout the non-municipal territory north of the 55th parallel. The agreement was concluded in accordance with section 21 of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and the First Nations Policing Policy.

Among other things, the agreement calls for a progressive staffing increase up to 42 permanent police officers by April 1997, for support and supervision from the Sûreté du Québec during the first two years, for training budgets and for the immediate assumption of financial responsibility for policing services.

In 1995, the Department also followed up on the tripartite policing agreements reached with the Cree and Naskapi in 1994. In particular, the Department has begun discussions with the representatives of the Cree and Quebec concerning certain unresolved issues relating to policing services in the James Bay Cree communities.

As its contribution to the tripartite agreements during the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the Department of the Solicitor General Canada paid $2,484,000 to the Cree and $240,253 to the Naskapi. In addition, the Department paid $60,000 to the Kativik Regional Government to develop proposals for the organization of policing and to consult the populations concerned.

The Department's Aboriginal Corrections Policy Unit, for its part, continued to participate both formally and informally in the justice-Solicitor General Working Group with the Inuit of Nunavik.

The Correctional Service of Canada allocated $30,000 to Native Parajudicial Services of Quebec which is responsible for counseling Native offenders in federal penitentiaries, including the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi, to facilitate suitable correctional planning and followup until their release. In addition, $24,000 has been allocated to various treatment programs designed to deal with substance abuse and sexual offences and to promote literacy training as well as Native culture and spirituality. These amounts do riot include the direct costs of incarceration.

The Service has also invested $75,000 in accommodation, surveillance and treatment in halfway houses during conditional release. During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the financial contribution of the Correctional Service of Canada reached $129,000.

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the Department of the Solicitor General Canada contributed $2,913,253 to its activities in northern Quebec.

Canadian Heritage

Canadian Heritage, acting through the Native Citizens' Directorate, supports a wide range of activities in northern Quebec. Its main areas of intervention are in the operation of Native communication networks and friendship centres, the protection of Native languages and cultures, support for Native organizations and for the improvement of the situation of Native women. During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, Canadian Heritage provided support, through its pro-grams, to Aboriginal communities in northern Quebec, amounting to $2,258,260.

Canadian Heritage, Program Expenditures in 1994-1995
Northern Native Broadcast Access Program
   
James Bay Cree Communications Society $371,000
Taqramiut Nipingat Incorporated (TNI) 1,152,000
   
Aboriginal Representative Organizations Program
   
Makivik Corporation 189,242
   
Native Friendship Centre Program
   
Senneterre Native Friendship Centre Inc.* 141,829
Val-d'or Native Friendship Centre Inc.* 212,743
Cree Indian Friendship Centre of Chibougamou Inc. 177,286
   
Aboriginal Women's Program  
   
Cree Women Council 8,530
Grand Council of Naskapi 5,630
Total $2,258,260

*The services provided by Native friendship centres are not offered exclusively to the agreements' beneficiaries.

An Inukshu on the banks of Quataq Bay
An "Inukshuk" on the banks of Quataq Bay. The enormous stone
figures in human forms, as in Nunavik, are part of the cultural
heritage of the Inuit people.

National Defence

The Department of National Defence has done work on the territory under agreement to restore 24 sites contaminated mostly by barrels that remained at Kuujjuaq, in northern Quebec.

The project, which started in the summer of 1994, was a joint effort between National Defence, Environment Canada, Transport Canada and the Municipality of Kuujjuaq. Public Works and Government Services Canada provided project management and technical support for the envi - ronmental issues.

The project aimed at solving an environmental problem that had an impact on the quality of life of the people and the wildlife in that region. Since the construction of the military airport by the United States Air Force during World War II and its sub-sequent use by National Defence and Transport Canada, 25,000 barrels had been left at different places in the region of Ungava Bay. Some were near the Municipality of Kuujjuaq and the banks of the Koksoak River. A number of barrels were empty, but many contained bitumen, and some were leaking.

The project, which cost $2.5 million, was carried out in partnership with the Municipal Corporation of Kuujjuaq, which did most of the work, and the Land Corporation of Nayumivik. The latter, along with the Centre d'Études nordiques de l'Université Laval, has done the necessary revegetation work on the sites. The Inuit airline, First Air, transported the compressed barrels to be recycled near Montréal. During the 19941995 fiscal year, National Defence granted $1,986,600 to the Municipal Corporation of Kuujjuaq and to the Land Corporation of Nayumivik to cover the costs of Phase 1 of the project.

