Treaties in Manitoba

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Image of Treaty No. 2

Image of Treaty No. 2 signatures.

Introduction

Starting in 1701, in what was to become Canada, the British Crown entered into solemn treaties to encourage peaceful relations between First Nations and non-Aboriginal people. Treaties were signed to define, among other things, the respective rights of First Nations people and governments to use and enjoy lands that First Nations people traditionally occupied.

Treaties include historic agreements made between 1701 and 1923, and modern-day treaties known as comprehensive land claim settlements. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) is the federal department that acts on behalf of the Government of Canada and continues to negotiate the treaties. Treaty relationships provide a framework for resolving long-standing claims and disputes, with the goal of improved cooperation between the government and First Nations people. Treaty rights already in existence in 1982 and those that came afterwards are recognized and affirmed by Canada's Constitution.

Treaty annuity payments are paid annually across Canada to registered Indians who are entitled to such payments through membership in bands that have signed historic treaties with the Crown. Treaty annuities are usually paid in cash at Treaty Day events held on- or off-reserve. INAC Manitoba Region continues to honour the payment and provision of specific treaty obligations. In 2010, many First Nations in Manitoba celebrated the 100th anniversary of their treaty signing.

The Dakota Nations (Dakota Tipi, Dakota Plains, Birdtail Sioux, Sioux Valley and Canupawakpa) in Manitoba do not have treaties with the Crown. However, their land is considered reserve land under Canada's Indian Act.

 

Manitoba First Nations Treaty Area Map

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Treaty No. 1 – August 3, 1871

Negotiated and signed at Lower Fort Garry, Treaty 1 is the first post-Confederation treaty and covered Manitoba as it existed then. 1

 

Manitoba First Nations

Brokenhead
Fort Alexander (Sagkeeng)
Long Plain
Peguis
Roseau River
Sandy Bay
Swan Lake

 

Purpose of Treaty

"… to make a treaty and arrangements with them, so that there may be peace and good will between them and Her Majesty [Queen Victoria]."

 

Area Ceded

16,700 square miles (43,252.8 km2) in south-central Manitoba.

 

Signing Gifts

"... to show the satisfaction of Her Majesty with the behaviour and good conduct of Her Indians parties to this treaty, She hereby, through Her Commissioner, makes them a present of three dollars for each Indian man, woman and child belonging to the bands here represented."

 

Indian Obligations

"… to observe this treaty and to maintain perpetual peace between themselves and Her Majesty's white subjects, and not to interfere with the property or in any way molest the persons of Her Majesty's white or other subjects."

 

Crown Obligations

"… will furnish one hundred and sixty acres [64.75 hectares] for each family of five, or in that proportion for larger or smaller families" and an additional area of 25 square miles [64.75 km2] reserved for the Portage Band (now Long Plain, Swan Lake and Sandy Bay bands).

"... Her Majesty agrees to maintain a school on each reserve hereby made whenever the Indians of the reserve should desire it."

"Within the boundary of Indian reserves … no intoxicating liquor shall be allowed to be introduced or sold."

"... in every year ensuring the date hereof … pay to each Indian family of five persons the sum of fifteen dollars Canadian currency, or in like proportion for a larger or smaller family, such payment to be made in such articles as the Indians shall require of blankets, clothing, prints (assorted colours), twine or traps, at the current cost price in Montreal, or otherwise, if Her Majesty shall deem the same desirable in the interests of Her Indian people, in cash."

"... if, at the date of the execution of this treaty, there are any settlers within the bounds of any lands reserved by any band, Her Majesty reserves the right to deal with such settlers as She shall deem just, so as not to diminish the extent of land allotted to the Indians."

 

St. Peters, Manitoba, 1868-1929

"Paying the 'Treaty Money' to the Indians at St. Peter's, Manitoba, 1868-1929" (Library and Archives Canada, Robert Bell/Robert Bell Fonds/C-033340).

 

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Treaty No. 2 – August 21, 1871

Signed at Manitoba Post, Treaty 2 was concluded a few weeks after Treaty 1 and covered areas needed for economic expansion and settlement in the western and northern parts of the province. 2

 

Manitoba First Nations

Dauphin River
Ebb and Flow
Keeseekoowenin
Lake Manitoba
Lake St. Martin
Little Saskatchewan
O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi (Crane River)
Pinaymootang (Fairford)
Skownan (Waterhen)

 

Purpose of Treaty

"… to make a treaty and arrangements with them, so that there may be peace and good will between them and Her Majesty."

