Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business: 2012 Annual Report - Aboriginal Entrepreneurship Branch
AANDC is pleased to release the PSAB Report for 2012. Footnote 1 Since the last PSAB report covering 2010 and 2011, the report for 2012 highlights the Government of Canada's continued progress and success in enhancing procurement opportunities for Aboriginal businesses across Canada. It also illustrates the continued strengthening and leveraging of the PSAB as a key catalyst in supporting Aboriginal business participation in the broader Canadian economy. The 2012 reporting year is of a significant milestone. Since PSAB's inception in 1996, Aboriginal businesses competed for, and won, over $1 billion of set aside contracts. This active participation and contribution to Canada's economy also represents significant wealth, employment and income generation for Aboriginal people, businesses and communities.
This achievement is reflective of an enhanced partnership-based approach across all federal departments and also of continued positive trends through the implementation of the Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development (the Framework). In 2012, Aboriginal businesses secured $108 million in PSAB set-aside contracts which represents an increase of 28% from 2011. The 2010 total ($59 million) was a 20% increase from $49 million in 2009. Over the four year period of 2009-2012, there has been a 119% increase in the total value of PSAB set-aside contracts. Despite these significant gains in Aboriginal procurement and the development of Aboriginal business capacity, the PSAB continues to address the gap in participation between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal businesses.
Through partnership agreements and close collaboration with Public Works and Government Services Canada and Industry Canada, the 2012 report contains greater detail and data including regional and industry breakdowns, Aboriginal business registrations and indicators pertaining to the delivery of outreach, training, and partnerships within the public and the private sectors. Through the National PSAB Coordinators Network, AANDC also works in collaboration with federal departments and agencies to enhance the participation of Aboriginal businesses as suppliers of goods and services to federal departments and agencies. An augmented (more detailed and proactive spending analysis) has led to an improved collaborative approach to target setting and reporting. In addition, AANDC has strategically leveraged PSAB by integrating it with the Aboriginal Entrepreneurship Program, promoting Aboriginal businesses' capacity outside the federal government and engaging provincial governments as well as key industry players.
The success and effectiveness of PSAB continues to be recognized by key stakeholders across Canada. As stated by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business (CCAB) in its report, Promise and Prosperity – The Aboriginal Business Survey:
At a relatively small cost to government and taxpayers, PSAB helps strengthen Aboriginal business bidding capacity, competitiveness, and Aboriginal employment. With six in ten of those survey respondents who have bid or considered bidding on a contract satisfied with the PSAB criteria, this program appears to have the support of those Aboriginal entrepreneurs who are familiar with it.
In its Public Sector Procurement in Canada: Possible Actions to Increase First Nations Opportunities and Benefits, the Assembly of First Nations came to the conclusion that the PSAB:
…has had significant impact. With its strong mandatory set-aside provisions for goods, services and construction destined primarily for Aboriginal populations, and its establishment of Aboriginal business contracting targets for departments, the strategy has made good use of its 'teeth.'
We thank you for taking the time to review the PSAB 2012 Annual Report and welcome any questions or suggestions you may have to improve the report.
The Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business (PSAB)
10 Wellington Street, Room 1105
The Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business: Background
Established in 1996, The Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business (PSAB) is a Government of Canada initiative designed to increase the number of Aboriginal firms participating in the federal procurement process. It is administered by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada in partnership with Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC), Industry Canada (IC) and Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS) as well as all federal government departments and agencies with a contracting budget in excess of $1 million. The PSAB employs a number of tools and approaches including mandatory and voluntary set asides, joint ventures/partnerships, use of Aboriginal criteria as well as a national Aboriginal Business Directory. These elements have proven to be very effective not only in helping Aboriginal businesses compete for and win federal contracts, but also in developing building Aboriginal business capacity and expertise. Figure 1 illustrates the value of contracts awarded to Aboriginal firms through set asides from 1997 to 2012.Footnote 2
Figure 1: Set-Aside Contracts Awarded to Aboriginal Firms, 1997-2012
The PSAB is a market-driven solution that is consistent with the federal government's Contracting Policy and operates with economy, efficiency and effectiveness (set asides do not increase costs). The PSAB contributes to business development and viability by setting the stage for Aboriginal businesses to compete and be sustainable at minimal cost to taxpayers. The PSAB promotes active measures by leveraging existing government networks, resources and processes. It helps eligible Aboriginal businesses enhance their capacity by competing for federal government contracts, establishing partnerships and marketing products (goods, services and construction), demonstrating their capabilities and entering into supply chains. As a result, Aboriginal procurement has increased fivefold since 1996.