Fisheries and Oceans

Since February 1995, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has been part of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). Following this merger, the Quebec region changed its name, becoming the Laurentian region. In addition to administering several research and development programs in northern Quebec, the DFO is now responsible for numerous services including protection, vessel escort services, assistance to navigation and maritime telecommunications. The DFO continues to manage marine fisheries and the fish habitat in cooperation with the Cree and the Inuit, and is pursuing its scientific studies in the Hudson basin. The DFO is not active on .the Naskapi territory, as the Naskapi fish only freshwater species, which are managed by Quebec, However, the Department has established contacts through the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Coordinating Committee.

Members of the community of Kuujjuaq
Members of the community of Kuujjuaq working to restore sites to
their natural condition as part of a project developed by National
Defence, Environment Canada, Transport Canada and the
Municipality of Kuujjuaq.

Northern Quebec sector and Native affairs

In 1995, the DFO ensured the implementation of the Native Fisheries Strategy (NFS) as well as drawing up and applying of an interim northern Quebec beluga management plan, in conjunction with the 14 Northern Village Corporations. Fishing agreements were signed with these corporations, allowing them to hire 14 community officers to monitor beluga hunting.

Still within the framework of the. NFS, the DFO and the Kativik School Board devised a specialized program to train fish wardens. Eight candidates completed the first phase of the course. Six of them were hired as fish wardens under agreements concluded with the Northern Village Corporations. These fish wardens participated in the implementation of beluga management measures, by carrying out, among other things, numerous patrols on land, at sea and in the air, together with community officers and DFO fisheries officers.

Graduates of Phase 1 of the fishery guardian course
Graduates of Phase 1 of the fishery guardian course developed by
the Kativik School Board and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

The Department continued its implementation of the special maritime fisheries development programs which should generate significant socioeconomic spin-offs in northern Quebec. It also completed projects under the Quebec Federal Fisheries Development Program, a program which came to an end on March 31, 1995. Moreover, the DFO continued to provide its financial assistance and advisory support for projects carried out by the Makivik Corporation and Les Pêcheries Seaku Inc. under the Fisheries and Aquaculture Testing and Experimentation Program. In the first case, the initiative involved a project to develop an intercommunity food trade network. In the second, it concerned the development of commercial amphipod and zooplankton fisheries in Hudson Strait.

The DFO also assisted the Cree Regional Authority financially in its efforts to develop a local market for the products of the Waswanipi fish processing plant.

Regional Science Branch

The DFO, through the Maurice Lamontagne Institute, continued activities associated with the multidisciplinary study of the marine environment of Hudson Bay, initiated in 1993, to acquire information necessary to assess the cumulative impact of changes in the flows of fresh water on the integrity of the marine environment of Hudson Bay. Objectives of the program include simulating the cumulative impact, determining chlorophyllous pigment distribution patterns, assessing the availability of nutrients, acquiring basic data on phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic communities and assessing the contribution of terrestrial organic material.

Several laboratory analyses were carried out, and a technical report dealing with all the data will be published shortly. Statistical analysis of the results is currently under way and will also be published. The processing of satellite data, which will help to determine surface chlorophyllous pigment distribution patterns in Hudson Bay, is also continuing.

Finally, a plan to disseminate the research results of the last few years was prepared as part of a research program.

Research work on the beluga of Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait also continued, in close cooperation with the Makivik Corporation and the municipal corporations. This cooperation involved sampling beluga whales and walruses caught by the Inuit to continue the genetic studies on the population structure, monitoring age and sex of the animals harvested and studies on parasites found in these species.

Field work was carried out in cooperation with walrus hunters, and it led to the examination and sampling of catches with a view to studying the impact of trichinosis on this species.

Achievements in the area of marine mammals include a simulation of hunting management options, the revision of the status of the beluga stock of eastern Hudson Bay, and the issuing of scientific opinions and advice on management measures. Moreover, DFO participation at the Workshop on Contaminants in the North, held in Winnipeg in March 1995, made it possible to present some results related to the presence of metals in marine mammals and in certain fish of eastern Hudson Bay. This problem is of particular importance given the fact that these resources are caught and eaten by the Inuit.

