Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada — 2017–18 Departmental Plan

QS-3660-000-EE-A1
ISSN: 2371-8986
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs, 2017

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Minister's message

Reconciliation will guide us in the coming year as we work with Indigenous and other partners to implement the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's Calls to Action along with other ongoing initiatives to support this vital project in which all Canadians have a stake.

Our aim is to achieve a fundamental and profound shift in the relationship between the Crown and First Nation, Inuit and Métis peoples so we can move forward together as true partners in Confederation and build a better future for all Canadians.

Our 2017–18 Departmental Plan provides parliamentarians and Canadians with information on what we do and the results we are trying to achieve during the upcoming year. To improve reporting to Canadians, we are introducing a new, simplified report to replace the Report on Plans and Priorities.

The title of the report has been changed to reflect its purpose: to communicate our annual performance goals and the financial and human resources forecast to deliver those results. The report has also been restructured to tell a clearer, more straightforward and balanced story of the actual results we are trying to achieve, while continuing to provide transparency on how tax payers' dollars will be spent. We describe our programs and services for Canadians, our priorities for 2017–2018, and how our work will fulfill our departmental mandate commitments and the government's priorities.

In 2017–2018, the Department will work to:

The "Plans at a glance" section of this Departmental Plan highlights what INAC will do to achieve these goals.

The Department will build on its achievements from 2016–2017.

I am excited to see how initiatives begun in 2016–2017 will be further developed and implemented. In 2017–2018, we will move forward with Indigenous partners to create an independent National Council for Reconciliation and to establish permanent national discussion forums to support joint policy on shared priorities in collaboration with Indigenous partners.

Other important projects will include:

In the "Planning highlights", readers will find more details on what INAC will do to ensure the success of these and other plans — all with the goal of improving the lives of Indigenous peoples and Northerners and working toward reconciliation.

We look forward to a successful year in 2017–2018 as the Department continues to work throughout the government to advance reconciliation while supporting the goal of healthy, safe and thriving Indigenous and Northern communities.

Communication will be essential throughout our work — as we listen to and discuss issues of importance with Indigenous organizations; provincial, territorial and Indigenous governments; youth; community members; and stakeholders.

Canada's 150th anniversary will be a key vehicle to communicate this priority.

The Canada 150 celebrations will be a chance to commemorate our country's past and re-commit to a renewed nation-to-nation, government-to-government and Inuit-Crown relationship with Indigenous peoples — one based on recognition of rights, respect, and partnership. It will also be an occasion for all Canadians to discover and play their own role in the reconciliation process.

The Honourable Carolyn Bennett, M.D., P.C., M.P.
Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs

Plans at a glance

The government is committed to renew the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples based on recognition of rights, mutual respect, cooperation and partnership. To support this renewed relationship, the Department, in collaboration with other federal departments and agencies, will continue engaging with Indigenous and Northern peoples to address issues of importance to First Nations, the Métis and Inuit communities and those who live in Canada's North.

The government's commitment to transformative change means the voices of First Nations, Inuit and Métis are heard and taken into account in decisions that affect them. This includes concrete action to reconcile past grievances, increase self-determination, and close the unacceptable socio-economic gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians.

This section highlights how the Department will fulfill its mandate and meet the government's commitments to Canadians in 2017–2018. These planning highlights are based on the following three pillars:

  1. Further renew relationships between Canada and Indigenous peoples;
  2. Advance self-determination for Indigenous peoples; and
  3. Closing the socio-economic gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples.

Further renew relationships between Canada and Indigenous peoples

Improved relationships, which have many different aspects, are about ensuring that Indigenous people take part in decisions that directly affect them and ensure their rights, interests and past grievances are reconciled.

Initiating permanent bilateral mechanisms

In 2017–2018, the Prime Minister and relevant Cabinet Ministers will engage with First Nations, Inuit and the Métis Nation to advance the priorities established through permanent bilateral mechanisms. As a new initiative announced in December 2016, these mechanisms remain largely in the development phase with the first meeting scheduled for early 2017. Together with other initiatives, they will guide and comprise a National Reconciliation Framework.

Implementing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's calls to action

As lead Department, Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) will continue working with federal partners to coordinate and monitor the implementation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's Calls to Action. In 2017–2018, INAC will set up an Interim Board of Directors to make recommendations on the creation of a permanent National Council for Reconciliation. The Interim Board will start an engagement process to develop recommendations on the Council's scope and mandate, including its role in monitoring implementation of the Calls to Action.

Advancing the Métis Nation Reconciliation

In 2017–2018, INAC will continue to engage with the Métis Nation, provinces, territories and other interested parties on developing a process for dialogue on implementing section 35 Métis rights, needs and interests based on the August 2016 report of the Minister's Special Representative, Thomas Isaac.

The Department also recognizes the importance of economic development for the Métis Nation and knows that working together to advance the Métis Nation's aspirations in this area can contribute to reconciliation. Budget 2016 committed to invest $25 million over five years to establish a Métis Nation Economic Development Strategy. In 2017–2018, INAC will continue working with the Métis National Council and its Governing Members to implement the Strategy and ensure funding supports key priorities of the Métis Economic Development Accord and Métis Nation Protocol.

In November 2016, Canada and the Manitoba Metis Federation signed a Framework Agreement to advance reconciliation. In 2017–2018, INAC will continue negotiating with the Manitoba Metis Federation for the next phase of the agreement. We will also seek to negotiate similar agreements with the Métis Nation of Ontario and the Métis Nation of Alberta.

Advance self-determination for Indigenous peoples

Self-determination for Indigenous peoples is not just an inherent right. It is a necessary condition if social and economic disparities are to be addressed in a sustainable way. It gives communities the autonomy they need to administer their affairs in a manner consistent with their own unique political structures, priorities, state of readiness, capacities and other unique local realities.

Implementing a new fiscal relationship

On May 25, 2016, Canada and self-governing First Nations began a collaborative policy development exercise on new fiscal relationships under existing self-government agreements. The exercise set out to review a range of transfers, revenues and proposals for the funding of self-governing groups. At the end, it will issue policy proposals and recommendations for a revised fiscal relationship. The exercise is currently reviewing: i) fiscal principles, ii) program comparability and population, iii) cost of government, and iv) revenues and cost-sharing. In conjunction with the exercise, the Department of Finance is holding discussions on taxation matters.

On July 12, 2016, the Assembly of First Nations (AFN) and INAC signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to undertake a comprehensive joint review of existing fiscal relationship, conduct research, and develop proposals and recommendations for the design of a new fiscal relationship that moves toward sufficient, predictable and sustained funding. As a result of the MoU, a joint committee was established with members of the AFN and INAC to develop a report with options and recommendations on the fiscal relationship between Canada and First Nations by December 31, 2017. Specifically, these efforts will support the government's commitment to renew its nation-to-nation relationship with Indigenous peoples and ensure First Nations benefit from comparable services, programs and outcomes.

Modern treaties, self-government agreements, and other key governance structures

In 2017–2018, INAC will continue to work with First Nations in the provision of frameworks and options to exercise greater jurisdiction, self-determination, and develop strong governance and public finance systems through treaties and self-government agreements.

In 2017–2018, INAC will continue to renew the relationship with Indigenous peoples through activities including the negotiation and full implementation of land claim and self-government agreements, continued engagement with Indigenous partners and improved tracking and delivery of Canada's Treaty obligations through the Whole of Government Approach to Modern Treaty Implementation, which establishes a strong accountability framework and ongoing oversight across departments and agencies for their responsibilities under these important agreements.

This will involve exploratory discussions with First Nation, Inuit and Métis groups to seek ways to address their rights, needs and interests through joint priority-setting and collaborative development of negotiation mandates. This approach has yielded significant progress in 2016–2017, with steady growth in interest and participation by Indigenous groups. In 2017–2018, INAC will seek to advance discussions and conclude milestone documents at existing exploratory tables, and initiate additional exploratory tables.

Review of laws, policies and operational practices

INAC will continue to help Justice Canada conduct a review of laws, policies and operating practices. It will also continue to work with the First Nations Tax Commission on opt-in legislation. This legislation would allow interested First Nations to hold the legal title to the land currently held by the Crown, and facilitate private property ownership for First Nation members living on reserve.

Closing the socio-economic gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples

Closing socio-economic gaps requires a holistic approach and a strategy that balances long-term transformative change with immediate action for the most pressing gaps. In this context, the government committed to historic investments in key areas including early learning and child care, education, community infrastructure, child and family services, economic development, and violence prevention.

Reforming First Nations child and family services (including Jordan's Principle)

Indigenous children remain significantly over-represented in care. The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal ruled on January 26, 2016 that the provision of First Nations child and family services by INAC is inequitable and discriminatory. Budget 2016 committed to invest $634.8 million in these services over five years and $176.8 million on an ongoing basis. To determine further reforms for the program, in 2017–2018 INAC will continue to work with a wide range of First Nation and other partners through various engagement activities. These include working with a National Advisory Committee; holding regional tripartite discussions; and obtaining input from Canadians through an online survey to support the development of practical reform options to meet the needs of First Nations children and families. Canada has also adopted a new approach to Jordan's Principle in 2016, removing the requirement that a child have multiple disabilities requiring multiple service providers. Jordan's Principle applies to all First Nations children. In addition to the full implementation of Jordan's Principle, Canada has implemented several child first initiatives to improve the health care and social services for First Nations children, supported by up to $382.5 million in new investments over three years.

Improving primary and secondary education for First Nation children

Following Budget 2016, which provided unprecedented investments to help on-reserve First Nation children obtain a quality education, INAC will continue to work with the Assembly of First Nations and other First Nation organizations to jointly implement an engagement process that will determine the way forward for supporting First Nations control of First Nations education. In 2017–2018, INAC will formally engage with First Nations in different regions through a series of leadership dialogue events. Building on the work of technical task teams initiated in January 2017, as well as on other engagement activities, this leadership dialogue will seek to validate regional priorities for reforming First Nation education and improving student outcomes. In 2016–2017, the program worked with the Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre to create a First Nation-controlled, school board-type system — the first of its kind in Canada — which will commence operations in September 2017. Similar discussions in other jurisdictions will continue in 2017–2018.

Promoting Indigenous languages and cultures

The unilateral imposition of provincial/territorial education regimes and policies in Indigenous schools remains a barrier to the successful education of Indigenous children. To ensure Indigenous culture is part of school curricula, INAC will continue to invest in language and cultural programming in 2017–2018. This programming recognizes the unique circumstances and needs of First Nation children and will enrich the classroom experience.

Implementing critical infrastructure investment for Budget 2016

In 2017–2018, pursuant to the Budget 2016 announcement of $4.6 billion over five years for housing, water and wastewater and education facilities in First Nations communities, and housing in First Nations and Inuit communities, INAC will continue working in partnership with communities and Indigenous-led institutions on innovative approaches and ideas to address their needs, including strategic investments in developing community capacity to operate, maintain, and manage their infrastructure assets and housing portfolios as well as continuing to reduce the number of long-term drinking water advisories on INAC-funded water systems. INAC will also support the development of municipal-type service agreements with municipalities and other partners.

Going forward, INAC will work closely with Indigenous communities on their projects of greatest concern, determining priority projects and the best way to achieve their goals. The government is also committed to support First Nations develop comprehensive community plans. INAC will continue to support community-driven planning in 2017–2018 by ensuring a long-term sustainable funding option for the delivery of the Indigenous Community Development strategy, a holistic and community-led process to help build a national model by sharing best practices in community development.

Fostering economic development and employment

With significantly lower income and employment rates, the economic outcomes of Indigenous peoples lag behind those of non-Indigenous Canadians. The Department has the mandate to work with its federal counterparts to promote economic development and create jobs for Indigenous peoples. Among other things, its core priorities are to ensure access to skills development, community development, and capital and business development opportunities. In 2017–2018, INAC will continue to provide funding to First Nations and Inuit Youth to help them access education and skills development opportunities. Its post-secondary education support helps eligible students offset tuition, travel expenses, and other costs through a number of programs. First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy funding also provides funding to eligible youth to help them gain work experience and explore different career options. INAC works closely with Employment and Social Development Canada on key initiatives like the Youth Employment Strategy, the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Training Strategy, and the Canada Student Loans Program.

Supporting sustainable development in the North and reforming the Nutrition North Canada program

In planning the future of the Arctic, the Department must consider the region's many interests and uses — especially for those Canadians who make it their permanent home. In partnership with First Nations, Inuit and Métis people, Northerners, and territorial and provincial governments, INAC is developing a new Arctic Policy Framework for Canada. The Framework will draw on the principles set out in the March 2016 U.S.-Canada Joint Statement on Climate, Energy, and Arctic Leadership and the December 2016 United States-Canada Joint Arctic Leaders' Statement.

A nutritious diet is essential to good physical and mental health. The Nutrition North Canada (NNC) program helps alleviate the high cost of food in many isolated Northern communities by providing a subsidy on perishable nutritious food. To expand the program to all isolated Northern communities that lack year-round surface access, Budget 2016 will provide $64.5 million over a five-year period, followed — starting in 2021 — by $13.8 million per year on an ongoing basis. As of October 1, 2016, a total of 121 communities have access to the program's full benefits. When the NNC engagement process ends in 2017–2018, INAC will continue working with key partners and stakeholders to determine policy options and program updates.

For more information on INAC's plans, priorities and planned results, see the "Planned results" section of this report.

Raison d'être, mandate and role: who we are and what we do

Raison d'être

Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada supports Indigenous peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and Northerners in their efforts to:

  • Improve social well-being and economic prosperity;
  • Develop healthier, more sustainable communities; and
  • Participate more fully in Canada's political, social and economic development — to the benefit of all Canadians.

Mandate and role

The Department has a mandate to support Canada's Indigenous and northern peoples in the pursuit of healthy and sustainable communities, and broader economic and social development objectives. Efforts are guided by the Department's mission statement:

Working together to make Canada a better place for Indigenous and northern peoples and communities

The mandate for Indigenous and Northern Affairs is derived from a number of sources, including the following: the Canadian Constitution; the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Act; the Indian Act (as amended over the years); statutes dealing with environmental and resource management, such as the Nunavut Planning and Project Assessment Act; the Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal Act, the Canada Petroleum Resources Act, and the Territorial Lands Act.

Along with responsibility for administering statutory and regulatory provisions of the Indian Act, INAC is also mandated to work with First Nations to implement legislation designed to provide them with jurisdictional powers outside of the Indian Act. The Department's mandate is further defined by specific statutes enabling modern treaties and self-government agreements and implementation of those agreements. For a list of all statutes, please consult INAC's website.

Policy and program practices, as well as judicial decisions, also shape the Department's mandate.

INAC negotiates comprehensive and specific claims, as well as self-government agreements and other related processes, on behalf of the Government of Canada. The Department is responsible for implementing its obligations under these agreements and processes, as well as overseeing the implementation of obligations of other government departments flowing from these agreements. INAC also provides support for services on reserves and land set aside in the Yukon, such as education, housing, community infrastructure and social support to Status Indians on reserves. Additionally in the Yukon, INAC administers the land management component of the Indian Act, and executes other regulatory duties under the Indian Act.

The Minister acts as the Government of Canada's primary interlocutor for Métis, Non-Status Indians and urban Indigenous people. The Department further supports Inuit in the pursuit of healthy and sustainable communities, and broader economic and social development objectives by providing expertise, research and training on Inuit matters to federal departments and agencies to advance Inuit issues. The newly minted Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee will help address Inuit-specific concerns in federal programming and policy development.

INAC fulfils its commitments under the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement by providing administrative support to the Indian Residential Schools Adjudication Secretariat, an arms'-length and independent body tasked with administering the Independent Assessment Process (IAP), and also participates in the IAP and ensures payment of compensation awards as a party to the Agreement.

