The Community Well-Being Index: Report on Trends in First Nations Communities, 1981-2011

Author: Strategic Research Directorate Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
Date: April 2015
QS-Y396-000-EE-A1
Catalogue: R3-170/2-2014E-PDF
ISBN: 978-1-100-25129-5

Suggested Citation:
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. (2015). The Community Well-Being Index: Well-Being in First Nations Communities, 1981-2011. Ottawa: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development.

Table of contents

Executive Summary

The Community Well-Being (CWB) index is a means of measuring socio-economic well-being in First Nations, Inuit and non-Aboriginal communities. The CWB index combines data on income, education, housing and labour force activity into well-being "scores" for most communities in Canada. These scores are used to compare well-being across First Nations and Inuit communities with the well-being of non-Aboriginal communities. CWB index scores were calculated for 1981, 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006, based on Canada's Census of PopulationFootnote 1 . Scores for 2011 have been calculated based on the 2011 National Household SurveyFootnote 2 .

This paper examines First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities only. An analysis of Inuit communities is covered in a separate report.

Average Community Well-Being (CWB) scores for First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities increased slowly but steadily between 1981 and 2011.

The CWB gap between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities is substantial. In 2011, the average CWB score for First Nations communities was 20 points lower than the average score for non-Aboriginal communities. This gap is the same size as it was in 1981.

During the 1990s, First Nations communities improved slightly faster than non-Aboriginal communities and the gap narrowed. Those reductions in the gap were largely undone when non-Aboriginal communities improved more than First Nations communities between 2001 and 2006.

The widening of the CWB gap that occurred between 2001 and 2006 was partially driven by a jump in non-Aboriginal communities' high school completion rates. This jump should be interpreted with caution: the education questions on the census were changed in 2006, reducing the comparability of 2006 education data with data from previous censuses.

Nevertheless, the narrowing of the gap that occurred during the 1990s did not resume after 2006. Between 2006 and 2011, First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities improved at similar rates and the CWB gap was relatively stable.

The gaps between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities vary by CWB component, and each component has undergone different changes over time. First Nations communities' largest improvements since 1981 were in the areas of income and education.

First Nations in the Prairies have the lowest average CWB scores. Although the relative disadvantage of Prairie First Nations has increased over time, First Nations in Alberta and Saskatchewan improved more than First Nations in other regions between 2006 and 2011.

The gaps between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities and the regional disparities in First Nations community well-being are important. As important, however, is the large amount of variability in well-being among First Nations communities. While some have very low CWB scores, others score at or above the non-Aboriginal average.

Background

"First Nations" refer to one of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada (the others being Inuit and Métis). First Nations is a general term that encompasses over 50 distinct nations and language groups across the country. As the original inhabitants of much of what is now Canada, First Nations have unique relationships with the Crown. These relationships are shaped by a variety of treaties, agreements and legislation, including the Royal Proclamation of 1763, numerous signed Treaties and the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, (AFN 2014).

Just over 900,000 First Nations individuals were recorded in the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), including 697,510 Registered Indians and 213,900 non-Status Indians. About 45% of Registered Indians live in First Nations communities which are located in all provinces and territories except for Nunavut.

Along with other Aboriginal groups, First Nations lag behind non-Aboriginal Canadians on many socio-economic indicators, including education, income and employment (AANDC 2010).

In 1999, in an effort to augment and contextualize anecdotal information and qualitative research, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) began to develop systematic quantitative measures of well-being for First Nations and Inuit peoples. The first such measure was the Registered Indian Human Development Index (Registered Indian HDI), modelled after the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI defines well-being in terms of educational attainment, income and life expectancy. It has been used since 1990 to measure well-being in some 170 countries. Analyses of the Registered Indian HDI from 1981 to 2001 revealed that the well-being of Registered Indians had been increasing but remained lower than that of other Canadians (Cooke and Beavon, 2007). Anecdotal evidence, however, suggested that well-being varied greatly across Aboriginal communities and that the Registered Indian HDI, therefore, might provide an incomplete picture of well-being. The Community Well-Being (CWB) index was thus developed as a community-level complement to the national- and regional-level HDI for First Nations and Inuit communities in Canada.

The CWB index was developed to look at socio-economic well-being at the community level. Since community-level life expectancy estimates would be either unreliable or unavailable due to the small population size of communities, the index had to be modified from the original HDI. In addition, housing and labour force activity were identified as areas of concern in First Nations and Inuit communities and were thus introduced into the indexFootnote 3.

Methodology

Defining the CWB Index

A community's CWB index score is a single number that can range from a low of zero to a high of 100. It is composed of data on income, education, housing conditions and labour force activity. These components are described below. Complete details on the CWB methodology are provided in The Community Well-Being (CWB) Index: Methodological Details.

1) Income

The income component of the CWB index is defined in terms of total income per capita, in accordance with the following formula:

Text description of figure on the income component

The income score equals: open bracket, the log of income per capital minus the log of $2,000, divided by the log of $40,000 minus the log of $2,000, close bracket, multiplied by 100.

The formula maps each community's income per capita onto a theoretical range of income per capita. Doing so allows income per capita to be expressed as a percentage, which is the metric in which the other components of the index are naturally expressed. A range of $2,000 to $40,000 dollars was selected when the index was first calculated. This range was selected because it coincides with the approximate lowest and highest incomes per capita found in Canadian communities in 2001, which was the most recent year of data available at the time. In the few cases where a community's income per capita fell outside of this range, it was recoded to either $2,000 or $40,000. This range is evaluated each CWB cycle to ascertain its continued appropriateness.

