CCP Handbook - Comprehensive Community Planning for First Nations in British Columbia Third Edition


This website will change as a result of the dissolution of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, the creation of Indigenous Services Canada and the eventual creation of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada. During this transformation, you may also wish to consult the updated Indigenous and Northern Affairs home page.

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Economic Development Assessment
JobNumber of JobsFilled by Community Member?TimeWage

Job Training, Education, and Capacity Building Assessment
CategoryJobExisting?Training Needed?
Lands & Resources          
Physical Infrastructure          

Tool 11: Template – SWOT Analysis

Template – SWOT Analysis
Lands & Resources
Infrastructure Development

Tool 11: Sample – SWOT Analysis

Template – SWOT Analysis
  • An election code is being developed
  • Miscommunication between band sectors and entities
  • Could pass our own laws post-treaty
  • Potential remedial management because of band debt
Lands & Resources
  • A land code is currently in development
  • Land and resource managers do not communicate well
  • We are located in an area of high future land development potential
  • Increasing development may make hunting and gathering difficult
  • New health centre
    Excellent health care staff
  • Increased community awareness of health issues
  • Drug and alcohol abuse, particularly among youth
  • High rates of diabetes and obesity
  • Could deliver health services to local region
  • Reduced government funding for health promotion
  • Increasing numbers of members with post-secondary degrees returning to community
  • Increasing participation in after-school youth program
  • 65% high school dropout rate
  • No central location for youth to meet
  • Increased federal funding for life skills training
  • Can negotiate service agreements for facilities in municipality
  • Lay-offs at local plant could mean higher demand for social assistance
  • Language courses are offered in local elementary and secondary schools
  • Fluency rates in traditional language are low
  • Tourism is increasing – could provide cultural tours and activities
  • New development will result in limited access to cedar stands
  • High potential for development of reserve lands
  • Unemployment rate has dropped in recent years
  • Many members are only seasonally employed
  • Members rely too heavily on the Band for employment opportunities
  • New First Nations small business program
  • Fishing industry in decline – could impact many band members
Infrastructure Development
  • New water treatment plant has brought water quality up to standard
  • The waiting list for housing exceeds 40 applications
  • Could rent out existing facilities and vacant office space
  • Many members want to return home post-treaty – housing demand will increase

Tool 12: Visioning Questions

Questions to Get Started on the Visioning Process
1 25 – 50 years from now…
  • How do you see our community?
  • What is different, what remains the same?
  • How do you see our land?
  • How do you see our people live and interact together?
  • What activities are people engaged in?
2 What are our most treasured traditions and principles that we want to preserve and practice into the future?
3 What do you want our community to be remembered for by
generations to come?

Tool 13: Template – Goals, Objectives and Projects Tracking Chart

Goals, Objectives and Projects Tracking Chart
Key Planning AreaGoalsObjectivesProjects/ActivitiesDeadline / TimeframePerson Responsible

Tool 13: Sample – Goals, Objectives and Projects Tracking Chart

Goals, Objectives and Projects Tracking Chart
Key Planning AreaGoalsObjectivesProjects/
Deadline / TimeframePerson Responsible
  • Community involvement in decision-making
  • Develop a youth council to communicate with Chief and Council
  • Financial
    • Develop a budget and find funding for youth council meetings
  • Political/
    • Develop a policy for
      Chief and Council to engage with youth council
  • Improve quality of health of community members
  • Deliver dental services on-reserve
  • Political/
    • Access preventative oral health program dollars
    • Identify dental technician to provide services
  • Enhance opportunities to exercise rights
  • Establish protected areas
  • Political/
    • Lobby governments to establish protected
    • Amend existing land use plan
Infrastructure development
  • Create more recreation facilities
  • Build a community gymnasium
  • Political/
    • Develop a business plan
  • Financial
    • Develop a budget and secure capital funds

Tool 14: Creating a Budget

When creating budgets it is important to look at three aspects of the project:

  1. Capital costs – How much to set project up (e.g. construction of a building)?
  2. Operational costs – How much will be needed to keep the project going?
  3. Project costs – How much will it cost in terms of band administration to manage the project?
Creating a Budget
Collect revenue sources
  • Include all funding sources:
  • Contribution from a group
  • Donations
  • Fund raising events
  • Sales revenue
  • Fees for service, and more
Collect expenditures
  • Contact suppliers
  • Provide appropriate detail
List employees
  • Include job description for each employee you propose to create (e.g., backhoe operator @ $50/hour)
  • Include volunteer staff – in kind activity and/or honoraria
  • Facilitator or consultant – include resume in appendices
  • List all activities
  • Example: backhoe operator:  July 1 – August 1; electrician: August 15 – Sept 1
  • Later, the timeline will fit into your weekly budget
Schedule of travel
  • Who is travelling?
  • Where is the travel?  At what rate?
  • Include rate per km, return airfare from departure point
  • Include daily meal and accommodation rate or per diem for meals only – specify.
Rent and utilities
  • Will office space be rented?
  • Monthly rate – rent for meeting conference space- rate?
  • Monthly costs for heat, power, telephone
  • Installation, hook-up costs if applicable
Equipment and furniture
  • Special equipment for project
  • Rental or purchase (project funding does not allow purchase of equipment)
Administration fee
  • State what this covers:  bookkeeping, administrator, manager support
  • Generally 10% of budget depending on support being given. (i.e., hiring a bookkeeper separately would not be as high as an admin fee)
  • Specify media costs, posters, brochures, etc.
Budget format
  • Check with funding agency to see if they have a specific format that they want you to use
  • Check specific expenditure categories
  • Funding package/ call letter would probably include direction
  • Use standard spreadsheet format
  • Revenue minus expenditures should equal zero.

Tool 15: Budget Management Checklist

Budget Management Checklist
Collect all relevant data
  • List all programs for which budgets will be prepared
  • Delegate budget responsibility   
  • Obtain all funding information
  • Have prior year financial information on hand
  • Ensure current year accounting records are up-to-date
Research cost of planned expenditures
  • Contact suppliers
  • Review policies
  • Refer to operation plan
Establish time lines for budget process
  • When will the budget be reviewed
  • What are the steps to the review?
  • Establish a time line, activities and responsibilities
Prepare a schedule of monthly cash receipts
  • Refer to monthly cash flows from all funding agencies
  • Collect all revenue agreements and calculate monthly incomes
Create supporting schedule for each expenditure category
  • Use enough detail to quantify evaluation against actual results
  • Set priorities in the event complete budget cannot be approved
Calculate total expenditures
  • Consolidate all line items onto total budget sheet for each program activity
Prepare cash budget
  • Month-by-month
  • Cash receipts less cash disbursements
  • Do not include any non-cash expenses
Arrange interim financing
  • For "timing" issues
  • Automatic overdraft arrangement with financial institution
  • Pre-arrange terms and interest rates
Or…adjust to even out flow of cash
  • Adjust timing of operations plan
    (i.e., schedule expense for another time period)
Use zero-based budgeting where applicable
  • For new programs
  • For existing programs every three years or so
  • For programs in financial difficulty
Present budget for approval
  • Take all plans, budgets and backup documentation
Compare budgeted items with actual results
  • Compare monthly budget to actuals
  • Compare year-to-date budget to actuals
Analyze variances
  • Facilitates "management by exception" process of budgeting
  • Investigate and determine causes for variances
  • Look at positive variances as well as negative variances
Make operating adjustments
  • Check original plan and budget
  • Re-forecast expenditures based on revised costs/revenues

Tool 16: Project Implementation Inventory

Asking the questions provided in this tool is a good way to get started on a project. Fill it out with as much detail as possible. When this form is completed, it can form the basis for reports to the community and administration, as well as for funding proposals.

Project Implementation Inventory
What is the project or program?  
Why is the project or program important?  
How does it fulfill the community's vision?  
Who will work on the project or program?  
Who can you partner with?  
How much will it cost? (budget)  
Where will the funding come from?  
How will it be completed?  
Who is the project for?  
What mentorship, training, or employment opportunities will be involved?  
Where will the project or program take place?
(location, department)
How will you know if you've achieved the objective? (identify indicators for monitoring & evaluation)  
How long will it take?  