 

Area Ceded

35,700 square miles (92,462.6 km2) in central and southwestern Manitoba, and a portion in southeastern Saskatchewan.

 

Signing Gifts

"... to show the satisfaction of Her Majesty with the behaviour and good conduct of Her Indians parties to this treaty, She hereby, through Her Commissioner, makes them a present of three dollars for each Indian man, woman and child belonging to the bands here represented."

 

Indian Obligations

"… observe this treaty, and also to conduct and behave themselves as good and loyal subjects of Her Majesty the Queen … obey and abide by the law … maintain peace and good order between each other, and also between themselves and other tribes of Indians, and between themselves and others of Her Majesty's subjects, whether Indians or whites … and not molest the person or property of any inhabitants of such ceded tract or the property of Her Majesty the Queen, or interfere with or trouble any person passing or travelling through the said tract … and they will aid and assist the officers of Her Majesty in bringing to justice and punishment any Indian offending against the stipulations of this treaty, or infringing the laws."

 

Crown Obligations

"… one hundred and sixty acres [64.75 hectares] for each family of five persons, or in the same proportion for a greater or smaller number of persons."

"... Her Majesty agrees to maintain a school in each reserve hereby made, whenever the Indians of the reserve shall desire it."

"… within the boundary of Indian reserves … no intoxicating liquor shall be allowed to be introduced or sold."

"... in every year ensuing the date hereof … pay to each Indian family of five persons the sum of fifteen dollars, Canadian currency, or in like proportion for a larger or smaller family, such payment to be made in such articles as the Indians shall require of blankets, clothing, prints (assorted colours), twine or traps, at the current cash price in Montreal, or otherwise, if Her Majesty shall deem the same desirable in the interest of Her Indian people, in cash."

"... Her Majesty the Queen hereby agrees and undertakes to lay aside and reserve for the sole and exclusive use of the Indians inhabiting the said tract the following lots of land … Saving, nevertheless, the rights of any white or other settler now in occupation of any lands within the lines of any such reserve."

 

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The Treaty Medals

Medals were an important part of the treaty ceremony, providing a lasting visual reminder to all participants of the commitments made. The first medals were awarded to the Chiefs who signed Treaties 1 and 2. The medal bears a bust of Queen Victoria and the inscription "VICTORIA REGINA"; the reverse side bears a wreath of oak leaves and acorns joined by a knot. This medal design was not made specifically for the treaties; it was purchased from J.S. & A.B. Wyon of London, England, and selected from premade stock, possibly used for agricultural fairs.

By 1872 the medals were seen as not impressive enough, so a new set was commissioned in Montreal. However, the silver plating came off too easily, so for Treaty 3 and subsequent treaties a third version was ordered from England for $24 each. The agriculture theme was replaced by a stylized Indian encampment at sunset, with an Indian leader in war costume and a British officer shaking hands. The inscription reads "INDIAN TREATY No.-/187-". The date and treaty number would be inscribed at the time of signing. 3

Treaty medal
Treaty medal reverse side

"Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to commemorate Treaty Numbers 3, 4, 5, 6, 7" (Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. 1986-79-1638).

 

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Report on the Recommendations to Treaties 1 and 2, April 30, 1875, also known as the "Outside Promises"

"Memorandum of things outside of the Treaty which were promised at the Treaty at the Lower Fort, signed the third day of August, A.D. 1871."

"For each Chief who signed the treaty, a dress distinguishing him as Chief.

For braves and for councillors of each Chief a dress; it being supposed that the braves and councillors will be two for each Chief.

For each Chief, except Yellow Quill, a buggy.

For the braves and councillors of each Chief, except Yellow Quill, a buggy.

In lieu of a yoke of oxen for each reserve, a bull for each, and a cow for each Chief; a boar for each reserve and a sow for each Chief, and a male and female of each kind of animal raised by farmers, these when the Indians are prepared to receive them.

A plough and a harrow for each settler cultivating the ground.

These animals and their issue to be Government property, but to be allowed for the use of the Indians, under the superintendence and control of the Indian Commissioner.

The buggies to be the property of the Indians to whom they are given.

The above contains an inventory of the terms concluded with the Indians."

