National Assessment of First Nations Water and Wastewater Systems - Saskatchewan Regional Roll-Up Report

Prepared By: Neegan Burnside Ltd.
Prepared for: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
Date: January 2011
File No: FGY163080.4

PDF Version (3.3 Mb, 105 Pages)

Statement of Qualifications and Limitations for Regional Roll-Up Reports

This regional roll-up report has been prepared by Neegan Burnside Ltd. and a team of subconsultants (Consultant) for the benefit of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (Client). Regional summary reports have been prepared for the 8 regions, to facilitate planning and budgeting on both a regional and national level to address water and wastewater system deficiencies and needs.

The material contained in this Regional Roll-Up report is:

Risk as it pertains to health and safety issues and building code compliance is based upon hazards readily identifiable during a simple walk through of the water and wastewater facilities, and does not constitute a comprehensive assessment with regard to health and safety regulations and or building code regulations.

The Consultant accepts no responsibility for any decisions made or actions taken as a result of this report.

Table of contents

1.0 Introduction

The Government of Canada is committed to providing safe, clean drinking water in all First Nations communities, and to ensuring that wastewater services in all First Nations communities meet acceptable effluent quality standards. As part of this commitment, the Government announced the First Nations Water and Wastewater Action Plan (FNWWAP). The plan funds the construction and renovation of water and wastewater facilities, operator training, and public health activities related to water and wastewater on reserves. It also provided for a national, independent assessment – The National Assessment of First Nations Water and Wastewater Systems – which will inform the Government's future, long-term investment strategy. This assessment was also recommended by the Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples.

The purpose of the assessment is to define current deficiencies and operational needs, as well as long-term infrastructure development strategies and needs for each community on a sustainable basis. The objectives of this assessment are to:

This assessment involved collecting background data and information about each community, undertaking a site visit, and preparing individual community reports for each participating First Nation. The assessment was conducted for each of the eight regions. This report summarizes the findings for the Saskatchewan region.

1.1 Site Visits

Site visits in the Saskatchewan region were undertaken by personnel from Neegan Burnside Ltd. and sub-consultants, R.J. Burnside & Associates Limited and KGS Group during September and October of 2009 and May, June, July and August of 2010. Each visit included at least two team members. In addition to the consultant staff, additional participants including the Circuit Rider Trainer (CRT), INAC Representative, Environmental Health Officer (EHO) from Health Canada and Tribal Council Representatives were invited to attend the site visits. The additional participants that were able to attend are identified in each community report.

After confirming the number and type of systems that the First Nation uses to provide water and wastewater services to the community, and after considering the community's current and future population and servicing needs, an assessment was carried out of the communal water and wastewater systems, and 5% of the individual systems.

1.2 Reporting

Individual community reports have been prepared for each First Nation. In cases where the First Nation consists of multiple communities, each located in a geographically distinct area, a separate report was prepared for each community. In the Saskatchewan Region, there was 100% participation from the 69 First Nations with on-reserve water and wastewater infrastructure, which resulted in the preparation of 86 individual community reports. A report was not submitted for one First Nation that did not have any members living on-reserve and had no water or wastewater assets. Figure 1.1 indicates the location of each First Nation visited as a part of this study.

The reports include an assessment of existing communal systems and existing individual systems, identification of needs to meet Departmental, Federal and Provincial protocols and guidelines, and an assessment of existing servicing of the community along with projections of population and flows for future servicing for the 10 year period. Each report also includes the projected cost of the recommendations to meet departmental protocol, federal and provincial guidelines, regulations, and standards, an evaluation of servicing alternatives, and the life-cycle cost of each alternative.

An annual water inspection, risk evaluation and ACRS inspection was completed for each system and are included in the Appendices of each report.

Figure 1.1 - Saskatchewan Region First Nations Visited
Figure 1.1 - Saskatchewan Region First Nations Visited
Text Description of figure 1.1 - Saskatchewan Region First Nations Visited

This image is a map of the location of each First Nation community that Neegan Burnside Ltd.visited in Saskatchewan as part of the National Assessment. Each site visit is marked by a green dot.

2.0 Regional Overview

The Saskatchewan region includes 69 First Nations with on-reserve water and wastewater infrastructure. There are 103 water systems (94 First Nations and 9 Municipal Type Agreements), and 88 wastewater systems (83 First Nations and five Municipal Type Agreements).

A water or wastewater system considered a First Nation system, consists of INAC-funded assets, and serves five or more residences or community buildings. A Municipal Type Agreement (MTA), on the other hand, is when First Nations are supplied with treated water from or send their wastewater to a nearby municipality or neighbouring First Nation or corporate entity as outlined in a formal agreement between the two parties.

In Saskatchewan, the First Nation community population ranges from 17 to 5,482 people, and household sizes range from 1.9 to 10.0 people per unit (ppu). The total number of homes is 14,248, and the average household size is 5.0 ppu.

2.1 Water Servicing

There are a total of 103 water systems serving 68 First Nations. One First Nation is serviced solely by individual wells. For water treatment, the 103 water systems include:

  • 9 systems that receive their water supply through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 70 groundwater systems
  • seven groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) systems
  • 17 surface water systems.

For water distribution, the 103 systems include:

  • 4 distribution systems that are maintained through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 99 distribution systems that are maintained by the First Nation.

The following is a summary of the level of service being provided to the homes within the Saskatchewan region:

  • 74% of the homes (10,523) are piped
  • 21% of the homes (3,028) are on truck delivery
  • 5% of the homes (652) are serviced by individual wells
  • <1% of the homes (45) were reported to have no water service.

Table 2.1, below, provides an overview of the water systems by system classification, source type, treatment type and storage type. In general, the treatment system classification reflects the complexity of the treatment process and the distribution classification reflects the population of the community being serviced. Treatment systems labeled "Small System" and "None" typically represent systems with either disinfection only or no treatment.

Table 2.1 - Water Overview
No. % of Total
System Classification
None 2 2%
Small System 8 8%
Level I 48 46%
Level II 36 35%
MTA 9 9%
Source Type
Groundwater 70 68%
Surface Water 17 16%
Groundwater GUDI 7 7%
MTA 9 9%
Storage
None 11 11%
Grade level 6 6%
Underground 86 83%
Treatment Type
None - Direct Use 4 4%
Disinfection Only 4 4%
Conventional 21 20%
Greensand Filtration 37 36%
Membrane Filtration 26 25%
Slow Sand 2 2%
MTA 9 9%

2.2 Wastewater Servicing

There are a total of 88 wastewater systems serving 67 First Nations. The remaining two First Nations are serviced solely by individual septic systems. For wastewater treatment, the 88 systems include:

  • 5 wastewater systems are provided through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 83 First Nation wastewater treatment systems using either facultative or aerated lagoons.

For wastewater collection, the 88 systems include:

  • 3 wastewater collection systems that are maintained through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 85 wastewater collection systems that are maintained by the First Nation.

The following is a summary of the level of service being provided to the homes within the Saskatchewan region:

  • 50% of the homes (7,002) are piped
  • 7% of the homes (1,060) are on truck haul
  • 43% of the homes (6,142) are serviced by individual septics with tile fields or "shoot-out" systems
  • <1% of the homes (44) are reported to have no service.

The homes without service were split between 12 different communities.

The following table provides an overview of the wastewater systems by system classification and treatment type:

Table 2.2 - Wasterwater Overview
No. % of Total
System Classification
Level I 83 94%
MTA 5 6%
Treatment Type
Aerated Lagoon 2 2%
Facultative Lagoon 81 92%
MTA 5 6%

3.0 Preliminary Results and Trends

3.1 Per Capita Consumption and Plant Capacity

For 103 of the communal water systems, the average per capita demand ranges from 30 L/p/d to 986 L/p/d, with an average per capita demand of approximately 280 L/p/d.

For the systems without flow data, an average per capita flow rate ranging from 225 L/p/d to 325 L/p/d for piped servicing and 90 L/p/d for truck haul was used to evaluate the water systems.

The distribution of per capita flow is outlined in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 - Range of Per Capita Water Usage Rates
  No. of systems 2009
Less than 250 L/c/d 42
250 L/c/d to 375 L/c/d 46
Greater than 375 L/c/d 15

Historical flow data for wastewater was not available for most of the sewage systems. Therefore, to evaluate the ability of the existing infrastructure to meet the current and projected needs, an average daily flow was calculated based on the actual or assumed per capita water consumption, plus an infiltration allowance of 90 L/c/d for piped servicing.

The following summarizes the plant capacity for the water and wastewater systems:

  • over capacity: the existing system is unable to meet the current needs
  • at capacity: the existing system is able to meet the current needs
  • available capacity: the existing system has sufficient capacity to meet more than the current needs
  • not enough data: insufficient data available to determine the actual system capacity.
Figure 3.1 - Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities
Figure 1.1 - Saskatchewan Region First Nations Visited
Text Description of figure 3.1 - Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities

This graph illustrates the treatment capacities of water and wastewater systems for First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

Water System Treatment Capacities

  • 44 water systems (42.7 percent of the total number of water systems) are operating over their estimated capacities.
  • 1 water system (0.97 percent of the total number of water systems) is at operating at its estimated capacity.
  • 54 water systems (52.43 percent of the total number of water systems) have available capacity.
  • There is not enough data to assess the capacities of 4 of the water systems (or 3.88 percent of the systems).

Wastewater System Treatment Capacities

  • 31 wastewater systems (35.23% of the total number of wastewater systems) are operating over their estimated capacities.
  • 2 wastewater systems (2.27 percent of the total number of wastewater systems) are operating at their estimated capacities.
  • 53 wastewater systems (60.23 percent of the total number of wastewater systems) have available capacity.
  • There is not enough data to assess 2 of the wastewater systems (2.27 percent of the total number of wastewater systems).

The data shows that 45 water systems and 33 wastewater systems are operating at or beyond their estimated capacities. The per capita demand for the plants identified as over capacity was within typical values for the region, according to available records.

3.2 Distribution and Collection

The household size for the 69 First Nations ranges from 1.9 to 10.0 people per unit (ppu), with an average of 5.0 ppu. The total number of piped connections in the region is 10,523 for water and 7,002 for wastewater. The average length per connection of watermain in the region is 72 m. The average length per connection of sewermain in the region is 43 m.

As shown in the table and figures below, there is no real correlation between the size of the community and the length of pipe per connection. The length of watermain per connection is much greater than the length of sanitary main per connection. However, this difference is because some communities provide piped water service only through small diameter, low-pressure lines and, as such, the homes are farther apart to allow for the installation of private sewage systems.

It should also be noted that, in some cases, the data provided for watermain includes low-pressure lines, dedicated transmission main lengths (with no service connections), and non-distribution mains (i.e. intake pipes, raw water pipes). As a result, the average length per connection is inflated, particularly for smaller communities where the additional pipe length is spread over a smaller number of connections.

The table below indicates the number of water and wastewater systems that have pipe lengths above and below 30 m/connection. It should be noted that this information was not available for all of the systems.

Table 3.2 - Average Water Distribution and Wastewater Collection Pipe Lengths
  Watermain Sewer
Average m/connection 72 43
No. of systems with pipe lengths above 30 m/connection 85 70
No. of systems with pipe lengths below 30 m/connection 7 11
Figure 3.2 - Water Distribution - Average Pipe Length per Connection
Figure 3.2 - Water Distribution - Average Pipe Length per Connection
Text Description of figure 3.2 - - Water Distribution - Average Pipe Length per Connection

This scatterplot graph illustrates the relationship between the length per connection of water distribution pipes and the population size of the community that is being serviced in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

The average length per connection of water distribution pipes is above 30 meters per connection for the majority of systems. Most of the communities being serviced have a population of 1500 people or less.

Figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Text Description of figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection

This figure illustrates the relationship, for wastewater collection pipes, between the average length of pipe per connection and the population of the community that is being serviced in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

The average length per connection of wastewater collection (sewer) pipes is above 30 meters per connection for the majority of systems. Most of the communities being serviced have a population of less than 1000 people.

3.3 Water Risk Evaluation

A risk assessment has been completed for each water system according to the INAC Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines. Each facility is ranked in risk according to the following categories: Water Source, Design, Operation (and Maintenance), Reporting and Operators and the risk levels of all five categories are then used to determine the overall risk for the system.

Each of the five risk categories, as well as the overall risk level of the entire system, is ranked numerically from 1 to 10. Low, medium and high risks are defined as follows:

  • Low Risk (1.0 to 4.0): These are systems that operate with minor deficiencies. Low-risk systems usually meet the water quality parameters that are specified by the appropriate Canadian Guidelines for drinking water (in particular, the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ)).
  • Medium Risk (4.1 to 7.0): These are systems with deficiencies, which— individually or combined— pose a medium risk to the quality of water and to human health. These systems do not generally require immediate action, but the deficiencies should be corrected to avoid future problems.
  • High Risk (7.1 to 10.0): These are systems with major deficiencies, which— individually or combined— pose a high risk to the quality of water. These deficiencies may lead to potential health and safety or environmental concerns. They could also result in water quality advisories against drinking the water (such as, but not limited to, boil water advisories), repetitive non-compliance with guidelines, and inadequate water supplies. Once systems are classified under this category, regions and First Nations must take immediate corrective action to minimize or eliminate deficiencies.

Regional Risk Summary:

Of the 103 water systems inspected:

  • 27 are categorized as high overall risk
  • 47 are categorized as medium overall risk
  • 29 are categorized as low overall risk.

The table in Appendix E.1 summarizes the correlation between the component risk and the overall risk. In general, Municipal Type Agreement systems have the lowest risk, followed by groundwater systems, then surface water systems, and, finally, groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) systems.

Figure 3.4 provides a geographical representation of the final risk for the water systems that were inspected.

Figure 3.4 - Saskatchewan Water System Risk
Figure 3.4 - Saskatchewan Water System Risk
Text Description of figure 3.4 - Saskatchewan Water System Risk

This image provides a map of the location of high-, medium-, and low-risk water systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. High-risk systems are identified with a red dot, medium-risk systems are identified with a yellow dot, and low-risk systems are identified with a green dot.

Out of 103 systems, 27 (26 percent) are high risk, 47 (46 percent) are medium risk, and 29 (28 percent) are low risk.

3.3.1 Overall System Risk by Source

The following table summarizes the overall system risk by water source. 57% of the GUDI systems, 27% of groundwater systems, and 24% of surface water systems are high-risk systems. None of the Municipal Type Agreement systems are classified as high risk. Generally, Municipal Type Agreement systems are assumed to have low-risk water supplies because the municipalities operate their systems in compliance with provincial legislation. For the Saskatchewan region, however, there are a number of Municipal Type Agreement water supplies where the treated water does not meet the GCDWQ, which resulted in medium-risk rankings for these systems.