Note that the formula converts dollars of income per capita into logarithms. This is done to account for the "diminishing marginal utility of income."  According to this principle, those who occupy lower income strata will benefit more from additional income than those at higher income levels (Cooke, 2007, p.29).

2) Education

The education component is composed of the following two variables:

  1. "High school plus": the proportion of a community's population, 20 years and over, that has obtained at least a high school certificate. For simplicity's sake, this proportion is often referred to in this document as "high school completion rate," even though it includes individuals who did not obtain a high school certificate, but did acquire a credential beyond the high school level.
  2. "University": the proportion of a community's population, 25 years and over, that has obtained a university degree at the bachelor's level or higher.

The high school plus variable accounts for two-thirds of the education component, while the university variable accounts for one third.

3) Housing

The housing component comprises equally-weighted indicators of housing quantity and quality:

  1. "Housing quantity": the proportion of the population living in a dwelling that contains no more than one person per room.
  2. "Housing quality": the proportion of the population living in a dwelling that is not in need of major repairs.

4) Labour Force Activity

The labour force activity component comprises the following equally-weighted variables:

  1. "Labour force participation": the proportion of the population, aged 20-65, that was involved in the labour force during the week preceding census day - i.e. Census reference week.
  2. "Employment": the percentage of labour force participants, aged 20-65, that was employed during Census reference week.

Availability of Data

CWB scores have been calculated for 1981, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011. Scores for 1986 were not calculated because information on dwelling conditions was not collected in the 1986 Census. CWB scores calculated from the censuses of 1981, 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006 are available for every community in Canada with a population of at least 65, that was not an incompletely enumerated reserveFootnote 4, and whose global non-response rateFootnote 5 was less than 25%Footnote 6. In addition, CWB component scores (i.e., income, education, housing and labour force activity scores) are available for communities containing at least 40 households and 250 individuals.

Data availability rules for the NHS-based CWB scores of 2011 are somewhat different. CWB scores are available for every community in Canada with a weighted population of at least 65 persons and at least 10 respondents. CWB component scores are available for communities with a weighted population of at least 250, provided the total number of individuals with income, as well as the sum of the two numerators in each of the education, labour force and housing components, was at least four unweighted and at least ten weighted.

Following the release criteria established by Statistics Canada, AANDC does not publish 2011 CWB scores for communities with a global non-response rate of 50% or higher, though these scores are included in aggregate calculations. CWB scores for these communities are available upon request (provided all other release criteria have been met), but they should be interpreted with caution.

Defining Communities

Communities are defined in terms of census subdivisions (CSDs). CSDs are municipalities or areas (such as Indian reserves) that are regarded as the equivalent of municipalities. For purposes of comparison, communities are categorized as First Nations communities, Inuit communities or Non-Aboriginal communities.

First Nations communities comprise those CSDs that Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) and Statistics Canada classify as "on-reserve," plus a selection of other CSDs in Northern Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory that are associated with a First Nation group and have a substantial First Nation population.

Inuit have completed land claims in four regions across Canada's north: Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut and the Inuvialuit region. For purposes of the CWB, communities are classified as Inuit communities if they fall within any of these regions.

CSDs that are neither First Nations nor Inuit communities are classified as non-Aboriginal communities. It is important to note that some non-Aboriginal communities have substantial Aboriginal populationsFootnote 7. It is also worth noting that others who use the CWB index may choose to classify communities in different ways. For example, one could reclassify non-Aboriginal communities with substantial Métis populations as Métis communities.

Comparing CWB Index Scores across Time

Four issues complicate the comparison of CWB scores across time. They are outlined below.

1) Inflation

Owing to inflation, the value of a dollar tends to decrease over time. To ensure that the CWB is measuring actual changes in income rather than the effects of inflation, income data from the 1981-2001 censuses and the 2011 NHS were adjusted using the Consumer Price Index. Since 2006 is the reference year for the CWB time series, no adjustment was required to those income data.

2) Missing Data

Scores for some communities are missing from some or all of the six CWB cycles (1981, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011). As indicated above, scores may be missing for a community in a given year because of non-participation in the Census, inadequate data quality or insufficient population size.

3) Changes in Community Boundaries

Communities can experience "boundary changes" between censuses. They can merge with other communities, divide into two or more communities, annex parts of other communities, etc. When this happens, it can be difficult to know what caused a change in a community's CWB index score from one CWB cycle to the next. If, for example, a community's score went from 70 in 1981 to 80 in 1991, this change might be the result of different things. If the community experienced a boundary change whereby it annexed part of another community, the improved CWB score could have been the result of a "real" change in the well-being of the original community, a consequence of higher well-being in the annexed area, or a combination of both.

Analyses based on 2006 data revealed that boundary changes had little effect on national or regional average CWB scores. While these averages may be safely compared across time, boundary changes can seriously impact the comparability of individual communities across timeFootnote 8.

4) Sampling ErrorFootnote 9

The CWB Indices of 1981-2006 were based on the "long form" of the census. These censuses were distributed to all households in First Nations, Inuit, and remote communities, and to a sample of 1/5 of households in other Canadian communities. The 2011 CWB index was based on the National Household Survey. It was distributed to all households in First Nations, Inuit and remote communities and to a sample of 1/3 of households in other Canadian communities.

For a sampled community, it is possible that a fluctuation (or lack thereof) in its CWB score from one CWB cycle to the next is the result of sampling error. It is difficult to ascertain the impact of sampling error on a given community's score in a given year, though impact generally decreases as the population of a community increases. Researchers are reminded to interpret individual communities' CWB scores with caution and to emphasize general trends rather than cycle-to-cycle fluctuations.