Through its Northern Affairs mandate, INAC is also the lead federal department for two-fifths of Canada's landmass, with a direct role in the political and economic development of the territories, and significant responsibilities for science, land, and environmental management. In the North, the territorial governments generally provide the majority of social programs and services to all Northerners, including Indigenous peoples.Footnote 1

The Canadian High Arctic Research Station Act, which received Royal Assent on December 16, 2014 and came into force on June 1, 2015, established Polar Knowledge Canada as a new federal research organization. This new organization combines the mandate and functions previously held by the Canadian Polar Commission and the Canadian High Arctic Research Station's Science and Technology Program, which was formerly led by INAC. The organization is responsible for advancing Canada's knowledge of the Arctic and strengthening Canadian leadership in polar science and technology. Although INAC will continue to report on the construction of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station as part of the Northern Science and Technology Program (4.2 of the Program Alignment Architecture) until the transfer of infrastructure to Polar Knowledge Canada in 2017–2018, Polar Knowledge Canada will develop its own 2017–18 Departmental Plan and will report separately going forward.

For more general information about the Department, see the "Supplementary information" section of this report. For more information on the Department's organizational mandate letter commitments, see the Minister's mandate letter on the Prime Minister of Canada's website.

Operating context: conditions affecting our work

INAC faces both opportunities and challenges as it strives to fulfill its mandate and help achieve the Government of Canada's priorities and commitments. These include: renewing Canada's relationship with Indigenous peoples based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership; closing the socio-economic gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples; and increasing self-determination for Indigenous peoples and Northerners.

In the past year, government departments have had to shift gears with the announcement of new directions, updated plans and priorities, and innovative ways of doing business. In his mandate letters to each minister, the Prime Minister has said no relationship is more important to him and to Canada than the one with Indigenous peoples — an approach that permeates everything the federal community works on, including collaborative work across the federal government and with provinces and territories, as well as re-engagement in a renewed, distinction-based approach to relationships with Indigenous peoples to advance and promote issues of greatest importance to First Nations, Inuit, Métis, Non-Status Indians, and Northern communities.

To meet its responsibilities, the Department must foster effective and meaningful relationships with a wide range of partners and stakeholders. It must balance the frequently diverse views of various groups (including Indigenous Representative Organizations, provincial and territorial governments, other federal departments, and private sector and non-government organizations) to obtain their support and involvement in developing and implementing programs and policies. Experience has shown it is hard to achieve desired outcomes without strong support from such groups.

Indigenous population by Indigenous identity groups

Text description of the Indigenous population by Indigenous identity groups

The pie chart depicts Indigenous population by Indigenous identity groups:

  • Registered Indian: 697,505 (50%)
  • Métis: 418,380 (30%)
  • Non-Status Indian: 213,900 (15%)
  • Inuit: 59,110 (4%)
  • Others: 11,790 (1%)

Others refer to respondents who reported more than one identity group and those who reported being a Band member with no Indigenous identity and no Registered Indian status.
Source: Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

In this context, INAC's responsibilities continue to be shaped by unique demographic and geographic challenges and by centuries of Canadian history, including historical trauma. Changing social, economic and political landscapes have had a significant impact on INAC priorities and the funding it provides to Indigenous peoples, provinces, territories, and other recipients for the delivery of services to diverse groups (i.e., First Nations, Inuit, Métis, Northerners) with varied and distinct needs, from remote Northern settlements to urban metropolitan areas.

While the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples is of vital importance, many First Nations, Métis and Inuit do not enjoy the same quality of life as other Canadians. Inter-generational poverty, a problem for many Indigenous peoples, is harmful to families and affects Canadian society. Indigenous peoples in high poverty face unique barriers compounded by a long history of neglect, failed government policies, and difficulty accessing the services they need.

Indigenous peoples in Canada continue to experience considerable disparity compared to the rest of the population. Overall, the federal government's Community Well-Being Index shows that socio-economic gaps have not been significantly reduced over the last 30 years. Beyond lower incomes and employment rates, Indigenous people experience poverty in the form of higher rates of inadequate housing, food insecurity, poor health, substandard electricity services, and unsafe drinking water. Indigenous peoples also experience the lowest educational outcomes. Some communities — especially in remote areas — have distressing rates of poor health and suicide. The rate of Indigenous children living in poverty is almost three times higher than that of Canadian children as a whole.

At the same time, a key factor in Canada's changing demographic landscape is the Indigenous population, which is young and growing at twice the rate of the overall Canadian population. While this raises the challenge of an ever-increasing demand for services, it is also an unprecedented opportunity to harness the potential of capable, educated Indigenous youth now and in the future.

Community well-being scores, 1981–2011

Text description of the Community well-being scores, 1981–2011

The graph depicts the community well-being scores from 1981–2011 for Non-Indigenous communities, Inuit communities and First Nations communities:

  • Non-Indigenous communities scored 67 in 1981, 71 in 1991, 72 in 1996, 73 in 2001, 77 in 2006 and 79 in 2011.
  • Inuit communities scored 48 in 1981, 57 in 1991, 60 in 1996, 61 in 2001, 62 in 2006, and 63 in 2011.
  • First Nations communities scored 47 in 1981, 51 in 1991, 55 in 1996, 57 in 2001, 57 in 2006, and 59 in 2011.

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1981–2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

To achieve meaningful reconciliation with Indigenous peoples, the Government of Canada must work in genuine partnership to end these inequities because healthy and thriving Indigenous communities contribute to a healthy and thriving Canada. Engagement with Indigenous peoples at all stages of policy and program development and implementation and upholding principles such the duty to consult, is vital to ensure shared outcomes. The Government of Canada fully endorsed the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, committing to keeping reconciliation at the heart of the Department's actions.

Over time, First Nations have moved away from certain provisions of the Indian Act toward alternate pieces of legislation that give them more control in areas, such as education, electoral reform, land management, and self-government. In recognizing inherent self-government as an existing Aboriginal right under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, self-government agreements have been seen as a way to building sound governance, institutional capacity, and greater autonomy while nurturing more effective relationships with other governments and the private sector and leading to greater quality of life and self-determination.

With respect to Canada's North, the government is working to ensure Inuit and Northerners' voices help to shape policies and programs affecting Arctic conservation and sustainable development and are also clearly heard in international outreach to the United States and circumpolar countries around the world. A number of environmental issues are of concern to Northerners, the Canadian public and the international community, including the cumulative effects of climate change, its impact on traditional lifestyles and transportation, contaminants in the Arctic food chain, and remediation of contaminated sites. Finding a balance between facilitating resource development (including the streamlining of current regimes and removal of barriers to private sector investment), respecting obligations under northern land claim agreements, and environmental protection is a significant and ongoing challenge.

Distribution of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous population by age in Canada

Text description of the Distribution of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous population by age in Canada

This bar graph depicts the distribution of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous population by age in Canada:

  • Age 0–14: 28% Indigenous and 17% non-Indigenous
  • Age 15–29: 25% Indigenous and 19% non-Indigenous
  • Age 30–44: 19% Indigenous and 20% non-Indigenous
  • Age 45–64: 22% Indigenous and 30% non-Indigenous
  • Age 65 and over: 6% Indigenous and 14% non-Indigenous

Source: Statistics Canada, National Household Survey 2011. Tabulations by INAC.

The legal landscape is another complex and continually evolving aspect of INAC's operating environment. The Supreme Court of Canada and other courts have delivered rulings on the rights of Indigenous people, which have had a major impact on INAC's mandate and the way the Department works to fulfill the Crown's legal obligations. The ongoing refinement of constitutionally protected Aboriginal and treaty rights will continue to result in court decisions with significant implications for the Government of Canada. In the current context, significant attention has also been given to claims arising from childhood experiences (otherwise known as 'childhood claims').

The 2016 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Daniels v. Canada (Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Canada) was an historic ruling that clarified the rights of Métis and Non-Status Indians. The Government of Canada is committed to work in genuine partnership with Métis and Non-Status Indians — based on recognition of rights, respect and partnership — to advance the work of reconciliation in a meaningful way. INAC's internal operating environment is also in transition as the Department prepares to implement new and streamlined processes to deliver programs and services to internal and external clients in a more effective manner. This includes: the development of a new results framework to monitor and report on plans and performance; the strengthening of results-based management, evaluation and innovation to ensure resources are used optimally and service standards are met; and the modernizing of procurement processes to improve client service and procedural oversight.

Key risks: things that could affect our ability to achieve our plans and results

INAC has a well-defined governance structure with effective risk management practices to address challenges that could keep it from effecting its plans and achieving desired outcomes. The cornerstones of INAC's risk management approach are its Corporate Risk Profile (CRP), program risk profiles, and region or sector risk assessments, which serve as key risk management tools at each level. At the Corporate level, the CRP is the primary means of assessing and responding to corporate risks that could keep the Department from carrying out its mandate — i.e., to help Canada's Indigenous and Northern peoples build healthy and sustainable communities and achieve their broad economic and social development goals.

INAC updates the CRP each year to fit risk mitigation activities into its planning processes. The table below outlines INAC's three biggest external risks (Environmental Risk, Legal Risk, Indigenous Relationship Risk) and provides a response strategy for each.

"Environmental Risk" refers to the potential impact on the Department and stakeholders from human activities that affect the environment. A number of such issues are of concern to Northerners and Indigenous communities, including the cumulative effects of climate change and its impact on traditional lifestyles, food source contamination, and economic development activity (agriculture, mining, forestry, the building of infrastructure, etc.). INAC has taken various steps to mitigate this risk, including regulatory reform, increased monitoring, support to develop emergency management plans, and robust oversight of contaminated areas.

The legal environment is complex and continually evolving. "Legal Risk" recognizes that past legal agreements and court decisions, current legal actions, and potential litigation or contingent liabilities have a big impact on Departmental activities and the lives of Indigenous and Northern peoples, especially with regard to legal obligations and treaty rights. Where negotiated settlements are not possible, INAC has made substantial efforts to respond to legal decisions in a timely, efficient and respectful manner, involving key stakeholders to ensure informed decisions. It has also explored and used alternate dispute resolution approaches to avoid unnecessary litigation.

"Indigenous Relationship Risk" concerns the fostering and maintenance of a broad range of relationships with Indigenous communities, persons, and representative organizations. INAC has taken concrete steps to renew its relationships with Indigenous peoples. It also continues to build open and trusted partnerships that take a fast-changing context into account and are based on efficient service delivery, recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership — including greater efforts to engage with Indigenous peoples in developing policies and programs, building a new fiscal relationship, boosting investment in infrastructure and social programs, supporting the national inquiry on missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls, and developing national frameworks.

Environmental Risk

There is a risk that INAC will be unable to manage environmental issues and liabilities in a timely and cost-effective manner.

Risk response strategy Link to the Department's programs Link to mandate letter, government-wide and departmental priorities
  • Update existing policies, guidelines, and tools to address, where applicable: water, wastewater, solid waste, housing, and infrastructure
  • Continue negotiating emergency management memoranda of understanding with provinces (to help communities cope with increasing number/severity of emergencies due to climate change)
  • Improve on-reserve waste management and infrastructure
  • Improve Northern regulatory regimes in Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut
  • Conduct a comprehensive review of INAC's policy framework for environmental protection and the reclamation of mines under federal jurisdiction
  • Work with Environment and Climate Change Canada to develop guidelines and tools to enable First Nations to effectively implement the Species at Risk Act and the Migratory Bird Convention Act on reserve
  • Develop resource management partnership frameworks with territorial and Indigenous groups to help ensure sound resource management plans and decisions north of 60
  • Take part in environmental assessments for proposed projects in the territories
  • Implement new climate change adaptation programs
  • Work with northern communities and stakeholders to identify and advance renewable energy projects in communities with the greatest energy challenges
  • Align community projects with climate-informed structural and non-structural mitigation decisions
  • Continue working with Environment and Climate Change Canada to support the ongoing assessment and remediation of contaminated sites
  • Maintain robust governance structures and processes for contaminated sites, including a site stabilization plan for Giant Mine in the Northwest Territories, to address urgent environmental risks
  • Develop an orphan well strategy
  • Develop strategies to reduce reliance on diesel in Northern, remote and isolated communities
  • Develop a Northern Adaptation Strategy
Infrastructure and Capacity

Northern Governance and People

Northern Science and Technology

Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management
Implementing the Budget 2016 essential infrastructure engagements

Amendment of environmental legislation

Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change

Legal Risk

There is a risk that INAC will be unable to effectively plan for or respond to legal risks that affect Department operations.

Risk response strategy Link to the Department's programs Link to mandate letter, government-wide and departmental priorities
  • Monitor the fulfilment of legal obligations leading to greater compliance and reduced litigation
  • Resolve departmental litigation using the most appropriate mechanisms (including negotiated settlement)
  • Improve forecasting for advisory and litigation services by developing risk tools for INAC sectors
  • Increase awareness of litigation through outreach activities highlighting key legal risks that could affect departmental programs or policies. This will preserve the integrity of departmental program or policy initiatives under development and may prevent future litigation
  • Conduct a robust analysis of litigation drivers and trends to highlight possible legislative, policy or operational shortcomings
  • Inform INAC sectors of court decisions to help integrate and harmonize approaches for addressing legal risks
  • Streamline approaches and ensure transactions are more consistent, with the ongoing aim of reducing risks and costs (e.g., standardized commercial lease templates)
  • Ensure the Department is prepared for future decisions through contingency planning
  • Where appropriate, appeal decisions to the appropriate court to help clarify laws and explore issues in greater depth
Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples

Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties

Other Claims
Review of laws, policies and practices

Indigenous Relationship Risk

There is a risk that INAC will not renew and sustain strong, productive and respectful relationships with Indigenous peoples, communities, organizations and governments to help fulfill its mandate.

Risk response strategy Link to the Department's programs Link to mandate letter, government-wide and departmental priorities
  • Develop and implement a national reconciliation framework informed by the Calls to Action
  • Advance shared priorities established through permanent bilateral mechanisms with engagement of the Prime Minister and relevant Cabinet Ministers with First Nations, Inuit and the Métis Nation
  • Increase support to regional front-line officers who play a lead role in relationship-building with First Nations and Indigenous organizations
  • Support the national inquiry into the high number of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls
  • Support the Department of Justice's review of laws, policies and operational practices to ensure the Crown fully meets its consultation and accommodation obligations
  • Implement more national and regional engagement processes on key issues like education, registration, infrastructure, etc.
  • Advance discussions and conclude milestone documents at existing exploratory tables, and initiate additional exploratory tables
  • Conduct a joint comprehensive review of the existing fiscal relationship with the Assembly of First Nations and self-governing Indigenous groups, and develop proposals and recommendations for a new fiscal relationship to ensure sufficient, predictable and sustained funding for essential programs and services
  • Continue to develop tripartite agreements and partnerships in Education and Child and Family Services that offer a new and comprehensive approach to governing, measuring and reporting on investments
  • Develop a Métis Section 35 Framework, a verifiable Métis membership system, etc.
  • Reform the Urban Aboriginal Strategy
  • Streamline departmental processes to make them more flexible and reduce red tape for recipients
Governance and Institutions of Government

Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples

Education

Social Development

First Nations Individual Affairs

Urban Indigenous Participation

Northern Governance and People
Implementing the Truth and Reconciliation commission's Call to Action

Modern treaties, self-government agreements and other key government structures

Launch the engagement strategy for a National Reconciliation Framework

Inquiring into murdered and missing Indigenous women and girls

Review of laws, policies and practices

Implementing a new fiscal relationship

Enhancing First Nations Child and Family Services

Establishing a new First Nation Education System

Advancing the Métis Nation Reconciliation

Fostering Economic Development

Planned results: what we want to achieve this year and beyond

The Government — Support good governance, rights and interests of Indigenous peoples

Program 1.1: Governance and Institutions of Government

Description

This Program provides support to First Nation governments, as well as Indigenous governance institutions and organizations. The intent of this support is to facilitate capacity development in the Indigenous public service, the elected leadership, and entities that administer aggregate services on behalf of or to First Nation governments and their communities. Transparent and accountable First Nation governments attract investment, create opportunities, and effectively support their citizens. Transparent and accountable institutions and organizations strengthen the fabric of Indigenous governments across Canada, assist Indigenous communities and their governments in attracting investment, and support Indigenous participation in the Canadian economy. Ultimately, good governance practices are essential for active Indigenous participation in Canadian society and the economy.