The April 30, 1875 "Report of Recommendations" was approved by the Governor General and settled the "outside promises" once and for all. The recommendation reads:

"… as there seems to have been some misunderstanding between the Indian Commissioner and the Indians in the matter of Treaties Nos. 1 and 2, the Government, out of good feeling to the Indians and as a matter of benevolence, is willing to raise the annual payment to each Indian under Treaties Nos. 1 and 2, from $3 to $5 per annum, and make payment over and above such sum of $5, of $20 each and every year to each Chief, and a suit of clothing every three years to each Chief and each Headman, allowing two Headmen to each band, on the express understanding, however, that each Chief or other Indian who shall receive such increased annuity or annual payment shall be held to abandon all claim whatever against the Government in connection with the so-called 'outside promises,' other than those contained in the memorandum attached to the treaty."

 

Treaty text

 

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Treaty No. 3 – October 3, 1873

Negotiated at the North-West Angle of the Lake of the Woods, the Dominion of Canada and the Saulteaux tribe of Ojibway Indians entered into Treaty No. 3. Canada acquired the land for agriculture, settlement and mineral discovery, and also secured communications with the North-West Territories, including the route of the future Canadian Pacific Railway. 4

With Treaty 3 the First Nations people had succeeded in obtaining terms and conditions that far exceeded those of any previous treaty, which had an impact beyond their own treaty area. During subsequent negotiations, the First Nation peoples requested the same terms as those granted in Treaty 3, as well as negotiating with the government the terms of Treaties 1 and 2. Treaty 3 thus became the definitive treaty, and all subsequent numbered treaties in the Canadian West were based upon it. 5

 

Manitoba First Nations

Buffalo Point

 

Purpose of Treaty

"… to make a treaty and arrange with them so that there may be peace and good will between them and Her Majesty."

 

Ojibway encampment

"Watercolour: Ojibway encampment, treaty with Governor Morris [Treaty no. 3, October 3, 1873]" (Library and Archives Canada/Frederick Arthur Verner collection/C-005407).

 

 

Area Ceded

55,000 square miles (142,450 km2) in the North-West Angle of Lake of the Woods, Ontario, and southeastern Manitoba.

 

Signing Gifts

"... to show the satisfaction of Her Majesty with the behaviour and good conduct of Her Indians She hereby, through Her Commissioners, makes them a present of twelve dollars for each man, woman and child belonging to the bands here represented, in extinguishment of all claims heretofore preferred."

"... each Chief shall receive, in recognition of the closing of the treaty, a suitable flag and medal."

 

Indian Obligations

"… observe this treaty, and also to conduct and behave themselves as good and loyal subjects of Her Majesty the Queen … obey and abide by the law … maintain peace and good order between each other, and also between themselves and other tribes of Indians, and between themselves and others of Her Majesty's subject, whether Indians or whites … and not molest the person or property of any inhabitants of such ceded tract, or the property of Her Majesty the Queen, or interfere with or trouble any person passing or travelling through the said tract … and aid and assist the officers of Her Majesty in bringing to justice and punishment any Indian offending against the stipulations of this treaty, or infringing the laws."

 

Crown Obligations

"And Her Majesty the Queen hereby agrees and undertakes to lay aside reserves for farming lands, due respect being had to lands at present cultivated by the said Indians … reserves, whether for farming or other purposes, shall in no wise exceed in all one square mile for each family of five, or in that proportion for larger or smaller families."

"... maintain schools for instruction in such reserves hereby made as to Her Government of Her Dominion of Canada may seem advisable whenever the Indians of the reserve shall desire it."

"… within the boundary of Indian reserves … no intoxicating liquor shall be allowed to be introduced or sold."

"... the said Indians, shall have right to pursue their avocations of hunting and fishing throughout the tract surrendered as hereinbefore described, subject to such regulations as may from time to time be made by Her Government of Her Dominion of Canada, and saving and excepting such tracts as may, from time to time, be required or taken up for settlement, mining, lumbering or other purposes by Her said Government of the Dominion of Canada, or by any of the subjects thereof duly authorized therefore by the said Government."

"... pay to each Indian person the sum of five dollars per head yearly."

"... the sum of fifteen hundred dollars per annum shall be yearly and every year expended by Her Majesty in the purchase of ammunition and twine for nets for the use of the said Indians."

To those bands cultivating the land, the following "once for all" items: for each family, two hoes, one spade, one axe and one scythe; one plough for every ten families; five harrows for every 20 families; for each band, one cross-cut saw, one handsaw, one pit-saw, files, grindstone and auger.