Table 3.3 - Summary of Overall Risk Levels by Water Source
Overall Risk Level Groundwater GUDI SurfaceWater MTA Total
High 19 4 4 0 27
Medium 31 2 11 3 47
Low 20 1 2 6 29
Total 70 7 17 9 103

3.3.2 Overall System Risk by Treatment Classification

The following table summarizes the overall system risk by the classification level of the treatment system. System classification is based on a number of factors. There is no clear pattern between the system classification level and the overall system risk.

Table 3.4 - Summary of Overall Risk Levels by Treatment System Classification
Overall Risk Level None Small System Level I Level II MTA Total
High 2 3 14 8 0 27
Medium 0 1 25 18 3 47
Low 0 4 9 10 6 29
Total 2 8 48 36 9 103
Figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification
Figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification
Text Description of figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification

This graph illustrates the risk profile of water treatment systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan by the treatment system classification.

None

  • The mean overall risk score for systems classified as "None" is 8.0.
  • 100 percent of the systems classified as "None" have a high overall risk.

Small Systems

  • The mean overall final risk score for Small Systems is 5.09.
  • 50 percent of the Small Systems have a low overall risk. 12 percent of the Small Systems have a medium overall risk. 38 percent of the Small Systems have a high overall risk.

Level I Systems

  • The mean overall final risk score for Level I Systems is 5.84.
  • 19 percent of the Level I Systems have a low overall risk. 52 percent of the Level I Systems have a medium overall risk. 29 percent of the Level I Systems have a high overall risk.

Level II Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level II Systems is 5.30.
  • 28 percent of the Level II Systems have a low overall risk. 50 percent of the Level II Systems have a medium overall risk. 22 percent of the Level II Systems have a high overall risk.

MTA Systems

  • The mean overall risk for MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems is 3.49.
  • 67 percent of the MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems have a low overall risk. 33 percent of the MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems have a medium overall risk.

3.3.3 Overall Risk by Number of Connections

The majority of systems serving more than 100 connections tend to have a medium overall risk, while the systems serving less than 100 connections are fairly evenly distributed between all three risk categories (i.e. high, medium and low).

3.3.4 Component Risks: Water

The overall risk is comprised of five component risks: water source, design, operation, reporting and operator. Each of these component risk factors is discussed in the following sections.

Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Text Description of figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

This graph illustrates the mean risk score associated with each type of risk component for all water systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

  • The risk associated with the water source has a mean score of 6.6.
  • The risk associated with the design has a mean score of 5.9.
  • The risk associated with the operation has a mean score of 5.9.
  • The risk associated with the reporting has a mean score of 6.3.
  • The risk associated with the operator has a mean score of 1.5.
  Source Design Operation Reporting Operator
Risk 6.6 5.9 5.9 6.3 1.5
Minimum 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Maximum 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Std. Dev. 2.3 2.5 3.0 3.2 1.5

3.3.5 Component Risk - Water: Source

The risk associated with the water source has a mean score of 6.6. The mean source risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 6.3
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 9.3
  • surface water at 8.8
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 2.2.

The data indicates that systems that rely on GUDI or surface water typically have a higher component risk score than systems that rely on groundwater. The risk formula automatically assigns a higher base risk to these types of systems.

The following figure identifies drivers that contribute to source risk scores.

Figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers
Figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to water source risk in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. There are four key risk drivers:

  • No Source Water Plan;
  • Deterioration of Water Quality Over Time;
  • Risk of Contamination; and
  • Insufficient Capacity to Meet Future Requirements.
  • There is no Source Water Protection Plan for 93 percent of the water systems.
  • For 15 percent of the water systems, water quality has deteriorated over time.
  • There is a risk of contamination for 45 percent of the water systems.
  • 63 percent of the water systems have insufficient capacity to meet future needs.

3.3.6 Component Risk - Water: Design

The risk associated with the design has a mean score of 5.9. The mean design risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 5.7
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 7.0
  • surface water at 6.9
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 4.2.

The higher design risk associated with GUDI sources is likely because the original water source was considered to be groundwater and as a result, the only treatment required was disinfection. The level of treatment required for a GUDI source has been upgraded to be equivalent to surface water. Five of the GUDI systems are high risk, one is medium risk, and one is low risk.

As part of the multi-barrier approach to water treatment, chlorination is now required for all water systems. Typically, a groundwater system has an increased design risk if there is no disinfection system in place, or if there is insufficient contact time to ensure that the chlorination process is adequate.

The higher risk for surface water sources and Municipal Type Agreements is typically because the treated water system or distribution system exceeds the GCDWQ for disinfection by-products.

There are several key drivers that have a significant impact on the region's design risk scores, including:

  • failure to meet the GCDWQ
  • exceeding the GCDWQ Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for bacteria
  • no disinfection system in place or a disinfection system that is not being used
  • no appropriate treatment in place to meet INAC's Protocol requirements
  • problems with system reliability
  • systems approaching or exceeding design capacity
Figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers
Figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the design risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

There are eight key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Bacteriologial MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) due to Design;
  • Disinfection System Not in Place;
  • Failure to Meet GCDWQ (Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality) due to Design;
  • Inappropriate Treatment Processes;
  • Poor System Reliability;
  • No Design Flexibility;
  • Exceeds 75 percent Capacity; and
  • Inappropriate Waste Management.

The risk drivers are in red and green. The risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores. Failure to Meet Bacteriological MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) due to Design is the only risk driver in red. The rest of the risk drivers are in green.

  • 4 percent of the water systems failed to meet the bacteriological MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) due to design. As a result, these systems were given a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores.
  • There is no disinfection system in place for 4 percent of the water systems.
  • 49 percent of the water systems failed to meet the GCDWQ (Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality) due to design.
  • 32 percent of the water systems have inappropriate treatment processes.
  • 34 percent of the water systems have poor system reliability.
  • 47 percent of the water systems have no design flexibility.
  • 69 percent of the water systems exceed 75 percent capacity.
  • 20 percent of the water systems practice inappropriate waste management.

It should be noted that the design risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high risk score, regardless of all of the other component risk scores.

3.3.7 Component Risk - Water: Operation

The risk associated with operation has a mean score of 5.9. The mean operation risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 5.9
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 7.3
  • surface water at 6.1
  • Municipal Type Agreements (MTA) at 4.0.

There are several key drivers that have a significant impact on the region's operation risk scores, including:

  • failure to meet the GCDWQ
  • exceeding the GCDWQ Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for bacteria
  • maintenance logs being inadequately maintained
  • lack of general system maintenance
  • Emergency Response Plan not in place
  • Operations & Maintenance manual not available or not in use.
Figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers
Figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for water systems in First Nation communities in Saskatchewan.

There are 7 key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Bacteriological MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) Due to Operations;
  • Failure to Meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ) Due to Operations;
  • Inadequate Operation Logs;
  • Inadequate Maintenance Logs;
  • Maintenance Not Adequately Performed;
  • Emergency Response Plan Not Available for Use; and
  • Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Manual Not Available or Not in Use.

Risk drivers are in red and green. The risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores. Failure to Meet Bacteriological Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) due to Operations is the only risk driver in red. The rest of the risk drivers are in green.

  • 14 percent of the water systems failed to meet the MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) of bacteria due to design. As a result, these systems were given a high-risk score.
  • 52 percent of the water systems failed to meet the GCDWQ (Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality) due to the operations.
  • 10 percent of the water systems have inadequate maintenance logs.
  • Maintenance is not adequately performed for 15 percent of the water systems.
  • For 60 percent of the systems, there is no Emergency Response Plan available for use.
  • For 43 percent of the systems, an Operation Manual is not available or not in use.
Figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings: Water Systems Operational Practices
Figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings: Water Systems Operational Practices
Text Description of figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings: Water Systems Operational Practices

This graph identifies which operational practices are currently being performed, and which operational practices are not being performed for water systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

Line Flushing

  • 94 percent of the water systems practice line flushing.
  • 6 percent of the water systems do not practice line flushing.

Line Swabbing

  • 41 percent of the water systems practice line swabbing.
  • 59 percent of the water systems do not practice line swabbing.

Hydrant Flushing

  • 89 percent of the water systems practice hydrant flushing.
  • 11 percent of the water systems do not practice hydrant flushing.

Reservoir Cleaning

  • 76 percent of the water systems practice reservoir cleaning.
  • 24 percent of the water systems do not practice reservoir cleaning.

Fire Pump Tests

  • 81 percent of the water systems practice fire pump tests.
  • 19 percent of the water systems do not practice fire pump tests.

SOPs On Site

  • 75 percent of the water systems have SOPs (Standard Operating Systems) on site.
  • 25 percent of the water systems do not have SOPs (Standard Operating Systems) on site.

Maintenance Scheduled and Performed

  • 86 percent of the water systems schedule and perform maintenance.
  • 14 percent of the water systems do not schedule and perform maintenance.

Repair and Upgrade Records

  • 64 percent of the water systems maintain repair and upgrade records.
  • 36 percent of the water systems do not maintain records of repairs and upgrades.

Operation & Maintenance Efforts Acceptable

  • For 97 percent of the water systems, operation and maintenance efforts are acceptable.
  • For 3 percent of the water systems, operation and maintenance efforts are not acceptable.

All Components Working

  • All components are working for 63 percent of the water systems.
  • Not all components are working for 37 percent of the water systems.

One or more major components are not working for 37% of the systems. Although the operators for approximately 94% of systems practice line flushing and 89% flush hydrants, only 41% regularly swab watermains. Reservoir cleaning is completed for 76% of the systems and fire pump testing for 81% of the systems. Records of system maintenance and repairs were available for 64% of the systems.

3.3.8 Component Risk - Water: Reporting

The risk associated with reporting has a mean score of 6.3. The mean reporting risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 6.4
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 7.0
  • surface water at 5.5
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 6.0.

For the majority of systems (71%), poor record keeping and reporting are the main drivers for the reporting risk. For water systems with a Supervisory Data Control Acquisition system, some operators are successfully decreasing risk by calibrating instruments to ensure that the information being recorded is accurate.

An important consideration is that the systems were evaluated based on the requirements for monitoring and reporting as set out in INAC's Protocol. Generally, system monitoring and reporting do not meet these requirements. Operator awareness and training could have a significant impact on these risk scores.

Figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to reporting risks for water systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

There are 3 key risk drivers: Inconsistent Records, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) not Calibrated and Confirmed Accurate; and Poor Records for Key Parameters.

  • There are inconsistent records for 50 percent of the systems.
  • For 2 percent of the systems, the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) has not been calibrated and confirmed accurate.
  • For 71 percent of the systems, there are poor records for key parameters.

3.3.9 Component Risk - Water: Operator

The risk associated with the operator has a mean score of 1.5. Of the five risk components, this has the lowest mean score and is one of the components that is significantly reducing water-system risk in the Saskatchewan region.

The majority of the operators in the Saskatchewan region are certified to the appropriate level. However, 1 system does not have a primary operator, and 11 treatment systems and 13 distribution systems do not have a back-up operator. The mean operator risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 1.4
  • groundwater under the influence of surface water (GUDI) at 2.1
  • surface water at 1.6
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 1.0.

The extent to which existing systems have fully certified primary and backup operators is presented in Table 3.5. Of the 92 systems that require a certified operator for the water treatment system, 20% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 71% did not have a fully certified backup operator. Of the 97 systems that require a certified operator for the distribution system, 11% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 57% did not have a fully certified backup operator.

Table 3.5 - Water: Operator Status for the Saskatchewan Region
Primary Operator Backup Operator
Treatment Distribution Treatment Distribution
No. of Systems Currently Without an Operator 1 1 11 13
No. of Systems with Operator with No Certification 8 10 39 40
No. of Systems with Operator Certified but not to the Required Level of the System 9 0 15 2
No. of Systems with Operator with Adequate Certification 74 86 27 42
No. of Systems Not Requiring Operators with Certification 11 6 11 6
Total No. of Systems 103 103 103 103

Those factors which frequently contribute to increased operator risk are identified in Figure 3.12. A lack of certification, lack of training and the lack of primary or backup operator are common drivers that increase operator risk.

Figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers
Figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the operator risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

There are 5 key risk drivers:

  • No Primary Operator and/or Primary Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification;
  • Primary Operator Uncertified and/or Has Insufficient Experience/Training for the Distribution System;
  • Primary Operator Not Enrolled in Training;
  • No Backup Operator and/or Backup Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification; and
  • No Access to Fully Trained Operator.
  • For 10 percent of the water systems, there is no primary operator and/or the primary operator is not certified to the required level of the treatment system classification.
  • For 2 percent of the water systems, the primary operator is uncertified and/or has insufficient experience/training for the distribution system.
  • For 20 percent of the water systems, the primary operator is not enrolled in training.
  • 54 percent of the water systems have no backup operator or they have a backup operator who is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • 12 percent of the water systems have no access to a fully trained operator.

3.4 Wastewater Risk Evaluation

A risk assessment was completed for each wastewater system according to INAC's Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines. The risk of each facility is ranked according to the following categories: effluent receiver, design, operation, reporting and operators. The risk levels of all five categories are used to determine the overall risk for the system. The overall risk score is a weighted average of the component risk scores.

Each of the five risk categories, as well as the overall risk level of the entire system, is ranked numerically from 1 to 10. A risk ranking of 1.0 to 4.0 represents a low risk, a risk ranking of 4.1 to 7.0 represents a medium risk, and a risk of 7.1 to 10.0 represents a high risk.

Of the 88 wastewater systems inspected:

  • 4 are categorized as high overall risk
  • 44 are categorized as medium overall risk
  • 40 systems are categorized as low risk.

All of the wastewater Municipal Type Agreement systems are low risk.

Appendix E.2 provides a table that summarizes the correlation between component risk and overall risk.

Figure 3.13 provides a geographical representation of the final risk for the wastewater systems that were inspected.

3.4.1 Overall System Risk by Treatment Classification

Figure 3.14 demonstrates the correlation between the overall system risk and the classification level of the treatment system. For Municipal Type Agreements, it is assumed that the municipality is operating their system in accordance with provincial legislation, which results in a low-risk rating.

Figure 3.13 - Saskatchewan Wastewater System Risk
Figure 3.13 - Saskatchewan Wastewater System Risk
Text Description of figure 3.13 - Saskatchewan Wastewater System Risk

This image provides a map of the location of high-, medium-, and low-risk wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. High-risk systems are identified with a red dot, medium-risk systems are identified with a yellow dot, and low-risk systems are identified with a green dot.

