Ratification and Implementation


Before a final agreement comes into effect, it must be ratified first by the First Nation, then BC and finally Canada.

The First Nation must hold a referendum to allow its members to vote on the content of the final agreement. By accepting a treaty, the First Nation members agree to settle their claims to Aboriginal rights as set out in the treaty. For BC and Canada, ratification requires the approval of Cabinet and the passage of provincial and federal settlement legislation. This procedure ensures that the final agreement is ratified following a fair and transparent process. Once the treaty is ratified, the parties agree to and set a date on which the treaty will come into effect.


Each treaty is accompanied by an implementation plan, which is separate from the treaty. Whereas the treaty identifies the parties' obligations, the implementation plan identifies the timing for activities, how they will be carried out, and who will be responsible for them. The implementation plan is triggered on the date the treaty takes effect.

The amount of time required for implementation will vary between sections of the treaty. Some parts of the treaty can be implemented soon after the deal is ratified. Others, like the taxation provisions, may take more than a decade to implement fully.