Planning highlights

With other key partners and in consultation with First Nations, Inuit and Métis, INAC will support the Department of Justice by participating in the review of all laws, policies, and operational practices to ensure the Crown is fully executing its consultation and accommodation obligations and that both the government and Indigenous peoples make the transition from status quo to renewed relationship. As a first step in this commitment, the Minister has directed the Department to work in partnership with First Nations to improve transparency and accountability based on engagement results.

To support the government's commitment to implement the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's Calls to Action, the Department is providing Indigenous Community Development training. This aligns with the 57 Calls to Action item stressing the need to provide intercultural competency training to Government of Canada employees, including training on the history of Indigenous Peoples. It also aligns with aspects of the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous peoples. Participants are expected not just to improve their cultural competence but to also instill the principles of the Community Development and Capacity Building Framework which has been jointly adopted by INAC and Health Canada. The Framework is a strength-based, community centered approach to supporting development.

Budget 2016 committed $20 million over two years to:
  • Strengthen the capital base of the First Nations Finance Authority
  • Continue to help obtain the best possible credit rating for borrowing member First Nations
  • Monitor progress on issues like housing, infrastructure and economic development

In support of the commitment to a renewed relationship with Indigenous peoples, the Department has worked with Indigenous partners to establish the Indigenous Community Development National Strategy. The Strategy, which supports community development through a holistic, strength-based, community-led process based on the principles of cultural competence and respect for Indigenous knowledge, seeks to share community development best practices to help build a nationally sustainable model. In 2017–2018, INAC will focus on developing a coordinated implementation plan with stakeholders.

The Department has also prioritized investments that support stronger Indigenous communities. The Indigenous Community Development National Strategy supports the development of Comprehensive Community Plans that help determine a community's priorities and make it more engaged and resilient. These plans will help build stronger Indigenous communities by identifying their unique vision and priorities, making them better equipped to establish and engage in effective relationships (e.g., nation-to-nation).

Everyone, including First Nation governments, wants increased transparency and accountability — which will be achieved by working in full partnership with First Nation leaders and organizations. The government is committed to reviewing laws, including the First Nations Financial Transparency Act, which it will do in full consultation with First Nations. The government and INAC will engage in a way forward that supports transparency and is accountable to First Nation citizens.

INAC is continuing to administer statutory responsibilities with respect to band elections under the Indian Act and the First Nations Elections Act. By supporting and promoting community discussion and engagement, it will ensure First Nations are informed of the advantages of moving away from the Indian Act election system either by adopting the First Nations Elections Act or converting to a community election system by supporting them in their community discussions and engagement efforts. The Department is also providing advisory services in the development of First Nations by-laws; and exploring opportunities for partnerships to modernize First Nations governance through the development of legislative and policy options.

Building on successes of the First Nations Fiscal Management Act, a positive evaluation in 2015–2016 and growing demands by First Nations to exercise jurisdictional powers and control over core government functions, INAC will continue to support First Nation governments and institutions. The Department will help to build their financial and governance capacity through continuing support for First Nation institutions (First Nations Tax Commission, First Nations Financial Management Board, First Nations Finance Authority), and enhancing the First Nations Fiscal Management Act regime to allow First Nations to build their capacity and access long-term financing through the issuance of bonds on capital markets.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
First Nation governments and institutions are supported in their efforts to be transparent to their communities and membership Percentage of First Nations having adopted reporting of financial statements to their members 75% by March 31, 2018
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
413,808,860 413,808,860 402,318,676 404,110,062
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
409 406 406

Information on Program 1.1 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 1.2: Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples

Description

This Program seeks to strengthen collaboration between governments and Indigenous groups through mutual respect, trust, understanding, shared responsibilities, accountability, dialogue and negotiation concerning the rights and interests of Indigenous peoples. Partnerships will be established helping to contribute to the strengthening of the social, economic and cultural well-being of Indigenous communities to support conditions for more active participation in Canadian society. The Program also addresses reconciliation objectives, constitutional and historic obligations and public policy by: negotiating agreements that achieve clarity with respect to law-making authority and the ownership, use and control of lands and resources; addressing specific claims; dealing with special claims; developing multi-partner processes in areas identified by Indigenous groups and the federal government; and supporting effective and meaningful consultation and accommodation with Indigenous groups and their representation in federal policy and program development.

Planning highlights

To achieve reconciliation, the federal government has committed to renew the relationship between Canada and Indigenous peoples. In light of this desire to be more responsive to Indigenous community priorities and seek reconciliation through a nation-to-nation relationship based on recognition of rights, respect, cooperation and partnership, INAC has begun exploratory talks with First Nations, Inuit and Métis groups. These interest-based discussions focus on Indigenous priorities and aim to collaboratively find ways to move forward in a context of reconciliation and self-determination. INAC will also continue to engage in ongoing negotiations of comprehensive claims and self-government agreements with Indigenous groups and provincial and/or territorial governments.

Key activities include enhancing tools to address Constitution Act, 1982, section 35, Aboriginal and treaty rights, including the negotiation of land claims, self-government, special claims, and other processes aimed at addressing outstanding rights, incremental and non-treaty negotiations, and out-of-court settlements. INAC will continue to conduct research, analyze and develop policies and guidelines, provide advice, and seek stakeholder feedback on issues related to Canada's negotiation of Indigenous self-government and comprehensive claims. It will also address Canada's obligations to consult and accommodate in the event of overlapping claims, and make measurable progress towards the conclusion of education jurisdiction and other sectoral self-government agreements.

INAC will also continue to assist and provide guidance in relation to fulfilling the Crown's legal duty to consult (and, where appropriate, to accommodate) in cases where Crown conduct may adversely affect established or asserted Aboriginal or Treaty Rights. These efforts, such as expanding the number of consultation protocols or arrangements with Indigenous groups and provinces or territories and the review of laws, policies and operational practices, help to build relationships and renew partnerships. Ongoing efforts to develop tools, and to train federal officials on the duty to consult, also help ensure a renewed and informed public service. To help federal officials meet their consultation obligations, efforts will be made to improve available information on potential or established Aboriginal or Treaty Rights through ongoing improvements to the functionality and content of the Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System.

Specific claims are claims, made against the federal government by a First Nation, relating to the administration of land and other First Nation assets and to the fulfilment of pre-1975 treaties. Resolving these historic grievances through negotiated settlement agreements, rather than litigation helps promote mutual respect, trust and understanding. Departmental officials are currently in discussions with the Assembly of First Nations, First Nations, and other interested parties to improve the specific claims process. Overseen by a Joint Technical Working Group, discussions in coming months will focus on funding, the use of mediation in negotiation processes, the process for addressing claims valued at more than $150 million, and public reporting.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Certainty and/or clarity of rights and interests of Indigenous peoples through strengthened collaboration between governments and Indigenous groups Number of departmental processes and programs in place that support the Crown and Indigenous groups in addressing rights and interests of Indigenous peoples, and other Crown obligations 594 by March 31, 2018
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
1,035,735,011 1,035,735,011 1,113,356,769 146,361,345
The decrease in 2019–2020 reflects the sunset (in 2018–2019) of funding for the specific claims settlements provided under Justice at Last.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
254 254 253

Information on Program 1.2 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 1.3: Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties

Description

This Program aims to create and maintain ongoing partnerships to support fulfilment of Canada's legal obligations pursuant to both pre and post-1975 treaties, while considering ongoing rights and interests of Indigenous peoples. This Program supports Indigenous communities in articulating their interests, participating in economic activities, and managing and developing land and resources, where applicable. It also helps to demonstrate the importance of treaties and related partnerships between the Crown and Indigenous peoples. This is achieved by honouring Canada's obligations as set out in final settlement agreements and treaties, and by improving collaboration between Canada and Indigenous peoples, and between Canada and pre and post-1975 Treaty groups. Creating and maintaining relationships and partnerships that honour pre and post-1975 treaties contributes to strengthened, healthy, self-reliant and sustainable Indigenous communities while promoting delivery of programs and services vital to the health and advancement of Indigenous peoples.

Planning highlights

By managing and implementing agreements and treaties and in the spirit of reconciliation, INAC continues to support good governance and Indigenous rights and interests by working on a government-to-government basis with Indigenous partners.

To make progress on mutual goals, especially those linked to economic and social growth, as well as development, the Department will continue to play a lead role in representing the federal government on implementation committees, which meet several times a year to identify and address challenges and note successes and achievements in meeting the legal obligations of agreements. To fulfill its obligations in this regard, Canada must have the collaboration of all signatories. In the past year, agreements were reached with the Naskapi on amendments to the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act. The Sliammon Final Agreement and the Déline Self-Government Agreement came into effect in April and September 2016, respectively.

INAC will continue the negotiation, coordination and administration of financial arrangements and implementation plans with respect to comprehensive land-claim agreements and self-government agreements by administering Fiscal Financing Agreements and transferring expenditures to Indigenous peoples.

To improve the implementation of modern treaties, a Whole-of-Government approach was approved in 2015. This approach consists largely of developing tools to support government departments or agencies meet Canada's legal obligations. A key part of the approach was the establishment of a Deputy Ministers' Oversight Committee that meets regularly to provide senior-level oversight. Indigenous partners will also be invited to take part and share their experiences.

INAC will continue to work with and support other departments and agencies' effort to implement comprehensive land claims and self-government agreements by providing training for federal officials. This training on modern treaties will continue to be offered in collaboration with treaty partners. Of particular note, since the Department developed it with the help of Indigenous partners, the Assessment of Modern Treaty Implications — Guide for Federal Officials was approved in October 2016.

Improving monitoring and governance by continuing to develop the Modern Treaty Management Environment (formerly known as the Treaty Obligation Monitoring System) remains a priority for the Department. A working group of Indigenous partners and federal officials from other departments has been formed to develop a Modern Treaty Implementation performance measurement framework to develop monitoring and tracking approaches.

INAC will continue to support and monitor annual work plans and reports through ongoing meetings between Canada and Treaty Commissions or Treaty Discussion Tables. These plans concern information-gathering and research on the nature of treaties, treaty issues, and treaty implementation. It is anticipated that the 2017–2018 work plans will include public education, to improve understanding and awareness of treaties; the development of partnerships between Treaty First Nations and private industry, to create economic opportunities; reconciliation activities for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada's Calls to Action; commemoration support; and engagement with Treaty First Nations on treaty issues. These ongoing activities help create a more unified Canada with a better understanding of Indigenous issues and the fact that Canada cannot fully prosper unless all Canadians succeed.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Creation and maintenance of ongoing partnerships to support treaty structuresa Percentage of meetings (implementation committee or panel meetings) held with modern treaty partners, per the terms of the treaties, in order to maintain and support open and productive intergovernmental relationships, and collaborate on implementation priorities 80%b by March 31, 2018
Percentage of completed initiatives supporting improved understanding of pre-1975 treaties: treaty awareness sessions; facilitated dialogue between private sector and First Nations; and, facilitated dialogue between treaty partners 80%c by March 31, 2018
a Examples of treaty structures include tri-partite Implementation Committees or panels where signatories collaborate on implementation.
b While the goal is always 100% completion of our legal obligations, this is not always possible. For example, a meeting may be canceled by another party to the treaty which results in an obligation not being met. The Whole of Government Approach to the Implementation of Modern Treaties was developed to strengthen oversight and accountability.
c Number of treaty related activities and initiatives committed to in the work plans vary according to the interests and capacity of the partners, and are reviewed on an annual basis.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
873,311,740 873,311,740 825,895,076 788,587,110
The year-over-year differences primarily reflect changes in the approved funding profiles for the implementation of various comprehensive claims and self-government agreements.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
86 71 71

Program 1.4: Other Claims

Description

This Program addresses payments related to the resolution of litigation and/or out-of-court settlements for any claim that cannot be designated to any other existing INAC program. Key activities could include: the assessment of the merits of the claim; the completion of a settlement agreement where appropriate; payment of any monetary compensation and funding and implementation of related activities pursuant to the terms of a settlement agreement and/or direction by a Tribunal or court.

Planning highlights

The Government of Canada is committed to the resolution of litigation in support of reconciliation. As such, INAC will work to achieve a renewed nation-to-nation relationship with Indigenous peoples based on recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership.

INAC will continue working with the Department of Justice on this new mandate, emphasizing settlement and negotiation over litigation. It will also support the Department of Justice in its review of litigation strategies. For example, this work will potentially include Canada taking early decisions to end appeals or positions that are not consistent with Canada's commitments, the Charter or the Government's values.

Where appropriate, the Department will engage Indigenous groups, other parties and stakeholders in discussions to clarify interests and concerns, as well as avenues and options for potential resolution of litigation. Where possible, INAC will secure settlement mandates and sources of funds to actively seek settlement options and resolve litigation.

The Department will work jointly with all implicated federal departments to resolve multi-departmental litigation. It will also track, monitor, and report on litigation settlement and resolution activities.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
N/A N/A N/A N/A
There is no planned results for this Program as it addresses payments related to resolution of litigations and/or out-of-court settlements as they occur.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
0 0 0 0
There is currently no planned spending under this Program; spending will occur when/if litigation and/or out-of-court settlements are resolved.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
0 0 0
This Program addresses payments related to the resolution of litigation and/or out-of-court settlements. Expenditures relate to the settlement amounts only; no full-time equivalents are associated with this Program.

The People — Individual, family and community well-being for First Nations and Inuit

Program 2.1: Education

Description

This Program's overarching goal is to work in partnership with First Nations, provincial and territorial governments and other education stakeholders, to provide eligible First Nation and Inuit students with support in order to achieve educational outcomes that are comparable to those of other Canadians. The Education Program provides funding for culturally-appropriate elementary and secondary education for eligible First Nation students ordinarily resident on reserve, and financially supports post-secondary education for eligible First Nation and Inuit students.

Planning highlights

In the next year, the Education Program will continue to deliver significant new investments ($2.6 billion over five years) the Government of Canada has made for First Nations education while engaging with First Nations, other Indigenous organizations, provincial and territorial governments, and other stakeholders to achieve meaningful long-term gains in Indigenous education outcomes.

These investments help First Nations address immediate needs and provide the building blocks for on-reserve First Nations primary and secondary education. They make it possible for First Nations to attract and retain First Nations teachers, provide more support for students, such as transportation, guidance counselling, and foster literacy and numeracy as foundations for success.

The Program is also supporting improved direct and indirect service delivery so First Nation students with high-cost special education needs can access services in a timely and culturally appropriate manner. It helps increase the number of early intervention strategies through individual education plans, improve completion rates for professional student assessments to better serve their unique needs, and support capacity-building to ensure there are enough educational staff and professionals to meet the needs of the student population.

Targeted investment gives First Nation educators more opportunities to apply the latest learning innovations in the field of education, such as land-based education activities, to the First Nation context and develop holistic approaches to connect linguistic and cultural practices to First Nation schools and students.

New investments and the Government of Canada's commitment to a renewed, nation-to-nation relationship are changing the discussion around First Nations-led education. First Nations education leaders are coming together to discuss student needs and what can be done to accelerate progress on the ground. This includes expanded forward-looking school success planning based on First Nations' own data and performance measurement strategies to show communities what is working and why.

As part of the Government of Canada's commitment to a renewed relationship with Indigenous peoples, the Government of Canada has been taking steps to establish a new partnership on First Nations education.

In 2016–2017, the Government of Canada began working jointly with First Nations on an engagement process to determine the way forward for supporting First Nations control of First Nation education. The process, which is to continue in 2017–2018, will include technical discussions with regional First Nations representatives through a series of joint task teams. It will also include a series of Canada-wide leadership dialogue events between First Nations leadership and senior Government of Canada officials. The technical task teams will work with regional First Nations representatives to identify and explore ways to improve the quality of First Nations education, including options for mutual accountability structures and a new fiscal relationship for First Nations education.

