Kindergarten to grade 12 operating expenditures 2013-2014 overview

In 2013-2014, Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) invested approximately $1.58 billion to support the delivery of kindergarten to grade 12 (K-12) education for First Nations students ordinarily living on reserve. In addition, $102 million was invested in First Nation education infrastructure for capital projects, targeted projects, and salary/administration expenses (consult the National First Nations Consolidated Infrastructure Investment Report 2013-14 for more information).

INAC has updated its calculation approach for 2013-2014. In comparison to the investments in K-12 education reported for 2012-2013, this overview now includes funding provided for the operations and maintenance of school buildings, but excludes funding for elementary and secondary education provided through self-government agreements, such as the Mi'kmaw Kina'matnewey Education Agreement and the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement.

The $1.58 billion for 2013-2014 included:

Beyond this overview on K-12 operating expenditures, INAC also publically reports investments in First Nations education through its Departmental Performance Report (DPR). The DPR provides details on actual expenditures and results achieved against departmental plans, priorities and expected results as set out in INAC's Report on Plans and Priorities. INAC education expenditures and results are reported under Program 2.1: Education. Total funding through INAC's elementary and secondary programs is reported under Sub-program 2.1.1. The total for 2014-15 is $1,447,231,645 and includes departmental salary and operation expenses for these programs. The difference between the 2014-2015 DPR total and the Kindergarten to grade 12 operating expenditures 2013-2014 overview total does not represent a decrease in funding. It simply reflects the different methodologies used. The main difference is that the DPR total excludes funding for operating and maintaining First Nation school facilities and for funding through Employee Benefits and Band Support Funding, which are broad departmental programs supporting local First Nation governance and administration.

Federal investments in K-12 education supported about 108,000 First Nation students, ordinarily resident on reserve, in their elementary or secondary education. Considering that a number of these students attended school part-time (such as many kindergarten students), 103,471 full-time equivalent (FTE) students received support in 2013-2014. About 65 percent of these students (67,391 FTEs) attended First Nation-operated schools located on reserve and 33 percent (34,623 FTEs) attended provincially-operated or private schools. The remaining one percent of students (1,457 FTEs) attended federally-operated schools. There are also a number of students from communities under self-government agreements that are not included in the total count above (consult Enrolment to find out more).

On a per capita basis, INAC provided about $15,290 per FTE student in 2013-2014 for K-12 education operating expenditures. This calculation does not include an investment of an additional $102 million in education facilities on reserve. The per-student averages calculated below vary across the country, and any funding comparisons must consider the factors that influence per-student funding levels in order to be meaningful (consult Per Student K-12 to find out more).

INAC provides funding to First Nations, tribal councils, and regional First Nation educational service organizations who all share some responsibility for administering and delivering elementary and secondary education to students living on reserve. INAC investments in First Nations education for students living on reserve are made through a number of programs that are allocated as core, proposal-based, or targeted funding.

The circle graph, two tables, bar graph and chart below provide more details about K-12 operating expenditures for 2013-2014.

2013-2014 K-12 Operating Expenditures for First Nations Education – $1.58 billion
2013-2014 K-12 Operating Expenditures for First Nations Education
Description of 2013-2014 K-12 Operating Expenditures for First Nations Education

The above graphic presents a percentage breakdown of INAC K-12 operating expenditures for 2013-2014 by program. Programs are also grouped by whether they are allocated as core, proposal-based, or targeted funding.

INAC K-12 operating expenditures for 2013-2014 by program and percent share of total investments are as follows, in descending order of allocation amount:

  • Instructional Services provides core funding and accounts for 60 percent of total expenditures
  • Student Support Services provides core funding and accounts for 9 percent of total expenditures
  • The High-Cost Special Education Program provides targeted funding and accounts for 8 percent of total expenditures
  • Operations and Maintenance of Education Infrastructure provides core funding and accounts for 7 percent of total expenditures
  • The estimated proportion of Employee Benefits and Band Support Funding that relates to education is provided as core funding and accounts for 6 percent of total expenditures
  • The First Nation Student Success Program provides proposal-based funding and accounts for 6 percent of total expenditures
  • The New Paths for Education Program provides proposal-based funding and accounts for 3 percent of total expenditures
  • The Education Partnerships Program provides proposal-based funding and accounts for 1 percent of total expenditures

The tables below provide a breakdown of the FTE student enrolment by region and INAC K-12 expenditures which include all of the programs in the pie chart above. $102 million in additional investments for First Nations education infrastructure is not included in per student figures.

Table 1: First Nations K-12 education: Number of FTE students by type of school (2013-2014)
  BC AB SK MB ON QC Atlantic All provinces
First Nation-operated schools 4,712 10,599 15,975 16,012 12,451 6,094 1,550 67,391
Provincial schools 7,587 6,883 3,186 5,657 5,880 1,815 1,561 32,567
Private schools 708 242 1 176 552 352 26 2,056
Federal schools - 94 - - 1,363 - - 1,457
Total FTE students 13,007 17,817 19,161 21,845 20,245 8,260 3,136 103,471
Note: Figures may not add up due to rounding. FTE counts do not include students under self-government agreements.
 
Table 2: First Nations K-12 education operating expenditures: Funding breakdown per FTE student (2013-2014)
  BC AB SK MB ON QC Atlantic All provinces*
(A)Total K-12 operating expenditures (in $ millions) $220.6 $266.9 $265.4 $308.6 $332.1 $132.4 $52.7 $1,582.1
(B) Total FTE students 13,007 17,817 19,161 21,845 20,245 8,260 3,136 103,471
Per student K-12 operating expenditures
(A ÷ B)
$16,960 $14,982 $13,849 $14,125 $16,402 $16,026 $16,814 $15,290
Note: Figures may not add up due to rounding. Per-student elementary/secondary expenditures do not include capital, targeted and salary/administration investments in First Nations education infrastructure ($102 million).