  • There are a total of 88 wastewater systems in Saskatchewan.
  • 4 wastewater systems are high risk, which represents 5 percent of the total number of wastewater systems.
  • 44 wastewater systems are medium risk, which represents 50 percent of the total number of wastewater systems.
  • 40 wastewater systems are low risk, which represents 45 percent of the total number of wastewater systems.
Figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification
Figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification
Text Description of figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification

This graph illustrates the relationship between the mean overall system risk and the classification level of the treatment system for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

Level I Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level I Systems is 4.53.
  • 5 percent of the Level I systems have a high overall risk score.
  • 53 percent of the Level I systems have a medium overall risk score.
  • 42 percent of the Level I systems have a low overall risk score.

MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems

  • The mean overall risk for MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems is 2.2.
  • 100 percent of MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems have a low final risk score.

3.4.2 Overall System Risk by Number of Connections

For the Saskatchewan region, there is no clear pattern between the overall system risk and the number of connections.

3.4.3 Component Risks: Wastewater

The overall risk is comprised of five component risks: effluent receiver, design, operation, reporting and operators. Each of these component risk factors is discussed below.

Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Text Description of figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

This graph illustrates the risk associated with each type of risk component for all wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

The graph shows the mean risk score for wastewater systems by the type of risk component. There are five risk components: effluent; design; operation; reporting; and operator.

  • The risk associated with the effluent has a mean score of 3.9.
  • The risk associated with the design has a mean score of 4.4.
  • The risk associated with the operation has a mean score of 5.8.
  • The risk associated with the reporting has a mean score of 8.0.
  • The risk associated with the operator has a mean score of 1.7.
  Effluent Design Operation Reporting Operator
Risk 3.9 4.4 5.8 8.0 1.7
Minimum 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Maximum 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Std. Dev. 2.4 2.2 2.5 3.5 1.8

3.4.4 Component Risk - Wastewater: Effluent Receiver

The effluent receiver has a mean risk score of 3.9, and there is a fairly even distribution of the risk scores. The key drivers of this risk score are:

  • the proximity of the receiving environment to species at risk
  • the extent to which the receiver is required for other human uses, such as fishing, recreation or drinking water.
Figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers
Figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the effluent risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. There are four key risk drivers:

  • High-Risk Effluent Receiver;
  • Possible Species at Risk in the Receiving Environment;
  • Nearby Human Use of the Receiving Environment; and
  • Receiving Environment is a Sensitive Area.
  • 13 percent of the wastewater systems have a high-risk effluent receiver.
  • 65 percent of the wastewater systems possibly have species at risk in the receiving environment.
  • 31 percent of the wastewater systems have human use nearby the receiving environment.
  • For 1 percent of the wastewater systems, the receiving environment is a sensitive area.

3.4.5 Component Risk - Wastewater: Design

The risk associated with the design has a mean score of 4.4. A total of 55 of the systems have a low-risk design score. Half of the overall high-risk systems also have a high design risk.

There are several key drivers of the design risk scores in the region, including:

  • poor system reliability
  • system lacks the flexibility required to meet future growth
  • system exceeds 75% of the design capacity
  • inappropriate waste management.
Figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers
Figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the design risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan.

There are eight key drivers that contribute to design risk:

  • Design-Related Failure to meet the Guidelines;
  • Inappropriate Treatment Processes;
  • Poor System Reliability;
  • No Design Flexibility;
  • Exceeding 75 percent of Capacity;
  • Inappropriate Waste Management;
  • Does Not Meet Applicable Design Standards; and
  • Plant/System (Workplace) Considered Dangerous.
  • 20 percent of the wastewater systems have a design-related failure to meet guidelines.
  • 16 percent of the wastewater systems have inappropriate treatment practices.
  • 75 percent of the wastewater systems have poor system reliability.
  • 34 percent of the wastewater systems have no design flexibility.
  • 49 percent of the wastewater systems exceed 75 percent of their estimated capacities.
  • 49 percent of the wastewater systems have inappropriate waste management.
  • 6 percent of the wastewater systems do not meet applicable design standards.
  • For 1 percent of wastewater systems, the plant/system workplace is considered to be dangerous.

3.4.6 Component Risk - Wastewater: Operation

The risk associated with the operation has a mean score of 5.8. Most of the wastewater systems have a medium- or a high-risk score. This is identified as an area of opportunity for increased risk mitigation efforts.

There are several key drivers of increased operation risk in the region, including:

  • failure to meet Federal Effluent Guidelines
  • inadequate maintenance logs
  • Emergency Response Plans not in place or not being used
  • Operation & Maintenance manuals not available or not in use.
Figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers
Figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for wastewater in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. There are five key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Federal Effluent Quality Guidelines Due to Operations;
  • Inadequate Maintenance Logs;
  • Maintenance Not Adequately Performed;
  • Emergency Response Plan Not Available or Not in Place; and
  • Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Manual Not Available or Not in Use.
  • 25 percent of the wastewater systems failed to meet federal effluent quality guidelines due to operations.
  • 43 percent of the wastewater systems have inadequate maintenance logs.
  • Maintenance is not adequately performed for 18 percent of wastewater systems.
  • An Emergency Response Plan is not available or not in use for 67 percent of the wastewater systems.
  • An Operation and Maintenance manual is not in use for 69 percent of the wastewater systems.

3.4.7 Component Risk - Wastewater: Reporting

The risk associated with reporting has a mean score of 8.0. The reporting risk component assesses whether operators maintain effluent-testing and system-monitoring records. Poor record keeping is a significant factor in raising the overall risk ranking for many communities in this region. For reporting, 20 systems have a low-risk score, 1 system has a medium-risk score, and 67 systems have a high-risk score.

Figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the main risk drivers that contribute to the reporting risk for wastewater in First Nation communities in Saskatchewan. There are three key reporting risk drivers:

  • Inconsistent Records;
  • Poor Records for Key Parameters; and
  • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System not Calibrated and Confirmed Accurate.
  • There are inconsistent records for 77 percent of the wastewater systems.
  • There are poor records for key parameters for 75 percent of the wastewater systems.
  • 0 percent of the systems have a problem with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) calibration and accuracy.

3.4.8 Component Risk - Wastewater: Operator

The risk associated with the operator has a mean score of 1.7. Operator risk is determined by whether or not the operators have adequate certification. The operator risk is the lowest mean component score for the region, which is because there are a high number of certified operators. There is only one system that is high risk because the primary operator does not have adequate certification and there is no backup operator.

The extent to which existing wastewater systems have fully certified primary and backup operators is presented in Table 3.6. Of the 83 systems which require a certified operator for the wastewater treatment system, 11% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 64% did not have a fully certified backup operator. Of the 84 systems which require a certified operator for the collection system, 12% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 64% did not have a fully certified backup operator.

Table 3.6 - Wastewater: Operator Status for Saskatchewan Region
Primary Operator Backup Operator
Treatment Collection Treatment Collection
No. of Systems Currently Without an Operator 0 0 10 10
No. of Systems with Operator with No Certification 11 10 42 41
No. of Systems with Operator Certified but not to the Required Level of the System 0 0 1 4
No. of Systems with Operator with Adequate Certification 72 74 30 29
No. of Systems Not Requiring Operators with Certification 5 4 5 4
Total No. of Systems 88 88 88 88

Those factors which frequently contribute to increased wastewater operator risk are identified in Figure 3.20. A lack of certification, lack of training and the lack of primary or backup operator are common drivers that increase operator risk.

Figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers
Figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers
Text Description of figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for wastewater in First Nation communities in Saskatchewan. There are five key risk drivers: No Primary Operator and/or Primary Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification;

  • Primary Operator Uncertified and/or has Insufficient Experience/Training for the Collection System;
  • Primary Operator Not Enrolled in Training;
  • No Backup Operator and/or Backup Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification; and
  • No Access to Fully-Trained Operator.
  • 13 percent of wastewater systems have no primary operator and/or have a primary operator who is not certified to the required level of the treatment system classification.
  • 12 percent of wastewater systems have a primary operator who is uncertified and/or who has insufficient experience/training for the collection system.
  • 20 percent of wastewater systems have a primary operator who is not enrolled in training.
  • 63 percent of wastewater systems have no backup operator and/or have a backup operator who is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • 18 percent of the wastewater systems have no access to a fully trained operator.

3.5 Plans

Information was collected regarding the availability of various documents, including Source Water Protection Plans (SWPP), Maintenance Management Plans (MMP), operation and maintenance manuals and Emergency Response Plans (ERP). The following tables provide a summary of the percentages of First Nations that have plans in place.

Table 3.7 - Plans Summary: Water
Source Percentage of Water Systems that have a (an)...
Source Water Protection Plan Maintenance Management Plan Emergency Response Plan
Groundwater 9% 51% 43%
Groundwater GUDI 0% 43% 14%
MTA N/A 33% 33%
Surface Water 6% 71% 41%
Overall 7% 52% 40%
Table 3.8 - Plans Summary: Wastewater
Percentage of Wastewater Systems that have a (an)…
Maintenance Management Plan Emergency Response Plan
40% 33%

3.5.1 Source Water Protection Plan

Source water protection planning is one component in a multi-barrier approach to providing safe drinking water. Source Water Protection Plans seek to identify threats to the water source. They also establish policies and practices to prevent contamination of the water source, and to ensure that the water service provider is equipped to take corrective action in the event of a contamination. Source water protection is appropriate for both groundwater and surface water sources.

Only 7% of the systems inspected reported that they had completed a Source Water Protection Plan.

3.5.2 Maintenance Management Plans

Maintenance Management Plans are intended to improve the effectiveness of maintenance activities. They plan, schedule, and document preventative maintenance activities, and they document unscheduled maintenance. The plans represent a change from reactive to proactive thinking, and— when executed properly— they optimize maintenance spending, minimize service disruption and extend asset life.

Approximately 52% of the water systems and 40% of the wastewater systems indicated that they have a Maintenance Management Plan in place.

3.5.3 Emergency Response Plans

Emergency Response Plans are intended to be a quick reference to assist operators and other stakeholders in managing and in responding to emergency situations. Emergency Response Plans should be in place for both water and wastewater systems. They include key contact information for those who should be notified and who may be of assistance in case of emergency (agencies, contractors, suppliers, etc.), and they provide standard communication and response protocols. Emergency Response Plans identify recommended corrective actions for "foreseeable" emergencies, as well as methodologies for addressing unforeseen situations. They are essentially the last potential "barrier" in a multi-barrier approach to protecting the drinking water supply and the natural environment, and they provide the last opportunity to mitigate damages.

40% of the water systems and 33% of the wastewater systems have an Emergency Response Plan in place.

4.0 Cost Analysis

4.1 Upgrade to Meet INAC's Protocols: Water

In 2006, INAC began to develop a series of Protocol documents for centralised and decentralised water and wastewater systems in First Nations communities. The Protocols contain standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of these systems.

One of the objectives of this study was to review the existing water and wastewater infrastructure, and to identify the potential upgrade costs to meet INAC's Protocol, as well as federal and provincial guidelines, standards, and regulations. The total estimated construction cost for water system upgrades to meet the INAC Protocol is $137 million.

Table 4.1 provides a breakdown of the estimated total capital costs identified. A separate line item is included for engineering and contigency. Figure 4.1 provides a comparison graph of each of the categories. Note that treatment alone comprises over half of the estimated costs.

Table 4.1 - Estimated Total Construction Costs: Water
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Building $8,922,150 $686,000 $2,707,050
Distribution $5,097,000 $827,000 $811,000
Equipment $1,903,500 $1,898,000 $81,500
Additional Fire Pumps $1,055,000 $0 $455,000
Monitoring Equipment $874,200 $661,700 $391,700
Source $5,799,300 $1,789,500 $4,908,700
Storage & Pumping $3,038,000 $2,510,000 $2,380,500
Treatment $75,737,000 $41,815,500 $41,258,500
Standby Power $7,235,000 $0 $6,300,000
Engineering & Contingencies $27,438,650 $12,572,550 $14,879,550
Construction Total Estimate $137,099,800 $62,760,250 $74,173,500

There are 34 water systems that may potentially have groundwater under the influence of surface water (GUDI) water supplies. The upgrade costs for these systems have been estimated under the assumption that they will prove to be secure groundwater supplies, but further studies are recommended to confirm this assumption.

If the GUDI studies indicate that these supplies should be considered to be surface water rather than groundwater, then additional upgrades will be required to meet INAC's Protocols. It is estimated that, depending on system capacity and site indices, an additional $1.0 to $2.5 million will be required for each system that needs to be upgraded to surface water treatment.

Figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water ($ - M)
Figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water ($ - M)
Text Description of figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water ($ - M)

This pie chart provides a breakdown (in millions of dollars) of the estimated construction costs for water system upgrades that are required for to meet INAC's Protocols. The costs are divided into ten categories:

  • Additional Fire Pumps;
  • Building;
  • Distribution;
  • Engineering & Contingencies;
  • Equipment;
  • Monitoring Equipment;
  • Source;
  • Standby Power;
  • Storage & Pumping; and
  • Treatment.
  • The total estimated cost for additional fire pumps for water systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 1.1 million dollars.
  • The total estimated building cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 8.9 million dollars.
  • The total estimated distribution cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 5.1 million dollars.
  • The total cost for engineering and contingencies for water systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 27.4 million dollars.
  • The total equipment cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 1.9 million dollars.
  • The total monitoring equipment cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.9 million dollars.
  • The total source cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 5.8 million dollars.
  • The total standby power cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 7.2 million dollars.
  • The total storage and pumping cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 3.0 million dollars.
  • The total treatment cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 75.7 million dollars.

Below is a breakdown of some of the major expenses:

Treatment costs include:

  • Providing spare chemical feed equipment.
  • Providing spare disinfection equipment.
  • Providing additional filter trains.
  • Providing secondary containment for treatment chemicals.
  • Providing conventional treatment systems for GUDI sources.
  • Providing surge suppression/uninterruptible power supplies for critical electronic equipment.
  • Upgrading the capacity of existing water treatment plants.

Building costs include:

  • Undertaking building expansion for incompatible chemicals.
  • Undertaking building expansion to provide separate rooms for controls, electrical equipment and chemical storage.
  • Providing fence for security purposes.
  • Providing laboratory space complete with proper ventilation and plumbing.
  • Providing security alarm systems.
  • Providing screened reservoir vents.

Storage & Pumping costs include:

  • Expanding to provide adequate storage for fire protection and domestic flows.
  • Providing screened reservoir vents and overflow pipes.
  • Retrofitting existing reservoirs to include baffling (concrete and/or curtain) so that there are no common walls between treated and raw water and/or treated water and backwash waste.