The Government of Canada will continue to support First Nations that wish to develop and implement transformative education models (e.g., by establishing First Nations education authorities, tripartite partnership agreements, self-government agreements). In 2016–2017, the Program worked with the Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre to create a First Nations-controlled, school board-type system — the first of its kind in Canada — which will begin operating in September 2017. Similar discussions will take place in other jurisdictions in 2017–2018. The Program will also continue working with the First Nations Education Steering Committee and the Government of British Columbia to renew the Tripartite Education Framework Agreement, and will engage at partnership tables with First Nations and provincial governments to improve educational outcomes by sharing and building on expertise.

The Department is engaging with First Nations, Inuit communities, and youth on the best way forward to ensure Indigenous students have access to post-secondary education.

Since the field of education is always evolving, the Program will launch a programming stream within the New Paths for Education program to give First Nations educators access to the best research and evidence-based practices and ensure optimal student outcomes. The new stream will support research and knowledge-transfer activities that foster evidence-based, culturally relevant policy-making for First Nations students and ensure students benefit from the best possible learning approaches, curricula and programming.

The Program will continue to foster early childhood development and school readiness for on-reserve First Nations children and youth by supporting full-day kindergarten programs and developing an Early Learning and Child Care Framework in partnership with Employment and Social Development Canada, Health Canada, and the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Under the First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy, the Program will continue to deliver two key programs this year — the First Nations and Inuit Summer Work Experience Program, and the First Nations and Inuit Skills Link Program — to help First Nations and Inuit youth gain hands-on work experience through co-operative and mentored work placements.

The Program continues to invest in post-secondary education and is working with the Department of Employment, Workforce Development and Labour on priority initiatives, such as the renewal of the Youth Employment Strategy, the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Training Strategy, and the Canada Student Loans Program. The renewal of the Youth Employment Strategy and engagement of post-secondary education are especially important to improve programs and ensure young people have the tools and opportunities they need to become more employable and achieve their goals.

Together these key programs, investments, engagements and partnerships will help contribute to the Government of Canada's commitment to close socio-economic gaps and make real progress in ensuring access to and improving the quality of education for First Nations in Canada.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
First Nation and Inuit students are enabled, through funding, to progress in their education Percentage of funded First Nation students ordinarily resident on reserve who graduate from high school Incremental increase year after year Ongoing
Number of funded First Nation and Inuit Post-Secondary Student Support Program students who graduate with a post-secondary degree/diploma/certificate Incremental increase year after year Ongoing
Percentage of First Nation and Inuit population with post-secondary degree/certificate Incremental increase over five years relative to the 2011 National Household Surveya Ongoing
a Baseline, i.e., Registered Indians 20–54 years 39.0% (19.4% for 20–24 years, 43.3% for 25–54 years). Inuit 20–54 years 31.5% (15.1% for 20–24 years, 35.7% for 25–54 years).
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
2,203,184,787 2,203,184,787 2,290,705,684 2,401,195,959
The year-over-year differences primarily reflect Budget 2016 investments in elementary and secondary educations to meet ongoing increased demand for education programs, as well as the sunset in 2017–2018 of funding to Indspire to provide post-secondary scholarships and bursaries for First Nations and Inuit students.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
300 300 300

Information on Program 2.1 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 2.2: Social Development

Description

This Program provides funding to four social sub-programs: Income Assistance, Assisted Living, First Nations Child and Family Services, and Family Violence Prevention. Together, these sub-programs assist First Nation individuals and communities in becoming more self-sufficient, protect individuals and families at risk of violence, provide prevention supports that allow individuals and families to better care for their children, and support greater participation in the labour market. The Program assists First Nation men, women and children to achieve greater independence and self-sufficiency in First Nation communities across Canada by providing funding for First Nations, First Nation organizations, provinces and others that provide individual and family services to on-reserve residents (and Yukon First Nation residents). These services help First Nation communities meet basic and special needs, support employability and participation in the workforce, and support the safety of individuals and families. Through these four social sub-programs, First Nations are better able to advance their own development, leverage opportunities and actively contribute to the broader Canadian economy and society.

Planning highlights

Through the Social Development Program, INAC will continue to support individual, family and community well-being through, among other things, funding to help First Nations operate family violence shelters and conduct violence prevention activities. It will also coordinate violence prevention efforts with other government departments and organizations, improve prevention services for children and families and help front-line service providers meet their needs more effectively, continue working toward full-scale reform of the on-reserve child welfare program by engaging with partners across the country, and continue supporting income assistance and assisted living programs to help low-income residents on reserve become more self-reliant and improve their quality of life.

The Government of Canada launched an independent national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls. INAC will continue working with other federal departments to establish a governance structure that will allow for a coordinated federal response to the inquiry's recommendations.

In conjunction with Health Canada, INAC is implementing a multi-dimensional approach to support the expanded application of Jordan's Principle. These child first initiatives include establishing an Enhanced Service Coordination model of care to help First Nation children and their families navigate and access federal and provincial programs and services, as well as providing a funding source to facilitate this access. These initiatives include a proactive focus on the First Nations children most likely to experience a jurisdictional dispute or a gap in services, a key component of Jordan's Principle and First Nations children who live on reserve (or are ordinarily resident on reserve) who have a disability or a critical, short-term health or social need.

Successful partnerships and engagement with Indigenous peoples are vital to improve socio-economic outcomes and close the gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. The closing of these gaps requires multiple partners and must be done in concert with other actions that take Indigenous language, culture, spirituality, and health and well-being into account. No substantive change is possible without improved relationships with Indigenous peoples. To collect data and define common indicators for measuring changes in community well-being over time, partnerships with First Nations and others are essential.

When family safety, security, and basic needs are addressed, people are better able to address their other needs — including the need to take part in community and economic life. Families and children should be able to have safe, healthy relationships grounded in strong communities.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Communities and organizations have the capacity to deliver the social development programs provided to meet the basic, special and self-sufficiency needs of First Nations men, women and children Percentage of communities and organizations using community-leda approaches to program delivery Increasing year over year by March 31, 2018
a Community led approaches are defined as approaches that give control of the priority development process directly to the communities as per program Terms and Conditions.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
1,876,199,107 1,876,199,107 1,957,529,465 2,050,799,922
The year-over year differences primarily reflect ongoing increased demand for social development programs.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
159 161 157

Information on Program 2.2 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 2.3: First Nations Individual Affairs

Description

This Program contributes to ensuring federal stewardship of the legislative and administrative responsibilities of the federal government pertaining to registration, membership, status cards and estates. Results are achieved through direct client services and partnerships with First Nations to determine eligibility for registration under the Indian Act, issuing proof of registration documents such as the Secure Certificate of Indian Status, and administering estates under the Indian Act. Through client-centric service delivery, the sound administration of individual affairs contributes to the well-being of First Nation individuals, families and communities.

Planning highlights

INAC will continue to transform the delivery of its legislative and administrative responsibilities related to registration and the Secure Certificate of Indian Status to ensure they are more integrated, client-focused, and internally efficient. The Department will continue its multi-year initiative to develop a single integrated case management system that makes client service more efficient by reducing duplication and provides access to online services once it is fully integrated in 2020. This will also support the implementation of the Secure Certificate of Indian Status — providing First Nation individuals with a more secure card that is less vulnerable to fraud and identity theft and ensures easier access to programs, services and benefits for which they are eligible.

In anticipation of increased demand for the Secure Certificate of Indian Status, the Department has begun to implement a new virtual procedure for processing applications. The new procedure no longer requires Regional Offices to forward applicants' original documents by mail to Headquarters, and allows Regional Offices to return original documents to the clients sooner or even on the same day. The Department will implement this process in all Regional Offices in 2017–2018.

In 2017 the Department expects the Indian Act to be amended through Bill S-3, an Act to amend the Indian Act (elimination of sex-based inequities in registration), as ordered by the Court, to remove known sex-based inequities in Indian registration. Once amended, several thousand people are then likely to submit an application for registration for Indian Status over the next few years. The Department will develop contingency measures, including recruiting additional personnel and providing training to staff, to address the large increase in the volume of applications and questions from clients. Following the passage of the Bill, the Department will launch a collaborative process with First Nations and other Indigenous groups to examine broader issues relating to Indian registration and band membership towards future reform.

INAC has exclusive jurisdiction to manage the estates of dependent adults on reserves and Crown lands, while the province has jurisdiction over their personal care. To ensure an increased level of service to clients, INAC will review the dependent adult program and work to strengthen ties with provincial counterparts. It will also explore opportunities to partner with Indigenous organizations and other stakeholders on estate issues, such as increasing awareness and capacity to support communities or family members who wish to administer estates.

In 2016, the Minister appointed a Ministerial Special Representative to engage with First Nations to explore solutions to Canada-U.S. border crossing challenges faced by First Nation communities across Canada. In December 2017, the Ministerial Special Representative is expected to issue a report that will inform future policy in this area.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Eligible, voluntary applicants are registered as Status Indians Percentage of complete registration applications for which a decision was rendered 80% by March 31, 2018
Registered Indians are enabled to demonstrate eligibility for programs, services and benefits to which they are entitled Percentage of Registered Indians with an active Secure Certificate of Indian Status 80% by March 31, 2020
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
28,961,879 28,961,879 28,961,361 28,988,312
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
259 259 259

Information on Program 2.3 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 2.4: Residential Schools Resolution

Description

The Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA) — a multi-party negotiated settlement monitored by the courts — is a commitment to a fair and lasting resolution to the legacy of Indian Residential Schools. The IRSSA supports the Government of Canada's goal of reconciliation with former students, their families and communities, and other Canadians. The Independent Assessment Process (IAP) — the one remaining component of the IRSSA is a non-adversarial, out-of-court process for claims of sexual abuse, serious physical abuse, and other wrongful acts causing serious psychological consequences to the claimant. The IAP aims to bring a fair and lasting resolution to harm caused by residential schools through a claimant-centred and neutral process. Updates on the IAP are posted quarterly on the Department's website.

Planning highlights

The Government of Canada has primary responsibility to ensure the successful implementation of the Settlement Agreement through the Residential Schools Resolution Program. Two distinct organizations support the implementation of the Agreement: INAC, which is responsible to implement the Settlement Agreement and is the defendant in the Independent Assessment Process, and the Indian Residential Schools Adjudication Secretariat (Adjudication Secretariat), an independent and arm's-length organization that receives administrative support from INAC. Each has an important role to play in meeting Canada's legal obligations under the Settlement Agreement by carrying out key activities under Program 2.4.

The Chief Adjudicator's Completion Strategy, submitted to the courts in 2013, states that all post-hearing work on claims is to be completed by spring 2018.

Through the Residential Schools Resolution Program, INAC will continue to help implement the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement by continuing to participate as a defendant in the remaining Independent Assessment Process claims in a timely manner, including attending hearings, processing payments within the 20-day service standard, and providing corporate and administrative services to support the Adjudication Secretariat's mandate to deliver the Independent Assessment Process. INAC will continue working with Health Canada to ensure mental health and emotional support services, including a crisis line, will continue to be made available to approximately 80,000 eligible former students and their families for the duration of the Settlement Agreement. These services help to mitigate health risks, such as substance abuse, depression, suicide, and family violence arising from the rates of unresolved trauma experienced by this population and the heightened stress that may be experienced by those reliving the past through Settlement Agreement events and processes. Further information on these services is available in the horizontal initiative.

The Adjudication Secretariat will continue to administer the IAP and efficiently and effectively resolve remaining residential school abuse claims; work with IAP parties and stakeholders; and promote healing and reconciliation among former students, families and communities through the Group Independent Assessment Process contribution program and by fostering positive relations with organizations.

A significant portion of remaining pre-hearing claims in the Independent Assessment Process have specific issues that prevent them from moving to resolution. These include claims with outstanding matters of legal representation, claims for deceased or lost claimants, student-on-student claims, and claims with specific complexities to resolve. Through a court decisionFootnote 2 in late 2016, an estimated 215 more former students of Kivalliq Hall became eligible to make an IAP claim. Several matters before the courts or under review, which could add more schools and/or claims to the process or require that claims be held or reopened, pose a significant risk of adding to or delaying resolution of outstanding claims. If more claims are added or remaining claims are not resolved in a timely way, the Independent Assessment Process could overshoot its planned completion date. To mitigate this risk, the Adjudication Secretariat has made targeted efforts to re-establish contact with lost claimants and ensure claims get a hearing.

There is a risk that the close-out of Settlement Agreement activities could adversely affect INAC's relations with Indigenous organizations and undermine achievements made under the Agreement. To mitigate this risk, Department officials have begun to explore options for a last assessment of Canada's obligations under the Settlement Agreement before its conclusion.

By March 31, 2017, the Department expects more than 96% of Independent Assessment Process claims to be resolved. However, the remaining claims will be highly complex and, due to ongoing court actions, more claims may be added to the process. Targeted efforts to overcome obstacles in the last three years have been highly successful. The Incomplete File Resolution procedure, the Lost Claimant Protocol, and directives from the Chief Adjudicator help to resolve claims by addressing barriers to the decision process and allow claims to be dismissed when there are no feasible alternatives. Where possible, the goal of all targeted approaches is to resolve claims in the traditional manner by way of a decision.

The Adjudication Secretariat will manage the gradual conclusion of its operations and mandate through a comprehensive Completion Action Plan, which incorporates detailed communication and stakeholder engagement activities and administrative plans to ensure an accountable and transparent wind-down of activities. The Secretariat is also preparing an Administrative final report, as well as an IAP Final Report reviewing the degree to which IAP objectives are met.

The Government of Canada and the Adjudication Secretariat are committed to protect the integrity of the Settlement Agreement in a manner that promotes reconciliation. The Department, and the Secretariat in support of the Chief Adjudicator, are each involved in ongoing litigation regarding the Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement's implementation.

As there is a risk that Canada's role in these cases could be seen as an attempt to limit compensation to former students, Canada takes principled positions to uphold the terms of the Settlement Agreement, protect claimants' rights, and provide all the compensation to which survivors are entitled. The Adjudication Secretariat, under the Chief Adjudicator, is independent of the Government of Canada in such matters. It may take different positions before the Court while sharing Canada's commitment to uphold the integrity and principles of the Agreement and the rights of claimants. To address risks relating to legal action, the Secretariat maintains a high level of transparency by posting court documents and decisions, public information and news releases on the IAP website and devoting a section of the site to the Records Disposition case. The Secretariat devotes significant resources to address increasing court activity and legal challenges, implement court direction, strengthening information management processes, and providing information, sound policy advice and data analysis to the Chief Adjudicator.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Canada's obligations for the Independent Assessment Process, as per the terms of the Settlement Agreement, are fulfilled Percentage of decisions with awards processed for payment within 20 calendar days following the appeal period 85% by March 31, 2018
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
196,289,577 196,289,577 27,396,568 2,435,833
The year-over-year differences primarily reflect reduced requirements for the continued implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
260 66 2
The full-time equivalents will reduce as the Program approaches completion. Future full-time equivalents to support the wind-down process is still under consideration.

The Land and Economy — Full participation of First Nations, Métis, Non-Status Indians and Inuit individuals and communities in the economy

Program 3.1: Indigenous Entrepreneurship

Description

This Program supports and strengthens the long-term viability of Indigenous entrepreneurial business, greater participation in the economy, and improved economic prosperity for Indigenous peoples. This Program — guided by the Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development — helps create and grow viable Indigenous businesses through increasing access to capital, capacity, networks, business development services and business opportunities.

Planning highlights

The Indigenous Entrepreneurship Program improves employment and economic outcomes for Indigenous peoples and reduces socio-economic gaps by supporting the creation and expansion of viable Indigenous businesses. This is achieved by supporting projects that enable Indigenous businesses, institutions and organizations develop strategies to fully participate in economic opportunities, including improved access to capital delivered by the Aboriginal Financial Institutions network and business development opportunities provided by the Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Businesses.