Finally, in conjunction with Les Pêcheries Seaku Inc., the Department published a scientific report entitled Le pétoncle d'Islande (Chlamis islandica) au Nunavik.

Fish habitat management activities focused, among other things, on assistance for projects carried out under special programs. As part of the Habitat Action Plan, work continued on the program for the monitoring of fish habitats along the northern route (James Bay), in cooperation with the Cree Regional Authority, and on the restora-tion of habitats for arctic char near Inukjuak (Hudson Bay), in partnership with the Avataq Cultural Institute and the Inukjuak Young People's Committee.

Canadian Coast Guard

Within its mandate, the Canadian Coast Guard carries out various activities related to protection, vessel escort services, assistance to navigation and maritime telecommunications in northern Quebec.

First, it protects the public's right to sail by issuing authorizations for works on and over navigable waters. The issuing of such authorizations applies to all bodies of water, whether natural or artificial, which may lend themselves to navigation for commercial or pleasure-boating purposes. For example, the Raglan project, which includes bridges, a road and the reopening of the harbour terminal in Deception Bay, was approved in July 1995 under the Navigable Waters Protection Act.

There are 59 aids to navigation (coastal lights, range lights and raccoons), which are distributed along the coastline of Quebec. Many are maintained and put into service on an annual basis. There are also dozens of navigational range lights in the form of beacons with a light on top, as for example, at Kuujjuaq and Beacon Point.

Two 1200-type heavy -duty ice-breakers are available to escort commercial vessels needing assistance, generally few dozen. The operating season of these ice-breakers extends from June to October. They are mainly used in Hudson Strait, as Hudson Bay is usually clear at this time of the year.

Finally, the helicopter service of the Canadian Coast Guard, which carries out aerial patrols in Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, conducted, for the very first time, maritime fisheries surveillance patrols in conjunction with Inuit fish wardens and DFO officers.

Transport Canada

Transport Canada demonstrated its financial commitment to the communities targeted in the agreements by allocating funds for capital assets, airport operations and maintenance, and the Maritime Infrastructure Program.

Capital Assets

Transport Canada's total spending in 1994-1995 at the Schefferville and Eastmain airports came to $492,000.

Transport Canada, in partnership with National Defence and Environment Canada, also participated in an environmental project at Kuujjuaq involving the removal of 25,000 barrels of bitumen abandoned in this region some 50 years ago. The Department of National Defence acted as prime contractor in this project.

Airport Operations and Maintenance

Following an agreement between the Naskapi and the Montagnais of Schefferville, Transport Canada has been awarding the Schefferville Airport operations and maintenance contract to the Naskapi since August 1992. Under this contract, the Department granted $270,214 to the Naskapi during the 1994-1995 fiscal year. This three-year contract has now lapsed. On August 1, 1995, they were awarded a second threeyear contract.

Partial view of 25,000 barrels
Partial view of 25,000 barrels recovered as part of the
environmental project in the Kuujjuaq region.

The communities of Eastmain, Waskaganish, and Wemindji have held the operations and maintenance contracts for their airport since 19831984. Contracts with each of the Cree band councils were renewed on April 1, 1995, for a three-year period. During 1994-1995 fiscal year, the three communities were granted $565,057.

Transport Canada and the Kativik Regional Government have begun negotiations to transfer responsibility for Kuujjuaq Airport management to the local community, beginning in 1996.

Maritime Infrastructure Program

Preliminary studies of a program for the 14 Nunavik Village Corporations were completed in June 1995, and a study summary was prepared. To complete the studies, an additional $125,000 in expenses was incurred in fiscal year 1994-1995.

Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency

Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency share the federal obligations relating to the implementation of measures for the protection of the environment and of the social conditions, as provided in sections 22, 23 and 24 of the JBNQA.

Environment Canada

Environment Canada (Quebec region) contributed to the implementation of protection measures of the agreement by providing a few appointments or representatives to some of the multipartite committees. In doing so, the Department retained the services of consultants to participate as members of the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment and the Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee. A representative of the Canadian Wildlife Service continued to participate in the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Coordinating Committee.

The Department is also involved in the issue of the Canada goose migrating population as well as the proposed measures to ensure the future of this resource.

For the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the expenditures of Environment Canada, Quebec region, related to the implementation of the JBNQA amounted to $28,000.