"… for each Chief for the use of his band one chest of ordinary carpenter's tools."

Each band to receive seeds of wheat, barley, oats and potatoes; and one yoke of oxen, one bull and four cows "for the encouragement of the practice of agriculture".

"... each Chief duly recognized as such shall receive an annual salary of twenty-five dollars per annum, and each subordinate officer, not exceeding three for each band, shall receive fifteen dollars per annum; and each such Chief and subordinate officer as aforesaid shall also receive once in every three years a suitable suit of clothing."

"... if at the time of any such selection of any reserve, as aforesaid, there are any settlers within the bounds of the lands reserved by any band, Her Majesty reserves the right to deal with such settlers as She shall deem just so as not to diminish the extent of land allotted to Indians."

"... provided also that the aforesaid reserves of lands, or any interest or right therein or appurtenant thereto, may be sold, leased or otherwise disposed of by the said Government for the use and benefit of the said Indians, with the consent of the Indians entitled thereto first had and obtained."

"... such sections of the reserves above indicated as may at any time be required for Public Works or buildings of whatsoever nature may be appropriated for that purpose by Her Majesty's Government of the Dominion of Canada, due compensation being made for the value of any improvements thereon."

 

Indian camp, Dog's Head at Lake Winnipeg

"Indian camp, Dog's Head at Lake Winnipeg, 1884" (reproduced with the permission of Natural Resources Canada 2010, courtesy of the Geological Survey of Canada. Photo 592 by W.T. Chesmer).

 

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Treaty No. 4 – September 15 & 21, 1874

Negotiated and signed at Qu'appelle Lakes, Treaty 4 covered present-day southern Saskatchewan and a small part of western Manitoba. First Nations within Manitoba signed adhesions at Fort Ellice.

 

Manitoba First Nations

Gamblers
Pine Creek
Rolling River
Sapotaweyak (Shoal River)
Tootinaowaziibeeng (Valley River)
Waywayseecappo
Wuskwi Sipihk (Indian Birch)

 

Purpose of Treaty

"… to make a treaty and arrange with them, so that there may be peace and good will between them and Her Majesty and between them and Her Majesty's other subjects."

 

Area Ceded

74,600 square miles (193,213 km2) in southern Saskatchewan and part of west-central Manitoba.

 

Signing Gifts

"... for each Chief of twenty-five dollars in cash, a coat and a Queen's silver medal; for each Headman, not exceeding four in each band, fifteen dollars in cash and a coat; and for every other man, woman and child twelve dollars in cash; and for those here assembled some powder, shot, blankets, calicoes, strouds and other articles."

"... each Chief shall receive hereafter, in recognition of the closing of the treaty, a suitable flag."

 

Indian Obligations

"… observe this treaty, and also to conduct and behave themselves as good and loyal subjects of Her Majesty the Queen … obey and abide by the law, that they will maintain peace and good order between each other, and between themselves and other tribes of Indians, and between themselves and others of Her Majesty's subjects, whether Indians, Half-breeds, or whites … and will not molest the person or property of any inhabitant of such ceded tract, or the property of Her Majesty the Queen, or interfere with or trouble any person passing or travelling through the said tract … and will assist the officers of Her Majesty in bringing to justice and punishment any Indian offending against the stipulations of this treaty, or infringing the laws."

 

Crown Obligations

"… to allow one square mile [2.59 km2] for each family of five, or in that proportion for larger or smaller families."

"... annually afterwards for ever, cause to be paid in cash … each Chief twenty-five dollars; each Headman not exceeding four to a band, fifteen dollars; and to every other Indian man, woman and child, five dollars per head."

"… each Chief and each Headman, not to exceed four in each band, once in every three years during the term of their offices shall receive a suitable suit of clothing."

"... every year She will cause to be distributed among the different bands included in the limits of this treaty powder, shot, ball and twine, in all to the value of seven hundred and fifty dollars."

To each band cultivating the soil, "once for all" items: for each family, two hoes, one spade, one scythe and one axe; seed wheat, barley, oats and potatoes; for every ten families, one plow and two harrows.

"… to each Chief for the use of his band as aforesaid, one yoke of oxen, one bull, four cows, a chest of ordinary carpenter's tools, five hand saws, five augers, one cross-cut saw, one pit-saw, the necessary files and one grindstone … to be given, once for all, for the encouragement of the practice of agriculture among the Indians."