To improve access to capital for First Nations, Métis, Non-Status Indians, and Inuit individuals and communities, INAC supports Aboriginal Financial Institutions — a nation-wide network of diverse Indigenous financial and business development organizations that provide developmental lending and other related financial services in a manner that reflects business and community needs. Aboriginal Financial Institutions use innovative credit risk assessment approaches that offer flexibility and are tailored to the specific challenges of Indigenous communities, such as remoteness, limited credit history, restrictions on the use of collateral on-reserve.

INAC will renew a comprehensive funding agreement with the National Aboriginal Capital Corporations Association, which manages the Program's capital access initiatives. It will also help Aboriginal Financial Institutions and the National Aboriginal Capital Corporations Association deliver the full set of initiatives, including the Aboriginal Developmental Loan Allocation, the Aboriginal Business Financing Program, the Enhanced Access Loan Fund, the Interest Rate Buy-Down, and the Aboriginal Capacity Development Program. The Department will continue to implement the Métis Nation Economic Development Strategy announced in Budget 2016, including the monitoring of recapitalization agreements with four Métis Capital Corporations and laying the groundwork for the creation of a new Métis Capital Corporation in British Columbia.

For the agreement's renewal, INAC will engage with Aboriginal Financial Institutions and other key stakeholders to determine how to define and measure success. It will also design financial instruments and policies that help sustain the network of Aboriginal Financial Institutions and foster diversification of capital sources and business lines. The National Aboriginal Capital Corporations Association will continue to implement a new information management system to make performance reporting more efficient and consistent in a manner consistent with the right of Indigenous peoples to govern their own data.

Factors for Economic Prosperity

Text description of the Factors for Economic Prosperity

This image depicts a pyramid showing the factors for economic prosperity. Fostering economic Development through entrepreneurship is the base followed by:

  • Access to Capital and Business Opportunities;
  • Creation and Expansion of viable Indigenous Businesses; and
  • Employment and Income

These factors lead to improved socio-economic outcomes for Indigenous people.

To support the Government of Canada's procurement modernization agenda, Indigenous Entrepreneurship is playing a lead role by evaluating current procurement policies, guidelines and mechanisms and engaging with the public to find opportunities for Indigenous people, businesses, and communities to benefit from federal programs, expenditures and investments.

INAC supports Indigenous businesses access federal procurement opportunities by, among other things: providing outreach and training for federal procurement officers, industry, and Indigenous businesses; negotiating with federal departments; and exploring ways to improve Indigenous procurement through better data collection and reporting.

In 2017–2018, INAC will initiate the new Nunavut Land Claims Agreement procurement directive in accordance with the roles and responsibilities set out in the Directive. The Department will also continue its support for national, regional, and international economic development strategies with key stakeholders, such as: Aboriginal Tourism Association of Canada, Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business and Indigenous Works.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Viable Indigenous businesses are created and/or expanded Percentage increase of Indigenous businesses created and/or expanded through the support of Aboriginal Financial Institutions 2% average year-to-year increase over 5 years (from 2012 to 2016) by March 31, 2018 (data will be available in 2018–2019 fiscal year report)a
a Result is based on data received from Aboriginal Financial Institutions and reported in the fall of following fiscal year. As a result, there is a one-year lag on reposting results.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
47,280,254 47,280,254 47,280,254 47,280,254
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
30 30 30

Information on Program 3.1 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 3.2: Community Economic Development

Description

This Program promotes conditions that will help improve community economic development and prosperity for Indigenous peoples. Guided by the Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development — and its vision of "Enhancing the Value of Indigenous Assets" — this Program promotes greater self-reliance and participation in the mainstream economy and community well-being. This is achieved through supports to institutions and First Nations for land and environmental management and economic development.

Planning highlights

By working to improve collaboration with other federal departments and regional development agencies to promote strategic partnerships, help First Nation communities pursue economic development, improve solid waste management on reserve, and promote Indigenous business and employment opportunities, the Department helps the Government of Canada fulfill its mandate to promote economic development and create jobs for Indigenous peoples.

By supporting capacity-building efforts to improve the delivery of economic development services, the Land and Economic Development Services Program and the Community Opportunity Readiness Program are increasing the number of communities that take part in and benefit from economic development opportunities in their regions. The Department will build on successful investments from 2016–2017 by supporting innovative projects that leverage private sector investment and lead to higher community revenues and employment. Recent evaluations demonstrated the importance of the flexibility of these programs to support Indigenous communities' economic development, from projects such as feasibility studies to large-scale commercial infrastructure.

The successful Community Economic Development Initiative with the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and the Council for the Advancement of Native Development Officers has been extended for five more years. The Initiative supports strategic joint economic development planning between municipalities and neighboring First Nation communities, leading to stronger ties and mutually beneficial economic and community development. The resulting collaborative relationships between First Nations and municipalities help promote reconciliation.

The Department will work with First Nations to improve solid waste management on reserve by increasing the number of trained and certified waste operators. It will also encourage waste diversion programs such as recycling and composting, as well as the use of Municipal Type Service Agreements. This collaboration between INAC and First Nations will help increase the number of new or improved on-reserve transfer stations or landfills and lead to the proper closure of refuse sites.

INAC is still leading an innovative, single-window participant funding mechanism to streamline the application process for Indigenous communities and organizations that want to take part in discussions on the four major environmental reviews. The Department will also continue providing expert advice and support for the regulatory review of major resource projects by Transport Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the National Energy Board, and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency.

INAC is also taking part in the Major Project Management Office Initiative to support the efforts of Indigenous and Northern peoples to develop healthy and self-sufficient communities and play a bigger role in achieving Canada's broad economic and social development objectives. The Department supports the government's commitment to restore public confidence in Canada's environmental assessment processes for natural resource projects. INAC is mandated to foster and promote full partnership and consultation, meaningful engagement, and participatory capacity of Indigenous people to take part in the review and monitoring of major resource development projects.

The government's fulfilment of additions to First Nation reserves is a commitment to address reconciliation, while effective land and environmental management on reserves is a critical driver of sustainable economic and community growth. The Department will continue to fulfill Canada's legal obligations established by land claims and Treaty Land Entitlement Agreements, and support community and economic development by increasing the reserve land base through additions to reserve.

An expanding land base will present a host of economic opportunities that can improve on-reserve living conditions. To enjoy the same sustainable growth opportunities as other Canadians, First Nations must have access to modern, transparent and effective land and environmental management tools, processes and resources. This can be achieved by expanding the land base through additions to reserve, partnering with First Nations to modernize land management policies and procedures, and supporting First Nations to develop land use plans.

Throughout the modern world, the key elements of sustainable land management include the creation and registration of land interests, land use planning, and related surveys to develop a comprehensive framework that supports sustainable community growth. To access the same opportunities as other Canadians, First Nations need progressive, transparent and effective land management tools, processes and resources. To this end, the Department will continue working with First Nations and Indigenous organizations to modernize land management policies and foster community and economic development. It will also ensure procedures are user friendly and accessible. It will use targeted investment to improve First Nation capacity to develop community-led land use plans and promote on-reserve survey activities. Lastly, it will make ongoing improvements to the Indian Land Registry system to improve accuracy and clarity of title.

INAC also works with First Nations to protect the environment through a number of programs. The Contaminated Sites On-Reserve Program helps protect the environment by assessing and remediating contaminated sites on reserve land. The Program receives financial support from the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan, Budget 2016, and INAC. The Contaminated Sites On-Reserve Program improves health, safety and environmental integrity on reserve, reduces the Crown's environmental liability, and makes land available for community or economic development. To minimize adverse effects on reserve land, INAC also conducts environmental reviews of infrastructure and other projects.

To improve First Nation land and environmental management capacity, INAC supports the Reserve Land and Environmental Management Program. The Program offers land management training and gives First Nations greater responsibility for reserve lands, positioning them to become more self-reliant and opt into the First Nations Land Management Regime. INAC will continue working with the Lands Advisory Board to support First Nations control and management of their lands and resources by continuing to expand the regime and welcoming 15 new entrants in 2017–2018. It will also keep engaging with the Lands Advisory Board to renew the joint memorandum of understanding on operational funding. The First Nations Land Management Regime is an important part of federal reconciliation efforts that recognizes the right of First Nations to govern themselves and their lands in accordance with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. First Nation entrants are in a better position to benefit from greater economic opportunities — which leads to healthier, more self-sufficient communities and benefits all Canadians.

The First Nations Waste Management Initiative will provide support to First Nation communities to access modern and environmentally sustainable solid waste management systems comparable to those available off reserve; reduce environmental, human health and safety risks; and support sustainable economic development. It will also support waste reduction and diversion through education; capacity-building; and the creation of hazardous waste diversion, recycling and composting programs. The Initiative will promote sustainable, common-sense solutions that reflect the unique needs of each community, and encourage the establishment of Municipal Type Service Agreements between First Nations and third-party partners to move waste into regulated solid waste management facilities.

Indian Oil and Gas Canada will continue to engage with First Nations to manage oil and gas resources from reserve lands and leverage economic opportunities for First Nations. While low product prices continue to impact total revenues, oil and gas activities on reserve lands remain an important revenue source for First Nations.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
First Nation and Inuit communities have the capacity to pursue economic development Percentage of Band-generated revenue in relation to total revenuea 13% (Five year average from 2008–2009 to 2012–2013 was 13.1%) by March 31, 2018
a Due to reporting timelines for community audits, data for this indicator is not available until midway through the fiscal year. Therefore, results will be based on data from the previous fiscal year.
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
373,226,056 373,226,056 244,647,554 233,314,687
The year-over-year differences primarily reflect the sunset (in 2017–2018) of Budget 2016 funding to accelerate contaminated sites activities and to support on-reserve waste management infrastructure, as well as changes in the approved funding for the assessment, management and remediation of federal contaminated sites.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
456 437 437

Information on Program 3.2 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 3.3: Strategic Partnerships

Description

This Program supports Indigenous community preparedness activities to engage with partners in economic opportunities, including the Strategic Partnerships Initiative (SPI) — an innovative, horizontal program intended to align federal efforts to support Indigenous participation in complex economic opportunities, particularly large regional opportunities and major resource developments. The Strategic Partnership Initiative provides a mechanism for federal partners to collectively identify emerging opportunities, target investment decisions and streamline program application and approval processes to support Indigenous communities at the early stages of large and complex economic opportunities. In doing so, closer partnerships with non-federal partners, including provincial and territorial governments, the private sector and Indigenous communities can be built. By addressing gaps in programming, this ensures that Indigenous peoples can participate in and benefit from priority regional opportunities and major resource developments.

Planning highlights
The Strategic Partnerships Initiative funded 19 major projects in the 2016–2017 fiscal year, for a total of $32 million across Canada in all sectors of the economy. These include the Ring of Fire (Northern Ontario), Labrador Trough mining (Quebec), West Coast Energy Infrastructure development (BC), a Northern Biomass initiative (NWT), and implementation of a National Aboriginal Tourism strategy.

The Strategic Partnerships Initiative coordinates federal partners, efforts and investments to improve Indigenous community readiness and support Indigenous participation in complex economic opportunities.

Under the Program's collaborative approach, 16 federal partners collectively prioritize and sequence investments, assess and approve projects, leverage non-federal funding sources, monitor progress, and report on outcomes. Community and industry partners also work together to develop tools and practices that improve outcomes.

The completion of several multi-year investments at the end of fiscal year 2016–2017 will be an opportunity to consider new investments in emerging areas such as the maritime economy, food security, and Indigenous tourism. Opportunities will also be sought to make better use of the Program's single-window funding approach to simplify application and reporting for program recipients.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Regional economic opportunities and large resource development projects impacting Indigenous communities are pursued in partnership with public and private sectors Value of federal and non-federal investments leveraged under the community readiness phase of the Strategic Partnership Initiative 1: 1.5 leveraging over three years (for every $1 Strategic Partnership Initiative investment an additional $1.50 is leveraged from other sources including private and other public sectors) by March 31, 2018
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
32,407,433 32,407,433 30,107,433 22,107,433
The decrease in 2019–2020 reflects the sunset (in 2018–2019) of funding for Aboriginal participation in West Coast Energy Development.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
70 70 70

Program 3.4: Infrastructure and Capacity

Description

This Program provides funding and advisory assistance to First Nation communities for the construction, acquisition, operation and maintenance of community infrastructure assets on reserves. These assets include drinking water systems, wastewater systems and community buildings. The Program also includes support for emergency management assistance, climate change adaptation projects and funding and advisory support for water and wastewater systems, education facilities, housing and other community infrastructure such as roads and bridges, electrification, and community buildings (these four sub-programs are collectively known as the Capital Facilities and Maintenance Program). Ultimately, this Program enables First Nations to participate more fully in the Canadian economy by establishing infrastructure that meets established standards, and the needs of First Nation communities.

Planning highlights

The Government of Canada believes that investing in infrastructure will improve the quality of life in Indigenous communities. To this end it will continue to invest in on-reserve green infrastructure and connectivity, help protect the environment, and promote community health and safety. It will also foster and build prosperous communities by ensuring that basic infrastructure needs are met and existing infrastructure can be repaired and improved.

In 2017–2018, INAC will continue working with First Nation communities to ensure the Capital Facilities and Maintenance program makes strategic investments to increase assets and improve existing infrastructure while addressing health and safety needs. To this end it will work with First Nations to bring about transformational change, provide safe, clean and reliable drinking water, and ensure wastewater in First Nation communities is sustainably managed. To end long-term drinking water advisories on INAC-funded systems, the Department will improve capacity-building and operator training through its Circuit Rider Training Program and work with reserve communities to enhance risk-based oversight of operation and maintenance funding for water and wastewater infrastructure.

INAC will continue to invest strategically in water and wastewater systems to address health and safety needs, make sure facilities are well operated and maintained, and ensure community services meet applicable regulations and guidelines. The Department will also support annual performance inspections to see that water and wastewater assets are well operated and maintained. These approaches will help achieve the 2017–2018 priority goal, shared by INAC and First Nations, to reduce the number of drinking water advisories and make progress toward ending long-term advisories for INAC-funded water systems within five years.

The Government of Canada recognizes that the academic achievement of First Nation children, as well as their health and safety, depends on the condition of their learning environment. For this reason, INAC is working with First Nations to improve and enhance school infrastructure through the Education Infrastructure Fund.

Percentage of on-reserve INAC-funded First Nation drinking water systems with treated water that meets prescribed standards

Text description of the Percentage of on-reserve INAC-funded First Nation drinking water systems with treated water that meets prescribed standards

This image depicts a bar graph of the percentage of on-reserve INAC-funded First Nation drinking water systems with treated water that meets prescribed standards:

  • 74% for 2013–2014
  • 74% for 2014–2015
  • 92% for 2015–2016

The Department will continue investing in social infrastructure as a key pillar of the Government of Canada's strategy. This will foster inclusive growth through strategic investment and by addressing immediate on-reserve housing needs through funding for new construction, renovation, and lot servicing. Under the National Housing Strategy, INAC will continue working with First Nation communities and Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation to develop an effective long-term approach to support the construction and maintenance of on-reserve housing.

INAC will continue working with the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development to leverage funding initiatives to improve broadband connectivity in First Nation communities (e.g., British Columbia's Pathways to Technology Initiative). The Department will also continue to implement the Level of Service Standards for Fire Protection using a three-tiered continuum of services model with an emphasis on prevention (experts have noted that prevention is essential to fire safety). Lastly, investment in new cultural and recreation infrastructure will help ensure First Nation communities have venues for important community and recreational activities.

INAC recognizes that the cumulative impact of increased investment may overwhelm the project management capacity of First Nations and place greater demands on the construction and infrastructure sectors. The Department has specialized staff to see to the program's long-term planning, oversight and delivery, which it will continue to improve through the use of best practices, pilot projects, and other innovative initiatives to support strategic investment and improve infrastructure outcomes for First Nation communities.

INAC will continue to support and develop new approaches for the management, financing and delivery of INAC-funded infrastructure on-reserve by engaging First Nation communities in opportunities for community partnerships and innovative approaches to service delivery approaches. Among other things, these include First Nation-led institutions to address community needs and ensure service levels are comparable to those of off-reserve infrastructure assets. The Department will support the inspection of infrastructure assets every three years to protect the health and safety of communities, ensure INAC-funded on-reserve infrastructure is maintained to prescribed standards, and keep assets in operation for their projected life cycle. Operation and maintenance funding, capacity development and training, and disaster mitigation measures also support First Nations in ensuring that their on-reserve infrastructure stays operational for its full life cycle.