*The All provinces total includes the centrally-managed portion of funding under the New Paths for Education Program ($3.5 million).
 
INAC K-12 operating expenditures (2008-2009 to 2013-2014)
INAC K-12 Operating Expenditures (2008-2009 to 2013-2014)
Description of INAC K-12 operating expenditures (2008-09 to 2013-14)

The above graphic presents INAC's investments in First Nation K-12 education on reserve, by fiscal year, from 2008-2009 to 2013-2014. It also outlines the year-over-year percentage increases to this funding over the same period.

INAC investments in First Nation K-12 education on reserve, by fiscal year, between 2008-09 and 2013-2014 and the percentage funding increases between years are as follows:

  • Fiscal Year 2008-2009: Investment of $1.369 billion
  • Fiscal Year 2009-2010: Investment of $1.428 billion, representing an increase of 4.4 percent from the previous year
  • Fiscal Year 2010-2011: Investment of $1.461 billion, representing an increase of 2.3 percent from the previous year
  • Fiscal Year 2011-2012: Investment of $1.498 billion, representing an increase of 2.5 percent from the previous year
  • Fiscal Year 2012-2013: Investment of $1.544 billion, representing an increase of 3.1 percent from the previous year
  • Fiscal Year 2013-2014: Investment of $1.582 billion, representing an increase of 2.5 percent from the previous year
  • Taking into account all of these year-over-year increases, the total increase in funding from fiscal year 2008-2009 to the end of fiscal year 2013-2014 amounts to 15.6 percent

Differences between the Kindergarten to grade 12 operating expenditures 2013-2014 overview and the 2014-2015 Departmental Performance Report

The Kindergarten to grade 12 operating expenditures 2013-2014 overview and the 2014-2015 Departmental Performance Report use different methodologies and count different expenditures. The chart below provides more details.

Elementary and secondary education 2014-2015 DPR Elementary/Secondary Sub-program 2.1.1 2013-2014
K-12 operating expenditures
Departmental salaries and operating costs included not included
Elementary/secondary Instructional Services included included
Elementary/secondary student support services included included
New Paths for Education included included
First Nations Student Success Program included included
Education Partnerships Program included included
Education Information System included not included
High-Cost Special Education Program included included
First Nation and Inuit Cultural Education Centres Program included not included
Inuit Cultural Education Centres Grant Program included not included
First Nations and Inuit Summer Work Experience Program included not included
First Nations and Inuit Skills Link Program included not included
Totals $1,447,231,645 $1,377,376,968
 
First Nations governments 2014-2015 DPR First Nation Governments Sub-program 1.1.1 2013-2014
K-12 operating expenditures
Band Support Funding* included included
Employee Benefits* included included
Professional and Institutional Development Program included not included
Totals $377,083,774 $92,422,817
*The 2013-2014 K-12 operating expenditures amount only includes the estimated amount of Band Support Funding and Employee Benefits for education-related expenditures
 
Education facilities 2014-2015 DPR Education Facilities Sub-program 3.4.2 2013-2014
K-12 operating expenditures
Capital included not included
Operations and maintenance included included
Targeted allocations included not included
Departmental salary & administration included not included
Totals $262,681,235 $112,292,012

Explanatory notes:

Financial data: All financial data are sourced from INAC's Integrated Financial System. Amounts include expenses for teachers and staff at federally-operated schools and also reflect total expenditures transferred by INAC to First Nations and other partners for the purposes of supporting elementary and secondary education for eligible First Nation students ordinarily resident on reserve attending First Nation-operated, provincially-operated, and private/independent schools. Figures include funding to support instructional services, student support services, New Paths for Education programming, the First Nation Student Success Program, the Education Partnerships Program, the High-Cost Special Education Program, the estimated amount of Employee Benefits and Band Support Funding for K-12 education staff, and the operation and maintenance of education facilities.

Enrolment: Student numbers are derived from the INAC Nominal Roll for the 2013-2014 school year. The Nominal Roll, a registry of the number of students residing on reserve who attend school on and off reserve, is collected annually by First Nations and sent to INAC's regional offices. Figures for British Columbia include 40 FTEs (and associated expenditures) residing and attending school in Northern BC but who are funded through the INAC regional office in the Yukon.

Federal schools: There are seven federally-operated schools serving First Nations in Canada. Of these, five (JC Hill Senior Elementary School, Emily C. General School, Oliver Smith-Kawenni Io Elementary School, IL Thomas Odadrihonyani'ta' School, and Jamieson Elementary School) serve the Six Nations of the Grand River in Ontario, one (Quinte Mohawk School) serves the Tyendinaga Mohawk in Ontario and one (Legoff School) serves the Cold Lake First Nations in Alberta. Federal schools are located on reserve but are administered by the INAC regional offices in Ontario and Alberta, at the request of First Nations.

Per student K-12 operating expenditures: Calculations of per-student elementary/secondary expenditures are included for illustrative purposes only at a provincial level. Calculations include those funds allocated for the maintenance of education facilities but not the construction or renovation of education facilities or funding for departmental administration and salaries with respect to education infrastructure. Per-student funding averages vary across the country and any funding comparisons must consider factors such as the type of school or organization ( First Nation-operated schools, provincially-operated schools off reserve, federally-operated schools on reserve, private schools on or off reserves or First Nations education organizations), the student population, and the geographic location of schools and students, all of which influence funding levels.

The following education-related expenditures have been excluded from the per capita calculation:

All data reflect the best and most recent available at the time of publication. For any questions, please contact Infopubs@aadnc-aandc.gc.ca.

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