5) Non-Sampling ErrorFootnote 10

The type of non-sampling error that is most relevant to at least the most recent iteration of the CWB is non-response error. As indicated above, CWB indices constructed prior to 2011 were based on the long form of the Census of Canada. Because the census was mandatory, response rates were very high (e.g. 94% in 2006). The overall response rate for the voluntary NHS was lower (69% unweighted, 77% weighted) and response rates varied from community to community. Importantly, the First Nations and Inuit communities included in the 2011 CWB analysis had an average response rate of 82%.

Statistics Canada (Finès & Findlay, 2014) conducted analyses to determine whether the non-response error in the NHS undermined the validity of the CWB index. They determined that the quality of the 2011 CWB did not appear to have been adversely affected, but advised caution when looking at individual communities with small populations and/or high non-response rates. AANDC conducted additional analyses that reached the same conclusion. It is nonetheless important to note that Statistics Canada's standard cautions regarding the comparability of the voluntary NHS to previous mandatory censuses are generally applicable to the CWB.

6) Changes to the Education questions

In 2006, Statistics Canada changed the census questions related to education. First, the single question that had been used to capture educational attainment was replaced with a series of questions. Statistics Canada made the change "to address suspected underreporting of high school completions" (Statistics Canada, 2008). Second, the education questions were reformulated to focus on credentials obtained at the high school level and higher. Educational attainment that did not result in a credential (such as completion of elementary school or partial completion of high school or post-secondary programs) was no longer captured. Although education is defined in the exact same way in each iteration of the CWB, it is possible that the methodological changes introduced in 2006 impacted the comparability of 2001 and 2006 education scores. Specifically, these changes may have caused an artificially large jump in the average high school completion rate for non-Aboriginal communities between 2001 and 2006. This jump did not occur in First Nations or Inuit Communities' average scores. As a result, the education gaps between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities widened between 2001 and 2006. Although the widening of the education gap between 2001 and 2006 may have been a statistical artifact, it is notable that the narrowing of the gap that had been observed prior to 2001 did not resume after 2006.

Advantages and Limitations of the CWB Index

The CWB is a useful research tool. It has been used to examine the effect on well-being of a variety of factors including isolation, maternal health, income inequality and treaties (O'Sullivan 2012a; AANDC 2012; O'Sullivan 2012b; AANDC 2013). It is only one of many ways of measuring well-being, however, and users should be mindful of both its advantages and its limitations. The two are actually closely related.

The CWB was designed to fulfil four research objectives:

  1. to provide a systematic, reliable summary measure of socio-economic well-being for individual Canadian communities;
  2. to illustrate variations in well-being across First Nations and Inuit communities and how it compares to that of non-Aboriginal communities;
  3. to allow well-being to be tracked over time; and,
  4. to be compatible with other community-level data to facilitate a wide variety of research on the factors associated with well-being.

CWB developers quickly ascertained that the Census of Population was the only data source capable of fulfilling these research needs. However, using the Census and it successor, the NHS, also imposes some limitations on the CWB index.

First, the available indicators of well-being pertain mainly to socioeconomic well-being. Other equally important aspects of well-being are not addressed. Numerous attempts to quantify well-being have been made, and many composite indicators like the CWB have been developed. Although none of these measures can fulfill the research needs for which the CWB was designed, they highlight the variety of factors that may be regarded as constituting well-being. Physical and emotional health, cultural continuity and environmental conservation are three commonly employed indicators of well-being that are excluded from the CWB indexFootnote 11.

Second, the indicators used in the CWB may not fully capture the economic realities of some First Nations and Inuit communities. For example, many are still heavily involved in traditional economic pursuits. Such pursuits, despite contributing to material well-being, may not be reflected in the monetary income or paid employment captured by the CWB index.

Results

National Trends, 1981-2011

CWB Index Scores

Average Community Well-Being (CWB) scores for First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities increased slowly but steadily between 1981 and 2011 (Figure 1).

The CWB gap between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities is substantial. In 2011, the average CWB score for First Nations communities was 20 points lower than the average score for non-Aboriginal communities. This gap is the same size as it was in 1981.

During the 1990s, First Nations communities improved slightly faster than non-Aboriginal communities and the gap narrowed. Those reductions in the gap were largely undone when non-Aboriginal communities improved more than First Nations communities between 2001 and 2006.

The widening of the CWB gap that occurred between 2001 and 2006 was partially driven by a jump in non-Aboriginal communities' high school completion rates. This jump should be interpreted with caution: the education questions on the census were changed in 2006, reducing the comparability of 2006 education data with data from previous censuses.

Nevertheless, the narrowing of the gap that occurred during the 1990s did not resume after 2006. Between 2006 and 2011, First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities improved at similar rates and the CWB gap was relatively stable.

Figure 1: Average CWB Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 1 - Average CWB Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average Community Well-Being (CWB) index scores of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities across Canada from 1981 to 2011.

  • The average CWB index score in non-Aboriginal communities in Canada was 67 in 1981, 71 in 1991, 72 in 1996, 73 in 2001, 77 in 2006, and 79 in 2011.
  • The average CWB index score for First Nations communities was 47 in 1981, 51 in 1991, 55 in 1996, 57 in 2001, 57 in 2006, and 59 in 2011.