Plans/Documentation costs include:

  • Developing and/or updating Emergency Response Plans.
  • Developing and/or updating Maintenance Management Systems.
  • Developing and/or updating Operation & Maintenance manuals.
  • Developing and/or updating Source Water Protection Plans.
  • Developing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)/Operational Plans (OP).
  • Developing wellhead protection plans, including wellhead integrity recommendations.
  • Providing as-built/record drawings for facility records.
Table 4.2 - Estimated Total Non- Construction Costs: Water
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Training $535,000 $535,000 $535,000
GUDI Studies Studies $988,500 $25,500 $115,500
Plans/Documentation $5,172,500 $3,992,500 $3,407,500
Studies $4,649,000 $3,386,000 $3,480,000
Non-Construction Total Estimate $11,345,000 $7,939,000 $7,538,000

Additional annual operations and maintenance costs, shown in Table 4.3, include costs that occur annually for items that are not currently being completed to meet protocols, such as calibrating monitoring equipment, additional sampling, cleaning the reservoir, and backup operator's salary.

Table 4.3 - Estimated Additional Annual Operation & Maintenance Costs: Water
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost
Sampling $1,087,500
Operations $422,000
Operator $345,000
Water O&M Total Estimated Cost $1,854,500

The total estimated cost, including construction and non-construction costs, for water system upgrades to meet the INAC Protocol is $148.4 million. This excludes costs associated with potentially GUDI systems as discussed previously.

4.2 Upgrade to Meet INAC's Protocol: Wastewater

The total construction cost estimate for the wastewater system upgrades that will be required for systems to meet INAC's Protocol is $52 million. Below is a list of the specific needs, the number of systems impacted by the upgrades, and the total cost of each need.

Increasing capacity, extending the collection system, and providing standby power represent about 78% of the upgrade costs. 20 systems need upgrades to increase capacity, but they are high-cost upgrades. Providing standby power is a widespread necessity, but a low-cost need.

Table 4.4 - Estimated Total Construction and Related Costs: Wastewater
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Building $145,500 $112,000 $142,000
Collection System $13,710,000 $13,710,000 $13,710,000
Equipment $81,500 $81,500 $5,500
Monitoring Equipment $288,000 $34,000 $34,000
Pumping Stations $522,500 $422,000 $490,000
Treatment $21,464,000 $16,844,000 $16,844,000
Standby Power $5,675,000 $5,350,000 $5,350,000
Engineering & Contingencies $10,509,200 $9,168,700 $9,180,900
Construction Total Estimate $52,395,700 $45,722,200 $45,756,400
Figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)
Figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)
Text Description of figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)

This pie chart provides a breakdown of the estimated construction costs (in millions of dollars) for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan to meet INAC's Protocol.

The chart is divided into eight categories:

  • Building;
  • Collection System;
  • Engineering & Contingencies;
  • Equipment;
  • Monitoring Equipment;
  • Pumping Stations;
  • Standby Power; and
  • Treatment.
  • The estimated building cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.1 million dollars.
  • The estimated collection system cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 13.7 million dollars.
  • The estimated engineering and contingencies cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 10.5 million dollars.
  • The estimated equipment cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.1 million dollars.
  • The estimated monitoring equipment cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.3 million dollars.
  • The estimated cost pumping stations for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.5 million dollars.
  • The estimated standby power cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 5.7 million dollars.
  • The estimated treatment cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 21.5 million dollars.

Below is an itemized breakdown of some of the major expenses:

Treatment costs include:

  • installing rodent screens on wastewater outfalls
  • undertaking expansion/upgrades of wastewater treatment lagoons
  • providing fence for security purposes, complete with locked gates and signage.

Collection costs include:

  • extending existing collection systems
  • providing additional wastewater haulage trucks.
Table 4.5 - Estimated Total Non-Construction and Related Costs: Wastewater
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Training $240,000 $240,000 $240,000
Plans/Documentation $1,218,500 $703,500 $498,500
Studies $747,000 $516,000 $516,000
Non-Construction Total Estimate $2,205,500 $1,459,500 $1,254,500

Additional annual operations and maintenance costs, as shown in Table 4.6, include costs that occur annually, for items that are not currently being completed to meet protocols, such as calibrating monitoring equipment, additional sampling, and backup operator's salary.

Table 4.6 - Estimated Additional Annual Operations & Maintenance Costs: Wastewater
Description Estimated Cost
Sampling $124,200
Operations $6,000
Operator $55,000
Wastewater O&M Total Estimated Cost $185,200

The total estimated cost, including construction and non-construction costs, for wastewater system upgrades is $54.6 million.

4.3 Upgrade Cost Summary

Table 4.7 provides a summary of the upgrade costs to meet INAC's Protocol, and federal and provincial guidelines, standards, and regulations:

Table 4.7 - Summary and Comparison of Upgrade Costs
Total Estimated Cost
Water Wastewater
Upgrade to meet Protocol $148,444,800 $54,601,200
Upgrade to meet Federal Guidelines $70,699,250 $47,181,700
Upgrade to meet Provincial Guidelines $81,711,500 $47,010,900

The following tables present a breakdown of the costs (by risk level) to meet INAC's Protocols.

Table 4.8 - Breakdown of Protocol Estimated Costs by Risk Level: Water
Risk Level Short Term Long Term Total
High $37,000,317 $16,266,147 $73,267,341
Medium $48,583,146 $6,471,128 $73,423,200
Low $711,517 $453,899 $1,754,258
Total $86,294,980 $23,191,174 $148,444,800
Table 4.9 - Breakdown of Protocol Estimated Costs by Risk Level: Wastewater
Risk Level Short Term Long Term Total
High $4,142,890 $0 $4,142,890
Medium $38,530,551 $6,192 $38,536,742
Low $11,921,567 $0 $11,921,567
Total $54,595,008 $6,192 $54,601,200

4.4 Asset Condition and Reporting System Needs

ACRS (Asset Condition and Reporting System) inspections were completed for all water and wastewater related assets. For the purposes of this assessment, ACRS needs were limited to required repairs of existing facilities, and did not include any upgrade costs, in order to avoid duplication with the Upgrade to Protocol needs identified. The following two tables (Tables 4.10 and 4.11) provide a summary of the required operation & maintenance repairs broken down by the type of asset for both water and wastewater systems.

Table 4.10 - Asset Condition Reporting System Identified Operation & Maintenance Costs: Water
Asset Code Description Estimated Cost
A5A Buildings $481,825
B1B Watermains $240,610
B1C/B1D Treatment $1,038,400
B1E Reservoirs $166,110
B1G Standpipe/Truckfill $42,100
B1F Community Wells $186,050
B1I Low Lift Pumping $27,000
B1H High Lift Pumping $296,550
E4A Trucks $200
Water ACRS Total Estimated Cost $2,478,845
Table 4.11 - Asset Condition and Reporting System Identified Operation & Maintenance Costs: Wastewater
Asset Code Description Estimated Cost
A5B Buildings $785,450
B2A Sewers $45,250
B2H/B2J Lift Stations & Forcemains $617,150
B2E/B2I Lagoons $2,557,800
B2F Septic Systems $7,050
E3A Trucks $4,000
Water ACRS Total Estimated Cost $4,016,700

4.5 Community Servicing

An analysis was completed to evaluate future servicing alternatives for a 10-year design period. The analysis considers a variety of alternatives, including expanding existing systems, developing new systems, establishing local Municipal Type Agreements (if applicable), and using individual systems.

A theoretical operation and maintenance cost was developed for each alternative, along with a 30-year life-cycle cost. The cost of the upgrades that are necessary for systems to meet INAC's Protocol is included in the new servicing cost, if appropriate (i.e. for new servicing alternatives that include continued use of the existing system).

The following table summarizes the capital cost and the total estimated operation & maintenance cost of the recommended servicing alternatives.

Table 4.12 - Future Servicing Costs
Total Estimated Cost Cost Per Connection
Water Wastewater Water Wastewater
Future Servicing Cost $400,000,000 $280,000,000 $18,600 $13,100
Annual O&M to service future growth $37,500,000 $21,200,000 $1,700 $1,000

The existing servicing in the Saskatchewan region includes piped and trucked connections and individual servicing. Most communities include a core area of greater density around community buildings, typically serviced by piped water with fire protection and gravity sewer lines, and rural lots, serviced by low pressure water lines, trucked water delivery, or individual wells for water, and trucked sewage haul or private septic systems for wastewater.

In evaluating future servicing options, the location of new homes in core areas with piped servicing, or rural areas with low pressure water or individual servicing, was considered. In most cases piped water and sewer lines provided the most economical option as well as a higher level of service. This assumes that future homes would be constructed in a more compact subdivision type setting adjacent to the existing serviced area. In cases where residents choose to build homes in outlying areas, individual or truck haul servicing may be more appropriate.

Modification of the servicing to existing homes was not considered in the future servicing evaluation, except in cases where the existing servicing methods posed a health risk or had serious operational concerns. In some areas of the region existing individual wells have concentrations of naturally-occurring metals such as lead, arsenic, or uranium, at levels above the federal limits. Other private wells are installed without adequate casing or wellhead protection and are susceptible to bacteriological contamination from the surface. In some cases it may be possible to replace existing wells with cisterns for trucked delivery or connect to low pressure water lines.

Private septic systems are used extensively throughout the region, and in many cases these systems pose operational concerns because of poor soil conditions or improper installation techniques. Although the region has had a longstanding, cost-sharing incentive program to convert individual surface discharge septic systems (shoot-outs) to sub-surface disposal systems, such as tile fields, mounds, and/or seepage pits, many septic systems continue to rely upon surface discharge systems.

Regional cost-sharing incentives have essentially eliminated the use of single-family lagoon systems, but additional efforts will be required to reduce the current environmental and health hazards that are associated with surface discharge or "sewage spray jet" systems. In most cases, it should be possible to replace surface discharge systems with sub-surface disposal facilities constructed specifically for the conditions or with truck haul service. Low-pressure sewer lines may be another viable solution in some locations, although they are not used extensively in the region.

It is assumed that houses without service in the Saskatchewan region are not viable for renovation and will need to be replaced. Site inspections confirmed that there are a total of 44 homes without wastewater services and 45 homes without any form of water service. The cost for the required replacement of these housing units has not been carried as part of this study.

5.0 Regional Summary

All 69 First Nations in the Saskatchewan Region with water and wastewater infrastructure were visited during the completion of this project. 9 of the First Nations, or 9%, are serviced by Municipal Type Agreements with a neighbouring municipality for water, while 5 communities are serviced by Municipal Type Agreements for wastewater. The majority of First Nations have a core area serviced with piped distribution with the outlying areas serviced by individual wells and septic systems or by truck haul. Only one First Nation is serviced entirely by individual wells, and two First Nations are serviced entirely by individual septic systems.

According to INAC, a "Public System" serves five or more houses or community buildings. In Saskatchewan, however, a "Public System" was defined as a system that provides services to three or more houses, which has led to many three-house systems.

In the Saskatchewan region, there are 27 water systems and 4 wastewater systems identified as high risk. Although there are multiple factors that contribute to risk, the analysis suggests that INAC, Health Canada, and Band Councils should give design and operational concerns the most weight, particularly when the concern is related to the protection of public health or to the environment. The high-risk water systems in the region typically require system upgrades or improved operational procedures to meet the GCDWQ.

According to the assessment, INAC, First Nations and Health Canada can reduce risk significantly by ensuring that all water and wastewater systems are designed and constructed in accordance with INAC's Protocols and that they are operated in accordance with best management practices.

A significant concern is that 69% of the water systems have exceeded 75% of their design capacity. Historical standards that promoted the use of 180 L/p/d for the design of piped water systems have, in part, contributed to the water treatment plant capacity problem in the region. Although the Saskatchewan region took the initiative in 2004 to increase the minimum water consumption rates for piped system design to 235 L/p/d through a local Operating Instruction, the rates used for design purposes continue to fall short of actual water consumption data, which is currently averaging 280 L/p/d.

Ammonia in the water supply is a recurring concern, interfering with sodium hypochlorite addition. Use of chlorination or pretreatment with ion exchange or membrane filtration may be an option.

In terms of positive developments, the Saskatchewan region has significantly reduced risk levels through a very aggressive and effective program that facilitates the certification of First Nation water and wastewater operators. This program is supported by an effective regional Circuit Rider program, which provides competent and committed training staff for First Nation operators through the Saskatchewan Water Corporation, and by the Saskatoon, Prince Albert Grand Council and Meadow Lake Tribal Council organizations. That the mean operator risk scores for water and wastewater are so low—1.5 for water and 1.7 for wastewater—reflects the success of these efforts. Risk could also be reduced with the completion of various planning tools, including Source Water Protection Plans, Maintenance Management Plans and Emergency Response Plans. Currently, Source Water Protection Plans are available for only 7% of the regional water systems.

Various individual First Nations commented that current Operation & Maintenance budgets are often insufficient to retain operators, to provide ongoing component replacement, and to perform all of the monitoring and recording requirements. A regional review of current Operation & Maintenance unit costs for water and wastewater infrastructure may be warranted.

The Saskatchewan region relies solely upon lagoon systems for communal wastewater treatment. Many lagoons appear to experience exfiltration. It is not clear whether exfiltration was part of the original design intent, and it may be appropriate to investigate whether this practice has any negative impacts.

Wastewater sampling prior to effluent discharge appears to be another area to address in order to minimize the overall risk significantly. Although some operators do sample, test and record effluent quality prior to discharge, the practice is not consistent for all systems across the region. To address the reporting risk component for wastewater systems, INAC, in conjunction with First Nations, Health Canada, and/or Environment Canada, could develop a protocol for sampling, testing, reporting and monitoring.

In Saskatchewan region, low pressure water lines are used to connect many rural houses. Septic systems are used extensively, but many operational concerns were observed. Individual surface discharge systems pose health and environmental concerns.