"... Her Majesty agrees to maintain a school in the reserve allotted to each band as soon as they settle on said reserve and are prepared for a teacher."

"… within the boundary of the Indian reserves … no intoxicating liquor shall be allowed to be introduced or sold."

"... shall have right to pursue their avocations of hunting, trapping and fishing throughout the tract surrendered, subject to such regulations as may from time to time be made by the Government of the country, acting under the authority of Her Majesty, and saving and excepting such tracts as may be required or taken up from time to time for settlement, mining or other purposes, under grant or other right given by Her Majesty's said Government."

"... if at the time of the selection of any reserves, as aforesaid, there are any settlers within the bounds of the lands reserved for any band, Her Majesty retains the right to deal with such settlers as She shall deem just, so as not to diminish the extent of land allotted to the Indians."

"... the aforesaid reserves of land, or any part thereof, or any interest or right therein, or appurtenant thereto, may be sold, leased or otherwise disposed of by the said Government for the use and benefit of the said Indians, with the consent of the Indians entitled thereto first had and obtained, but in no wise shall the said Indians, or any of them, be entitled to sell or otherwise alienate any of the lands allotted to them as reserves."

"... such sections of the reserves above indicated as may at any time be required for public works or building of whatsoever nature may be appropriated for that purpose by Her Majesty's Government of the Dominion of Canada, due compensation being made to the Indians for the value of any improvements thereon, and an equivalent in land or money for the area of the reserve so appropriated."

 

Saulteux Indians from Upper Assiniboine River

"Saulteux Indians from Upper Assiniboine River, October 16, 1887" (Library and Archives Canada/Natural Resources Canada fonds/PA-050799).

 

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Treaty No. 5

Signed by the largest number of First Nation communities in Manitoba at different locations and times. This treaty originated in two historical processes. The southern part was negotiated in 1875-76, while the northern adhesion was signed in 1908-10 (see below).

 

Manitoba First Nations

Berens River
Bloodvein
Chemawawin
Cross Lake
Fisher River
Grand Rapids
Hollow Water
Kinonjeoshtegon (Jackhead)
Little Black River
Little Grand Rapids
Mosakahiken (Moose Lake)
Norway House
Opaskwayak (The Pas)
Pauingassi
Poplar River

 

Purpose of Treaty

"… to make a treaty and arrange with them, so that there may be peace and good will between them and Her Majesty."

 

Area Ceded

Approximately 100,000 square miles (259,000 km2) in central and northern Manitoba, extending partially into Saskatchewan.

 

Signing Gifts

"... a present of five dollars for each man, woman and child belonging to the bands here represented, in extinguishment of all claims heretofore preferred."

"... each Chief shall receive, in recognition of the closing of the treaty, a suitable flag and medal."

 

Indian Obligations

"… observe this treaty, and also to conduct and behave themselves as good and loyal subjects of Her Majesty the Queen … obey and abide by the law, and they will maintain peace and good order between each other, and also between themselves and other Tribes of Indians, and between themselves and others of Her Majesty's subjects, whether Indians or whites … and not molest the person or property of any inhabitant of such ceded tracts, or the property of Her Majesty the Queen, or interfere with or trouble any person passing or travelling through the said tracts … and will aid and assist the officers of Her Majesty in bringing to justice and punishment any Indian offending against the stipulations of this treaty, or infringing the laws."

 

Crown Obligations

"And Her Majesty the Queen hereby agrees and undertakes to lay aside reserves for farming lands, due respect being had to lands at present cultivated by the said Indians, and other reserves for the benefit of the said Indians … provided all such reserves shall not exceed in all one hundred and sixty acres [64.75 hectares] for each family of five, or in that proportion for larger or smaller families."

"... Indians now residing in and about Norway House of the band of whom David Rundle is Chief are desirous of removing to a locality where they can cultivate the soil, Her Majesty the Queen hereby agrees to lay aside a reserve on the west side of Lake Winnipeg, in the vicinity of Fisher River, so as to give one hundred acres to each family of five, or in that proportion for larger or smaller families."

"... Her Majesty agrees to maintain schools for instruction in such reserves hereby made as to Her Government of the Dominion of Canada may seem advisable, whenever the Indians of the reserve shall desire it."

"… within the boundary of Indians reserves … no intoxicating liquor shall be allowed to be introduced or sold."