The Government of Canada renewed its commitment to fostering Aboriginal participation in the Canadian economy through the Framework. In support of these commitments, AANDC continues to work closely with federal departments and agencies to increase awareness of the impact of PSAB in enhancing procurement opportunities for Aboriginal businesses as a tool for business empowerment. On an annual basis, AANDC provides guidance to departments and agencies through its National PSAB Coordinators Network (Network). Members of the Network work closely with contracting and procurement officials within their departments and agencies. AANDC supports and encourages federal departments and agencies in setting reasonable and achievable objectives and advises on Aboriginal business capacity. The majority of federal departments and agencies – including some departments that do not have a contracting budget in excess of $1 million – are encouraged to set up PSAB objectives. These organizations have been very cooperative and worked with AANDC to improve their PSAB achievements over time. AANDC continues to work with PWGSC to ensure that the PSAB remains an economical, efficient and effective tool that takes into consideration the constant change of the departmental reality and Aboriginal capacity. AANDC also reports on the previous year's achievements.
AANDC, in collaboration with the PSAB coordinators in each participating department, has taken steps to increase departmental awareness of the PSAB requirements and benefits and improve performance objective setting and reporting. A more customized relationship with departments, as well as increased outreach activities and PSAB training has led to greater departmental endorsement of the PSAB. In addition, AANDC works closely with PWGSC which provides annual federal Aboriginal business procurement data results from government departments and agencies to AANDC.
The Aboriginal Business Directory
As outlined in the Interpretation Bulletin: Roles and Responsibilities within the Government of Canada, AANDC is mandated to maintain the national Aboriginal Business Directory where all PSAB-registered Aboriginal businesses are listed. The Aboriginal Business Directory (ABD) is managed by AANDC, while it is hosted and maintained by IC. It is an online directory that increases Aboriginal business visibility and helps federal and provincial governments, as well as the private sector, to determine if and where Aboriginal capacity exists.
The Framework committed to increasing the number of PSAB registered Aboriginal businesses and enabling them to participate in the federal procurement and the Canadian economy. Therefore, AANDC has conducted activities such as enhancing and streamlining the PSAB registration process and signing Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) with federal partners to increase the visibility of Aboriginal businesses.
By migrating the ABD to IC's Canadian Companies Capabilities (CCC) database in 2011, AANDC ensured better data collection and increased awareness of the ABD. As a result, AANDC registered 467 Aboriginal businesses in 2010, 565 in 2011 and 496 in 2012. At the end of 2012, a total of 1,371 Aboriginal businesses were registered in the ABD.
Figure 2: Number of New Aboriginal Businesses Registered with PSAB, 2010-2012
The ABD serves as an important tool for the federal, provincial/territorial and municipal governments; Aboriginal communities and businesses; and the private sector. As the number of businesses increase, other levels of government and Aboriginal communities use the ABD to find businesses for procurement opportunities. Non-Aboriginal private sector companies, large and small, utilize the ABD not only to determine capacity in certain sectors, but also for businesses that may be open to joint ventures for larger procurement opportunities.
It should be noted, however, that there are a significant number of Aboriginal businesses entering and exiting the ABD for reasons such as business closure, lack of capacity to bid on federal contracts or the business no longer meeting the PSAB criteria.Footnote 3 AANDC continues to work to increase registration renewal as a part of its strategy to maintain the ABD. AANDC, with IC, continues to improve the ease in which businesses can renew their profile, in the ABD, which is required every two years.
PSAB Highlights For 2012
Departmental Performance Objectives
PSAB departmental performance objectives vary from year to year depending on variables such as departmental budget levels, procurement needs, and Aboriginal capacity in particular industries. From 2009 to 2012, there has been an increase of 23% in terms of dollar value of the PSAB departmental performance objectives that have been set each year.