Appendix A Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

Aeration (see also lagoon)
The process of bringing air into contact with a liquid (typically water), usually by bubbling air through the liquid, spraying the liquid into the air, allowing the liquid to cascade down a waterfall, or by mechanical agitation. Aeration serves to (1) strip dissolved gases from solution, and/or (2) oxygenate the liquid. (Gowen Environmental)
Aesthetic Objective (AO)
Aesthetic objectives are set for drinking water quality parameters such as colour or odour, where exceeding the objective may make the water less pleasant, but not unsafe. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater)
Ammonia (See also: Potable water; Effluent quality requirements)
A pungent colorless gaseous alkaline compound of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3) that is very soluble in water and can easily be condensed to a liquid by cold and pressure (Merriam-Webster). Ammonia is used in several areas of water and wastewater treatment, such as pH control. It is also used in conjunction with chlorine to produce potable water. The existence of ammonia in wastewater is common in industrial sectors as a by-product of cleaning agents. This chemical impacts both human and environmental conditions. Treatment of ammonia can be completed in lagoon systems and mechanical plants. (R.M. Technologies)
Arsenic
A metallic element that forms a number of compounds. It is found in nature at low levels, mostly in compounds with oxygen, chlorine, and sulphur; these are called inorganic arsenic compounds. Organic arsenic in plants and animals combines with carbon and hydrogen. Inorganic arsenic is a human poison. Organic arsenic is less harmful. High levels of inorganic arsenic in food or water can be fatal. (Medicinenet.com)
Aquifer (confined)
A layer of soil or rock below the land surface that is saturated with water. There are layers of impermeable material both above and below it, and it is under pressure so that when the aquifer is penetrated by a well, the water will rise above the top of the aquifer. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)
Aquifer (unconfined)
An unconfined aquifer is one whose upper water surface (water table) is at atmospheric pressure, and thus is able to rise and fall. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)
As-built/record drawings
Revised set of drawing submitted by a contractor upon completion of a project or a particular job. They reflect all changes made in the specifications and working drawings during the construction process, and show the exact dimensions, geometry, and location of all elements of the work completed under the contract. Also called as-built drawings or just as-builts.
ACRS Inspection (Asset Condition Reporting System Inspection)
For centralised water and wastewater systems, an ACRS (asset condition reporting system) inspection of the system is to be performed once every three (3) years by a qualified person (consulting engineer, Tribal Council engineer), who is not from the First Nation involved, to assess the condition of the asset, adequacy of maintenance efforts, and need for additional maintenance work. The ACRS inspection report will be discussed with, and submitted to, the First Nation council and the INAC regional office. Inspections will be conducted in accordance with the ACRS Manual, a copy of which can be obtained from the INAC regional office.
Bacteria (plural) bacterium (singular)
Microscopic living organisms usually consisting of a single cell. Bacteria can aid in pollution control by consuming or breaking down organic matter in sewage and/or other water pollutants. Some bacteria may also cause human, animal, and plant health problems. Bacteria are predominantly found in the intestines and feces of humans and animals. The presence of coliform bacteria in water indicates the contamination of water by raw or partially treated sewage. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)
Baffle (concrete and/or curtain)
Vertical/horizontal impermeable barriers in a pond or reservoir. Baffles direct the flow of water into the longest possible path through the reservoir in order to eliminate short-circuiting in the water treatment system. In potable water treatment, short-circuiting can reduce the effectiveness of disinfectants. In effluent treatment, short-circuiting may result in an increase of pollutants at the outlet. Shortcircuiting occurs when water flows directly from the inlet to the outlet across a pond or reservoir. (Layfield)
BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
The most widely used parameter of organic pollution applied to both wastewater and surface water is the 5-day BOD (BOD5). This determination involves the measurement of the dissolved oxygen used by microorganisms in the biochemical oxidation of organic matter. BOD test results are used to: determine the approximate quantity of oxygen that will be required to biologically stabilize the organic matter present; to determine the size of waste treatment facilities; to measure the efficiency of some treatment processes; and to determine compliance with wastewater discharge permits. (Metcalf & Eddy)
Capacity (actual vs. design)
Refers to the capacity of the treatment system, with the "design capacity" being the flow rate proposed by the designer or manufacturer. If the system is not operating to design levels, the "actual capacity" could be limited by failing pumps, clogged filters or not meeting the Protocol (i.e. Protocol requires two filter trains such that one could operate while another is being cleaned/repaired and this was previously not explicitly required; therefore, the actual capacity is half of the design capacity).
Chemical feed equipment
All equipment associated with introducing chemicals to the raw water as part of the treatment process including coagulants, coagulant aids, disinfectants, etc.
Chlorine
A disinfectant used in either gas or liquid from gas that is added to water to protect the consumer from bacteria and other micro-organisms. It is widely used because it is inexpensive and easily injected into water. Because of its concentration, a gallon can treat a large amount of water. However, chlorine use does have drawbacks: when chlorine is used as a disinfectant it combines with naturally occurring decaying organic matter to form Trihalomethanes (THMs). (Vital Life Systems)
Chlorination
The application of chlorine to water, sewage or industrial wastes for disinfection (reduction of pathogens) or to oxidize undesirable compounds. (City of Toronto)
Chlorine Residual
The chlorine level in potable water immediately after it has been treated. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment)
Circuit Rider (see also Circuit Rider Training Program)
Under the department's Circuit Rider Trainer Program (CRTP) INAC provides funds to engage circuit riders (third party water and wastewater system experts who provide water and wastewater system operators with on-site, mentoring, training, and emergency assistance). The third-party service providers that provide circuit rider services also provide operators with a 24/7 emergency hotline. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities)
Circuit Rider Training Program
The main vehicle by which most First Nations operators receive the required training to operate their systems. This program provides qualified experts who rotate through a circuit of communities, providing hands-on training for the operators on their own system. Circuit rider trainers also help the First Nations with minor troubles and issues of operation and maintenance of their systems. (INAC Plan of Action)
Cistern
A tank for storing potable water or other liquids, usually placed above the ground. (Bow River Basin Council, cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)
Class "D" Cost Estimates
A preliminary estimate, for each community visited, based on available site information, which indicates the approximate magnitude (+/- 40%) of the cost of the actions recommended in the report, and which may be used in developing long-term capital plans and for a preliminary discussion of proposed capital projects.
Collection piping
Sanitary sewer collecting wastewater from individual buildings and homes, for treatment and disposal at a public facility.
Component risk / component risk factors
The overall risk is determined by five component risks: water source/effluent, design, operation, reporting, and operator.
Community Health Representatives (CHRs)
Health Canada's local health representatives. They undertake bacteriological and chlorine residual sampling of distributed water within most First Nation communities.
Contact piping
Dedicated watermain to provide chlorine contact time before potable water is distributed to the first user.
Containment liners (for on-site fuel storage)
A form of secondary containment used for diesel driven generators or fire pumps.
Continuous discharge to a receiving body
The release of treated wastewater effluent to a lake, river, stream, etc. where the rate of release is continuous (i.e. not batch discharge).
Conventional Wastewater Treatment
Consists of preliminary processes, primary settling to remove heavy solids and floatable materials, secondary biological aeration to metabolize and flocculate colloidal and dissolved organics, and secondary settling to remove additional solids. Tertiary treatment such as disinfection or filtration to further treat the wastewater depending on the level of treatment required for discharge. Waste sludge drawn from these operations is thickened and processed for ultimate disposal, usually either land application or landfilling. Preliminary treatment processes include coarse screening, medium screening, shredding of solids, flow measuring, pumping, grit removal, and pre-aeration. Chlorination of raw wastewater sometimes is used for odor control and to improve settling characteristics of the solids.
Conventional Water Treatment
Consists of a combination of coagulation (adding chemicals called coagulants), flocculation (particles binding together with coagulants) and sedimentation (settling of particles) to remove a large amount of organic compounds and suspended particles, filtration (water passing through porous media) to remove bacteria protozoa and viruses (slow sand filtration) or suspended particles (rapid sand filtration), and disinfection to ensure all the bacteria protozoa and viruses are removed, and provide safe drinking water.
Cross connections
A cross connection is a link between a possible source of pollution and a potable water supply. A pollutant may enter the potable water system when a) the pressure of the pollution source exceeds the pressure of the potable water source or b) when a sudden loss of pressure occurs in the water system and "backflow" occurs. The flow through a water treatment plant should have no instances of treated water coming into contact with raw or wastewater. Backflow preventers should be tested regularly and any actual physical links should be removed.
Decentralized System
A group or groups of communal (as opposed to private) on-site water or wastewater systems. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)
Dedicated transmission main
A length of watermain which has no service connections or hydrants; can refer to the length of raw watermain from a raw water source to the water treatment plant or in the distribution system where there are larger distances between homes.
Discharge Frequency
The frequency in which treated wastewater is discharged; could be continuous, seasonal, annual, etc.
Discharge quality data
Data acquired through the completion of a laboratory analysis of treated wastewater effluent prior to obtaining permission to discharge. Relevant parameters for testing include: 5 day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Solids, Fecal Coliforms, pH, Phenols, Oils & Greases, Phosphorus and Temperature.
Disinfectant
A disinfectant is a chemical (commonly chlorine, chloramines, or ozone) or physical process (e.g., ultraviolet light) that inactivates or kills microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)
Disinfection
A process that has as its objective destroying or inactivating pathogenic micro-organisms in water. (Government of Alberta, Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)
Disinfection By-products
Disinfection by-products are chemical, organic and inorganic substances that can form during a reaction of a disinfectant with naturally present organic or anthropogenic matter in the water. (Lenntech)
Distribution Classification > piped / trucked
Refers to the classification of the delivery of potable water leaving the water treatment plant. This can be either piped (via watermain) or trucked (via truck delivery to individual homes/cisterns). The level of classification involves the number of house connections (population served).
Domestic flows
All demands in the water system excluding fire flows.
Drinking Water
Water of sufficiently high quality that can be consumed or used without risk of immediate or long term harm.
Drinking Water Advisory (DWA)
Drinking Water Advisories (DWAs) are preventive measures that are regularly issued in municipalities and communities across Canada; they protect public health from waterborne contaminants that can be present in drinking water. A DWA can be issued in any community and may include boil water advisories, do not consume advisories and do not use advisories. (INAC "Fact Sheet")
Effluent
1. The liquid waste of municipalities/communities, industries, or agricultural operations. Usually the term refers to a treated liquid released from a wastewater treatment process. (Bow River) 2. The discharge from any on-site sewage treatment component. (Alberta Municipal Affairs; cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)
Effluent quality data
Any test results or monitoring data that describes the condition of treated wastewater effluent.
Effluent Quality Requirements

All effluents from wastewater systems in Canada must comply with all applicable federal legislation including the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 and the Fisheries Act, as well as any other applicable legislation, including provincial, depending on the geographical location of the system. In addition, all discharges from First Nations wastewater systems shall meet the quality requirements found in the Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments - EPS 1-EC-76-1 (1976 Guidelines).

For the purposes of determining effluent quality related to ammonia and chlorine, the Notice Requiring the Preparation and Implementation of Pollution Prevention Plans for Inorganic Chloramines and Chlorinated Wastewater Effluents and the Guideline for the Release of Ammonia Dissolved in Water Found in Wastewater Effluents contain additional and/or updated information to the requirements provided in the 1976 Guidelines.

A copy of the Guideline for the Release of Ammonia Dissolved in Water Found in Wastewater Effluents can be found at Environment Canada's website. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities)

Effluent Receiver (also referred to as the receiving body; the receiving environment; the receiver) (see also Effluent and Component risks)

The environment that receives treated wastewater, including lakes, rivers, wetlands, sub-surfaces, title fields, open marines, and enclosed bays. It may also refer to a community's method for dealing with wastewater (e.g. Municipal Type Agreements or evaporation).

Elevated Storage

A water tower, which is a reservoir or storage tank mounted on a tower-like structure at the summit of an area of high ground in a place where the water pressure would otherwise be inadequate for distribution at a uniform pressure. (Collins)

Emergency Response Plan (ERP)

Emergency response plans for water and wastewater systems are intended to be a quick reference to assist operators and other stakeholders in managing and responding to emergency situations. They include key contact information for persons to be notified and for persons who may be of assistance (e.g. agencies, contractors, suppliers, etc.), as well as standard communication and response protocols. Emergency response plans identify recommended action for "foreseeable" emergencies, and provide methodologies for unforeseen situations.

Facultative Lagoon
The most common type of wastewater treatment lagoon used by small communities and individual households. Facultative lagoons rely on both aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of waste, can be adapted for use in most climates and require no machinery to treat wastewater.
Filter
A device used to remove solids from a mixture or to separate materials. Materials are frequently separated from water using filters. (Edwards Aquifier)
Filter train equipment

Includes all components that form part of the water filtration process from where the raw water enters the filter process to where the filtered water leaves the treatment unit. This does not refer to the disinfection equipment.

Filtration
The mechanical process which removes particulate matter by separating water from solid material, usually by passing it through sand. (Edwards Aquifier)
Fire pump tests
A monthly test for the basic operation and functionality of the fire pump.
Grade Level Storage
A treated water storage reservoir that is constructed at grade, typically with earth mounded on top to provide some frost protection.
GPS: Global Positioning System (GPS)
A navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver.
Groundwater

Groundwater is any water that is obtained from a subsurface water-bearing soil unit (called an aquifer). 1) Water that flows or seeps downward and saturates soil or rock, supplying springs and wells. The upper surface of the saturate zone is called the water table. 2) Water stored underground in rock crevices and in the pores of geologic materials that make up the Earth's crust. (INAC, Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater, confined: Groundwater that is under pressure significantly greater than atmospheric, with its upper limit the bottom of a bed with hydraulic conductivity distinctly lower than that of the material in which the confined water occurs. (INAC, Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater, unconfined: Water in an aquifer that has a water table that is exposed to the atmosphere. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI)
This term refers to groundwater sources (e.g., wells, springs, infiltration galleries, etc.) where microbial pathogens are able to travel from nearby surface water to the groundwater source. (Government of Nova Scotia)
Guidelines
Guidelines as referred to in this Assessment include all federal and provincial water and wastewater guidelines for domestic potable water and household sanitary waste. These guidelines include the "Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality" and all its recommended health and aesthetic guidelines for water quality.
Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ)

Water quality guidelines developed by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water and have been published by Health Canada since 1968.

Canadian drinking water supplies are generally of excellent quality. However, water in nature is never "pure." It picks up traces of everything it comes into contact with, including minerals, silt, vegetation, fertilizers, and agricultural run-off. While most of these substances are harmless, some may pose a health risk. To address this risk, Health Canada works with the provincial and territorial governments to develop guidelines that set out the maximum acceptable concentrations of these substances in drinking water. These drinking water guidelines are designed to protect the health of the most vulnerable members of society, such as children and the elderly. The guidelines set out the basic parameters that every water system should strive to achieve in order to provide the cleanest, safest and most reliable drinking water possible.

The Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality deal with microbiological, chemical and radiological contaminants. They also address concerns with physical and aesthetic characteristics of water, such as taste and odour. (Health Canada)

Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments, April 1976
The purpose of these guidelines is to indicate the degree of treatment and effluent quality that will be applicable to all wastewater discharged from existing and proposed Federal installations. Use of these guidelines is intended to promote a consistent wastewater approach towards the cleanup and prevention of water pollution and ensure that the best practicable control technologies used. (Government of Canada)
Highlift Pumping
Refers to pumps installed that provide treated water into the water distribution system at pressure; either directly or via water tower.
Hydrant Flushing
(see line flushing and swabbing)
Influent
Water, wastewater, or other liquid flowing into a reservoir, basin or treatment plant. (Gowen)
Lagoon
A shallow pond where sunlight, bacterial action, and oxygen work to purify wastewater. Lagoons are typically used for the storage of wastewaters, sludges, liquid wastes, or spent nuclear fuel. (Edwards Aquifier)
Lagoon, aerated
See Aeration

Lagoon, facultative: See Facultative Lagoon.

L/c/d
Measurement of daily water usage as Litres per capita, per day.
Level of Service Standards (INAC)

The Level of Service Standards (LOSS), determined on a national basis, are the levels of service that the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) is prepared to financially support to assist First Nations in providing community services comparable to the levels of service that would generally be available in non-native communities of similar size and circumstances.

The Level of Service Standards provide a description of criteria which will be used to establish the level of funding for safe, cost-effective, domestic water supply and wastewater disposal systems for on-reserve housing units and administrative, operative, institutional and recreational buildings. (INAC "Water and Sewage Systems")

Lift Station (also Pumping Station): A point in the sewer system where the wastewater needs to be pumped (lifted) to a higher elevation so that gravity can be used to bring the wastewater to the treatment plant. (Hailey City Hall Public Works)

Line flushing and swabbing (also referred to as watermain swabbing and flushing)

Watermain swabbing entails inserting a soft material shaped like a bullet into the watermain through a fire hydrant. The diameter is slightly larger than the watermain and the bullet (swab) is pushed along the watermain by water pressure. As it passes through the watermain, the swab executes a scouring action on the sediment inside the watermain.

During watermain flushing, high velocity water flowing from hydrants is used to remove loose sediment from watermains. (City of Guelph)

L/p/d
Measurement of daily water usage as Litres per person, per day.
MAC (Maximum acceptable concentration)

In the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ), Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MACs) have been established for certain physical, chemical, radiological and microbiological parameters or substances that are known or suspected to cause adverse effects on health. For some parameters, Interim Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (IMACs) are also recommended in the guidelines.

Drinking water that continually has a substance at a greater concentration than the specified MACs will contribute significantly to consumer exposure to the substance and may, in some instances, produce harmful health effects. However, the short-term presence of substances above the MAC levels does not necessarily mean the water constitutes a risk to health. (INAC, National Assessment Summary Report)

Maintenance Management Plan (MMP)
Maintenance management plans apply to both water and wastewater systems. They are intended to improve the effectiveness of maintenance activities and are focused on planning, scheduling, and documenting preventative maintenance activities and on documenting unscheduled maintenance.
Manganese
Manganese is a mineral that naturally occurs in rocks and soil and is a normal constituent of the human diet. In some places, it exists in well water as a naturally occurring groundwater mineral, but may also be present due to underground pollution sources. Manganese may become noticeable in tap water at concentrations greater than 0.05 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of water by imparting a colour, odour, or taste to the water. However, health effects from manganese are not a concern until concentrations are approximately 10 times higher. (Conneticut Dept. of Health)
Mechanical Plant/ Mechanical Treatment
Refers to any type of wastewater treatment plant including treatments systems consisting of rotating biological contactors (RBC), sequencing batch reactors (SBR), extended aeration (EA), etc. It does not include natural forms of wastewater treatment like lagoons or septic systems.
Metals Scan (Full)
A full metal scan refers to what laboratories call Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis for the evaluation of trace metals in water samples. This test covers a complete scan of over 20 trace metals in a single analysis.
Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
The situation where First Nations are supplied with treated water from or send their wastewater to a nearby municipality, as outlined in a formal agreement between the two parties. The term is also used in this report to describe a system where the First Nation is supplied with treated water or wastewater treatment services by another First Nation or other independent body such as a corporate entity such as a Casino etc.
Multi-Barrier Approach
Approach used to ensure that drinking water is safe. In the past, the term ‘multi-barrier' referred only to the barriers involved in the actual treatment of raw water to provide quality drinking water. This approach has now been expanded to include a number of key elements that are an integral part of a drinking water program to ensure delivery of safe, secure supplies of drinking water. Barriers may be physical (eg: filter) or administrative (eg: planning) in nature. (Alberta Environment, Glossary & Alberta's Drinking Water Program)

None: Indicates that the treatment and/or distribution/collection system has not been classified.

O & M
Operation and Maintenance.
Operational Plan (OP)
An Operational Plan is the primary instrument for communicating the Community's quality management system (QMS) from the public works departments (water and wastewater) to Chief and Council, and from Council to INAC, Health Canada and the community members.
Phosphorus
A non-metallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs widely especially as phosphates (Merriam-Webster). Phosphorus occurs naturally in rocks, soil, animal waste, plant material, and even the atmosphere. In addition to these natural sources, phosphorus comes from human activities such as agriculture, discharge of industrial and municipal waste, and surface water runoff from residential and urban areas. Nutrients held in soil can be dissolved in water and carried off by leaching, tile drainage or surface runoff.

Phosphorus does not pose a direct threat to human health; it is an essential component of all cells and is present in bones and teeth. It does, however, pose an indirect threat to both aesthetics and to human health by affecting source waters used for drinking and recreation. For example, excessive nutrients can promote the growth of algal blooms, which can contribute to a wide range of water quality problems by affecting the potability, taste, odour, and colour of the water. (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment)

Piped Distribution System
A water distribution system which relies on pipes to convey water through pumping or elevated storage to the end user. Different from trucked distribution in that a trucked distribution system delivers water to end users in batch quantities to individual holding tanks (cisterns).
Potable water

Potable water is water that is destined for human consumption. For the purposes of the Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities, water destined for human consumption is water that is consumed directly as drinking water, water that is used in cooking, water that is used to wash food, and water that is used for bathing infants (individuals under 1 year in age). (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities)

PPU
People per unit. Measurement to describe housing density.
Primary Operator
The main operator of a water or wastewater system. The primary operator must be certified to the level of the treatment and distribution/collection system.
Primary Wastewater Treatment
Removal of particulate materials from domestic wastewater, usually done by allowing the solid materials to settle as a result of gravity. Typically, the first major stage of treatment encountered by domestic wastewater as it enters a treatment facility. Primary treatment plants generally remove 25 to 35 percent of the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and 45 to 65 percent of the total suspended matter. Also, any process used for the decomposition, stabilization, or disposal of sludges produced by settling. (North American Lake Management Society; cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)
Protocol for Safe Drinking Water in First Nations Communities

Standards for design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of drinking water systems and is intended for use by First Nations staff responsible for water systems. It is also intended for use by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) staff, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) for INAC staff, and all others involved in providing advice or assistance to First Nations in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of their drinking water systems in their communities, in accordance with established federal or provincial standards, whichever are the most stringent.

Any water system that produces drinking water destined for human consumption, that is funded in whole or in part by INAC, and that serves five or more households or a public facility, must comply with the requirements of this protocol. (INACProtocol)

Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC): A quality management system that focuses on fulfilling quality requirements and providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.

Reporting Risk

The Reporting risk level is the risk inherent with the operational method of recording data and providing the required reports. This would include both manual and automatic methods of record keeping. The reporting risk ranking is based on the adequacy of the operational records and the number of reports submitted during the year compared to the total number of records and reports required according to the appropriate legislation, standards, and operation procedures of the system in question.

Reservoir: A man-made lake that collects and stores water for future use. During periods of low river flow, reservoirs can release additional flow if water is available. (Government of Alberta, Water for Life, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Reservoir Cleaning
This involves the pump-down, clean-out, removal of settled material, disinfection and refill of a water storage reservoir. This activity requires confined space entry equipment and training.
Retrofit
1. To furnish with new or modified parts or equipment not available or considered necessary at the time of manufacture; 2. To install (new or modified parts or equipment) in something previously manufactured or constructed; 3. To adapt to a new purpose or need: modify. (Merriam-Webster)
Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC)
A technology used to treat wastewater classified as mechanical treatment.
Risk (Management Risk Level/Management Risk Score)

Risk is defined in INAC's Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities (Revised 2010). These guidelines follow the Multi-Barrier Approach for water management. This approach, developed by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Water Quality Task Group, is intended to prevent the presence of water-borne contaminants in drinking water by ensuring effective safeguards are in place at each stage of a drinking water system.

Following that approach, INAC assesses five main components of a system to determine an overall system management risk score:

  • Source Water (drinking water systems) or Effluent Receiver (wastewater systems)
  • System Design
  • Operation and Maintenance
  • Records and Reporting
  • Operator Training and Experience

Each of these components is assigned a risk score, which are then weighed to determine the overall management risk score of a system. The resulting score will then result in the management of the system as being classified as either high risk, medium risk, or low risk.

-High Risk: Major deficiencies in most of the components. Should a problem arise, the system and management as a whole is unlikely to be able to compensate, thus there is a high probability that any problem could result in unsafe water. Issues should be addressed as soon as possible.

-Medium Risk: Minor deficiencies in several components, or major deficiencies in one or two components. Should a problem arise, the system and management can probably compensate for the problem, but the noted deficiencies makes this uncertain, thus there is a medium probability that any problem could result in unsafe water. Issues need to be addressed.

-Low Risk: Minor or no deficiencies with the system or management. Should a problem occur, it is likely that the system and management as a whole will be able to compensate and continue to provide safe water while the issue is being resolved.

It is important to distinguish between INAC's system management risk level and drinking water quality. The actual quality of the water produced by a system is but one part of determining the overall system management risk level.

Unsafe drinking water is noted through the implementation of Drinking Water Advisories (DWA), not by the management risk level of the system. DWA come in multiple forms, the most common being the boil water advisory.

A system with a high-risk ranking under INAC's management evaluation is, because of its multiple deficiencies, likely to be unable to cope with problems that may occur in the system that result in a DWA. This means that DWA are likely to occur more frequently and to have a longer-term duration on a high-risk system. On the other hand, while problems can and do occur in low-risk systems, because of better overall risk management, these systems are more likely to address the problem in the short term, resulting in the rapid removal of problems and DWA.

This means that a high-risk drinking system can still produce perfectly safe and potable water. Deficiencies should be addressed as quickly as possible, however, before any issues arise with the water quality. (INAC, Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines)

SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system
Refers to a control and/or computer system that can monitor, record and control infrastructure, or facility-based processes.
Screened reservoir vents
Reservoir vents should be screened to allow air movement and to prevent vermin from entering.
Seasonal discharge
Discharge of wastewater at times of maximum or substantial stream flow. This may vary from location to location.
Secondary containment for treatment chemicals

Secondary containment is required for the storage of all regulated hazardous materials. Secondary containment must be constructed using materials capable of containing a spill or leak for at least as long as the period between monitoring inspections. A means of providing overfill protection for any primary container may be required. This may be an overfill prevention device and/or an attention getting high level alarm. Materials that in combination may cause a fire or explosion, the production of a flammable, toxic, poisonous gas, or the deterioration of a primary or secondary container will be separated in both the primary and secondary treatment containment so as to avoid intermixing.

Secondary Treatment
involving the biological process of reducing suspended, colloidal, and dissolved organic/inorganic matter in effluent from primary treatment systems and which generally removes 80 to 95 percent of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and suspended matter. Secondary wastewater treatment may be accomplished by biological or chemical-physical methods. Activated sludge and trickling filters are two of the most common means of secondary treatment. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)
Septic tank
A tank used to detain domestic wastes to allow the settling of solids prior to distribution to a leach field for soil absorption. Septic tanks are used when a piped wastewater collection system is not available to carry them to a treatment plant. A settling tank in which settled sludge is in immediate contact with sewage flowing through the tank, and wherein solids are decomposed by anaerobic bacterial action. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater)
Septic system
A combination of underground pipe(s) and holding tank(s) which are used to hold, decompose, and clean wastewater for subsurface disposal. (Bow River, cited in Alberta Glossary)
Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR)
A treatment technology used to treat wastewater classified as mechanical treatment.
Sewage treatment plant (STP) (also known as Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) or Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP))
Facility designed to treat wastewater (sewage) by removing materials that may damage water quality and threaten public health. (Ontario Ministry of Environment)
Sewage treatment systems
Facility or system designed to treat wastewater (sewage) by removing materials that may damage water quality and threaten public health. (Ontario Ministry of Environment)
Shoot-out
A septic system consisting of a septic tank with untreated wastewater effluent being discharged to the surface; this poses a health risk.
Sludge
The accumulated wet or dry solids that are separated from wastewater during treatment. This includes precipitates resulting from the chemical or biological treatment of wastewater. (Government of Alberta, Activities, cited in Alberta Glossary)
Source Classification
The determination of the water source classification in this assessment includes the options of: surface water, groundwater, GUDI or MTA. Surface water includes water from lakes or rivers; groundwater includes any well water that is not influenced by surface water infiltration; GUDI is any groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water; MTA as a source refers to the community acquiring the treated water from a municipality.
Source risk
The risk inherent in the quality and quantity of the raw source water prior to treatment.
Source Water Protection

1. The prevention of pollution of the lakes, reservoirs, rivers, streams, and groundwater that serve as sources of drinking water. Wellhead protection would be an example of a source water protection approach that protects groundwater sources, whereas management of land around a lake or reservoir used for drinking water would be an example for surface water supplies. Source water protection programs typically include: delineating source water protection areas; identifying sources of contamination; implementing measures to manage these changes; and planning for the future. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

2. Action taken to control or minimize the potential for introduction of chemicals or contaminants in source waters, including water used as a source of drinking water (Alberta Environment, Standards and Guidelines, cited in Alberta Glossary).