"... shall have right to pursue their avocations of hunting and fishing throughout the tract surrendered as hereinbefore described, subject to such regulations as may from time to time be made by Her Government of Her Dominion of Canada, and saving and excepting such tracts as may from time to time be required or taken up for settlement, mining, lumbering or other purposes, by Her said Government of the Dominion of Canada, or by any of the subjects thereof duly authorized therefore by the said Government."

"... pay to each Indian person the sum of five dollars per head yearly."

"... the sum of five hundred dollars per annum shall be yearly and every year expended by Her Majesty in the purchase of ammunition, and twine for nets, for the use of the said Indians, in manner following, that is to say: in the reasonable discretion as regards the distribution thereof among the Indians inhabiting the several reserves or otherwise included therein of Her Majesty's Indian Agent having the supervision of this treaty."

To each band cultivating the soil, "once for all" items: for each family, two hoes, one spade, one scythe and one axe; seed wheat, barley, oats and potatoes; for every ten families, one plow; for every 20 families, five harrows.

Each Chief to receive for the use of the band: one yoke of oxen, one bull, four cows, a chest of carpenter's tools, one handsaw, one auger, one cross-cut saw, one pit-saw, files and grindstone "for the encouragement of the practice of agriculture".

"... each Chief duly recognized as such shall receive an annual salary of twenty-five dollars per annum, and each subordinate officer, not exceeding three for each band, shall receive fifteen dollars per annum; and each such Chief and subordinate officer as aforesaid shall also receive, once every three years, a suitable suit of clothing."

"... reserving, however, to Her Majesty, Her successors and Her subjects the free navigation of all lakes and rivers and free access to the shores thereof."

"… Her Majesty reserves the right to deal with any settlers within the bounds of any lands reserved for any band as She shall deem fit."

"... the aforesaid reserves of land or any interest therein may be sold or otherwise disposed of by Her Majesty's Government for the use and benefit of the said Indians entitled thereto, with their consent first had and obtained."

"... such sections of the reserves above indicated as may at any time be required for public works or buildings, of whatsoever nature, may be appropriated for that purpose by Her Majesty's Government of the Dominion of Canada, due compensation being made for the value of any improvements thereon."

 

Norway House 1910

"Women at Norway House waiting for Treaty payment, 1910" (Archives of Manitoba, A.V. Thomas Collection 172, N8246).

 

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Adhesion to Treaty No. 5

Negotiated in 1908 and signed throughout northern Manitoba during 1908-10.

Purpose of adhesion and obligations of the Crown and Indians are the same as Treaty 5.

 

Manitoba First Nations

Bunibonibee (Oxford House)
Fox Lake
Garden Hill
God's Lake
Manto Sipi (God's River)
Nisichawayasihk (Nelson House)
O-Pipon-Na-Piwin (South Indian Lake)
Red Sucker Lake
Sayisi Dene (Fort Churchill)
Shamattawa
St. Theresa Point
Tataskwayak (Split Lake)
War Lake
Wasagamack
York Factory

 

Area Ceded

133,400 square miles (345,504.4 km2) in northern Manitoba.

 

H.B.C. Post, 1920s

"H.B.C. Post" [Island Lake], 1920s (Archives of Manitoba, R.T. Chapin Collection 45, N15045).

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Treaty No. 6 – August 23 & 28, September 9, 1876

Signed at Fort Carlton, Saskatchewan, Manitoba First Nations signed its adhesions.

 

Manitoba First Nations

Marcel Colomb
Mathias Colomb

 

Purpose of Treaty

"… to make a treaty and arrange with them, so that there may be peace and good will between them and Her Majesty."

 

Area Ceded

121,000 square miles (313,388.5 km2) in central Saskatchewan and Alberta.

 

Signing Gifts

"… a present of twelve dollars for each man, woman and child … in extinguishment of all claim heretofore preferred."

"... each Chief shall receive, in recognition of the closing of the treaty, a suitable flag and medal, and also as soon as convenient, one horse, harness and wagon."

"That in lieu of wagons, if they desire it and declare their option to that effect, there shall be given to each of the Chiefs adhering hereto at Fort Pitt or elsewhere hereafter (exclusively of those in the Carlton district), in recognition of this treaty, as soon as the same can be conveniently transported, two carts with iron bushings and tires."