In addition to changes in average CWB scores, it is important to examine changes in individual communities' scores over time. This permits us to distinguish between a scenario wherein all communities experience "slow but steady" improvement in well-being and a scenario wherein communities experience erratic periods of "boom and bust"Footnote 12. Table 1 provides the percentages of communities whose CWB scores have increased or remained stableFootnote 13 in each intercensal periodFootnote 14. It indicates that, across community types in all intercensal periods, only a minority of communities experienced decline. Table 1 also indicates that, while more First Nations than non-Aboriginal communities' scores increased or remained stable between 1991 and 1996, the opposite was true in all the other intercensal periods.

Table 1: Percentages of First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities whose CWB Scores Remained Stable or Increased in Each Intercensal Period
Communities WhereCWB Scores Increased or Were Stable
Period First Nations Communities Non-Aboriginal Communities
Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.
1981-1991 77% (291/379) 90% (3969/4435)
1991-1996 82% (371/452) 71% (3146/4402)
1996-2001 71% (332/468) 83% (3012/3648)
2001-2006 64% (286/448) 90% (3402/3763)
2006-2011 64% (309/483) 81% (3008/3720)

The fact that most communities' scores increased during each intercensal period suggests that "slow but steady" improvement was typical of both First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities between 1981 and 2011. Figure 2 provides additional evidence. It displays the distribution of changes in communities' CWB scores between 2006 and 2011, demonstrating that very few communities fluctuated more than 10 points over that period. Similar distributions were observed for the other intercensal periods.

Figure 2: Change in Individual First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities’ CWB Scores, 2006-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 2 - Change in Individual First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities’ CWB Scores, 2006-2011

This bar graph compares the changes in individual scores for First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities on the Community Well-Being (CWB) index in Canada, between 2006 and 2011.

Between 2006 and 2011, the average CWB change for First Nations was 1.0 points.

Between 2006 and 2011, the average CWB change for non-Aboriginal comminities  was 1.9 points.

  • 0% of 483 First Nations communities lost between 26 and 30 points inclusively.
  • 0.21% of 483 First Nations communities lost between 21 and 25 points inclusively.
  • 0% of 483 First Nations communities lost between 16 and 20 points inclusively.
  • 0.41% of 483 First Nations communities lost between 11 and 15 points inclusively.
  • 6.83% of 483 First Nations communities lost between 6 and 10 points inclusively.
  • 28.57% of 483 First Nations communities lost between 1 and 5 points inclusively.
  • 43.06% of 483 First Nations communities gained between 0 and 4 points inclusively.
  • 16.36% of 483 First Nations communities gained between 5 and 9 points inclusively.
  • 4.14% of 483 First Nations communities gained between 10 and 14 points inclusively.
  • 0.41% of 483 First Nations communities gained between 15 and 19 points inclusively.
  • 0% of 483 First Nations communities gained between 20 and 24 points inclusively.
  • 0% of 483 First Nations communities gained between 25 and 29 points inclusively.
  • 0% of non-Aboriginal communities lost between 26 and 30 points inclusively.
  • 0% of non-Aboriginal communities lost between 21 and 25 points inclusively.
  • 0.05% of non-Aboriginal communities lost between 16 and 20 points inclusively.
  • 0.51% of non-Aboriginal communities lost between 11 and 15 points inclusively.
  • 2.12% of non-Aboriginal communities lost between 6 and 10 points inclusively.
  • 16.45% of non-Aboriginal communities lost between 1 and 5 points inclusively.
  • 61.26% of non-Aboriginal communities gained between 0 and 4 points inclusively.
  • 16.21% of non-Aboriginal communities gained between 5 and 9 points inclusively.
  • 2.9% of non-Aboriginal communities gained between 10 and 14 points inclusively.
  • 0.35% of non-Aboriginal communities gained between 15 and 19 points inclusively.
  • 0.11% of non-Aboriginal communities gained between 20 and 24 points inclusively.
  • 0.03% of non-Aboriginal communities gained between 25 and 29 points inclusively.

The CWB Components

As noted above, the CWB is made up of four components: income, education, housing, and labour force activity. Each can range from a low of zero to a high of 100.

From largest to smallest, the component gaps between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities were as follows in 2011: income (25 points), housing (23 points), education (17 points), and labour force activity (16 points).

Figure 3: CWB Component Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 2011

Source: Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 3 - CWB Component Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 2011

This bar graph compares the average scores of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities for the four components the Community Well-Being (CWB) index in Canada, 2011 : income, education, housing and labour force activity.

  • The average income score was 59 for First Nations communities and 84 for non-Aboriginal communities for a gap of 25.
  • The average education score was 36 for First Nations communities and 53 for non-Aboriginal communities for a gap of 17.
  • The average housing score was 71 for First Nations communities and 94 for non-Aboriginal communities for a gap of 23.
  • The average labour force activity score was 68 for First Nations communities and 84 for non-Aboriginal communities for a gap of 16.

Each CWB component has undergone different changes over time:

1. Income: The average income score for First Nations communities increased considerably (16 points) between 1981 and 2011. However, because the average income score for non-Aboriginal communities increased at a similar rate (15 points), the income gap was virtually unchanged.

Figure 4: Average Income Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 4 - Average Income Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average income scores of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average income score of 69 points in 1981, 73 points in 1991, 73 points in 1996, 77 points in 2001, 80 points in 2006, and 84 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had an average income score of 43 points in 1981, 49 points in 1991, 52 points in 1996, 55 points in 2001, 55 points in 2006, and 59 points in 2011.