Tool 17: Project Timeline (Bar Chart)

Before implementing a project, policy or program, it can be helpful to develop a work plan and timeframe in the form of a bar chart.  Below is a simple example bar chart for developing a youth/Elder cultural mentorship program:

Project Timeline (Bar Chart)
Project activitiesJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Research other mentorship programs                        
Consult Elders and youth for ideas/feedback                        
Develop proposal for program                        
Seek approvals                        
Apply for funding                        
Create mentorship/mentee forms                        
Advertise opportunity                        
Match mentors to mentees                        
Orientation for mentors                        
Launch of mentorship                        
Ongoing visits                        
Write article for newsletter                        
Write funding progress report                        

Tool 18: Project Work Plan

Project Work Plan
Project Phase / MilestonesMajor Task / ActivitiesEstimated Time FrameResponsibility / LeadRequired ResourcesStatus / Comments
What are the major steps that need to be taken to achieve the goals of the project? What tasks and activities need to happen under each project phase or milestone? When does each simple action step have to be completed by?

Some timelines may already be set for you (e.g., funding application deadlines) so you will have to build your work plan around them.

(TIP: Include both the start and completion dates to help ensure enough time is budgeted to complete each task.)
Who is responsible for ensuring the action step is completed?

Each simple action/step should be allocated to a specific person (or persons) for action; this person is known as the "lead."
What might be needed in order for each step to be completed?

(e.g., is printing or administrative support required?)

This should be reviewed with the lead.

Tool 19: Decision Analysis Tool

Prioritizing and sequencing the long list of projects, policies and programs identified by community members is critical to ensuring that the time, resources and energy invested into implementation have the greatest possible benefit for the community.

There are a number of different decision tools you can use to prioritize actions, each with different uses, benefits and degrees of sophistication. Dotmocracy and the Money Game (see the next page) are very useful tools to get a quick read of top priorities. Using more specific criteria to analyse, evaluate and determine priorities for a CCP can lead to decisions that are more defensible, less risky and result in greater long- term benefits for the community.

Basic Tenants of Decision Analsysis:

  1. Values and facts are used to decide priorities, not intuition or politics.
  2. A systematic and transparent process leads to defensible actions.
  3. An inclusive and participatory process empowers individuals and the community.

Some questions to consider when prioritizing actions (policies, projects and programs) include:

  • How well will the action align with the community vision statement and high-level objectives?
  • How will an action impact our people and community? How many people will it impact?
  • Do we have the financial resources to implement this action? How likely are we to secure funding?
  • Do we have the capacity to implement this action and/or do we need to build capacity first?
  • Is there a champion? Who is interested in leading the implementation of an action?
  • Are there any timing implications? Does the issue need to be urgently addressed? Does the action address a health and safety issue?
  • What financial, environmental and/or social risks are there to consider?

For each action, you can reflect on specific criteria such as how well the community's objectives (e.g., protect land) are met, or by various implementation criteria (e.g., available resources). Both qualitative (e.g., high/medium/low) or quantitative (e.g., assigning scores between 1-5) scales can be used to rank, score and finalize community priorities. An even more sophisticated approach is to weigh each criterion. For example, how well the activity aligns with the community's values (objectives) may be more important than how long it will take to implement. A simplified ranking table can help show the tradeoffs between certain actions.


Decision Analysis Tool 1
Enhance CultureCreate EmploymentScore/Rank
Youth/Elder Mentorship High (25) High (25) Low (5) (55)
Housing Strategy Med (10) Low (5) Med (10) (25)
High School Tutoring Program Low (5) Med (10) Med (10) (25)
Cultural Centre High (25) High (25) High (25) (75)
Resources AvailableCapacity AvailableChampion to leadScoreRank
5 5 5 15 #1
3 3 3 9 #3
3 3 5 11 #2
1 1 3 5 #4

Tools for Determining Priorities

There are a number of different decision tools for determining priorities including:

Dotmocracy – Each project name is written on its own blank piece of paper and taped onto a wall. Each participant is given three dots (stickers) and they can place dots next to the projects that are most important to them. Tally the dots and you will get an idea of which projects are the highest priority for the community. You could also give each participant some green dots, and some red dots – red for highest priority, green for most "do-able".

Money Talks – Each project name is written on a piece of paper and taped to the wall. A box or paper bag is placed under each project name. Each participant is given an equal amount of play money (the amount is up to you). The participants divide up their money into the projects as they see fit. At the end, the money in each bag is tallied and you will get an idea of which projects are high priority.


(Please note: The resources section provides some sources that you may find helpful. However, it is not intended to be an exhaustive list and you may wish to consult other sources.)


