Kindergarten to grade 12 operating expenditures 2013-2014 overview
In 2013-2014, Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) invested approximately $1.58 billion to support the delivery of kindergarten to grade 12 (K-12) education for First Nations students ordinarily living on reserve. In addition, $102 million was invested in First Nation education infrastructure for capital projects, targeted projects, and salary/administration expenses (consult the National First Nations Consolidated Infrastructure Investment Report 2013-14 for more information).
INAC has updated its calculation approach for 2013-2014. In comparison to the investments in K-12 education reported for 2012-2013, this overview now includes funding provided for the operations and maintenance of school buildings, but excludes funding for elementary and secondary education provided through self-government agreements, such as the Mi'kmaw Kina'matnewey Education Agreement and the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement.
The $1.58 billion for 2013-2014 included:
- $1.38 billion for elementary and secondary instructional services, student support services and proposal-based and targeted programs (such as the New Paths for Education Program, First Nation Student Success Program, Education Partnerships Program and High-Cost Special Education Program)
- $112 million to operate and maintain school facilities
- an estimated $92 million to support kindergarten to grade 12 teachers and staff through Band Support Funding and Employee Benefits related to education services
Beyond this overview on K-12 operating expenditures, INAC also publically reports investments in First Nations education through its Departmental Performance Report (DPR). The DPR provides details on actual expenditures and results achieved against departmental plans, priorities and expected results as set out in INAC's Report on Plans and Priorities. INAC education expenditures and results are reported under Program 2.1: Education. Total funding through INAC's elementary and secondary programs is reported under Sub-program 2.1.1. The total for 2014-15 is $1,447,231,645 and includes departmental salary and operation expenses for these programs. The difference between the 2014-2015 DPR total and the Kindergarten to grade 12 operating expenditures 2013-2014 overview total does not represent a decrease in funding. It simply reflects the different methodologies used. The main difference is that the DPR total excludes funding for operating and maintaining First Nation school facilities and for funding through Employee Benefits and Band Support Funding, which are broad departmental programs supporting local First Nation governance and administration.
Federal investments in K-12 education supported about 108,000 First Nation students, ordinarily resident on reserve, in their elementary or secondary education. Considering that a number of these students attended school part-time (such as many kindergarten students), 103,471 full-time equivalent (FTE) students received support in 2013-2014. About 65 percent of these students (67,391 FTEs) attended First Nation-operated schools located on reserve and 33 percent (34,623 FTEs) attended provincially-operated or private schools. The remaining one percent of students (1,457 FTEs) attended federally-operated schools. There are also a number of students from communities under self-government agreements that are not included in the total count above (consult Enrolment to find out more).
On a per capita basis, INAC provided about $15,290 per FTE student in 2013-2014 for K-12 education operating expenditures. This calculation does not include an investment of an additional $102 million in education facilities on reserve. The per-student averages calculated below vary across the country, and any funding comparisons must consider the factors that influence per-student funding levels in order to be meaningful (consult Per Student K-12 to find out more).
INAC provides funding to First Nations, tribal councils, and regional First Nation educational service organizations who all share some responsibility for administering and delivering elementary and secondary education to students living on reserve. INAC investments in First Nations education for students living on reserve are made through a number of programs that are allocated as core, proposal-based, or targeted funding.
- Core funding: Core funding reflects the majority of investments and supports basic classroom and school operations including paying education staff (principals, teachers, administrators, and other staff), classroom and school supplies, operating and maintaining schools, guidance and counselling, bussing and other services to students, and paying tuition fees. In general, regional offices allocate core funding to First Nations or organizations designated by First Nations that are responsible for managing and delivering education programs and services. Funding levels are most often formula-based and seek to respond to the costs of operating schools based on student population, geographic location, school size, etc. Funding levels are also driven by tuition rates for students attending provincial schools or private schools.
- Proposal-based funding: Proposal-based funding supports defined and often time-limited projects where funding levels respond to proposals submitted by First Nations, tribal councils, or regional First Nation educational service organizations.
- Targeted funding: Targeted funding supports very specific initiatives or needs. These investments have their own program terms and conditions, and often include reporting requirements.