In addition, Environment Canada participated jointly with the Department of National Defence and Transport Canada in the clean-up of abandoned barrels at sits in Kuujjuaq through the National Site Decontamination Program. The Department also provided technical and scientific expertise during the project.

The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency

With regard to sections 22 and 23, the Agency assisted the federal administrator, the local administrators and the federal review committees, as appropriate, in the environmental assessment of the following development proposals.

Great Whale Proposal

The evaluation of the Great Whale hydro-electric proposal continued. This proposal is subject to the federal and provincial review process set out in the JBNQA, and to the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. Because of the need for a global concerted evaluation of the entire proposal, the federal and provincial governments, the Cree Regional Authority, the Grand Council of the Crees (of Quebec), the Kativik Regional Government and the Makivik Corporation signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to ensure the coordination of environmental assessment procedures in January 1992.

In August 1993, Hydro-Québec filed an environmental impact study (EIS) of the Great Whale Proposal, in response to directives issued in September 1992.

In accordance with the MOU, the four federal and provincial committees and commissions established under sections 22 and 23 of the JBNQA and the federal panel responsible for examining the Great Whale Proposal completed and forwarded to the federal and provincial administrators a joint report on the conformity of the EIS in November 1994.

The review bodies reported that the EIS has a number of major deficiencies which prevent clear identification and prediction of the repercussions of the proposed project. In writing their report, the review bodies took into account written comments received from the public during consultations which were held from February to July 1994.

Canada geese
Environment Canada has established measures to protect the
Canada geese populations.

In December 1994 following statements made by the premier of Quebec that the Quebec government no longer considered the Great Whale proposal a priority, Hydro-Québec informed federal and provincial authorities responsible for initiating the environmental review that it would wait for the outcome of the provincial energy debate announced by the government before deciding on the need to continue with the assessment of its proposal. The respective authorities then asked the review bodies to suspend further work pending notification from Hydro-Québec.

Other projects

The Agency acted as secretariat for the Federal Review Panel - South of the 55th Parallel (COFEX-South) for the environmental evaluation of a sewage treatment project in Waskaganish. After reviewing the submitted information, COFEX-South recommended that the local administrator approve the project.

COFEX-South also recommended that the local administrator of Eastmain authorize, with conditions, the proposed permanent road from the community of Eastmain to the Matagami/LG2 road and the proposed renovation of the wastewater treatment plant at Eastmain.

For the 1994-1995 fiscal year, expenditures by the Agency amounted to $622,527. This includes expenditures related to the assessment of the Great Whale Proposal, amounting to $469,229. It also includes $95,000 paid to the Quebec government in the form of a federal contribution toward the financing of the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment and the Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee. Finally, it includes $58,298 for the environmental assessment by COFEX-South, the evaluating committee activities and the JBNQA administration.

Natural Resources Canada

The Department is active in the territories covered by the agreements through the Canadian Forest Service and Geomatics Canada.

Canadian Forest Service

The role of the Canadian Forest Service is to implement the Forest Management Program for Indian Lands (FMPIL) in cooperation with Cree communities. This program enables Native peoples to manage their forest resources on the basis of a code of ethics which respects traditional customs.

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the FMPIL allocated $429,700 to the Cree of Mistissini and Waswanipi for activities and projects in tune with the program's philosophy.

In Mistissini, the Eenatuk Forestry Corporation received $213,380 for work which included clear cutting in a checkerboard pattern with forest protection on 305 hectares, preparation of 97 hectares of land, planting of 299,000 trees, pre-commercial thinning of five hectares and improvement of four kilometres of bush road. This money also enabled the Corporation to support its technical team financially. Under the program, Native trainees were introduced to forestry and provided the technical team with support.

In the case of the Waswanipi Cree, financial contributions of $216,320 were allocated to the A-Pit-See-Win Cooperative for work which included clear cutting in a checkerboard pattern with forest protection on 350 hectares, preparation of 124 hectares of land, recovery of residual volume on 42 hectares, planting of 546,000 trees, precommercial thinning of 45 hectares and construction of 36 kilometres of bush road. As in Mistissini, Native trainees received training under the FMPIL.

The Canadian Forest Service participated in the evaluation of projects on agreement land, such as the Great Whale hydro-electric project and the Grevet-Cambior Inc. mining project. The Canadian Forest Service issues recommendations for each project and advises the minister responsible with regard to the forestry aspects, in terms of both the timber potential and the ecosystem.