Decision Analysis Tool 2
Community Development and Planning BC Capacity Initiative INAC To enhance the capacity of First Nations who have asserted Aboriginal title. Funding is available in the following areas: preparation for negotiations, consultation, management and implementation. BC Capacity Initiative


Capital Support INAC Services and funding for physical development planning in First Nations communities, including for community infrastructure, housing and facilities. The funding provides support for feasibility studies, surveys, design, construction and commissioning. INAC Capital
Management Officer

Treaty-Related Measures (TRMs) Treaties and Aboriginal Government, INAC and provincial Treaty Negotiations Office TRMs can be used in a variety of ways to move specific issues forward at treaty tables, such as studies to generate information that will expedite specific treaty negotiation issues; protection of Crown land for treaty settlements; land acquisition for treaty settlements; First Nation participation in land, resource, and park planning and management; and economic and cultural opportunity studies. 1-800-567-9604
Professional and Institutional Development INAC To develop the capacity of First Nation and Inuit communities to perform core functions of government, by funding governance-related projects at the community and institutional levels. 1-800-567-9604
New Relationship Trust New Relationship Trust The NRT is an independent non-profit organization dedicated to strengthening First Nations in BC through capacity building. A key goal of NRT's Capacity Initiatives is to provide BC First Nations with access to information and knowledge that is essential to successful Nation building. Lana Plante


New Relationship Trust
Community to Community Forums (C2C) Union of BC Municipalities, First Nations Summit The C2C Forum is a provincially and federally sponsored program in which "host" communities that hold a forum can get half of allowable costs covered. The forums are about opening lines of communication and building relationships between neighbours (local governments and First Nations). Local Government Program Services


First Nations Summit

Grant Database – Civic Info BC  Clearing house of various funding sources from federal, provincial and non-governmental sectors An electronic database providing information on sources of funding for community development in BC. Most of the programs listed are funding-oriented, however, programs that provide other forms of support are also listed. The primary focus is support for social, economic and environmental community development initiatives. Contact information for each program is provided to facilitate direct access to current and updated program information. Grant Database
Economic Development Aboriginal Business Entrepreneurship Development All Nations Development Corporation, INAC, Nuu-chah-nulth Economic Development Corporation, Tale’awtxw Aboriginal Capital Corporation Business services and support, including repayable and non-repayable financial contributions, to aboriginal individuals, associations, partnerships or other legal entities which are wholly or partly owned or controlled by Aboriginal people, on or off reserve. Aboriginal Business Entrepreneurship Development

Community Economic Development Program INAC The Community Economic Development Program (CEDP) provides core, formula-based, financial support for eligible First Nations or their mandated organizations. CEDP funding activities include economic planning and other community economic support services. INAC

Community Economic Opportunities Program INAC The Community Economic Opportunities Program (CEOP) is a proposal-driven program designed to support eligible First Nation community initiatives that will lead to community economic benefits. Eligible activities include employment and economic planning, negotiations, infrastructure and feasibility. INAC

Western Economic Diversification Western Economic Diversification WD invests in community-driven projects and other initiatives designed to increase productivity and competitiveness, and improve the quality of life in western communities. Funding is available for community projects that support at least one of WD's strategic priorities: innovation, entrepreneurship and community economic development. Western Economic Diversification

Indigenous Forestry Initiative INAC and Natural Resources Canada To enhance the capacity of First Nations to manage sustainable reserve forests and to operate and participate in forest-based businesses; to increase First Nations cooperation and partnerships; and to investigate financing mechanisms for First Nation forestry development. INAC


Indigenous Forestry
Environment The Green Source  Environment and Climate Change Canada A resource guide prepared by Environment and Climate Change Canada that identifies numerous sources of funding for environmental projects. It includes information on public and private sector programs and organizations that provide assistance, labour costs or in-kind donations to community groups. The Green Source

Land Management First Nations Land Management (FNLM) INAC A range of courses and funding for First Nations involved in land management for reserve lands through First Nations Land Management (established under the First Nations Land Management Act). This includes land holdings and transfers, additions to reserves, designations (zoning), leasing and permitting. Lands Advisory Board Resource Centre


Real Estate Foundation of BC Real Estate Foundation of BC The Real Estate Foundation of BC supports real estate and land use practices that contribute to resilient, healthy communities and natural systems. The three grant program areas of focus are: 1) Built Environment, 2) Fresh Water Sustainability, and 3) Sustainable Food Systems. Real Estate Foundation of BC