2. Education: The average education score for First Nations communities also increased considerably between 1981 and 2011 (22 points). The education gap between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities narrowed slowly until 2001 - about one point every five years. It widened between 2001 and 2006 as a result of a large jump in high school completion in non-Aboriginal communities. As mentioned above, this jump should be interpreted with caution.

The narrowing of the education gap that was observed until 2001 did not resume after 2006. In fact, between 2006 and 2011, the average education score for non-Aboriginal communities increased more than the average score for First Nations communities. The education gap widened slightly as a result.

Figure 5: Average Education Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 5 - Average Education Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average education scores of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average education score of 28 points in 1981, 35 points in 1991, 39 points in 1996, 41 points in 2001, 49 points in 2006, and 53 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had an average education score of 14 points in 1981, 23 points in 1991, 28 points in 1996, 32 points in 2001, 34 points in 2006, and 36 points in 2011.

Figures 6 and 7, respectively, illustrate changes in the two constituents of the education score: High School Plus and University. They demonstrate that increases in the education component were driven by increases in communities’ high school completion rates. They also illustrate the large jump in the non-Aboriginal high school completion rate that occurred from 2001 - 2006 and that may be at least partially attributable to changes to the Census questionnaire. With this jump, the high school completion gap between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities went from a low of 13 points in 2001 to 21 points in 2006 and has been relatively stable since.

Increases in university completion were modest for both First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities. The gap between their averages was about six points wide in 2011. While small in absolute terms, the gap has been growing relatively steadily since 1981 and had almost doubled in size by 2011.

Figure 6: Average High School Plus Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 6 - Average High School Plus Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average high school plus scores, a constituent of the education score, of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average high school plus score of 40 points in 1981, 50 points in 1991, 54 points in 1996, 58 points in 2001, 69 points in 2006, and 74 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had an average high school plus score of 19 points in 1981, 33 points in 1991, 40 points in 1996, 45 points in 2001, 48 points in 2006, and 52 points in 2011.
Figure 7: Average University Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 7 - Average University Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average university scores, a constituent of the education score, of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average university score of 5 points in 1981, 6 points in 1991, 7 points in 1996, 8 points in 2001, 10 points in 2006, and 11 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had an average university score of 2 points in 1981, 2 points in 1991, 4 points in 1996, 4 points in 2001, 4 points in 2006, and 5 points in 2011.

3. Housing: The average housing score for non-Aboriginal communities has been consistently high since 1981, reflecting generally strong housing conditions across the country. The average housing score for First Nations communities improved modestly in the 1980s and 1990s but has shown little movement since 2001. Over the thirty year period between 1981 and 2011, the housing gap between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities narrowed by a modest five points.

Figure 8: Average Housing Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 8 - Average Housing Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average housing scores of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average housing score of 91 points in 1981, 93 points in 1991, 93 points in 1996, 93 points in 2001, 94 points in 2006, and 94 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had an average housing score of 63 points in 1981, 67 points in 1991, 70 points in 1996, 71 points in 2001, 70 points in 2006, and 71 points in 2011.

Figures 9 and 10, respectively, illustrate changes in the two variables that compose the housing score: Housing Quantity and Housing Quality. They demonstrate that, until 2006, the apparent stability of the average housing score for First Nations communities was the result of large increases in housing quantity coupled with large decreases in housing quality. The First Nations average housing quantity score did not change from 2006 to 2011, interrupting its 25-year upward trend. At the same time, the First Nations average housing quality score increased from 2006 to 2011, hinting at a potential reversal of its long-term decline.

Figure 9: Average Housing Quantity, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 9 - Average Housing Quantity, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average housing quantity scores, a constituent of the housing score, of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average housing quantity score of 93 points in 1981, 98 points in 1991, 98 points in 1996, 99 points in 2001, 99 points in 2006, and 98 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had a housing quantity score of 51 points in 1981, 69 points in 1991, 73 points in 1996, 78 points in 2001, 81 points in 2006, and 80 points in 2011.
Figure 10: Average Housing Quality, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 10 - Average Housing Quality, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average housing quality scores, a constituent of the housing score, of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average housing quality score of 89 points in 1981, 88 points in 1991, 88 points in 1996, 88 points in 2001, 89 points in 2006, and 89 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had an average housing quality score of 76 points in 1981, 65 points in 1991, 67 points in 1996, 65 points in 2001, 59 points in 2006, and 62 points in 2011.

4. Labour Force Activity: First Nations communities’ average labour force activity score increased a few points during the 1990s and early 2000s but these gains were largely lost between 2006 and 2011. First Nations’ average labour force activity score was only one point higher in 2011 than it was in 1981 and the gap relative to non-Aboriginal communities widened slightly.

The decline in First Nations communities’ average labour force activity score between 2006 and 2011 bears consideration. It is difficult to say whether this drop is simply a random fluctuation in a stable long-term pattern, or if something occurred between 2006 and 2011 to reverse the gradual upward trend that was in place since 1991. For example, research indicates that Aboriginal people in Canada were more affected by the economic downturn in 2008 (Usalcas, 2011). This research was conducted off-reserve only, but it is reasonable to suspect that these off-reserve patterns were similar for First Nations people living on-reserve and that the decline in the First Nations average labour force activity score between 2006 and 2011 might reflect the impact of the 2008 downturn.

Figure 11: Average Labour Force Activity Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 11 - Average Labour Force Activity Scores, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average labour force activity scores of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average labour force activity score of 80 points in 1981, 82 points in 1991, 81 points in 1996, 83 points in 2001, 84 points in 2006, and 84 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had an average labour force activity score of 67 points in 1981, 66 points in 1991, 69 points in 1996, 70 points in 2001, 71 points in 2006, and 68 points in 2011.