The circle graph, two tables, bar graph and chart below provide more details about K-12 operating expenditures for 2013-2014.
Description of 2013-2014 K-12 Operating Expenditures for First Nations Education
The above graphic presents a percentage breakdown of INAC K-12 operating expenditures for 2013-2014 by program. Programs are also grouped by whether they are allocated as core, proposal-based, or targeted funding.
INAC K-12 operating expenditures for 2013-2014 by program and percent share of total investments are as follows, in descending order of allocation amount:
- Instructional Services provides core funding and accounts for 60 percent of total expenditures
- Student Support Services provides core funding and accounts for 9 percent of total expenditures
- The High-Cost Special Education Program provides targeted funding and accounts for 8 percent of total expenditures
- Operations and Maintenance of Education Infrastructure provides core funding and accounts for 7 percent of total expenditures
- The estimated proportion of Employee Benefits and Band Support Funding that relates to education is provided as core funding and accounts for 6 percent of total expenditures
- The First Nation Student Success Program provides proposal-based funding and accounts for 6 percent of total expenditures
- The New Paths for Education Program provides proposal-based funding and accounts for 3 percent of total expenditures
- The Education Partnerships Program provides proposal-based funding and accounts for 1 percent of total expenditures
The tables below provide a breakdown of the FTE student enrolment by region and INAC K-12 expenditures which include all of the programs in the pie chart above. $102 million in additional investments for First Nations education infrastructure is not included in per student figures.
|First Nation-operated schools||4,712||10,599||15,975||16,012||12,451||6,094||1,550||67,391|
|Total FTE students||13,007||17,817||19,161||21,845||20,245||8,260||3,136||103,471|
|Note: Figures may not add up due to rounding. FTE counts do not include students under self-government agreements.|
|(A)Total K-12 operating expenditures (in $ millions)||$220.6||$266.9||$265.4||$308.6||$332.1||$132.4||$52.7||$1,582.1|
|(B) Total FTE students||13,007||17,817||19,161||21,845||20,245||8,260||3,136||103,471|
| Per student K-12 operating expenditures
(A ÷ B)
| Note: Figures may not add up due to rounding. Per-student elementary/secondary expenditures do not include capital, targeted and salary/administration investments in First Nations education infrastructure ($102 million).
*The All provinces total includes the centrally-managed portion of funding under the New Paths for Education Program ($3.5 million).
Description of INAC K-12 operating expenditures (2008-09 to 2013-14)
The above graphic presents INAC's investments in First Nation K-12 education on reserve, by fiscal year, from 2008-2009 to 2013-2014. It also outlines the year-over-year percentage increases to this funding over the same period.
INAC investments in First Nation K-12 education on reserve, by fiscal year, between 2008-09 and 2013-2014 and the percentage funding increases between years are as follows:
- Fiscal Year 2008-2009: Investment of $1.369 billion
- Fiscal Year 2009-2010: Investment of $1.428 billion, representing an increase of 4.4 percent from the previous year
- Fiscal Year 2010-2011: Investment of $1.461 billion, representing an increase of 2.3 percent from the previous year
- Fiscal Year 2011-2012: Investment of $1.498 billion, representing an increase of 2.5 percent from the previous year
- Fiscal Year 2012-2013: Investment of $1.544 billion, representing an increase of 3.1 percent from the previous year
- Fiscal Year 2013-2014: Investment of $1.582 billion, representing an increase of 2.5 percent from the previous year
- Taking into account all of these year-over-year increases, the total increase in funding from fiscal year 2008-2009 to the end of fiscal year 2013-2014 amounts to 15.6 percent
Differences between the Kindergarten to grade 12 operating expenditures 2013-2014 overview and the 2014-2015 Departmental Performance Report
The Kindergarten to grade 12 operating expenditures 2013-2014 overview and the 2014-2015 Departmental Performance Report use different methodologies and count different expenditures. The chart below provides more details.