Social Development Social Development Program Management Infrastructure Initiative INAC Funding to build and/or enhance social development program capacity within First Nations, including community support and multi-community planning. INAC

Wage Subsidy, Internships
and Training
Indigenous Labour Market Programs Employment and Social Development Canada Indigenous labour market programs are available to increase workforce participation and help First Nations, Métis and Inuit people prepare for, find and maintain employment. Indigenous Labour Market Programs

Housing Internship Initiative for First Nations and Inuit Youth Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) Provides work experience and on-the-job training for First Nations youth to assist them in pursuing long-term employment in the housing industry. Work experience and on-the-job training must be related to housing activities, such as housing administration, construction, renovation, maintenance, and client counseling, among others. Housing Internship Initiative

Youth Employment Strategy INAC and First Nations Education Steering Committee Goals are to emphasize the importance of education for effective labour market participation, and provide opportunities for First Nations and Inuit youth to improve their job skills. There are four programs under the Youth Employment Strategy umbrella: Science and Technology Program; Career Promotion and Awareness Program; Student Summer Employment Opportunities Program; and Youth Work Experience Program. First Nations Education Steering Committee


First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy

Funding for Implementation Northern and Aboriginal Crime Prevention Fund Public Safety Canada In order to effect positive changes in risk and protective factors and foster crime prevention in Northern and Aboriginal communities, NACPF will support: 1) the adaptation, development and implementation of innovative and promising culturally sensitive crime prevention practices (focus on at-risk children and youth, and high-risk offenders); 2) the dissemination of knowledge and the development of tools and resources for Aboriginal and Northern populations; and 3) capacity building as a means to explore ways to develop or implement culturally sensitive crime prevention practices among Aboriginal and Northern populations. National Crime Prevention Center National Office

Programs and Services Overview and Contacts First Nations Health Authority Provides information about health-related programs and services available to First Nations and Inuit. The compendium includes program descriptions; program elements, goals and objectives; and information about different types of service providers and their qualification requirements.

Programs and Services Overview and Contacts

Species at Risk – Public Registry Environment and Climate Change Canada Several programs are available to support First Nations communities to build capacity and undertake projects related to Species at Risk. Species at Risk
BC Hydro Corporate Donations BC Hydro BC Hydro provides support to community-based, non-profit organizations and registered charities that are active in one of the key funding areas: 1) environmental sustainability, 2) youth and lifestyle, or 3) community leadership. BC Hydro
RBC – Community and Sustainability RBC RBC helps communities around the world by funding many different initiatives through donations and sponsorships. Community and Sustainability
Computers for Schools Industry Canada The Computers for Schools (CFS) Program is a national, federal government-led initiative that operates in cooperation with all provinces and territories, and the private and volunteer sectors. Program funding recipients collect, repair and refurbish donated surplus computers from public and private sector sources and distribute them to schools, public libraries, not-for-profit learning organizations and Aboriginal communities throughout Canada. Mary-Em Waddington


Industry Canada

Computers for Schools
Grants directory Canadian Subsidy Directory The Canadian Subsidy Directory (database) offers continuously updated information for non-profit organizations, businesses, municipalities, individuals and Aboriginals. The database contains more than 3,200 subsidies, grants or loans offered by various Canadian governments, agencies and foundations. Grants directory

Related Education Programs

1) First Nations Planning-Related Programs in BC

Aboriginal Bursaries Search Tool

  • The Aboriginal Bursaries Search Tool is a searchable list of more than 680 bursaries, scholarships and incentives across Canada, offered by governments, universities and colleges, private and public companies, individual Canadians, organizations and others.

Aboriginal Financial Officers Association of Canada
Ph: 1-866-722-2362

  • Introduction to Comprehensive Community Planning for First Nations
  • Strategic Planning in First Nations

Native Education Centre
Ph: 604-873-3772 ext. 328

  • Aboriginal Tourism Management Program

Nicola Valley Institute of Technology
Ph: 1-877-682-3300

  • Aboriginal Community Economic Development Program
  • Environmental Resources Technology Diploma
  • First Nations Public Administration Program

Northwest Community College
Ph: 1-877-277-2288

  • Guardian Watchman Training  (Land Stewardship)
  • First Nations Public Administration

Project Raven
Ph: 1-888-921-9939

  • The First Nation Technology Council (FNTC) delivers a wide range of technical and computer skills training to support the implementation and sustainability of CCP.  Microsoft Office training, such as MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Outlook, as well as Windows, GIS and other industry-recognized computer training is available.