As illustrated in Figure 3, there has also been an increase in the setting and meeting of objectives over the past three years (2010 to 2012), whereas the percentage of departmental reporting has remained generally constant.
The number of departments and agencies to which PSAB applies reported on their achievements was 95% in 2010, and was 94% in 2011 and 2012.
In 2010, 86% of departments and agencies set performance objectives, whereas this decreased to 83% the following year, and increased to 96% in 2012.
Of those departments and agencies which set objectives, 74% met or exceeded the targets in 2010, but this increased to 89% in 2011 and decreased to 69% in 2012.
The improvements in 2011 and 2012 are likely due to increased communications and collaboration between AANDC and contracting authorities about realistic target setting.
Figure 3: PSAB Performance Objectives and Achievement, 2010-2012
The Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development and Set-Aside Contracts
2010 was the first year AANDC began the implementation of the Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development (the Framework) commitments toward strengthening Aboriginal procurement. Since the launch of the Framework, the value of set-aside contracts grew by 20% in 2010, 42% in 2011, and 28% in 2012. As can be seen in Figure 4, Aboriginal businesses have been winning set-aside contracts in increasing numbers.
Figure 4: Value of PSAB Set-Aside Contracts, 2009-2012
Aboriginal businesses won set-aside contracts for a total of $59 million in 2010 and $84 million in 2011. In 2012, almost $109 million in set asides were won by Aboriginal businesses. Continued collaboration and support from federal departments and agencies led to a 119% increase in the value of Aboriginal secured set-aside contracts from 2009 to 2012. It should be noted that over the last 16 years (1997 to 2012) Aboriginal businesses won a total of $1.2 billion in federal procurement contracts directly attributed to PSAB. This progress confirms the PSAB's impact upon Aboriginal businesses growth and development. Footnote 4
AANDC is responsible for conducting compliance audits of Aboriginal businesses who declare they meet the PSAB criteria by registering in the ABD.Footnote 5 Compliance audits are conducted to ensure the integrity of the PSAB. These audits include pre-award, post-award and random audits of Aboriginal businesses (including joint ventures) to validate that they meet the PSAB criteria which enables them to bid on set asides.
In the past, Consulting and Audit Canada (CAC) and Auditing Services Canada (ASC) performed the PSAB audits. However, due to various reasons including changes in federal government structures, in 2012 AANDC hired a third party auditor to perform this function. In late 2012, the first of the compliance audits performed by a third party auditor were undertaken. Seven audits were initiated: two were post-award audits, one was a pre-award audit and four were random compliance audits. Of these, two were completed, and one had to be terminated because the business had closed. The remaining audits were completed in the following year. The two compliance audits completed in 2012 deemed that the business was compliant with PSAB. The compliance audits are conducted on a full-time, on-going basis.
PSAB Results by Region, Sector and Government Department
In 2011, AANDC entered into a MOU with PWGSC regarding data collection. As a result, for 2012, the department is able to report on set asides by region, industry sector and by government department.
The PSAB can now track the number and value of set aside contracts by region. As can be seen in Figure 5, no Aboriginal businesses were awarded set-aside contracts in 2012 in Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Island. These provinces had 51 and 3 registered Aboriginal businesses, respectively.
Figure 5: Value of PSAB Set-Aside Contracts by Province / Territory, 2012
|Province / Territory||Aboriginal Businesses
|Aboriginal Set Asides
|Newfoundland and Labrador||51||0.00|
|Prince Edward Island||3||0.00|
Industry Sector Data
With improved data collection methods initiated in 2011, the PSAB can now provide a breakdown of set asides won by sector. This allows both Aboriginal business and AANDC to analyze gaps, needs and opportunities. Of the $108 million in set-aside contracts in 2012, 41% were in the information technology sector, 21% were in the professional services and $20% in health services. Figure 6 provides a breakdown of the primary sectors, the amounts of the set asides, and the percentage.
Figure 6: Set-Aside Contracts by Industry, 2012
Breakdown by Government Department, 2012
In 2012, $108 million in set-aside contracts were awarded across 45 federal government departments. Set asides at Health Canada and AANDC both constituted 21% of the overall contracts. Citizenship and Immigration Canada awarded 20% of the overall total, and National Defense and PWGSC both awarded 10%. The remaining 18% were awarded through the remaining 40 departments, with amounts ranging from less than $500 to over $4 million.