SPS
An abbreviation of the term sewage pumping station.
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
An SOP is a written document or instruction detailing all steps and activities of a process or procedure. This would include all procedures used in water/wastewater treatment processes that could affect the quality.
Standpipe Storage
An above-grade storage facility where the storage volume is contained within the entirety of the structure. This type of storage is most feasible for use where there is sufficient change in the topography to allow for maximum usable volume in the standpipe.
Storage Type
Refers to whether the community water storage is via grade-level, below-grade or elevated storage (including standpipes and towers). In some cases there is no storage thus the storage type would be considered "direct pump."
Surface water
Surface water is any water that is obtained from sources, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs that are open to the atmosphere. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Designer: A system designer is a person, such as a professional engineer, who is qualified to design a water or wastewater systems. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Operator
A system operator is a First Nation employee or third party under contract to a First Nation who is tasked with managing a water or wastewater system. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)
System Manager
A system manager is a First Nation employee or third party under contract to a First Nation who is tasked with managing a water or wastewater system. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)
Tertiary Treatment
Selected biological, physical, and chemical separation processes to remove organic and inorganic substances that resist conventional treatment practices. Tertiary Treatment processes may consist of flocculation basins, clarifiers, filters, and chlorine basins or ozone or ultraviolet radiation processes. Tertiary techniques may also involve the application of wastewater to land to allow the growth of plants to remove plant nutrients. Can include advanced nutrient removal processes. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)
Trihalomethanes (THMs)
Chemical compounds that can be formed when water is disinfected using chlorine or bromine as the chemical disinfection agent. These chemical compounds are formed when organic material present in the raw source water reacts with chlorine or bromine. Therefore, THMs are classified as disinfection by-products (DBPs). The primary source of organic material comes from decaying vegetation found in lakes, rivers and streams and for this reason, THMs are more commonly observed in water systems that use a surface water source. The four chemical compounds that are measured and used to calculate total THMs are: chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and chlorodibromomethane (CDBM). THMs are a concern in potable water because there is scientific evidence that they may pose a risk in the development of cancer.
Treatment Certification
The treatment level to which an operator is certified for water treatment and distribution and wastewater treatment and collection systems (see Treatment Classification).
Treatment Classification
The size (flow) and complexity of a water or wastewater system is used to determine the Class of a system using a point template. The knowledge and experience it takes to operate a system is closely related to its classification and is reflected in the level of certification of the operator. Systems that are small and relatively simple, are classified as Small Water or Wastewater Systems. Larger or more complex systems are ranked as Class I, II, III, and IV with the highest being Class IV. Systems should be operated under the supervision of an operator certified to at least the same level of the facility.
TSS (Total Suspended Solids)
Measure of the amount of non-dissolved solid material present in water or wastewater. Total suspended solids (TSS) can cause: a) interference with light penetration (in UV applications), b) build-up of sediment and c) can carry nutrients and other toxic pollutants that cause algal blooms and potential reduction in aquatic habitat (wastewater).
Underground Storage
A water storage facility (reservoir/clearwell) which is located 100% below-grade. Often located below the water treatment plant.
Waste
Any solid or liquid material, product, or combination of them that is intended to be treated or disposed of or that is intended to be stored and then treated or disposed. This does not include recyclables. (Government of Alberta, Activities Designation Regulation, cited in Alberta Glossary)
Waste management plan
A Waste Management Plan identifies and describes types of waste generated during operations and how they are managed and disposed of.
Wastewater
(Industrial Wastewater, Domestic Wastewater): A combination of liquid and water-carried pollutants from homes, businesses, industries, or farms; a mixture of water and dissolved or suspended solids. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)
Wastewater System

an organized process and associated structures for collecting, treating, and disposing of wastewater. For the purposes of this report, it is a system serving five or more houses. It includes any or all of the following:

  1. Sewers and pumping stations that make up a wastewater collection system.
  2. Sewers and pumping stations that transport untreated wastewater from a wastewater collection system to a wastewater treatment plant.
  3. Wastewater treatment plants.
  4. Facilities that provide storage for treated wastewater.
  5. Wastewater sludge treatment and disposal facilities.
  6. Sewers that transport treated wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant to the place where it is disposed of.
  7. Treated wastewater outfall facilities, including the outfall structures to a watercourse or any structures for disposal of treated wastewater to land or to wetlands. (Government of Alberta, Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, cited in Alberta Glossary)
Wastewater Treatment
Any of the mechanical, chemical or biological processes used to modify the quality of wastewater (sewage) in order to make it more compatible or acceptable to man and his/her environment. (North American Lake Management System, cited in Alberta Glossary)
Wastewater Treatment Plant
Any structure, thing, or process used for the physical, chemical, biological, or radiological treatment of wastewater before it is returned to the environment. The term also includes any structure, thing, or process used for wastewater storage or disposal, or sludge treatment, storage, or disposal. (Government of Alberta, Activities, cited in Alberta Glossary)
Watermain
A principal pipe in a system of pipes for conveying water, especially one installed underground. (American Heritage Dictionary)
Water quality
The term used to describe the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water, usually with respect to its suitability for a particular purpose. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)
Water use
The term water use refers to water that is used for a specific purpose, such as for domestic use, irrigation, or industrial processing. Water use pertains to human interaction with and influence on the hydrolic cycle, and includes elements, such as water withdrawal from surface- and ground-water sources, water delivery to homes and businesses, consumptive use of water, water released from wastewater-treatment plans, water returned to the environment, and in-stream uses, such as using water to produce hydroelectric power. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)
Water Well
An opening in the ground, whether drilled or altered from its natural state, that is used for the production of groundwater, obtaining data on groundwater, or recharging an underground formation from which groundwater can be recovered. By definition in the provincial Water Act, a water well also includes any related equipment, buildings, and structures. (Government of Alberta, Water for Life, cited in Alberta, Glossary)
Wellhead Protection Area
A protected surface and subsurface zone surrounding a well or well field supplying a public water system to keep contaminants from reaching the well water. (Edwards Aquifier)
Wellhead Protection Plan
A wellhead protection plan defines the wellhead protection area, identifies potential sources of contamination, manages the potential contaminant sources including properly decommissioning abandoned wells, identifies emergency and contingency plans (i.e. what to do if the well becomes contaminated or requires additional capacity) and provides overall public awareness.

References

Alberta Environment. Alberta's Drinking Water Program: A ‘Source to Tap, Multi-barrier' Approach, 2008. Unpublished

Alberta Environment, Partnerships and Strategies Section. Glossary of Terms Related to Water and Watershed Management in Alberta. 1st Edition. November 2008.

Alberta Environment. Standards and Guidelines for Municipal Waterworks, Wastewater and Storm Drainage Systems, 2006.

Alberta Municipal Affairs. Alberta Private Sewage Systems Standard of Practice Handbook, 2000.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009.

Bow River Basin Council. Guidebook to Water Management: Background Information on Organizations, Policies, Legislation, Programs, and Projects in the Bow River Basin, 2002.

City of Toronto. Biosolids and Residuals Masterplan.

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition 2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009.

Connecticut Department of Health, Drinking Water Section. Fact Sheet: Manganese in Drinking Water (PDF 257 Kb).

Edwards Aquifier Website: Glossary of Water Resource Terms.

Government of Alberta. Activities Designation Regulation, 2003.

Government of Alberta. Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, 2000.

Government of Alberta. Water for Life: Alberta's Strategy for Sustainability., 2003.

Government of British Columbia, Environmental Protection Division. Glossary of Water Terms.

Government of Canada. Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments, April 1976.

Government of Nova Scotia. Government of Nova Scotia. "Protocol for Determining Groundwater Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water."

Gowen Environmental Ltd. "Contaminated and Hazardous Waste Site Management Glossary I."

Hailey City Hall, Public Works.

Health Canada. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines.

INAC. "Fact Sheet: Water Quality."

Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities. July 14, 2010.

National Assessment of Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities Summary Report.

Plan of Action for Drinking Water in First Nations Communities - Progress Report January 17, 2008.

Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities. April 2010.

Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities. April 2010.

Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities. April 2010.

—"Water and Sewage Systems."

Layfield Environmental Systems. "AquaGuide Floating and Fixed Baffles."

Lenntech Water Treatment Solutions. "Disinfection By-Products."

Medicinenet.com. "Definition of Arsenic."

Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Technical Report: Drinking Water System at the Kashechewan First Nation. November 10, 2005.

R.M. Technologies. "Water Treatment."

UNEP (2000) International source book on environmentally sound technologies for wastewater and stormwater management.

Vital Life Systems. "Water Treatment Terminology."

Waterwiki

Appendix B Water System Summary

Appendix B.1 Water System Summary

Regional Roll-Up Summary: Water

Region: Saskatchewan
Total No. of First Nations: 69
Participating No. of First Nations: 69
Participation Level: 100%
No. of Community Reports Issued: 86

Groundwater GUDI Surface MTA Totals
Total No. of Systems 70 7 17 9 103
System Age
0-5 years (2006 - 2010) 7 1 0 2 10
6-10 years (2001 - 2005) 10 0 1 3 14
10-15 years (1996 - 2000) 10 4 7 2 23
15 -20 years (1991 - 1995) 24 1 4 0 29
> 20 years (≤ 1990) 19 1 5 2 27
Treatment
None - Direct Use 4 0 0 0 4
Disinfection only 4 0 0 1 5
Conventional Filtration 62 7 17 0 86
MTA 0 0 0 8 8
Classification - Treatment
Small system 8 0 0 0 8
Level I 44 4 0 0 48
Level II 16 3 17 0 36
MTA 0 0 0 9 9
None 2 0 0 0 2
Classification - Distribution
Small system 11 0 0 1 12
Level I 57 6 15 3 81
Level II 0 1 2 1 4
MTA 0 0 0 4 4
None 2 0 0 0 2
Distribution
Piped 32 3 9 4 48
Trucked 1 0 0 1 2
Self Haul 2 0 0 0 2
Combined 35 4 8 4 51
Water Quality
Fails Health
Yes, fails health due to: 22 5 15 4 46
Design 4 0 4 2 10
Operation 6 1 3 1 11
Combination 12 4 8 0 24
Unknown 0 0 0 1 1
Fails Aesthetic
Yes, fails aesthetic due to: 39 4 8 2 53
Design 12 0 1 2 15
Operation 14 1 2 0 17
Combination 13 3 5 0 21
Unknown 0 0 0 0 0
Primary Operator - Treatment
Not certified 5 1 2 0 8
No operator 1 0 0 0 1
Not required 2 0 0 9 11
Certified to Level 57 5 12 0 74
Certified 5 1 3 0 9
Back-up Operator - Treatment
Not certified 27 4 8 0 39
No operator 11 0 0 0 11
Not required 2 0 0 9 11
Certified to Level 24 2 1 0 27
Certified 6 1 8 0 15
Primary Operator - Distribution
Not certified 6 1 2 1 10
No operator 1 0 0 0 1
Not required 2 0 0 4 6
Certified to Level 61 6 15 4 86
Certified 0 0 0 0 0
Back-up Operator - Distribution
Not certified 26 4 10 0 40
No operator 11 0 0 2 13
Not required 2 0 0 4 6
Certified to Level 30 3 6 3 42
Certified 1 0 1 0 2
Risk (mean) Groundwater GUDI Surface MTA Mean Mean excluding MTA
Final 5.5 6.7 5.8 3.5 5.4 5.6
Source 6.3 9.3 8.8 2.2 6.6 7.0
Design 5.7 7.0 6.9 4.2 5.9 6.0
Operations 5.9 7.3 6.1 4.0 5.9 6.1
Reporting 6.4 7.0 5.5 6.0 6.3 6.3
Operator 1.4 2.1 1.6 1.0 1.5 1.5

Appendix B.2 Wastewater System Summary

Regional Roll-Up Summary: Wastewater

Region: Saskatchewan
Total No. of First Nations: 69
Participating No. of First Nations: 69
Participation Level: 100%
No. of Community Reports Issued: 86

Septic Aerated Lagoon Facultative Lagoon Mechanical Other MTA Totals
Total No. of Systems 0 2 81 0 0 5 88
System Age
0-5 years (2006 - 2010) 0 1 8 0 0 0 9
6-10 years (2001 - 2005) 0 0 3 0 0 0 3
10-15 years (1996 - 2000) 0 1 21 0 0 1 23
15-20 years (1991 - 1995) 0 0 34 0 0 2 36
› 20 years (‹ 1990) 0 0 15 0 0 2 17
Classification - Treatment
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 5 5
Level I 0 2 81 0 0 0 83
Classification - Collection
Small System 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Level I 0 1 78 0 0 2 81
Level II 0 1 1 0 0 0 2
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 3 3
None 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Collection
Piped 0 1 41 0 0 3 45
Trucked 0 0 2 0 0 1 3
Combined 0 1 38 0 0 1 40
Effluent Quality
No data 0 0 24 0 0 5 29
Meets 0 1 27 0 0 0 28
Does not meet 0 1 30 0 0 0 31
Primary Operator - Treatment
Not certified 0 0 11 0 0 0 11
No operator 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Not required 0 0 0 0 0 5 5
Certified to Level 0 2 70 0 0 0 72
Certified 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Back-Up Operator - Treatment
Not certified 0 0 42 0 0 0 42
No operator 0 0 10 0 0 0 10
Not required 0 0 0 0 0 5 5
Certified to Level 0 2 28 0 0 0 30
Certified 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Primary Operator - Collection
Not certified 0 0 9 0 0 1 10
No operator 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Not required 0 0 1 0 0 3 4
Certified to Level 0 2 71 0 0 1 74
Certified 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Back-Up Operator - Collection
Not certified 0 0 40 0 0 1 41
No operator 0 0 10 0 0 0 10
Not required 0 0 1 0 0 3 4
Certified to Level 0 1 27 0 0 1 29
Certified 0 1 3 0 0 0 4
Receiver
River 0 0 3 0 0 0 3
Lake, reservoir 0 0 5 0 0 0 5
Creek 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
Wetland 0 2 41 0 0 0 43
Sub-surface / Ground 0 0 22 0 0 0 22
Evaporation 0 0 7 0 0 0 7
Other 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 5 5
Risk (mean) Septic Aerated Lagoon Facultative Lagoon Mechanical Other MTA Mean Mean excluding MTA
Final 0.0 3.0 4.6 0.0 0.0 2.2 4.4 4.5
Effluent Receiver 0.0 4.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 3.9 4.0
Design 0.0 2.5 4.6 0.0 0.0 2.0 4.4 4.5
Operations 0.0 5.0 5.9 0.0 0.0 3.8 5.8 5.9
Reporting 0.0 1.0 8.4 0.0 0.0 3.6 8.0 8.3
Operator 0.0 1.0 1.7 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.7 1.7

Appendix C: Site Visit Methodology

Site Visits

Typical Day

Arrive in Community – Lead/Senior Inspector & Technical Support
  • Meet with Circuit Rider and/or DIAND representative and First Nation/Tribal Council Representatives to undergo introductions and provide a brief synopsis of the activities to be undertaken for the day. This is based on the assumption that the First Nation has been fully briefed by DIAND on the purpose, process and benefits for the First Nation to cooperate and collaborate with the project.
  • Confirm the various components that the First Nation uses to provide water to the entire community (i.e. number and types of distribution systems, source types, private wells, etc.) to help build assessment form for the community.
  • Pre-select areas to undertake private system evaluations on community map.
  • Confirm any missing background data that may be available allowing the First Nation time during the day to have Public Works Director/Supervisor/Secretary/etc to locate such materials.
Lead/Senior – Inspector
  • Meet with Chief/Housing Manager/Band Manager/Finance Manager, to identify:
    • future servicing needs (planned development and population growth)
    • servicing constraints (source availability, soils, groundwater, bedrock, topography, etc.)
    • identify the extent to which non structural solutions or optimization strategies (water conservation, leak reduction, etc) have been previously investigated or implemented
    • confirm current population and housing numbers
    • obtain financial information not previously provided
    • note community concerns related to future servicing.
  • Complete a walk through of the water plant from source to storage.
  • Prepare a flow schematic (internal use).
  • Complete the assessment questionnaire on treatment/storage/operations/operator(s) etc. with Operator/Circuit Rider.
  • Take photographs.
  • Travel to main sewage pumping station and wastewater treatment facility.
  • Complete a walk through of the plant from influent to effluent.
  • Prepare a flow schematic (internal use).
  • Complete assessment questionnaire.
  • Take photographs.
  • Complete ACRS update.
  • Repeat for additional water or wastewater facilities.
  • Review information collected by Technical Support
  • Gather all background/operational data gathered by First Nation.
  • Complete overall notes.
Technical Support
  • Gather any relevant operational data (water and wastewater), if not already provided and arrange with the First Nation to have copied/scanned that day.
  • Obtain GPS coordinates of source(s) and treatment.
  • Complete the source questions on the assessment questionnaire.
  • Undertake sampling of the raw and/or treated water, if necessary.
  • Take photographs.
  • Complete ACRS update.
  • Travel around community with First Nation representative and undertake private system assessments for water and/or septic including GPS coordinates, photographs, assessment forms and sampling.
  • Meet back with Lead/Senior Inspector at wastewater location and assist with sampling, if required.