Simon Fraser University (Continuing Studies)
Ph: 778-782-8000

  • Certificate in Community Capacity Building
  • Certificate in Dialogue and Civic Engagement

University of Northern British Columbia (First Nations Studies)
Ph: 604-822-0075

  • Aboriginal Community Resource Planning
  • First Nations Public Administration Certificate

University of Victoria
Ph: 250-721-6438

  • Indigenous Governance Programs
  • Certificate in the Administration of Indigenous Governments
  • Master of Arts in Indigenous Governance

2) BC Planning Programs and Certificates

Langara College
Ph: 604-323-5686

  • Applied Urban and Rural Planning Program

Simon Fraser University
Ph: 604-782-8000

  • Sustainable Community Development Certificate
  • Urban Design Certificate
  • Urban Planning courses

Social Planning and Research Council of BC
Ph: 604-718-7733

  • Community Development Education Program

University of British Columbia
Ph: 604-822-3276

  • School of Community and Regional Planning

University of Northern British Columbia
Ph: 250-960-5555

  • Environmental Planning

3) Land and Resource Management Programs in BC

Selkirk College
Ph: 250-365-7292

  • Integrated Environmental Planning Program

Simon Fraser University
Ph: 604-291-3321, 604-291-4659

Thompson Rivers University
Ph: 250-828-5467

  • Bachelor of Natural Resource Science Program

University of British Columbia
Ph: 604-822-2727

  • Wood Products
  • Conservation
  • Forest Operations
  • Forest Management
  • Forest Science

University of Northern British Columbia
Ph: 250-960-5555

  • Environmental Planning
  • Environmental Studies
  • Natural Resources and Environmental Studies

4) Economic Development Programs in BC

Sauder School of Business – University of British Columbia
Ph: 604-822-0988

  • Ch'nook Aboriginal Management Certificate Program

Simon Fraser University
Ph: 604-291-5849

  • Executive MBA in Aboriginal Business and Leadership
  • Centre for Sustainable Community Development
  • Certificate Program for Community Economic
  • Development Professionals
  • Certificate in Community Economic Development
  • Post-Baccalaureate Diploma in Community Economic Development


Assembly of First Nations – First Nations Guide to Housing Policy

Aboriginal Mapping Network
Ph:  604-682-4141 (Ecotrust Canada)

Canadian Centre for Community Renewal

Canadian Executive Services Overseas (CESO) Aboriginal Services
Ph: 604-986-4566 or 1-800-986-4566

Canadian Institute of Planners
Ph: 1-800-207-2138

Centre for Innovative and Entrepreneurial Leadership
Ph: 1-800-661-1395

Ecotrust Canada
Ph: 604-682-4141

Federation of Canadian Municipalities

First Nation Alliance 4 Land Management
Ph: 250-828-9804

First Nations in BC Resource Portal
Ph: 250-828-9804

First Nations National Building Officers Association (FNNBOA)

First Nations Technology Council
Ph: 1-888-921-9939

Fraser Basin Council
Ph: 604-488-5350

Idea Rating Sheets

Natural Resources Canada
Ph: 604-666-5313

The Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development
Ph: 604-874-8558

The Planning Institute of British Columbia
Ph: 1-866-696-5031

Social Planning and Research Council of BC (SPARC)
Ph: 604-718-7733

Statistics Canada
Ph: 1-800-263-1136

Tamarack – An Institute for Community Engagement
Ph: 519-885-5155

Union of BC Municipalities
Ph: 604-270-8226


1) Capacity Building

Aboriginal Financial Officers Association of BC First Nations Financial Code Toolbox.  North Vancouver: Aboriginal Financial Officers Association of BC, 2004.

Bopp, Michael, Judy Bopp. Recreating the World: A Practical Guide to Building Sustainable Communities. Cochrane: Four Worlds Press, 2011.

First Nations Public Service Initiative.  First Nation Administrator: Primary Duties and Core Competencies.  Vancouver: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2003.

First Nations Summit.  Capacity Assessment for First Nations: A Guidebook, Survey Instrument and Model Resource Plan.  North Vancouver: First Nations Summit.

Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development

Kaner, Sam. Facilitator’s Guide to Particpatory Decision-Making. San Francisco: Community At Work, 2007.