Figure 7: PSAB Set Asides by Department / Agency, 2012 Footnote 6
|Department and Agency||Total Value|
|Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada||22,355,025.84|
|Agriculture and Agri-Food||146,929.00|
|Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency||4,463.09|
|Canada Border Services Agency||19,860.81|
|Canada Revenue Agency - (Agency Activities)||209,205.00|
|Canadian Food Inspection Agency||260,228.77|
|Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat||12,842.17|
|Canadian International Development Agency||116,977.00|
|Canadian International Trade Tribunal||1,436.00|
|Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission||184,977.00|
|Canadian Space Agency||46,631.00|
|Citizenship and Immigration Canada||21,987,007.00|
|Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs||487.03|
|Fisheries and Oceans||4,823,390.00|
|Human Resources and Skills Development||96,482.85|
|Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada||494,055.20|
|Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation||800,000.00|
|Library and Archives Canada||43,282.45|
|National Energy Board||40,299.50|
|National Parole Board||9,696.89|
|Natural Resources Canada||585,102.56|
|Office of the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner||3,992.00|
|Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institute||8,721.00|
|Offices of the Information Commissioner||1,692.74|
|Parks Canada Agency||1,688,468.80|
|Privy Council Office||173,739.89|
|Public Health Agency of Canada||30,309.13|
|Public Safety Canada||810,606.91|
|Public Service Commission of Canada||5,603.00|
|Public Works and Government Services||11,231,711.00|
|Royal Canadian Mounted Police||2,116,374.41|
|Security Intelligence Review Committee||9,109.34|
|Shared Services Canada||159,539.42|
|Treasury Board Secretariat||190,253.00|
Communications and Outreach Activities
Despite the success of the PSAB, challenges remain for some departments and agencies to set and meet PSAB targets. Challenges include changes in human resources, poor understanding of the PSAB, and a reluctance to set goals that might not be met. In order to help increase PSAB performance objectives achievement, AANDC continues to provide comprehensive advice and recommendations addressing the lack of awareness of the PSAB process, the varying purchasing strategies, the requirements and the Aboriginal business capacity.
A. National Focus
Promotion and outreach activities are key to informing stakeholders, Aboriginal businesses and federal officials of the PSAB. The purpose is to raise awareness, not only of the PSAB, but of the Aboriginal business capacity and the procurement opportunities taking place through different vehicles in the federal procurement systems. A total of 31 targeted PSAB information sessions to government officials and Aboriginal businesses were provided in 2012, totaling 100 since 2010. By participating in conferences and events, AANDC conducted 46 outreach activities in 2012, in addition to the 130 since 2010.
Through its participation in national conferences, AANDC has supported the Framework objectives by focusing on procurement-readiness training, business promotion and facilitating network opportunities between Aboriginal businesses, government and industry.
In October 2012, AANDC participated in the Aboriginal Entrepreneurs Conference and Trade show in Ottawa. This event was hosted by the Aboriginal Human Resources Council and organized by Brent Moore and Associates. The conference was attended by over 300 Aboriginal entrepreneurs and federal officials from across government departments. The participants gained insight and learned from national experts on various topics such as mentorship, business opportunities and the state of the economy. Aboriginal businesses increased their understanding of procurement through training and information sessions. The venues also provided reverse trade shows to encourage information sharing, networking, joint ventures and corporate procurement between Aboriginal businesses, government, industry and key sectoral stakeholders.
C. PSAB Coordinators Network
In 2009, AANDC created the PSAB Coordinators Network in order to establish a closer and more customized relationship with the federal departments and agencies involved with the PSAB. Quarterly meetings are held with PSAB coordinators to provide them with updates and to ensure the continuous availability of the team to all federal entities involved with the PSAB. A face-to-face meeting with the network members was held at the PSAB National Training and exhibition in 2010 and at the Aboriginal Entrepreneurs Conference and Trade Show in 2011 and 2012. PSAB coordinators had the opportunity to meet among themselves and also meet with Aboriginal businesses attending the event. AANDC continues to work towards increasing departmental awareness about PSAB and to increase the number of representatives within the federal departments and agencies.