In response to the June 2015 Evaluation of Education Facilities and Other Community Infrastructure, INAC will expand the Circuit Rider Training Program to include not just water and wastewater systems but other vital infrastructure assets. In 2017–2018, the Department will launch a pilot project — a program similar to Circuit Rider that will train First Nation operators to operate and maintain education facilities.

As part of the renewed, respectful, and inclusive nation-to-nation process, INAC has partnered with First Nation organizations to set up a multi-partner task force on drinking water advisories to leverage the capacity of existing organizations and monitor progress toward ending drinking water advisories.

To safeguard health and well-being, the Emergency Management Assistance Program supports First Nations in the four pillars of emergency management — mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. In 2017–2018, INAC will identify, support, and, where possible, scale innovative First Nation-led preparedness and non-structural mitigation initiatives that promote capacity-building, community-based planning, training, and exercises.

The Department will continue to negotiate emergency management service agreements with provinces, territories, and First Nation organizations, and emergency management organizations to ensure all First Nations communities have access to emergency services. First Nations representative organizations will be engaged in the negotiation process of service agreements that foster nation-to-nation relationships. To ensure funding eligibility and application rules are consistent and funding processes are clearer, INAC will continue to develop funding guidelines and policies for the Emergency Management Assistance Program. It will also continue improving the governance, design, implementation and financial management of its programs as identified in the Emergency Management Assistance Program's 2016 internal audit.

In 2017–2018, the First Nation Adapt program will provide funding support to First Nation communities on-reserve to assess climate change impacts through risk and adaptation assessment projects. Findings from these projects will provide communities with the information, expertise and tools needed to support adaptation action and respond to the effects of climate change on infrastructure and emergency management procedures. The program will also focus on addressing repetitive and severe climate impacts related to flooding, forest fires and winter road failure.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
First Nation communities have infrastructure that protects their health and safety Percentage of inspected INAC-funded infrastructure assets projected to remain operational for their life-cycles 60% for schools from the 2016 baseline of 55%
80% for water/wastewater from the 2016 baseline of 77%
70% for roads and bridges from the 2016 baseline of 66%
50% for other community infrastructure from the 2016 baseline of 46%
by March 31, 2019
Percentage of on-reserve INAC-funded First Nation drinking water systems with treated water that meets prescribed standards in the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality 90%
2011 baseline: 46%
by March 31, 2019
Percentage of on-reserve INAC-funded First Nation wastewater systems producing treated wastewater that meets effluent quality regulations and guidelines 85%
2012 baseline: 68%
by March 31, 2019
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
2,223,946,873 2,223,946,873 1,419,001,493 1,405,644,151
The year-after-year differences primarily reflect the sunset (in 2017–2018) of funding provided by Budget 2016 for infrastructure investments (including water and wastewater, housing on reserve, cultural and recreational facilities, and other infrastructures), as well changes in the approved funding profile to support the repair and construction of on-reserve schools.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
450 249 249

Information on Program 3.4 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 3.5: Urban Indigenous Participation

Description

This Program supports participation of urban Indigenous individuals and communities in the economy. It is comprised of two streams: Community Capacity Support and Urban Partnerships. The Community Capacity Support stream provides funding to urban Indigenous community organizations to deliver programs and services that are designed to remove barriers and encourage innovative partnerships. The Urban Partnerships stream is comprised of a planning component and an implementation component. The planning component supports communities with multi-stakeholder engagement (private sector, municipalities, Indigenous groups) in the design and development of regional strategic plans and the identification of community priorities. These plans are then shared with the National Association of Friendship Centres which, in turn, implements the priorities through community projects.

Planning highlights

The Program funded initiatives and services that helped boost economic participation by urban Indigenous people across Canada. Based on a Budget 2016 commitment, feedback and analysis from last year's national engagement process, and other considerations, it was determined that the current program was not meeting the needs of recipients. For this reason, it will end on March 31, 2017.

Given that the Program is sunsetting, there are no more related activities to report. However, since closing the socio-economic gap between urban Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians remains a key priority for INAC and the Government of Canada, the Department is developing new initiatives that it expects to implement in 2017–2018.

Planned results

The suite of expected result and indicators will no longer be valid for 2017–2018, but program is currently engaging on a way forward.

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
29,582,303 29,582,303 29,582,303 29,582,303
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
13 13 13

The North — Self-reliance, prosperity and well-being for the people and communities of the North

Program 4.1: Northern Governance and People

Description

This Program strengthens the North's communities and people by: devolving responsibilities for lands and natural resources to territorial governments; fostering effective intergovernmental relations with territorial and Inuit governments; collaborating with Inuit organizations and providing support to Territorial Commissioners; subsidizing the costs of nutritious perishable foods in isolated northern communities; providing grants for hospital and physician services in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories; working with northern communities, governments, and organizations to address the risks and challenges posed by climate change and reduce reliance on diesel; and, advancing Canadian and northern interests through circumpolar forums such as the international Arctic Council. Canadians and Northerners will benefit from territorial governments ultimately having more control over their own affairs.

Planning highlights

In 2017–2018, the Department will work with the Chief Federal Negotiator, the Government of Nunavut and Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated towards an Agreement-in-Principle for the devolution of land and resource management responsibilities in Nunavut. This work will be guided by the 2008 Lands and Resources Devolution Negotiation Protocol, and a wide range of lessons learned from previous devolution processes in Northwest Territories and Yukon, such as the need to include Indigenous partners early in negotiations and for incremental funding to address resource management infrastructure gaps. The Nunavut devolution process seeks to improve Inuit-Crown relations by giving the territory greater control over its political and economic affairs.

Map of the North Circumpolar Region
North Circumpolar Region

To support the Government of Canada's ongoing reconciliation efforts with Indigenous Peoples, INAC will continue to work in collaboration with Inuit partners on areas of common purpose, through an Inuit-Crown relationship, including activities related to Nanilavut and the Qikiqtani Truth Commission Report, policy and program work on Inuit Housing and analyses of the Inuit art economy (seal product markets, economic impacts).

The Department will continue to foster, build and maintain effective intergovernmental relationships with territorial governments, Indigenous governments and organizations, and other domestic and international partners to facilitate their continued engagement in the North, and circumpolar relations.

In 2017–2018, through intergovernmental fora, such as the Nunavut Senior Officials Working Group and the Northern Development Ministers Forum, INAC will work with Northern stakeholders on issues that pertain to them.

Building on its Northern expertise and leadership, INAC will continue to serve as the primary conduit for Indigenous and territorial engagement in circumpolar forums (including the Arctic Council), lead Canada's engagement to advance initiatives for the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group workplan; and foster bilateral circumpolar relationships that support Canadian interests.

The important role that INAC plays in promoting circumpolar co-operation was a key finding in the 2016 Evaluation of the Political Development and Intergovernmental Relations program: "INAC's participation on the Arctic Council through the Circumpolar Affairs Directorate is critical to Canada's stated objectives in the Arctic. Canada's support for Indigenous issues in the Council is also a key part of the Department's mandate to help build healthy, safe, self-sufficient, and prosperous Northern communities."

In 2017–2018, INAC will help alleviate the high cost of food in the North by making perishable nutritious food more accessible and affordable to residents of isolated Northern communities through the Nutrition North Canada (NNC) food subsidy. The Department has revised its community eligibility criteria, expanding the NNC program to all Northern communities that lack year-round rail, road or marine access. A total of 121 communities are now eligible for receipt of the full range of program benefits.

To improve the user experience and support transparency, the Nutrition North Canada program has developed an interactive map with information on where NNC subsidy dollars are spent, including the location, community profile, and food data for all 121 eligible communities.

Nutrition North Canada has continued to help with the provision of healthy food in Canada's isolated northern communities. In addition to providing the food subsidy, the Program conducted community public engagement meetings, stakeholder interviews, surveys and written submissions, all of them completed on December 9, 2016. The summaries for the public engagement sessions are available on the Nutrition North Canada website. A report on "What We Heard" will be published on the program website. Equipped with this feedback, the Department will work with NNC partners in 2017–2018 to develop policy options, update programs, and to develop strategies to support long-term program sustainability.

Following the April 2016 implementation of the point-of-sale receipt system for major Northern retailers, INAC will develop and implement visual media to raise awareness of the program and how it works. Recipient compliance reviews, shipping reports, and Revised Northern Food Basket price reports will continue to be available on the program website.

In 2017–2018, the Climate Change Preparedness in the North program will work with territorial governments, Indigenous organizations and communities, and other federal departments to identify Northern adaptation priorities by developing the Northern Adaptation Strategy. These priorities will help coordinate efforts and investments to enhance climate resilience in the North. Funding will be provided to territorial governments and Northern Indigenous communities to allow them to complete risk assessments that will provide information related to community or regional level impacts, as well as to identify and assess adaptation measures.

Through the Northern REACHE (Responsible Energy Approach for Community Heat and Electricity) program, the Department will continue to lead the interdepartmental working group and engage with territorial governments, utilities, Indigenous organizations and Northern communities in support of the development of a final plan and timeline for deploying innovative renewable energy and efficiency alternatives to diesel in the North. It is expected that the plan and timeline will identify the current energy context for each region along with action priorities and next steps. The plan will also identify key areas of federal support and be used to inform future project investments across each region. The Northern REACHE program will continue to provide support to Northern communities, governments, and organizations in the planning and construction of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in the three territories as well as the Inuit regions of Nunavik (Northern Quebec) and Nunatsiavut (Northern Labrador).

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Northerners have greater control over their economic and political affairs Number of final devolution agreements fully implemented with territorial governments on land and resource management 3 by March 31, 2023
Affordability of perishable, nutritious food in eligible communities is strengthened Annual trend of the Revised Northern Food Basket At or below the annual trend (increase/decrease) for the Consumer Price Index basket for food by March 31, 2018
Northern communities, governments, and organizations identify priorities for adaptation activities and reducing reliance on diesel Strategic planning identifying Northern priorities is developed Northern Adaptation Strategy completed by March 31, 2018
Federal plan and timeline to reduce reliance on diesel completed by March 31, 2018
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
176,213,122 176,213,122 174,948,206 180,750,631
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
88 79 79

Information on Program 4.1 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 4.2: Northern Science and Technology

Description

This Program supports scientific research and technology in the North through programs and infrastructure to ensure domestic and international policy on key northern issues is better informed by a scientific knowledge base. The focus of this Program is to: research and monitor contaminants and their impacts on the ecosystem and human health through the Northern Contaminants Program; assess, manage and communicate scientific data and results, and contribute expertise to help inform public policy making and international controls on certain contaminants; and support the construction of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station. Northerners and all Canadians will benefit from a knowledge base that supports health and sustainable development and the positioning of Canada as an international leader in Arctic science and technology.

Planning highlights

As the lead federal department for the North, INAC plays a key role in promoting responsible science and technology for decision-making about the region. INAC's history of domestic and international leadership on Northern science and technology dates back more than 25 years and includes: playing a lead role in the Canadian International Polar Year Program; hosting the International Polar Year 2012 Conference; establishing and managing the Northern Contaminants Program; serving as Canada's head of delegation to the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme; and launching the Canadian High Arctic Research Station.

Building on this experience, INAC also has a role in facilitating the mobilization of northern knowledge to maximize the impact of research by translating it into clear and usable language that is accessible to governments, industry, and communities. INAC contributes to federal policy and program development on northern science and technology, generates social and economic analysis and expertise on the North, and promotes traditional knowledge in public and private sector programs and activities in the North.

Through the Northern Contaminants Program, INAC has funded innovative research projects — guided by both scientific and traditional knowledge — to broaden our understanding of the potential impact of Northern contaminants on the health of animals and people. In 2017, the Northern Contaminants Program will mark its 25th anniversary by holding a Results Workshop in the North. Under the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, INAC will lead and coordinate Canada's engagement in preparing technical reports and summaries for policy-makers for the upcoming 2017 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting on the issues of pollution, climate change, adaptation and resilience.

On August 5, 2016, it was announced that Mary Simon was the Minister's Special Representative tasked with engaging key stakeholders to develop ambitious new Arctic conservation goals in a sustainable development context. Ms. Simon's work reflects renewed Inuit-to-Crown and nation-to-nation relationships grounded in a sustainable development vision for the Arctic and informed by evidence and scientific knowledge (both traditional and non-traditional).

The Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) continues to be developed in consultation with Northerners and with input from Indigenous, academic, industry, territorial and government stakeholders. Construction of the Cambridge Bay station is on schedule, with the campus due to be operational in summer 2017 and fully commissioned by March 2018. The grand opening is scheduled for fall 2017 to coincide with Canada's 150th anniversary celebrations.

In 2017, Polar Knowledge Canada will assume responsibility for operating CHARS and developing the station's science and technology program. Efforts are underway to amend the Canadian High Arctic Research Station Act so that Polar Knowledge Canada can allow the transfer of all real property associated with the station by March 31, 2018.

On March 10, 2016, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and U.S. President Barack Obama issued a joint statement calling for development of a shared Arctic leadership model. On December 20, 2016, Prime Minister Trudeau and President Obama announced a series of actions designed to advance this shared approach to Arctic leadership. These include an indefinite moratorium on oil and gas activity in Canada's Arctic Ocean and the vast majority of U.S. waters in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, and reduced diesel use in Canadian Arctic communities. Canada also committed to co-develop a new Arctic Policy Framework with Northerners, Territorial and Provincial governments, and First Nations, Inuit, and Métis People.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Domestic and international policy on northern health and sustainable development is better informed by a scientific knowledge base Percentage of Northern Contaminants Program datasets used in regional, national and international policy-relevant assessments and obligations under international conventions 80% by March 31, 2018
Canada is positioned as an international leader in Arctic science and technology Launch of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station Research station is operational by July 1, 2017
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
47,546,846 47,546,846 5,420,004 5,420,004
The year-over-year differences primarily reflect changes in the approved funding profile and associated full-time equivalents for the construction of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
45 33 33

Information on Program 4.2 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Program 4.3: Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management

Description

This Program focuses on the management, sustainable development and regulatory oversight of the land, water, natural resources, and environment of the North, delivering on the Department's role as the Government of Canada's natural resource manager in Nunavut and the northern offshore and its post-devolution responsibilities in the Northwest Territories and Yukon. This Program involves: managing oil and gas resources development; supporting the sustainable management of active mineral exploration and development; supporting the sound management of contaminated sites and the few remaining INAC-managed land and water areas in the North; and ensuring the completion of territorial land-use planning including zones for conservation, development and other uses. Northerners and Canadians will benefit from economic opportunities and sustainable development.

Planning highlights

In exercising regulatory oversight of the environment and resource management in the North, in 2017–2018 INAC plans to implement regulatory changes in Yukon and the Northwest Territories to address First Nation concerns about compatibility between environmental assessment legislation and land claims agreements. It will develop these amendments in conjunction with First Nations and governments in both territories and will include input from industry and other interested stakeholders. In June of 2016 Bill C-17, An Act to amend the Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Act received first reading in the House of Commons.

While the Department works with Indigenous groups and territorial governments to amend legislation in Yukon and the Northwest Territories, the parties will also seek to find administrative and operational ways to work more closely together to address or avoid similar future challenges, improve the regulatory system, and rebuild relationships.

INAC will also advance the development of key resource management regulations in the area of administrative monetary penalties for federal lands in the Northwest Territories and federal and territorial lands in Nunavut.

INAC manages natural resources in Nunavut and the Northern offshore on behalf of the Government of Canada. As such, it will continue to administer mineral, oil and gas rights as well as the royalty regime under the Canada Petroleum Resources Act and the Nunavut Mining Regulations — including the collection of Crown revenues from oil and gas, and mining companies.