Figures 12 and 13, respectively, illustrate changes in the two constituents of the labour force activity score: Labour Force Participation and Employment.

Between 1981 and 1996, First Nations' average labour force participation score increased and the gap relative to non-Aboriginal communities narrowed. There was little change between 1996 and 2006. Between 2006 and 2011, First Nations' average labour force participation score declined and the gap widened. Nevertheless, the score remained 10 points higher and the gap remained narrower than they had been in 1981.

Between 1981 and 1991, the First Nations' average employment score decreased. Although it improved steadily between 1991 and 2006, it still had not returned to its 1981 level by 2011. After widening in 1991, the employment gap between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities stabilized, fluctuating between 14 and 15 points.

Figure 12: Average Labour Force Participation Score, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 12 - Average Labour Force Participation Score, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average labour force participation scores, a constituent of the labour force activity score, of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average labour force participation score of 70 points in 1981, 77 points in 1991, 76 points in 1996, 77 points in 2001, 77 points in 2006, and 77 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had an average labour force participation score of 51 points in 1981, 60 points in 1991, 65 points in 1996, 65 points in 2001, 65 points in 2006, and 61 points in 2011.
Figure 13: Average Employment Score, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 13 - Average Employment Score, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph compares the average employment scores, a constituent of the labour force activity score, of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada between 1981 and 2011.

  • Non-Aboriginal communities had an average employment score of 90 points in 1981, 87 points in 1991, 87 points in 1996, 89 points in 2001, 91 points in 2006, and 91 points in 2011.
  • First Nations communities had an average employment score of 82 points in 1981, 72 points in 1991, 73 points in 1996, 74 points in 2001, 77 points in 2006, and 76 points in 2011.

Regional Variations

First Nations’ average CWB scores vary across regions (Figure 14). First Nations communities in the Yukon have the highest average CWB score while First Nations in the Prairie Provinces have the lowest.

Figure 14: Average CWB scores by Region, First Nation, and non-Aboriginal communities, 2011

Source: Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 14 - Average CWB scores by Region, First Nation, and non-Aboriginal communities, 2011

This bar graph compares the average Community well-being (CWB) index scores of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities index in Canada, 2011, by region.

  • The average CWB score in the Atlantic region was 65 for First Nations communities and 75 for non-Aboriginal communities.
  • The average CWB score in Quebec was 61 for First Nations communities and 78 for non-Aboriginal communities.
  • The average CWB score in Ontario was 62 for First Nations communities and 81 for non-Aboriginal communities.
  • The average CWB score in Manitoba was 48 for First Nations communities and 79 for non-Aboriginal communities.
  • The average CWB score in Saskatchewan was 52 for First Nations communities and 80 for non-Aboriginal communities.
  • The average CWB score in Alberta was 53 for First Nations communities and 81 for non-Aboriginal communities.
  • The average CWB score in British Columbia was 62 for First Nations communities and 81 for non-Aboriginal communities.
  • The average CWB score in Yukon was 73 for First Nations communities and 82 for non-Aboriginal communities.
  • The average CWB score in the Northwest Territories was 64 for First Nations communities and 83 for non-Aboriginal communities.

Figure 15 plots the regional CWB averages of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities between 1981 and 2011. It illustrates several key points. First, by 2011, First Nations communities in some regions had attained an average CWB score comparable to those that some non-Aboriginal communities had as recently as 1996.

Second, regional variability continues to be greater in First Nations than in other Canadian communities: the trend lines are more widely spaced, particularly in the latest periods.

Third, the relative disadvantage of First Nations in the Prairies has grown over time, particularly during the 2001 – 2006 period. During this period, First Nations' CWB averages increased in all regions except for the Prairies; First Nations' CWB averages in Saskatchewan and Manitoba actually declined. In the subsequent 2006 – 2011 period, First Nations in Saskatchewan and Alberta improved slightly more than First Nations in other regions. However, First Nations in Manitoba once again failed to improve, resulting in a continuation of the regional divergence in First Nations' CWB averages.

Figure 15: CWB Index Averages by Region, First Nations and non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

Source: Statistics Canada, Censuses of Population, 1981-2006 and National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 15 - CWB Index Averages by Region, First Nations and non-Aboriginal Communities, 1981-2011

This line graph the average CWB scores of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities over time by region in Canada between 1981 and 2011, using data from six different years.

The average CWB scores for First Nations communities were:

  • In the Atlantic region : 50.4 in 1981, 54.8 in 1991, 59.6 in 1996, 60.5 in 2001 and 64.3 in 2006 and 64.9 in 2011.
  • In Quebec :  45.8 in 1981, 49,7 in 1991, 54 in 1996, 59.5 in 2001, 60 in 2006 and 60.8 in 2011.
  • In Ontario: 48. 5 in 1981, 53.6 in 1991, 55.1 in 1996, 59.2 in 2001, 60.3 in 2006 and 62.5 in 2011.
  • In Manitoba: 41.8 in 1981, 45.5 in 1991, 48.1 in 1996, 50 in 2001, 48.6 in 2006, 48.2 in 2011.
  • In Saskatchewan: 40.5 in 1981, 44.3 1991, 48.2 in 1996, 50.9 in 2001, 49.1 in 2006 and 52 in 2011.
  • In Alberta: 46.3 in 1981, 45.7 in 1991, 50.6 in 1996, 51 in 2001, 50.8 in 2006 and 53.1 in 2011.
  • In British Columbia: 50.2 in 1981, 55.8 in 1991, 59.9 in 1996, 61 in 2001, 61.6 in 2006 and 62.3 in 2011.
  • In the Territories: 46.4 in 1981, 59 in 1991, 62.6 in 1996, 65.8 in 2001, 66.2 in 2006 and 67.2 in 2011.