 

Indian Obligations

"… observe this treaty, and also to conduct and behave themselves as good and loyal subjects of Her Majesty the Queen … obey and abide by the law, and they will maintain peace and good order between each other, and also between themselves and other tribes of Indians, and between themselves and others of Her Majesty's subjects, whether Indians or whites … will not molest the person or property of any inhabitant of such ceded tracts, or the property of Her Majesty the Queen, or interfere with or trouble any person passing or travelling through the said tracts … and will aid and assist officers of Her Majesty in bringing to justice and punishment any Indian offending against the stipulations of this treaty, or infringing the laws."

 

Crown Obligations

"And Her Majesty the Queen hereby agrees and undertakes to lay aside reserves for farming lands, due respect being had to lands at present cultivated by the said Indians … all such reserves shall not exceed in all one square mile [2.59 km2] for each family of five, or in that proportion for larger or smaller families."

"... Her Majesty agrees to maintain schools for instruction in such reserves hereby made as to Her Government of the Dominion of Canada may seem advisable, whenever the Indians of the reserve shall desire it."

"… within the boundary of Indian reserves … no intoxicating liquor shall be allowed to be introduced or sold."

"... shall have right to pursue their avocations of hunting and fishing throughout the tract surrendered as hereinbefore described, subject to such regulations as may from time to time be made by Her Government of Her Dominion of Canada, and saving and excepting such tracts as may from time to time be required or taken up for settlement, mining, lumbering or other purposes by Her said Government of the Dominion of Canada, or by any of the subjects thereof duly authorized therefore by the said Government."

"... pay to each Indian person the sum of $5 per head yearly."

"... the sum of $1,500.00 per annum shall be yearly and every year expended by Her Majesty in the purchase of ammunition, and twine for nets, for the use of the said Indians, in manner following, that is to say: In the reasonable discretion, as regards the distribution thereof among the Indians inhabiting the several reserves, or otherwise, included herein, of Her Majesty's Indian Agent having the supervision of this treaty."

For each band cultivating the land, once for all items "for the encouragement of the practice of agriculture": for each family, four hoes, two spades, two scythes, one whetstone, two hay forks, two reaping hooks, two axes; for every three families, one plough, one harrow; for each band, one cross-cut saw, one handsaw, one pit-saw, files, grindstone, one auger, seed wheat, barley, potatoes and oats.

Each Chief to receive for the use of the Band one chest of carpenter's tools.

"… for each Band, enough of wheat, barley, potatoes and oats to plant the land actually broken up for cultivation by such Band."

"… for each Band four oxen, one bull and six cows; also, one boar and two sows, and one hand mill when any Band shall raise sufficient grain."

"... each Chief, duly recognized as such, shall receive an annual salary of twenty-five dollars per annum; and each subordinate officer, not exceeding four for each Band, shall receive fifteen dollars per annum; and each such Chief and subordinate officer, as aforesaid, shall also receive once every year, a suitable suit of clothing."

"That in the event hereafter of the Indians comprised within this treaty being overtaken by any pestilence, or by a general famine, the Queen, on being satisfied and certified thereof by Her Indian Agent or Agents, will grant to the Indians assistance of such character and to such extent as Her Chief Superintendent of Indian Affairs shall deem necessary and sufficient to relieve the Indians from the calamity that shall have befallen them."

"That during the next three years, after two or more of the reserves hereby agreed to be set apart to the Indians shall have been agreed upon and surveyed, there shall be granted to the Indians … each spring, the sum of one thousand dollars … in the purchase of provisions for the use of such of the Band as are actually settled on the reserves and are engaged in cultivating the soil, to assist them in such cultivation."

"That a medicine chest shall be kept at the house of each Indian Agent for the use and benefit of the Indians at the direction of such agent."

"… Her Majesty retains the right to deal with any settlers within the bounds of any lands reserved for any Band as She shall deem fit."

"… reserves of land, or any interest or right therein, may be sold or otherwise disposed of by Her Majesty's Government for the use and benefit of the Indians, with their consent first had and obtained."

"… such sections of the reserves above indicated as may at any time be required for public works or buildings … may be appropriated for that purpose by Her Majesty's Government of the Dominion of Canada, due compensation being made for the value of any improvements thereon."

 

Firewood for school, Pukatawagan

"Firewood for first school, Pukatawagan" (Archives of Manitoba, Pukatawagan History Project 25).

 

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Treaty No. 10 – August 28, September 9, 1906

Originally signed in Saskatchewan, one First Nation within Manitoba signed the adhesion to this treaty at Lac Brochet.