PSAB as a Catalyst for Aboriginal Businesses Success
In line with the Framework, AANDC has focused on strengthening the PSAB by enhancing data and performance measurement as well as policy and program proposal linkages. It is also working to develop integrated, partnership-based approaches to major opportunities and to leverage partnership agreements and strategies to enhance participation of Aboriginal businesses in contracting opportunities inside and outside the federal government.
A. Collaboration with provincial governments
AANDC has promoted the PSAB model to provincial governments and noted an increased interest in adopting Aboriginal procurement policies. Building on a MOU signed in 2011 between AANDC and the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs (MAA) of the Province of Ontario, a two-year provincial Aboriginal procurement pilot was launched in 2012.
In 2012, AANDC continued working with other provinces to promote Aboriginal procurement for the benefit of Aboriginal businesses across Canada. In particular, the negotiation of a five-year MOU with the Manitoba Department of Infrastructure and Transportation was undertaken, which was signed in early 2013.
B. Partnerships with the Private Sector
In managing the PSAB, AANDC has identified a number of important lessons and best practices which it has begun to apply to identify Aboriginal business opportunities in many other areas. Business partnerships have been initiated in key sectors, such as the marine, mining, energy/electricity and transportation. AANDC has recognized that meaningful Aboriginal participation in major opportunities is multi-dimensional, involves working closely with both government and private sector and exceeds traditional departmental mandates and program authorities. As a result modern institutional relationships and models are evolving in relation to these major opportunities, addressing key governance and coordination gaps within the federal government and with Aboriginal partners. These integrated models support Aboriginal-driven decision-making and provide a more comprehensive approach to relationships with industry.
The awarding of almost $109 million in set-aside contracts through the PSAB in 2012 demonstrates that the increased focus by AANDC since 2010 has generated positive results upon which to build. Many of the larger success stories involving major projects such as the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy (NSPS) and contaminated site remediation projects require years of study, research, planning and negotiation to ensure an Aboriginal participation component or set asides are included.
A. Aboriginal Participation in the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy
On June 3, 2010, the Government of Canada announced Canada's National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy. In October 2011, the government announced that Irving Shipbuilding Inc. (ISI) and Seaspan Marine Corporation (Seaspan) were selected to build the combat and non-combat packages (respectively) under the NSPS. In 2012, the LED sector conducted comprehensive research and analysis of Aboriginal labour force and business characteristics in the Atlantic and B.C. regions. AANDC established a Steering Committee in each region, comprised of federal and provincial departments, Aboriginal organizations, ISI and Seaspan. The Steering Committees will enhance Aboriginal participation in the NSPS, identify opportunities for set asides and identify gaps where AANDC and other provincial governments or federal departments might assist Aboriginal communities and businesses in benefiting from the NSPS.
B. Esquimalt Graving Dock Waterlot Remediation Project
Since 2006, AANDC has worked with remediation teams across government to develop various approaches and provide advice on implementing and negotiating either a PSAB set-aside or Aboriginal participation component in the development of the procurement strategies for the remediation projects. Specifically, AANDC was able to negotiate set asides through targeted outreach, providing Aboriginal business capacity searches and providing an overview of PSAB. For example, in early 2012, AANDC worked with PWGSC to provide advice and an overview of PSAB for the Esquimalt Graving Dock Waterlot Remediation Project for multiple phases of the project. The total value is approximately $85 million, of which a set aside for Phase 1A is $6.5 million on the Erosion Protection Wall Project, and the Phase 1C set aside is estimated at between $2.5 and $3 million.
C. Saskatoon Tribal Council
Canada produces 32% of the total global production of potash, making it the world's largest potash producer and exporter. AANDC established a partnership with Saskatoon Tribal Council (STC) to increase Aboriginal participation within this industry.