The average CWB scores for non-Aboriginal communities were:

  • In the Atlantic region: 62.1 in 1981, 66.8 in 1991, 67.2 in 1996, 69 in 2001, 73 in 2006 and 75.5 in 2011.
  • In Quebec:  66.2 in 1981, 69.6 in 1991, 70.3 in 1996, 73.2 in 2001, 76 in 2006 and 77.6 in 2011.
  • In Ontario: 70.2 in 1981, 74.6 in 1991, 75.1 in 1996, 77.3 in 2001, 80 in 2006 and 81 in 2011.
  • In Manitoba: 66.4 in 1981, 70.8 in 1991, 71.6 in 1996, 73.1 in 2001, 76.3 in 2006, 79.3 in 2011.
  • In Saskatchewan: 68.2 in 1981, 70.9 1991, 72.5 in 1996, 73.8 in 2001, 76.9 in 2006 and 80.2 in 2011.
  • In Alberta: 71 in 1981, 73 in 1991, 73.7 in 1996, 75.9 in 2001, 79.5 in 2006 and 81.4 in 2011.
  • In British Columbia: 73.3 in 1981, 75.6 in 1991, 76.6 in 1996, 77.2 in 2001, 80.4 in 2006 and 81.1 in 2011.
  • In the Territories: 69.4 in 1981, 75.4 in 1991, 75.5 in 1996, 80.4 in 2001, 81.6 in 2006 and 82.6 in 2011.

Variations between individual communities

Average CWB scores provide only a partial picture of well-being in First Nations. CWB scores also vary considerably among individual First Nations communities. For example, although 98 of the 100 lowest-scoring communities are First Nations, many First Nations communities score at or above the non-Aboriginal average. Two of the 100 top-scoring communities are First Nations.

Figure 16 illustrates how First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities are distributed along the CWB spectrum. The distribution of First Nations scores is flatter than that of non-Aboriginal communities, indicating that well-being varies more among First Nations. Accordingly, the standard deviation of First Nations' CWB scores (10.4 points) is nearly double that of non-Aboriginal communities' scores (5.7 points).

Figure 16: CWB Distributions, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 2011

Source: Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 16 - CWB Distributions, First Nations and Non-Aboriginal Communities, 2011

This bar graph compares the distribution of scores for First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities on the Community Well-Being (CWB) index in Canada, 2011.

The average score for First Nations communities is 59.
The average score for non-Aboriginal communities is 79.

0.2% of First Nations communities fall between 20 and 25 points.
0.2% of First Nations communities fall between 25 and 30 points.
0% of First Nations communities fall between 30 and 35 points.
2.9% of First Nations communities fall between 35 and 40 points.
7.4% of First Nations communities fall between 40 and 45 points.
10.9% of First Nations communities fall between 45 and 50 points.
14.8% of First Nations communities fall between 50 and 55 points.
16% of First Nations communities fall between 55 and 60 points. 
19.4% of First Nations communities fall between 60 and 65 points.
14.6% of First Nations communities fall between 65 and 70 points.
8.4% of First Nations communities fall between 70 and 75 points.
3.5% of First Nations communities fall between 75 and 80 points.
1.2% of First Nations communities fall between 80 and 85 points.
0.3% of First Nations communities fall between 85 and 90 points.
0.2% of First Nations communities fall between 90 and 95 points.
0% of First Nations communities fall between 95 and 100 points. 

0% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 20 and 25 points.
0% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 25 and 30 points.
0% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 30 and 35 points.
0% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 35 and 40 points.
0% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 40 and 45 points.
0.1% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 45 and 50 points.
0.1% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 50 and 55 points.
0.4% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 55 and 60 points.
1.4% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 60 and 65 points.
5.4% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 65 and 70 points.
15.4% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 70 and 75 points.
31.6% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 75 and 80 points.
35.1% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 80 and 85 points.
9.3% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 85 and 90 points.
1.2% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 90 and 95 points.
0% of non-Aboriginal communities fall between 95 and 100 points.

Figure 17 also highlights the greater variability in well-being among First Nations communities. It illustrates that, in 2011, 95% of non-Aboriginal communities scored within a CWB range of 23 points (from 66 to 89), while the same percentage of First Nations are spread over a range of 39 points (from 39 to 78).

Figure 17: Range of Community Well-Being (CWB) Score, Canada, 2011 (Excluding Outliers*)

*Outliers, defined as the 2.5% of communities with the lowest scores and the 2.5% of communities with the highest scores, are excluded. Excluding these extreme "tails" is standard practice when comparing relatively normal distributions.
Source: Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

Text description of figure 17 - Range of Community Well-Being (CWB) Score, Canada, 2011 (Excluding Outliers*)

This bar graph shows the ranges for the Community Well-Being (CWB) index scores of First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada, 2011.

  • The CWB index scores of First Nations communities ranged from a low of 39 to a high of 78 for an average score of 59 points.
  • The CWB index scores of non-Aboriginal communities ranged from a low of 66 to a high of 89 for an average score of 79 points.

Summary and Conclusion

The Community Well-Being (CWB) index is a useful method of assessing socio-economic well-being at the community level. The information it provides can help inform policies and programs that are aimed at improving the well-being of Aboriginal people. The CWB index helps show where improvements in well-being have been achieved and where significant gaps still exist. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that the CWB was designed to fulfil specific research purposes and that it is not necessarily the only or best way to measure well-being in all circumstances.