|Elementary and secondary education||2014-2015 DPR Elementary/Secondary Sub-program 2.1.1|| 2013-2014
K-12 operating expenditures
|Departmental salaries and operating costs||included||not included|
|Elementary/secondary Instructional Services||included||included|
|Elementary/secondary student support services||included||included|
|New Paths for Education||included||included|
|First Nations Student Success Program||included||included|
|Education Partnerships Program||included||included|
|Education Information System||included||not included|
|High-Cost Special Education Program||included||included|
|First Nation and Inuit Cultural Education Centres Program||included||not included|
|Inuit Cultural Education Centres Grant Program||included||not included|
|First Nations and Inuit Summer Work Experience Program||included||not included|
|First Nations and Inuit Skills Link Program||included||not included|
|First Nations governments||2014-2015 DPR First Nation Governments Sub-program 1.1.1|| 2013-2014
K-12 operating expenditures
|Band Support Funding*||included||included|
|Professional and Institutional Development Program||included||not included|
|*The 2013-2014 K-12 operating expenditures amount only includes the estimated amount of Band Support Funding and Employee Benefits for education-related expenditures|
|Education facilities||2014-2015 DPR Education Facilities Sub-program 3.4.2||2013-2014
K-12 operating expenditures
|Operations and maintenance||included||included|
|Targeted allocations||included||not included|
|Departmental salary & administration||included||not included|
Financial data: All financial data are sourced from INAC's Integrated Financial System. Amounts include expenses for teachers and staff at federally-operated schools and also reflect total expenditures transferred by INAC to First Nations and other partners for the purposes of supporting elementary and secondary education for eligible First Nation students ordinarily resident on reserve attending First Nation-operated, provincially-operated, and private/independent schools. Figures include funding to support instructional services, student support services, New Paths for Education programming, the First Nation Student Success Program, the Education Partnerships Program, the High-Cost Special Education Program, the estimated amount of Employee Benefits and Band Support Funding for K-12 education staff, and the operation and maintenance of education facilities.
Enrolment: Student numbers are derived from the INAC Nominal Roll for the 2013-2014 school year. The Nominal Roll, a registry of the number of students residing on reserve who attend school on and off reserve, is collected annually by First Nations and sent to INAC's regional offices. Figures for British Columbia include 40 FTEs (and associated expenditures) residing and attending school in Northern BC but who are funded through the INAC regional office in the Yukon.
Federal schools: There are seven federally-operated schools serving First Nations in Canada. Of these, five (JC Hill Senior Elementary School, Emily C. General School, Oliver Smith-Kawenni Io Elementary School, IL Thomas Odadrihonyani'ta' School, and Jamieson Elementary School) serve the Six Nations of the Grand River in Ontario, one (Quinte Mohawk School) serves the Tyendinaga Mohawk in Ontario and one (Legoff School) serves the Cold Lake First Nations in Alberta. Federal schools are located on reserve but are administered by the INAC regional offices in Ontario and Alberta, at the request of First Nations.
Per student K-12 operating expenditures: Calculations of per-student elementary/secondary expenditures are included for illustrative purposes only at a provincial level. Calculations include those funds allocated for the maintenance of education facilities but not the construction or renovation of education facilities or funding for departmental administration and salaries with respect to education infrastructure. Per-student funding averages vary across the country and any funding comparisons must consider factors such as the type of school or organization ( First Nation-operated schools, provincially-operated schools off reserve, federally-operated schools on reserve, private schools on or off reserves or First Nations education organizations), the student population, and the geographic location of schools and students, all of which influence funding levels.
The following education-related expenditures have been excluded from the per capita calculation:
- Funding provided under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and Northeastern Quebec Agreement and the Mi'kmaw Kina'matnewey Education Agreement. The FTE students associated with the Education Agreements are also not included in the figures provided
- FTE students or related education funding provided under comprehensive self-government arrangements
- Funding for post-secondary education
- Funding for First Nation and Inuit Cultural Education Centres and the First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy as only a portion of these funds support elementary/secondary students
- Capital, targeted and salary/administration investments in First Nations education infrastructure ($102 million), consult the National First Nations Consolidated Infrastructure Investment Report 2013-2014 for more information
- INAC Headquarters and INAC Regional Offices salaries and operations costs (with the exception of those going to support federal schools)
- Funding provided to support education-related activities through the Professional and Institutional Development Program or Tribal Council Funding
All data reflect the best and most recent available at the time of publication. For any questions, please contact Infopubs@aadnc-aandc.gc.ca.
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