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.  Good Public Works Management in First Nations Communities: Building Capacity for Sound Public Works in First Nations Communities: A Planning Handbook.  Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000.

McBride, John, Graham MacDonell, Charlene Smoke and Colin Sanderson.  Rebuilding First Nations: Tools, Traditions and Relationships.  Burnaby, BC: Community Economic Development Centre at Simon Fraser University, 2002.

Phillips, Darrell. Moving Toward a Stronger Future: An Aboriginal Resource Guide for Community Development. Wanipigow: Little Black Bear & Associates, 2011.

2) Community Assessment and Program Planning

Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, BC Region. A Practical Guide to Housing: How to Access Housing Subsidies.  Ottawa: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2010.

BC Assembly of First Nations.  BC AFN Governance Toolkit: A Guide to Nation Building.  Vancouver: BC Assembly of First Nations, 2012.

Centre for Innovative and Entrepreneurial Leadership (CIEL) Community Life Cycle Matrix —

First Nations Working Group on Performance Measurement and Departmental Audit and Evaluation Branch, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.  First Nation Self-Evaluation of Community Programs: A Guidebook on Performance Measurement.  Canada: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1998. 

SWOT Analysis Tools

3) Data Collection and Mapping

Aberley, Doug, ed.  Boundaries of Home: Mapping for Local Empowerment.  Gabriola Island, BC: New Catalyst, 1993.

National Aboriginal Forestry Association, Natural Resources Canada and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. National Aboriginal Forest Resource and Land Management Guidelines: A Community Approach. Ottawa: Natural Resources Canada, and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1995.

Tobias, Terry. Chief Kerry's Moose: a guidebook to land use and occupancy mapping, research design and data collection. Union of BC Indian Chiefs and Ecotrust Canada, 2000.

Aboriginal Mapping Network

4) Community Development and Planning

British Columbia Energy Aware Committee.  A Tool Kit for Community Energy Planning in BC.  Vancouver: British Columbia Energy Aware Committee, 2006.

British Columbia Energy Aware Committee.  Community Energy & Emissions Planning: A Guide for BC Local Governments.  Vancouver: British Columbia Energy Aware Committee, 2008.

British Columbia Ministry of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation.  A Guide to Aboriginal Organizations and Services in British Columbia. Victoria: Ministry of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation, 2011.

Canada Green Building Council. Sustainable Communities Toolkit. Vancouver: Canada Green Building Council, 2012.

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.  Practices of Sustainable Communities. Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 2003.

The Community Planning Resources Website

The Community Planning Website

Dalhousie University.  First Nations Community Planning Model and Workbook.  Halifax:  Cities and Environment Unit, Faculty of Architecture and Planning, Dalhousie University, 2003

Frank, Flo and Anne Smith.  The Community Development Handbook: A Tool to Build Community Capacity.  Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1999.

Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.  First Nations Communications Toolkit.  Ottawa: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2011.

Lewis, Mike and Frank Green.  Strategic Planning for the Community Economic Development Practitioner.  Vancouver: Westcoast Development Group, 1992.

Palermo, Frank, ed.  A Vision of the Future: Public Involvement in Community Planning.  Halifax: Dalhousie University Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urban and Rural Planning, 2000.

Palermo, Frank, ed.  Wamatcook: Ideas Toward a Community Plan.  Halifax: Dalhousie University Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urban and Rural Planning, 2000.

Palermo, Frank, ed.  Bear River Resource Project.  Halifax: Dalhousie University Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urban and Rural Planning, 2000.

Planning Ourselves In Group.  Planning Ourselves In: Women and the Community Planning Process: A Tool Kit for Women and Planners.  Burnaby: Planning Ourselves in Group, 1994.

Selkregg, Sheila A.  Community Strategic Plan Guide and Form: A Straightforward Way to Get What You Need.  Palmer, AK: U.S. Department of Agriculture-Rural Development, 2001.


Action Plan / Work Plan

Proposals for action, often in the form of a list of steps required, who should take them, and when.

Business Plans

The business plan is a written document that details a proposed or existing venture.  It seeks to capture the vision, goals, current status, expected needs, defined markets and projected results of the business.  Development of the business plan helps to clarify the organization's plans and direction.

Community Analysis

A collection, synthesis, and analysis of community data, employing a type of SWOT analysis.  Analysis includes identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and causes in key planning areas of governance, lands and resources, health, social, culture, economy, and infrastructure development.