As a result of AANDC's and other funders' support, STC increased business opportunities for Aboriginal companies in the potash industry in Saskatchewan. The STC assisted SaskTel in creating a $15M set-aside procurement program for Aboriginal businesses. Five Aboriginal businesses were awarded contracts totaling $5.5 million. Of these five Aboriginal companies, three had not previously executed work for SaskTel and two others were created on the strength of the SaskTel set-aside program. In addition to procurement contracts, this initiative also created 48 new jobs within the five Aboriginal businesses.
Inspired by the SaskTel experience, SaskPower also championed an Aboriginal procurement initiative. In collaboration with the STC, SaskPower promoted its new Aboriginal engagement strategy within the potash industry in Saskatchewan, which included an aggressive procurement engagement component.
To help address challenges encountered by Aboriginal business to access federal procurement, through the Framework the government invested $9.5 million in the PSAB over four years, beginning in 2009-10 fiscal year. The refocus and increase in funding has shown positive results and concrete increases in the number of Aboriginal businesses securing government procurement set asides. There has been a 119% increase in the total value of PSAB set-aside contracts between 2009 and 2012.
As part of the regular program management process the PSAB will undergo a program evaluation in 2013-14 fiscal year. AANDC will take advantage of this opportunity to showcase the success of the PSAB in increasing Aboriginal participation in the economy, and to continue improving its policies and practices with regard to procurement.
Increasing business participation is a key driver of economic growth, and an important factor in translating that economic development into poverty reduction and other socio-economic benefits. AANDC will continue to support Aboriginal businesses in increasing their economic impact through strategic activities.
Annex A: Main Elements of the PSAB
The four main elements of the PSAB are:
A. Mandatory Set Asides
Set asides are mandatory when federal contracts for goods and services are worth more than $5,000 and delivered to an area, community or group in which Aboriginal people comprise at least 80% of the population.
B. Voluntary Set Asides
Federal departments and agencies may choose to voluntarily set aside procurement opportunities for Aboriginal-owned businesses when operational requirements, best value, prudence, probity and sound contracting management can be assured and where Aboriginal capacity exists.
C. Joint Ventures and Partnerships
PSAB encourages joint ventures and partnerships to allow Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partnerships to bid on opportunities that have been set aside for Aboriginal businesses. This is to help Aboriginal businesses build their capacity and benefit from knowledge and competency transfers.
D. Use of Aboriginal Criteria
In awarding contracts, departments are encouraged to request Aboriginal sub-contracting plans, either as a mandatory requirement or rated evaluation criteria. The Aboriginal criteria can be applied only if International Trade Agreements are exempt.
Annex B: PSAB Criteria
Aboriginal businesses interested in bidding on PSAB set asides have to register and meet the PSAB criteria. An Aboriginal business, under the PSAB, can be:
- a band as defined by the Indian Act;
- a sole proprietorship;
- a limited company;
- a co-operative;
- a partnership; or,
- a not-for-profit organization in which Aboriginal persons have at least 51% ownership and control,
- A joint venture consisting of two or more Aboriginal businesses or an Aboriginal business and a non-Aboriginal business(es), provided that the Aboriginal business(es) has at least 51% ownership and control of the joint venture.
When an Aboriginal business has six or more full-time employees, at least 33% of them must be Aboriginal persons, and this ratio must be maintained throughout the duration of the contract. The bidder must certify in its submitted bid that it is an Aboriginal business or a joint venture as described above.
- Footnote 1
Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) provided AANDC 2012 data on federal Aboriginal procurement results in 2014.
- Footnote 2
In previous PSAB reports, the value of contracts for 2001 was reported as $262.6 million. This figure was explained on pages six and seven of the 2001 PSAB Report: $107.988 million was for National Master Standing Offers and $15.126 million was for Regional Individual Standing Offers. The actual value of the contracts awarded in 2001 was $33.860 million. To reduce confusion and to be consistent with the reporting in every other year, the actual amount awarded has been used for this 2012 annual report, and in future PSAB reports.
- Footnote 3
In 2010, 41% of registered Aboriginal businesses did not renew their PSAB registration and in 2011 the percentage of businesses that did not renew was 50%.
- Footnote 4
All data provided by PWGSC.
- Footnote 5
Aboriginal businesses include joint ventures and partnerships.
- Footnote 6
Until 2013, departments and agencies provided data on PSAB set-aside contracts directly to AANDC.
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