In 2017–2018, the Department will work with Indigenous and government partners to improve co-management strategies in Nunavut. It will also develop mineral and petroleum management policies to support land use planning (including in protected areas), environmental assessment and financial assurance requirements.

INAC will undertake a one-year consultation process with existing oil and gas licence holders in the Beaufort Sea, and other key Northern and Indigenous stakeholders, focusing on the status of the rights and interests of the licence holders within the context of a new policy framework for the Arctic.

INAC will work closely with Indigenous communities to complete work on the Beaufort Regional Strategic Environmental Assessment and the Strategic Environmental Assessment for Baffin Bay and Davis Strait — initiatives that will use science and traditional knowledge to inform decision making around potential future oil and gas activity in these regions.

INAC is mandated to ensure sound management, sustainable development and regulatory oversight for land and water — a responsibility it will meet by ensuring land authorizations and water licences (including the management of applicable liability securities) are issued within the legislated timelines. The Department will conduct inspections to ensure compliance with land and water authorizations to minimize environmental impacts. For the marine offshore, INAC will continue to take part in national and international forums to ensure its views are known.

INAC is developing an online system to select Nunavut mineral claims from a map. This will change the way claims are acquired, from an "on the ground" staking process to the selection of pre-defined map grid units.

External clients already have access to a limited number of system functions. INAC is working with the Department of Justice to finalize amendments to the Nunavut Mining Regulations so the web application can be fully implemented. Stakeholders have been consulted regularly throughout the project, which has received strong support from the industry.

In 2017–2018, INAC will continue to promote the Northern resource economy while protecting the environment by providing technical and procedural advice and analysis to the Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board for two Northwest Territories projects (the Tlicho All Season Road and the Prairie Creek All Season Road). It will offer similar advice to the Nunavut Impact Review Board for Nunavut's Whale Tail Project and Hope Bay Phase 2 Project. These four projects will require a Ministerial decision on the environmental assessment recommendation under the regulated timelines. INAC will also continue supporting improved certainty and informed decision making by contributing to the completion of regional land use plans in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Through the Nunavut General Monitoring Plan, INAC will continue to fund general monitoring initiatives designed to collect and report information on long-term conditions for Nunavut's environment, people, communities and economy. This information will be used to raise public awareness and inform decision-making.

In order to ensure the protection of human health and safety and the environment for Northerners and Indigenous peoples, the Department will continue to advance the risk management and remediation of high priority contaminated sites in the North, through the Northern Contaminated Sites program.

The program's activities and procurement strategies will bring economic benefits to Northerners and Indigenous peoples through employment and training opportunities. To build effective relationships, the program will continue to engage with Indigenous partners and interested stakeholders in remediation planning and implementation. The Department also takes proactive measures to ensure operations at risk of insolvency are closely monitored effectively. The program has adopted an integrated risk management approach to identify key risks and mitigation strategies so INAC can respond effectively to change and uncertainty.

The Department's two largest and most complex contaminated sites, the Giant and Faro Mines, are a significant long-term financial liability. To reduce potential impacts to human health and safety and the environment, risk mitigation and care and maintenance activities are being completed while the complex remediation and closure plans are developed in consultation with Indigenous and non-Indigenous partners. With the Government of Yukon, the Department will hire a construction management firm to begin advanced remediation work at the Faro Mine site (building a creek diversion, upgrading a dam, and installing a spillway). For Giant Mine, the Department will hire a construction management firm to finalize the remediation plan and oversee its implementation. It will also continue to address requirements stemming from the 2014 environmental assessment, including completing a human health risk assessment.

Planned results
Expected results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target
Canada's responsibilities to support effective regulatory regimes in the territories are carried out in a manner that provides certainty for Indigenous people, Northerners, and project proponents Number of new or amended pieces of legislation brought into law 1 by March 31, 2018
Number of new or amended pieces of regulation brought into law 1 by March 31, 2018
Percentage of Nunavut and NWT projects where the Minister is a decision maker and the Environmental Assessment decision is made within regulated timelines (Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act and Nunavut Planning and Projects Assessment Act) 100% by March 31, 2018
Environmental stewardship of contaminated sites is responsible and sustainable Percentage of contaminated sites projects' risks rated as "very high" or "high" with mitigation strategies in place 100% by March 31, 2018
Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
264,322,708 264,322,708 187,248,863 196,674,023
The year-over-year differences primarily reflect changes in the approved funding profile for the assessment, management and remediation of federal contaminated sites, as well as the sunset (in 2017–2018) of Budget 2016 funding to accelerate contaminated sites activities.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
230 230 230

Information on Program 4.3 lower-levels is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Internal Services

Description

Internal Services are those groups of related activities and resources that the federal government considers to be services in support of programs and/or required to meet corporate obligations of an organization. Internal Services refers to the activities and resources of the 10 distinct service categories that support Program delivery in the organization, regardless of the Internal Services delivery model in a department. The 10 service categories are: Management and Oversight Services; Communications Services; Legal Services; Human Resources Management Services; Financial Management Services; Information Management Services; Information Technology Services; Real Property Services; Materiel Services; and Acquisition Services.

Planning highlights

In keeping with the Department's overarching reconciliation agenda and a climate that favours evidence-based decision making, INAC will develop innovative approaches to proactively engage and communicate with Indigenous and non-Indigenous audiences. This will include the active promotion of Indigenous success stories resulting from both INAC program and policy initiatives and other community-driven efforts, and be presented through various media in which Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians already communicate. To this end, there will be increased communications presence at community-based regional events (highlighting progress and successes through digital media; exploring efforts for dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous audiences, with particular attention to reaching youth organizations).

The Simplified Reporting Initiative consists of pilot projects that seek solutions by consulting directly with First Nations across Canada, to improve the way data is collected and ensure it is meaningful to First Nations and the Department.

To strengthen the Department's management of its programs, independent due diligence reviews will be conducted on all new programming. The goal of these reviews is to assist management in carrying out their fiduciary responsibilities by identifying potential internal control deficiencies. With any new funding, the Department will be challenged to design, deliver, monitor, and report on new programs while continuing to deliver existing ones. INAC is committed to the highest ethical standards and takes utmost care and prudence when handling public funds.

In 2016–2017, INAC sponsored a summer internship program for top Canadian graduate students. The students produced a thought-provoking report, "Reconciliation and Evaluation", that explored how Canada's renewed focus on Indigenous reconciliation affects performance measurement and evaluation. The Department is considering piloting some of the recommendations of this study in future evaluation work.

INAC will work to strengthen the financial management capacity and maximize efficiencies within the Department to ensure optimal use of resources. To this end, it will employ corporate accounting and costing functions and renew and modernize procurement policies and processes. This will ensure that INAC enhances its ability to allocate financial resources to First Nations in a more timely and efficient manner while being accountable and transparent and meeting departmental business requirements. It will also increase its efforts on real property management in order to address INAC's real property issues, while ensuring compliance with the Treasury Board Secretariat policies and guidelines, and enhance sound stewardship of Crown assets.

In the spirit of reconciliation with Indigenous people, INAC's culture, internal programs and services must evolve in the same way. To address this demand, a new Workplace Well-Being and Mental Health Strategy will be implemented in 2017–2018.

INAC will implement an Indigenous Recruitment and Retention Framework to support and retain a diverse workforce with an emphasis on Indigenous peoples. The Framework will offer language training for Indigenous employees under the Deputy Minister's Aboriginal Workforce Initiative. It will also continue the Aboriginal Leadership Development Initiative to build leadership skills and prepare Indigenous employees for new career opportunities. In conjunction with this approach, INAC will develop a junior Aboriginal Leadership Development Initiative with other partners along with an onboarding guide for Indigenous employees and students.

The Department will adopt and enhance Information Management and Information Technology solutions to advance the collection, management, reporting, and safeguarding of business information. To this end, a three-year strategy (2016–2019) was developed by the Information Management Branch and approved by the Department's Operations Committee. The strategy has 26 initiatives with specific aims, including but not limited to: implementation of GCDOCS and MS Outlook through the Government of Canada's E-Mail Transformation Initiative; reduced number of corporate systems due to application rationalization; record digitization; and better data management to meet the Department's Open Government, Reporting on Results, and Deliverology commitments.

INAC will produce some 35 studies, fact sheets and summaries on Indigenous education, language and culture, employment, housing, and well-being. It will continue working with key partners such as, the First Nations Information Governance Centre and Statistics Canada to implement the Survey on Aboriginal Peoples program. It will also implement the Policy on Results and develop a new Departmental Results Framework to provide simpler, clearer, and more relevant reports to Parliament and Canadians.

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
234,773,957 234,773,957 225,783,164 214,745,886
The year-over-year differences primarily reflect the sunset (in 2017–2018) of funding for Budget 2016 infrastructure investments (including water and wastewater, housing on reserve, waste management infrastructure, cultural and recreational facilities, and other infrastructures); as well as the changes in approved funding profile for the continued implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, and to conduct research for the development and implementation of the overall strategy for Childhood Claims.
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
1,518 1,491 1,482

Spending and human resources

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)
2017–2018
Main Estimates
2017–2018
Planned spending
2018–2019
Planned spending
2019–2020
Planned spending
10,056,790,513 10,056,790,513 9,010,182,873 8,157,997,915
Human resources (full-time equivalents)
2017–2018
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–2019
Planned full-time equivalents
2019–2020
Planned full-time equivalents
4,627 4,149 4,071

Planned spending

Departmental Spending Trend

Text description of the Departmental Spending Trend

This stacked bar graph depicts the actual spending trend from 2014 to 2016 and the forecast and planned spending trend that spans from 2016 to 2020:

  • In 2014–2015, total actual spending was $7,692 million. Of this amount, $7,500 million was voted spending and $191 million was statutory spending.
  • In 2015–2016, total actual spending was $7,955 million. Of this amount, $7,807 million was voted spending and $148 million was statutory spending.
  • In 2016–2017, total forecast spending is $9,387 million. Of this amount, $9,212 million is voted spending and $175 million is statutory spending.
  • In 2017–2018, total planned spending is $10,274 million. Of this amount, $9,904 million is voted spending, $153 million is statutory spending, $218 million is sunset programs spending (anticipated).
  • In 2018–2019, total planned spending is $10,135 million. Of this amount, $8,858 million is voted spending, $152 million is statutory spending, and $1,125 million is sunset programs spending (anticipated).
  • In 2019–2020, total planned spending is $9,295 million. Of this amount, $8,051 million is voted spending, $107 million is statutory spending, and $1,137 million is sunset program spending (anticipated).

Note: Due to rounding, figures may not add to totals shown. Decision on the future of sunset programs will be taken and reflected in future Estimates.

Over the period 2014–2015 and 2017–2018, total spending will increase by approximately $2.6 billion (from $7.7 billion in 2014–2015 to $10.3 billion in 2017–2018). This is due in large part to major investments under Budget 2016 to improve socio-economic conditions for Indigenous people and communities in education, children, infrastructure, training and other programs, as well as increased funding to speed up the resolution of specific claims.

Over the period 2017–2018 and 2019–2020, total spending will decrease by approximately $1.0 billion (from $10.3 billion in 2017–2018 to $9.3 billion in 2019–2020). This is due in large part to the sunset of targeted funding for specific claim settlements.

Budgetary planning summary for Programs and Internal Services (dollars)
Programs and Internal Services 2014–2015 Expenditures 2015–2016 Expenditures 2016–2017 Forecast spending 2017–2018 Main Estimates 2017–2018 Planned spending 2018–2019 Planned spending 2019–2020 Planned spending
Governance and Institutions of Government 422,226,591 422,158,084 444,213,318 413,808,860 413,808,860 402,318,676 404,110,062
Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoplesa 173,531,547 176,996,399 772,561,753 1,035,735,011 1,035,735,011 1,113,356,769 146,361,345
Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties 749,933,655 1,058,167,714 837,439,206 873,311,740 873,311,740 825,895,076 788,587,110
Other Claimsb N/A N/A 53,000,000 0 0 0 0
Education 1,788,854,310 1,805,134,484 2,148,743,878 2,203,184,787 2,203,184,787 2,290,705,684 2,401,195,959
Social Development 1,733,443,753 1,767,363,171 1,883,833,017 1,876,199,107 1,876,199,107 1,957,529,465 2,050,799,922
First Nations Individual Affairs 28,426,563 29,564,330 33,935,405 28,961,879 28,961,879 28,961,361 28,988,312
Residential Schools Resolution 492,880,678 316,813,828 186,361,841 196,289,577 196,289,577 27,396,568 2,435,833
Indigenous Entrepreneurshipc 43,027,380 40,562,630 48,088,834 47,280,254 47,280,254 47,280,254 47,280,254
Community Economic Developmentd 218,047,705 293,179,002 278,215,307 373,226,056 373,226,056 244,647,554 233,314,687
Strategic Partnerships 33,668,724 39,648,489 47,632,744 32,407,433 32,407,433 30,107,433 22,107,433
Infrastructure and Capacity 1,266,710,553 1,294,213,707 1,865,936,063 2,223,946,873 2,223,946,873 1,419,001,493 1,405,644,151
Urban Indigenous Participatione 49,520,444 50,336,798 50,176,743 29,582,303 29,582,303 29,582,303 29,582,303
Northern Governance and People 146,407,862 147,466,620 166,153,776 176,213,122 176,213,122 174,948,206 180,750,631
Northern Science and Technology 40,827,871 64,447,283 64,266,507 47,546,846 47,546,846 5,420,004 5,420,004
Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management 212,493,747 180,587,234 188,976,329 264,322,708 264,322,708 187,248,863 196,674,023
Subtotal 7,400,001,383 7,686,639,773 9,069,534,721 9,822,016,556 9,822,016,556 8,784,399,709 7,943,252,029
Internal Services 291,651,755 268,654,893 317,103,884 234,773,957 234,773,957 225,783,164 214,745,886
Total 7,691,653,138 7,955,294,666 9,386,638,605 10,056,790,513 10,056,790,513 9,010,182,873 8,157,997,915
  1. Previously entitled Aboriginal Rights and Interests (renamed under the 2016–2017 PAA)
  2. There is currently no planned spending under this Program; spending will occur when/if litigation and/or out-of-court settlements are resolved.
  3. Previously entitled Aboriginal Entrepreneurship (renamed under the 2016–2017 PAA)
  4. Previously entitled Community Development (established under the 2014–2015 PAA)
  5. Previously entitled Urban Aboriginal Participation (renamed under the 2016–2017 PAA)

Overall, the year-over-year changes fall into two main categories:

  • Targeted funding provided for specific, time-limited, or project-based activities, including:
    • The negotiation, settlement, and implementation of specific and comprehensive claims;
    • The implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement;
    • On-reserve costs incurred by provincial, territorial or other emergency management;
    • The construction of the Canadian High Arctic Research Station and implementation of the associated Science and Technology Program;
    • The assessment, management, and remediation of federal contaminated sites; and
    • Out-of-court settlements.
  • Significant investments provided through Budget 2016 to improve the socio-economic conditions of Indigenous peoples and Northern communities. Decreases in the planned spending are observed in 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 as long-term infrastructure investments are under consideration to continue the momentum created through Budget 2016 investments.

For additional explanation of the planned spending by program, please refer to the Planned Results section.

Planned human resources

Human resources planning summary for Programs and Internal Services (full-time equivalents)
Programs and Internal Services 2014–2015 Full-time equivalents 2015–2016 Full-time equivalents 2016–2017 Forecast full-time equivalents 2017–2018 Planned full-time equivalents 2018–2019 Planned full-time equivalents 2019–2020 Planned full-time equivalents
Governance and Institutions of Government 429 407 409 409 406 406
Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples 362 364 378 254 254 253
Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties 80 80 86 86 71 71
Other Claimsa 0 0 0 0 0 0
Education 272 272 295 300 300 300
Social Development 144 144 154 159 161 157
First Nations Individual Affairs 233 238 259 259 259 259
Residential Schools Resolution 521 458 348 260 66 2
Indigenous Entrepreneurship 42 34 30 30 30 30
Community Economic Development 401 434 447 456 437 437
Strategic Partnerships 80 72 70 70 70 70
Infrastructure and Capacity 251 244 352 450 249 249
Urban Indigenous Participation 18 13 12 13 13 13
Northern Governance and People 70 65 88 88 79 79
Northern Science and Technology 52 42 42 45 33 33
Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management 236 226 241 230 230 230
Subtotal 3,192 3,093 3,211 3,109 2,658 2,589
Internal Services 1,457 1,431 1,514 1,518 1,491 1,482
Total 4,649 4,524 4,725 4,627 4,149 4,071

Note: Totals may not equal due to rounding.

a This Program addresses payments related to the resolution of litigation and/or out-of-court settlements. Expenditures relate to the settlement amounts only; no full-time equivalents are associated with this Program.