Both First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities' average CWB scores increased gradually between 1981 and 2011, although the First Nations average score did not improve between 2001 and 2006. Improvement was driven by small increases in most communities' CWB index scores and not by the combined effect of large increases in some communities and large declines in others.

Despite these improvements, the CWB gap between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities was the same size in 2011 as it was in 1981. During the 1990s, the average CWB score for First Nations communities was increasing at a faster rate than that of non-Aboriginal communities, causing the gap to narrow. The gap widened again between 2001 and 2006, however, and was stable from 2006 to 2011.

Income scores improved steadily for both First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities, with only occasional pauses in this upward trend. The gap between the two community types was not significantly narrower in 2011 than it was in 1981, however.

In both First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities, education scores improved the most between 1981 and 2011, owing primarily to increases in high school completion rates. Nevertheless, the education gap between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities is the same size as it was thirty years ago.

The First Nations housing score increased by a modest eight points between 1981 and 2011 and the gap relative to non-Aboriginal communities narrowed five points. For First Nations communities, the apparent stability of the overall housing score until 2006 resulted from increases in housing quantity coupled with decreases in housing quality. Housing quantity has not increased further since 2006. Housing quality, instead of continuing to decline, rebounded a few points.

The average labour force activity score for First Nations communities was approximately the same in 2011 as it was in 1981, but the gap relative to non-Aboriginal communities widened slightly. Despite a recent decline, First Nations average labour force participation score has increased since 1981 and the gap relative to non-Aboriginal communities has narrowed. Following a drop between 1981 and 1991, First Nations' average employment score began increasing slowly and the gap relative to non-Aboriginal communities stabilized, but no improvement occurred in the most recent intercensal period.

First Nations average CWB scores vary by region, as do the gaps between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities and the degree of progress between 1981 and 2011. By 2011, some regional First Nations CWB averages were on par with some non-Aboriginal regional averages observed as recently as 1996.

A marked disparity in well-being exists between First Nations in the Prairies and First Nations in other regions. Prairie First Nations had lower CWB averages than First Nations in each year measured. The disparities in well-being between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities were also larger in the Prairies than in other regions. Prairie First Nations' disadvantage grew more pronounced between 1981 and 2006, but Saskatchewan and Alberta regained some ground during the most recent intercensal period. Manitoba First Nations' disadvantage continues to grow slowly.

Well-being scores varied considerably among individual First Nations communities – more so, in fact, than among non-Aboriginal communities. Although some First Nations had very low scores in 2011, others scored at or above the non-Aboriginal average.

Readers are cautioned against emphasizing the disparities between First Nations and non-Aboriginal communities. First Nations communities possess unique characteristics and circumstances. Consequently, one should not assume that conditions in non-Aboriginal communities represent a goal to which First Nations should aspire. Comparing these two community types is valuable primarily insofar as it aids in the interpretation of trends in well-being. For example, if well-being in First Nations improves while well-being in non-Aboriginal communities does not, the "cause" of the improvement may lie in programs, policies, conditions, etc. that are specific to First Nations. If other communities also improved, however, the source of improvement might more plausibly be sought in broader economic forces.

Appendix 1: Map of CWB in First Nations Communities, 2011

Text description of Appendix 1 - Map of CWB in First Nations Communities, 2011

This map depicts the locations of First Nations communities in Canada for which a 2011 Community Well-Being (CWB) Index score has been calculated. The CWB Index is produced by the department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC), using data from the 2011 National Household Survey conducted by Statistics Canada. The data is presented at the Census Subdivision (CSD) level. Higher scores indicate a greater level of well-being.

The map demonstrates the following:

  • In Newfoundland and Labrador, 0 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 2 scored between 50 and 59, 0 scored between 60 and 69, 1 scored between 70 and 79, and 0 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In Prince Edward Island, 0 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 0 scored between 50 and 59, 2 scored between 60 and 69, 0 scored between 70 and 79, and 0 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In Nova Scotia, 0 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 2 scored between 50 and 59, 10 scored between 60 and 69, 2 scored between 70 and 79, and 0 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In New Brunswick, 0 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 4 scored between 50 and 59, 8 scored between 60 and 69, 2 scored between 70 and 79, and 0 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In Quebec, 3 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 10 scored between 50 and 59, 15 scored between 60 and 69, 5 scored between 70 and 79, and 0 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In Ontario, 7 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 29 scored between 50 and 59, 41 scored between 60 and 69, 22 scored between 70 and 79, and 1 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In Manitoba, 39 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 19 scored between 50 and 59, 5 scored between 60 and 69, 0 scored between 70 and 79, and 1 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In Saskatchewan, 33 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 34 scored between 50 and 59, 16 scored between 60 and 69, 2 scored between 70 and 79, and 0 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In Alberta, 26 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 18 scored between 50 and 59, 15 scored between 60 and 69, 2 scored between 70 and 79, and 1 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In British Columbia, 13 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 57 scored between 50 and 59, 80 scored between 60 and 69, 30 scored between 70 and 79, and 6 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In the Yukon, 0 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 1 scored between 50 and 59, 3 scored between 60 and 69, 5 scored between 70 and 79, and 2 scored between 80 and 100.
  • In the Northwest Territories, 0 First Nations Communities scored between 0 and 50, 1 scored between 50 and 59, 17 scored between 60 and 69, 2 scored between 70 and 79, and 0 scored between 80 and 100.

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