Geomatics Canada

Geomatics Canada, through its regional office of Legal Surveys Division (LSD), works with Native communities mainly to produce cartographic information and provide consulting services. It also supervises certain projects relating to land surveying and map production.

LSD managed a program with costs shared between DIAND and the Mistassini community. The latter required maps for development projects, and DIAND needed additional large-scale maps to illustrate the interests granted to members of the community or other non-Native parties. The regional LSD took aerial photographs at a scale of 1:10,000 and 1:15,000 of the Village of Mistassini and surrounding area and produced six maps of 1:2;000.

The Quebec government published in the Official Gazette, decrees 140-95 to 147-95 inclusive, dated February 1, 1995, concerning the transfer, to the Government of Canada, of the category IA lands of James Bay. Each decree was accompanied by a technical description of IA lands of the Cree associated community. These decrees were forwarded to the Department of Justice Canada and DIAND for their approval. At the request of the two departments, the regional office of LSD proceeded with the examination of the eight technical descriptions. Since six of the descriptions were inadequate, a complete revision of the French and English versions was carried out in July 1995. The modifications were accepted by the Service de l'arpentage of the Quebec Department of Natural Resources.

In March 1995, the central land registrar of rights and interests respecting the Cree and Naskapi lands and buildings called on the expertise of the regional office of LSD to help in giving a training session on the workings of the Crina registration system for the benefit of the local land registrars of each Cree community. The session was oriented toward the legal aspects and the methods of registering interests in the lands and buildings. In October 1995, the regional office of LSD made a presentation of the Crina system to a Russian delegation from Dmitrov, which was in Canada for training on the different aspects of property management.

A group of Waswanipi school students
A group of Waswanipi school students during a demonstration of a
reforestation technique.

Finally, under the authority of the Canada Lands Surveys Act, the regional office of LSD carried out a site inspection of the survey of the access roads through the IA lands of Wemindji and Eastmain and prepared survey instructions for the preparation of plans showing the recently built Hydro-Québec distribution lines in the Cree IA lands. Also, during 1995, the regional office prepared parcel plans and confirmed the Crina numbers at the request of the central land registrar for all rights granted on Cree and/or Naskapi lands.

Federal Office of Regional Development-Quebec

In 1995, the Federal Office of Regional Development- Quebec (FORD-Q) launched its new SMALL BUSINESS ACCESS CENTRE concept, which gives entrepreneurs in every region of Quebec access to a completely revamped range of services. FORD-Q now provides businesses with strategic advice, particularly in the fields of innovation, new markets, business networks - especially those of the federal government and entrepreneurship.

FORD-Q also set up a new program, IDEA-SME, in April 1995. Unlike the programs formerly administered by FORD-Q, which were intended to provide financial assistance for capital projects, this new program provides services and funding for activities in the following areas: innovation, research, development and design, export and market development, and entrepreneurship and business climate.

This repositioning essentially makes FORD-Q the gateway for SMEs to federal programs and services which can provide practical assistance to ensure their prosperity.

Under the terms of the Enterprise Development Program, Tourism Component, which terminated at the end of the 1994-1995 fiscal year, a total of $99,367 in contributions was granted to Cree communities. Inuit communities received overall contributions of $151,000. Projects receiving federal government support included that of Opawica Expeditions Inc. to create a firm providing adventure tourism packages in the Cree territory of Waswanipi. This project is a good example of partnership between representatives of Cree and non-Native communities. The Pourvoirie du Massif des Torngats also received support from FORD-Q to set up a hunting, fishing and adventure tourism camp in the Alluviaq Fjord region, east of Ungava Bay.

Justice Canada

The Aboriginal Justice Directorate of the federal Department of justice has continued participating in the work of the justice-Solicitor General Working Group with the Inuit of Nunavik. The Working Goup's mission is to identify improvements to the justice system for the Inuit of Nunavik.

During the 1994-1995 fiscal year, the Department granted $40,000 to the Grand Council of the Crees (of Quebec) to cover expenditures related to Phase II of the long-range "Justice for the Crees " project. Phase I of the project consisted of research into crime, the judicial system and the police. In Phase II, Cree communities will be consulted concerning the results of that research. The purpose of these public consultations, which will take place over a three-year period, is to develop and test local and regional justice initiatives.

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