 

Manitoba First Nations

Barren Lands
Northlands Dene

 

Purpose of Treaty

"… to make a treaty and arrange with them so that there may be peace and good will between them and His Majesty's [King Edward VII] other subjects."

 

Area Ceded

85,800 square miles (222,220.98 km2) in northern Saskatchewan and part of Alberta.

 

Signing Gifts

"... each chief a present of thirty-two (32) dollars in cash, to each headman twenty-two (22) dollars and to every other Indian of whatever age of the families represented at the time and place of payment twelve (12) dollars."

"... each chief, after signing the treaty, shall receive a silver medal and a suitable flag, and next year and every third year thereafter each chief shall receive a suitable suit of clothing, and that after signing the treaty each headman shall receive a bronze medal and next year and every third year thereafter a suitable suit of clothing."

 

Treaty 10 page

Treaty 10 page, with marks of "Petit Casimir, Chief of Barren Land Band, Jean Baptiste, Headman, and Andre Antsanen, Indian".

 

Indian Obligations

"… observe this treaty in all and every respect and to behave and conduct themselves as good and loyal subjects of His Majesty the King … obey and abide by the law; that they will maintain peace between each other and between their tribes and other tribes of Indians and between themselves and other of His Majesty's subjects whether whites, Indians, Half-breeds or others … and will not molest the person or trespass upon the property or interfere with the rights of any inhabitant of such ceded tract or of any other district or country or interfere with or trouble any person passing or travelling through the said tract or any part thereof and they will assist the officers of His Majesty in bringing to justice and punishment any Indian offending against the stipulations of this treaty or infringing the law."

 

Crown Obligations

"... they shall have the right to pursue their usual vocations of hunting, trapping and fishing throughout the territory surrendered as heretofore described, subject to such regulations as may from time to time be made by the government of the country acting under the authority of His Majesty and saving and excepting such tracts as may be required or as may be taken up from time to time for settlement, mining, lumbering, trading or other purposes."

"… such reserves not to exceed in all one square mile [2.59 km2] for each family of five for such number of families as may elect to reside upon reserves or in that proportion for larger or smaller families."

"… for such Indian families or individual Indians as prefer to live apart from band reserves His Majesty undertakes to provide land in severalty to the extent of one hundred and sixty (160) acres [64.75 hectares] for each Indian."

"… to each Chief twenty-five (25) dollars, each headman fifteen (15) dollars and to every other Indian of whatever age five (5) dollars."

"… His Majesty agrees to make such provision as may from time to time be deemed advisable for the education of the Indian children."

"… furnish such assistance as may be found necessary or advisable to aid and assist the Indians in agriculture or stock-raising or other work and to make such a distribution of twine and ammunition to them annually."

"… His Majesty reserves the right to deal with any settlers within the bounds of any lands reserved for any band or bands as He may see fit."

"… the aforesaid reserves of land, or any interest therein, may be sold or otherwise disposed of by His Majesty's government of Canada for the use and benefit of the Indians entitled thereto, with their consent first had and obtained."

"… such portions of the reserves and lands above mentioned as may at any time be required for public works, buildings, railways or roads of whatsoever nature may be appropriated for such purposes by His Majesty's government of Canada due compensation being made to the Indians for the value of any improvements thereon, and an equivalent in land, money or other consideration for the area so appropriated."

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Endnotes

Footnote 1

Wayne E. Daugherty (1983). "Treaty Research Report Treaty One and Treaty Two (1871)" Retrieved December 15, 2014 from www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028660/1100100028662.

1

Footnote 2

Wayne E. Daugherty (1983). "Treaty Research Report Treaty One and Treaty Two (1871)" Retrieved December 15, 2014 from www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028660/1100100028662.

2

Footnote 3

"Indian treaty medal, Treaties 3 to 8, 1873-1900." In The Canadian West exhibition, Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/canadian-west/052920/05292004_e.html & www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/canadian-west/052920/05292003_e.html.

3

Footnote 4

Wayne E. Daugherty (1986). "Treaty Research Report - Treaty Three (1873)" Retrieved December 15, 2014 from www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028671/1100100028673.

4

Footnote 5

Wayne E. Daugherty (1986). "Treaty Research Report – Treaty 3 (1873)." Retrieved December 15, 2014 from www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100028671/1100100028673.

5

All quotes taken from the text of the original treaties; other excerpts are paraphrased.