Community Endorsement

Through a method best suited to a community, such as through a vote, three-reading process, or other mechanism, the community endorses the final version of the Comprehensive Community Plan.

Community Engagement

Different methods of engagement to gather community members' views and priorities can be used, such as dialogue sessions, consultation, outreach, kitchen meetings, and interviews.

Comprehensive Community Planning (CCP)

Comprehensive community planning is a holistic process that enables a community to build a roadmap to sustainability, self-sufficiency and improved governance capacity.  It is a new approach to planning, where the process is steered by the community rather than a small group or committee.

Community Profiling

Method of reaching an understanding of the needs and resources of a community with the active involvement of the community.

Community Visioning

Thinking collectively about what the future could be for a community.  Term used to describe group working processes which help a community to develop shared visions for the future of a site, area or organization.

Development Plan

Document that sets out, in writing and/or in maps and diagrams, the policies and proposals for the development and use of land and buildings in a community.

Emergency Planning

All aspects of planning for, and responding to, emergencies including natural disasters, fires and other emergency situations that may affect a whole community.

Environmental Impact Assessment

Process where all the potential impacts a development will have on the environment are identified and their significance assessed.  This is increasingly becoming a statutory requirement before planning permission is granted by a local authority.

Feasibility Study

Examination of the viability of an idea or approach, typically resulting in a report.

Focus Group

Small group of people who work through an issue in workshop sessions.


Big picture, results-oriented statements about what a community or organization wants to achieve in fulfilling its mission and mandate.

Governance Structures

The way a community organizes itself to best meet the needs of its citizens.  Governance structures include the political bodies (typically Chief and Council, Boards of Directors), administration (staff), arms-length entities (Health or Treaty Societies), and community groups.

Indian Land Registry System

Database managed by Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada containing information on all related registered land instruments, such as designations, surrenders, permits, and Certificates of Possession.


Measures used to track progress on achieving results.  Indicators for community plans typically work best, and are most meaningful, when they are chosen by the community.

Land Use Plan

A land use plan designates the general location and intensity of a particular use, and is composed of detailed maps and written text.  This plan can be used for policy and bylaw development governing uses.


A drawing representing a surface or area, used to support decision-making in planning processes.  Typical maps used in a planning process are base maps, outlining current land use and infrastructure; resource maps (including topographical, aerial photographs, traditional use maps); and land status maps, such as those available through the Registry Index Plans (RIPS).


Physical plotting of various characteristics of an area in two dimensions.  May be done individually or communally.


Stepping stones for achieving goals.  They should contain measurable targets that can be evaluated.  They should be able to meet the S.M.A.R.T test: specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and realistic time period, for achieving results.

Official Community Plan

In British Columbia, the legislative requirement for municipalities to have community plans.

Performance Measures

Measures that track progress on achieving results.  Performance measures should be clearly defined and reliable, and help to determine if progress is being made toward desired results.

Public Forum

Public meeting with an emphasis on debate and discussion.


The effect arising from something or the benefit from a course of action.

Resource Survey

Survey to identify local resources, including people, organizations, finance and equipment, among others.

Risk Assessment

Examination of risks arising from one course of action versus another course of action.  Forms the basis for risk reduction and mitigation, including recommendations on communication activities, and financial and planning best practices.

Skills Inventory

Assessment of available skills and talent, also known as a skills audit or skills survey.

Strategic Plan

A plan setting out how a community or organization will achieve its missions, goals and objectives over the long term.


Mechanisms and processes for goals to be attained.

SWOT Analysis

Determination of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats affecting a community or organization's ability to achieve its vision and mission.

Traditional Use Study

A study documenting traditional uses of an area over an extended period of time, including information based on interviews conducted with community members and research from historical documents.  Can be part of baseline information for a community aspiring to develop a community plan.


Set of beliefs or standards that an organization or community believes in and operates from.  Values guide day-to-day operations, linking operations and long term direction.

Vision Statement

Identifies the future ideal state of where the organization or community intends to be.


This is the third edition of the CCP Handbook. We welcome your feedback — please contact us with comments and suggestions at:


Community Initiatives Manager
Community Development
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
Canada, BC Region
600-1138 Melville Street,
Vancouver, BC
V6E 4S3

Phone: (604) 775-5110
Toll free: 1-800-567-9604
Fax: (604) 775-7149

Date of Printing: September 2016
Version: 3rd edition

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