During the period of 2014–2015 to 2016–2017, the Department's full-time equivalents have increased slightly. This can be explained by the additional funding received through Budget 2016 to advance the Government's objective to renew the relationship and to improve the socio-economic conditions of Indigenous peoples and communities in the area of education, children, infrastructure, training and other programs.

Over the next three years, the Department's overall full-time equivalents show a decrease in three major areas:

  • Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples — the decrease under this Program is due to the sunset of funding to support comprehensive claims and self-government negotiations across Canada and the decrease in the cash flow for the negotiation, settlement and implementation of specific claims. These initiatives are being considered for renewal. Any full-time equivalents renewed will be reflected once approved;
  • Residential Schools Resolution — the full-time equivalents will reduce as the Program approaches completion. Future full-time equivalents to support to support the wind-down process is under consideration and will be reflected once approved; and
  • Infrastructure and Capacity — decreases in full-time equivalents are observed in 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 as long-term infrastructure investments are under consideration to continue the momentum created through Budget 2016 investments.

Estimates by vote

For information on INAC's organizational appropriations, consult the 2017–18 Main Estimates.

Future-Oriented Condensed Statement of Operations

The Future-Oriented Condensed Statement of Operations provides a general overview of INAC's operations. The forecast of financial information on expenses and revenues is prepared on an accrual accounting basis to strengthen accountability and to improve transparency and financial management.

Because the Future-Oriented Condensed Statement of Operations is prepared on an accrual accounting basis, and the forecast and planned spending amounts presented in other sections of the Departmental Plans are prepared on an expenditure basis, amounts may differ.

A more detailed Future-Oriented Statement of Operations and associated notes, including a reconciliation of the net cost of operations to the requested authorities, are available on INAC's website.

Future-Oriented Condensed Statement of Operations
for the year ended March 31, 2018 (dollars)

Financial information 2016–2017
Forecast results
2017–2018
Planned results
Difference
(2017–2018 Planned results minus
2016–2017 Forecast results)
Total expenses 10,401,017,830 8,581,940,621 -1,819,077,209
Total revenues 4,049,208 4,001,113 -48,095
Net cost of operations before government funding and transfers 10,396,968,622 8,577,939,508 -1,819,029,114

Expenses

Total expenses for 2017–2018 are planned at $8,581.9 million, representing a $1,819.1 million decrease from the previous year's forecasted total expenses of $10,401.0 million. Expenses by Strategic Outcome are as follows:

  • The People $4,917.3 million (57.3%);
  • The Government $464.3 million (5.4%);
  • The Land and Economy $2,656.2 million (31.0%); and
  • The North $276.5 million (3.2%).

The remainder of the total expenses include Internal Services in the amount of $261.0 million (3.0%) and expenses incurred on behalf of the Government of Canada in the amount of $6.6 million (0.1%).

Revenues

Total revenues for 2017–2018 are planned at $4.0 million, representing a $0.1 million decrease over the previous year's total revenues of $4.1 million. Respendable revenues from the provision of financial and administrative services represent $2.4 million (59.8%) of total revenues. Respendable revenues from the disposal of tangible capital assets, presented as miscellaneous revenue in the statement of operations, account for the remaining $1.6 million (40.2%).

Significant variances

Variances between the planned results for 2017–2018 and the 2016–2017 forecast results are largely attributable to the timing of key elements in the fiscal cycle. Planned results for 2017–2018 are based on the Main Estimates which is the first step in the fiscal cycle. Additional significant funding and initiatives that were not approved in time to be included in the Main Estimates have not been included in the 2017–2018 planned results. This funding will be provided through Supplementary Estimates and it should be noted that over the past five years significant funding has been accessed through this process.

As well, other factors contributing to the variance between the planned results for 2017–2018 and the 2016–2017 estimated results are the forecasted change in the environmental liabilities and in the provision for claims and litigation. The forecasted change in the adjustment to the environmental liabilities and to the allowance for claims and litigation can be attributed to the projected remediation costs and the resolution of claims and litigation.

Supplementary information

Corporate information

Organizational profile

Appropriate minister: The Honourable Carolyn Bennett

Ministerial portfolio: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development

Enabling instrument: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-6

Year of incorporation: 1880

Other:

Special operating agency: Indian Oil and Gas Canada

Administrative tribunals and agencies:

  • Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  • Polar Knowledge Canada

Adjudicative and advisory bodies:

  • Specific Claims Tribunal Canada
  • National Aboriginal Economic Development Board

Reporting framework

INAC's Strategic Outcomes and Program Alignment Architecture of record for 2017–2018 are shown below:

INAC's 2017–2018 Program Alignment Architecture

Text description of the INAC's 2017–2018 Program Alignment Architecture

This image depicts the Program Alignment Architecture of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada for 2017–2018.

Horizontally across the top of the chart is a list of the Department's four strategic outcomes:

  1. The Government: Support good governance, rights and interests of Indigenous peoples
  2. The People: Individual, family and community well-being for First Nations and Inuit
  3. The Land and Economy: Full participation of First Nations, Métis, Non-Status Indians and Inuit individuals and communities in the economy
  4. The North: Self-reliance, prosperity and well-being for the people and communities of the North

Under the strategic outcomes is a list of the programs that support each strategic outcome, and sub-programs that support these programs.

  1. The Government
    • Program 1.1 Governance and Institutions of Government is supported by sub-programs 1.1.1 First Nation Governments; and 1.1.2 Indigenous Governance Institutions and Organizations.
    • Program 1.2 Rights and Interests of Indigenous Peoples is supported by sub-programs 1.2.1 Negotiations of Claims and Self-Government Agreements; 1.2.2 Specific Claims; 1.2.3 Consultation and Accommodation; and 1.2.4 Métis Relations and Rights Management, and Non-Status Indian Relations.
    • Program 1.3 Management and Implementation of Agreements and Treaties.
    • Program 1.4 Other Claims.
  2. The People
    • Program 2.1 Education is supported by sub-programs 2.1.1 Elementary and Secondary Education; and 2.1.2 Post-secondary Education.
    • Program 2.2 Social Development is supported by sub-programs 2.2.1 Income Assistance; 2.2.2 Assisted Living; 2.2.3 First Nations Child and Family Services; and 2.2.4 Family Violence Prevention.
    • Program 2.3 First Nations Individual Affairs is supported by sub-programs 2.3.1 Registration and Membership; and 2.3.2 Estates.
    • Program 2.4 Residential Schools Resolution.
  3. The Land and Economy
    • Program 3.1 Indigenous Entrepreneurship is supported by sub-programs 3.1.1 Business Capital and Support Services; and 3.1.2 Business Opportunities.
    • Program 3.2 Community Economic Development is supported by sub-programs 3.2.1 Lands and Economic Development Services; 3.2.2 Investment in Economic Opportunities; 3.2.3 Administration of Reserve Land; and 3.2.4 Contaminated Sites (On Reserve).
    • Program 3.3 Strategic Partnerships.
    • Program 3.4 Infrastructure and Capacity is supported by sub-programs 3.4.1 Water and Wastewater; 3.4.2 Education facilities; 3.4.3 Housing; 3.4.4 Other Community Infrastructure and Activities; 3.4.5 Climate Resilience; and 3.4.6 Emergency Management Assistance.
    • Program 3.5 Urban Indigenous Participation.
  4. The North
    • Program 4.1 Northern Governance and People is supported by sub-programs 4.1.1 Political Development and Intergovernmental and Inuit Relations; 4.1.2 Nutrition North; and 4.1.3 Climate Change Adaptation and Clean Energy.
    • Program 4.2 Northern Science and Technology is supported by sub-programs 4.2.1 Northern Contaminants; and 4.2.2 Science Initiatives.
    • Program 4.3 Northern Land, Resources, and Environmental Management is supported by sub-programs 4.3.1 Petroleum and Minerals; 4.3.2 Contaminated Sites; and 4.3.3 Land and Water Management.

Horizontally along the bottom of the chart Program 5.1 Internal Services which supports all of the Department's strategic outcomes.

INAC's Program Alignment Architecture Crosswalk, 2016–2017 to 2017–2018

Between 2016–2017 and 2017–2018, the following changes were made to INAC's Program Alignment Architecture:

The Government

Program 1.4 (Other Claims) has been added, and will be retroactively included in INAC's 2016–2017 report on departmental results.

The People

Sub-Program 2.2.2 (National Child Benefit) has been removed and replaced by the new Canada Child Benefit, which is managed through Canada Revenue Agency.

Sub-Program 2.4.2 (Reconciliation) under Residential Schools Resolution has concluded.

Sub-Program 2.4.1 (Independent Assessment Process) has been subsumed into Program 2.4 (Residential Schools Resolution).

The Land and Economy

Sub-Program 3.4.5 (Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency) has been renewed as Climate Resilience to reflect adjustments to INAC's climate change programming.

The North

Sub-Program 4.1.1 (Political Development and Intergovernmental Relations) has been renewed as Political Development, Intergovernmental and Inuit Relations, to emphasize relations with the Inuit community.

Sub-Program 4.1.3 (Climate Change Adaptation) has been renewed as Climate Change Adaptation and Clean Energy, to reflect adjustments to INAC's climate change programming.

Supporting information on lower-level programs

Supporting information on lower-level programs is available on INAC's website and in the TBS InfoBase.

Supplementary information tables

The following supplementary information tables are available on INAC's website.

Federal tax expenditures

The tax system can be used to achieve public policy objectives through the application of special measures such as low tax rates, exemptions, deductions, deferrals and credits. The Department of Finance Canada publishes cost estimates and projections for these measures annually in the Report of Federal Tax Expenditures. This report also provides detailed background information on tax expenditures, including descriptions, objectives, historical information and references to related federal spending programs. The tax measures presented in this report are the responsibility of the Minister of Finance.

Organizational contact information

  • Les Terrasses de la Chaudière
  • 10 Wellington Street, North Tower
  • Gatineau, Quebec
  • Mailing Address: Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H4
  • Email: webmaster@aadnc-aandc.gc.ca
  • General and statistical inquiries and publication distribution
  • Telephone (toll-free): 1-800-567-9604
  • TTY (toll-free): 1-866-553-0554
  • Email: InfoPubs@aadnc-aandc.gc.ca
  • Media Inquiries — Communications
  • Telephone: 819-953-1160

Appendix: definitions

appropriation (crédit)
Any authority of Parliament to pay money out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund.

budgetary expenditures (dépenses budgétaires)
Operating and capital expenditures; transfer payments to other levels of government, organizations or individuals; and payments to Crown corporations.

Core Responsibility (responsabilité essentielle)
An enduring function or role performed by a department. The intentions of the department with respect to a Core Responsibility are reflected in one or more related Departmental Results that the department seeks to contribute to or influence.

Departmental Plan (Plan ministériel)
Provides information on the plans and expected performance of appropriated departments over a three year period. Departmental Plans are tabled in Parliament each spring.

Departmental Result (résultat ministériel)
A Departmental Result represents the change or changes that the department seeks to influence. A Departmental Result is often outside departments' immediate control, but it should be influenced by program-level outcomes.

Departmental Result Indicator (indicateur de résultat ministériel)
A factor or variable that provides a valid and reliable means to measure or describe progress on a Departmental Result.

Departmental Results Framework (cadre ministériel des résultats)
Consists of the department's Core Responsibilities, Departmental Results and Departmental Result Indicators.

Departmental Results Report (Rapport sur les résultats ministériels)
Provides information on the actual accomplishments against the plans, priorities and expected results set out in the corresponding Departmental Plan.

full time equivalent (équivalent temps plein)
A measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person year charge against a departmental budget. Full time equivalents are calculated as a ratio of assigned hours of work to scheduled hours of work. Scheduled hours of work are set out in collective agreements.

government-wide priorities (priorités pangouvernementales)
For the purpose of the 2017–18 Departmental Plan, government-wide priorities refers to those high-level themes outlining the government's agenda in the 2015 Speech from the Throne, namely: Growth for the Middle Class; Open and Transparent Government; A Clean Environment and a Strong Economy; Diversity is Canada's Strength; and Security and Opportunity.

horizontal initiatives (initiative horizontale)
A horizontal initiative is one in which two or more federal organizations, through an approved funding agreement, work toward achieving clearly defined shared outcomes, and which has been designated (e.g., by Cabinet, a central agency) as a horizontal initiative for managing and reporting purposes.

Management, Resources and Results Structure (Structure de la gestion, des ressources et des résultats)
A comprehensive framework that consists of an organization's inventory of programs, resources, results, performance indicators and governance information. Programs and results are depicted in their hierarchical relationship to each other and to the Strategic Outcome(s) to which they contribute. The Management, Resources and Results Structure is developed from the Program Alignment Architecture.

non budgetary expenditures (dépenses non budgétaires)
Net outlays and receipts related to loans, investments and advances, which change the composition of the financial assets of the Government of Canada.

performance (rendement)
What an organization did with its resources to achieve its results, how well those results compare to what the organization intended to achieve, and how well lessons learned have been identified.

Performance indicator (indicateur de rendement)
A qualitative or quantitative means of measuring an output or outcome, with the intention of gauging the performance of an organization, program, policy or initiative respecting expected results.

Performance reporting (production de rapports sur le rendement)
The process of communicating evidence based performance information. Performance reporting supports decision making, accountability and transparency.

planned spending (dépenses prévues)
For Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports, planned spending refers to those amounts that receive Treasury Board approval by February 1. Therefore, planned spending may include amounts incremental to planned expenditures presented in the Main Estimates.

A department is expected to be aware of the authorities that it has sought and received. The determination of planned spending is a departmental responsibility, and departments must be able to defend the expenditure and accrual numbers presented in their Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports.

plans (plan)
The articulation of strategic choices, which provides information on how an organization intends to achieve its priorities and associated results. Generally a plan will explain the logic behind the strategies chosen and tend to focus on actions that lead up to the expected result.

Priorities (priorité)
Plans or projects that an organization has chosen to focus and report on during the planning period. Priorities represent the things that are most important or what must be done first to support the achievement of the desired Strategic Outcome(s).

program (programme)
A group of related resource inputs and activities that are managed to meet specific needs and to achieve intended results and that are treated as a budgetary unit.

Program Alignment Architecture (architecture d'alignement des programmes)
A structured inventory of an organization's programs depicting the hierarchical relationship between programs and the Strategic Outcome(s) to which they contribute.

results (résultat)
An external consequence attributed, in part, to an organization, policy, program or initiative. Results are not within the control of a single organization, policy, program or initiative; instead they are within the area of the organization's influence.

statutory expenditures (dépenses législatives)
Expenditures that Parliament has approved through legislation other than appropriation acts. The legislation sets out the purpose of the expenditures and the terms and conditions under which they may be made.

Strategic Outcome (résultat stratégique)
A long term and enduring benefit to Canadians that is linked to the organization's mandate, vision and core functions.

sunset program (programme temporisé)
A time limited program that does not have an ongoing funding and policy authority. When the program is set to expire, a decision must be made whether to continue the program. In the case of a renewal, the decision specifies the scope, funding level and duration.

target (cible)
A measurable performance or success level that an organization, program or initiative plans to achieve within a specified time period. Targets can be either quantitative or qualitative.

voted expenditures (dépenses votées)
Expenditures that Parliament approves annually through an Appropriation Act. The Vote wording becomes the governing conditions under which these expenditures may be made.

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