Sampling Requirements

Water Sampling

The terms of reference state, "The sampling program for public water systems should reflect the requirements of the most stringent regulations applicable in the Province in which the community is located. However, should an adequate sampling program already be in place, then existing data may be used. Bidders should assume sampling and testing will be required for 5% of total wells, septics, and cisterns identified in SW5. Septics and cisterns only require a visual inspection. All bidders are required to carry a $500,000 allowance for this purpose. Any variances should be identified in the Inception Report."

Health Canada data is anticipated to be available for the majority of the water systems. Where data is not available, sampling will be conducted as part of the inspection.

Minimum existing data required will include:

Community systems

  • bacteriological – monthly available for previous year
  • general chemistry – annually (treated)
  • full Volatile Organic Compound analysis – within 5 years

Private wells

  • bacteriological – one sample within past year
  • basic chemistry – one sample within past year

For public systems where data is not available, treated water samples will be obtained and submitted to a laboratory for testing that would include; Basic Chemistry, Full Metals Scan, Bacteria and Volatile Organic Compounds.

For public systems that include a piped distribution system and where distributed water quality data is not available, a sample will be taken from the most remote point in the distribution system and sampled for Disinfection By-Products.

For individual wells, samples will be obtained from a representative number of wells (5% of total wells) in the community. The testing will include; Basic Chemistry, Full Metals Scan and Bacteria.

Wastewater Sampling

For systems lacking existing discharge quality data, and that will be discharging at the time of the site visit, representative samples will be obtained and submitted to a laboratory for testing. This would include seasonal discharges at the time of the site visit and from plants with continuous discharge to a receiving body. Sewage treatment systems providing an equivalent to secondary treatment (lagoons, and mechanical facilities) for which effluent quality data does not include the parameters of BOD5, TSS, and E.Coli, will be sampled in the field, if they are in fact discharging at the time of site visit. Similarly, sewage treatment systems providing an equivalent to tertiary treatment for which effluent quality data does not include BOD5, TSS, Ammonia, Total Phosphorous and E.Coli, will be sampled in the field, if they are in fact discharging at the time of the site visit.

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary

Table D.1-1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # - Band Name System # System Name System Type Water Source Treatment Class Const Year
406 - Ahtahkakoop 6695 AHTAHKAKOOP NO.104 Water Groundwater Level I 2000
369 - Beardys and Okemasis 6655 BEARDY'S NO. 97 AND OKEMASIS NO. 96 Water Groundwater Level I 1992
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation 6686 BIG ISLAND LAKE NO. 124 Water Groundwater Level I 1990
404 - Big River First Nation 6693 BIG RIVER NO. 118 Water Groundwater Level I 1992
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation 6692 TURNOR LAKE NO. 193B Water Groundwater Level I 2006
359 - Black Lake 6644 CHICKEN NO. 224 Water Surface Water Level II 2005
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation 6685 PETER POND NO. 193 Water Surface Water Level II 1996
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 6680 CANOE LAKE NO. 165 Water Surface Water Level II 1990
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 6698 EAGLES LAKE NO. 165C Water Groundwater Level I 2001
378 - Carry The Kettle 6663 ASSINIBOINE NO. 76 Water Groundwater Level I 1994
401 - Clearwater River Dene 6689 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 222 Water Groundwater Level I 1991
401 - Clearwater River Dene 6690 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 223 - THE LANDING Water Groundwater Level I 2005
366 - Cote First Nation 366 6652 COTE NO. 64 Water Groundwater GUDI Level I 1997
361 - Cowessess 6647 COWESSESS NO. 73 Water Groundwater Level II 1993
361 - Cowessess 17032 WELL #1 Water Groundwater None 1998
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 6622 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 - PEMMICAN PORTAGE Water Groundwater Level I 1993
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 6623 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 - RESERVE CENTRE Water Groundwater Level I 1984
389 - Day Star 6674 DAY STAR NO. 87 Water Groundwater Level II 2004
400 - English River First Nation 6687 LA PLONGE NO. 192 Water Groundwater Level I 1995
400 - English River First Nation 6688 WAPACHEWUNAK NO. 192D Water Surface Water Level II 1992
400 - English River First Nation 17031 WELL#2 Water Groundwater None 1985
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation 6675 FISHING LAKE NO. 89 Water Groundwater Level II 2008
395 - Flying Dust First Nation 6681 MEADOW LAKE NO. 105 - MTA Water MTA MTA 2005
351 - Fond du Lac 6625 FOND DULAC NO. 227 Water Groundwater Level I 1998
391 - Gordon 6676 GORDON NO. 86 Water Groundwater Level II 1989
352 - Hatchet Lake 6626 LAC LA HACHE NO. 220 Water Surface Water Level II 1988
397 - Island Lake First Nation 6683 MINISTIKWAN NO. 161 Water Surface Water Level II 1991
397 - Island Lake First Nation 6684 MINISTIKWAN NO. 161A - MUDIE LAKE Water Groundwater Level I 1996
370 - James Smith 6624 JAMES SMITH NO. 100 Water Groundwater Level I 1985
362 - Kahkewistahaw 6648 KAHKEWISTAHAW NO. 72 Water Groundwater Level II 1988
393 - Kawacatoose 6679 POORMAN NO. 88 Water Groundwater Level II 2007
367 - Keesee koose 6653 KEESEEKOOSE NO. 66 Water Groundwater Level I 1985
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation 6662 KINISTIN NO. 91 Water Groundwater Level I 1991
353 - Lac La Ronge 6627 GRANDMOTHER'S BAY NO. 219 Water Surface Water Level II 1997
353 - Lac La Ronge 16041 KITSAKIE NO. 156B - MTA Water MTA MTA 1979
353 - Lac La Ronge 6629 LAC LA RONGE NO. 156 - MTA Water MTA MTA 1996
353 - Lac La Ronge LITTLE RED RIVER 106C - TRUCKED WATER FROM MONTREAL LAKE SIDE Water MTA MTA 1996
353 - Lac La Ronge 6631 MORIN LAKE NO. 217 Water Groundwater Level I 1995
353 - Lac La Ronge 6632 STANLEY NO. 157 Water Surface Water Level II 1996
353 - Lac La Ronge 6633 SUCKER RIVER NO. 156C Water Surface Water Level II 1996
379 - Little Black Bear 6664 LITTLE BLACK BEAR NO. 84 Water Groundwater Level II 1999
340 - Little Pine 6610 LITTLE PINE NO. 116 Water Groundwater Level I 1986
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation 6682 MAKWA LAKE NO. 129B Water Groundwater GUDI Level I 1999
374 - Mistawasis 17038 ISLAND LAKE VILLAGE Water Groundwater Small System 2005
374 - Mistawasis 6659 MISTAWASIS NO. 103 Water Groundwater Level I 1993
374 - Mistawasis 17041 PECHAWIS VILLAGE Water Groundwater Small System 2007
374 - Mistawasis 17040 SOUTH VILLAGE Water Groundwater Small System 2007
374 - Mistawasis 17039 WATSON VILLAGE Water Groundwater Small System 2007
354 - Montreal Lake 6634 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106 Water Surface Water Level II 1993
354 - Montreal Lake 6635 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106B - LITTLE RED RIVER Water Groundwater Level I 1996
342 - Moosomin 6611 MOOSOMIN NO. 112B Water Groundwater Level I 1976
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fst. 6612 MOSQUITO NO. 109 Water Groundwater Level I 1995
381 - Muscowpetung 6666 MUSCOWPETUNG NO. 80 Water Groundwater Level I 1997
381 - Muscowpetung 15939 MUSCOWPETUNG NO. 80 - SCHOOL Water Groundwater Level I 2005
375 - Muskeg Lake 6660 MUSKEG LAKE NO. 102 Water Groundwater Level I 1990
371 - Muskoday First Nation 6656 MUSKODAY NO. 99 - MTA Water MTA MTA 1988
392 - Muskowekwan 6677 MUSKOWEKWAN NO. 85 - CORE AREA Water Groundwater Level II 1991
380 - Nekaneet 17035 MIDDLE CAMP WELL Water Groundwater Small System 1994
380 - Nekaneet 6665 NEKANEET NO. 160A Water Groundwater Level I 1992
380 - Nekaneet 17034 UPPER CAMP WELL Water Groundwater Small System 1994
408 - Ocean Man 6702 OCEAN MAN NO. 69 Water Groundwater Level I 1993
363 - Ochapowace 6649 OCHAPO-WACE NO. 71 Water Groundwater Level I 1994
382 - Okanese 6667 OKANESE NO. 82 Water Groundwater Level II 1989
373 - One Arrow 6658 ONE ARROW NO. 95 Water Surface Water Level II 1996
344 - Onion Lake 6613 SEEKASKOOTCH NO. 119 Water Groundwater GUDI Level II 1998
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 6668 PASQUA NO. 79 Water Groundwater Level II 1989
384 - Peepeekisis 6669 Peepeekisis NO. 81 Water Groundwater Level II 1989
405 - Pelican Lake 6694 CHITEK LAKE NO. 191 (both North and South are served) Water Surface Water Level II 1991
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6700 DESCHAMBEAULT LAKE Water Surface Water Level II 1997
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7105 KINOOSAO THOMAS CLARK NO. 204 Water Groundwater Level I 1997
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 17036 KISKACIWAN NO.208-WELL Water Groundwater Small System 2002
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6636 PELICAN NARROWS NO. 184B Water Surface Water Level II 1997
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 16045 SANDY BAY (WAPASKOKIMAW) NO. 202 - MTA Water MTA MTA 2008
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6637 SOUTHEND NO. 200 Water Groundwater GUDI Level II 1989
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6638 STURGEON WEIR NO. 184F Water Groundwater GUDI Level I 2006
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota 6703 PHEASANT RUMP NO. 68 Water Groundwater Level I 2005
385 - Piapot 6670 PIAPOT NO. 75 Water Groundwater Level II 1988
345 - Poundmaker 6614 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 - CENTRAL Water Groundwater Level I 1993
345 - Poundmaker 6615 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 - SCHOOL Water Groundwater Level I 1995
345 - Poundmaker 17037 POUNDMAKER NO.114- 18B- WELL Water MTA MTA 2009
356 - Red Earth 6640 RED EARTH NO. 29 Water Surface Water Level II 1989
346 - Red Pheasant 6616 RED PHEASANT NO. 108 Water Groundwater Level I 1986
364 - Sakimay First Nations 6697 LITTLE BONE NO. 74B Water MTA MTA 2005
364 - Sakimay First Nations 6650 SAKIMAY NO. 74 Water Groundwater Level I 1987
347 - Saulteaux 6618 SAULTEAUX NO. 159 Water Groundwater Level I 2003
347 - Saulteaux 6617 SAULTEAUX NO. 159A - BIRCH LAKE Water Groundwater Level I 1995
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation 6641 SHOAL LAKE NO. 28A Water Groundwater GUDI Level II 1996
386 - Standing Buffalo 6671 STANDING BUFFALO NO. 78 Water Groundwater Level II 1986
387 - Star Blanket 6672 STAR BLANKET NO. 83 Water Groundwater Level II 1994
387 - Star Blanket 6779 WA-PII MOOSTOOSIS (WHITE CALF) NO. 83A Water Groundwater Level I 1985
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 6646 STURGEON LAKE NO. 101 - WEST PLANT Water Surface Water Level II 1977
348 - Sweetgrass 6619 SWEET GRASS NO. 113 Water Groundwater Level I 1991
368 - The Key First Nation 6654 THE KEY NO. 65 Water Groundwater Level I 1992
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 17013 THUNDERCHILD 115C Water Groundwater GUDI Level I 1995
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 6620 THUNDERCHILD NO. 115B Water Groundwater Small System 2000
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation 6642 WAHPETON NO. 94A Water Groundwater Level I 1997
402 - Waterhen Lake 17009 WATERHEN 130 Water Surface Water Level II 1985
365 - White Bear 6651 WHITE BEAR NO. 70 Water Groundwater Level II 2002
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation DAKOTA DUNES CASINO WTP Water MTA MTA 2005
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation 6657 WHITE CAP NO. 94 Water Groundwater Level I 1995
407 - Witchekan Lake 6696 WITCHEKAN LAKE NO. 117 Water Groundwater Level I 1990
388 - Wood Mountain 6673 WOOD MOUNTAIN NO. 160 Water Groundwater Level I 2006
376 - Yellow Quill 6661 NUT LAKE NO. 90 Water Groundwater Level II 2003
Table D.1-1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems (continued)
First Nation Information Water System Information Storage Information
Band # - Band Name Design Capacity [m3/d] Actual Capacity [m3/d] Max Daily Volume [m3/d] Disinfection Storage Type Storage Capacity
406 - Ahtahkakoop 897.6 872.6 547 Yes Underground 800
369 - Beardys and Okemasis 691.9 691.9 642.5 Yes Underground 858.2
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation 631 631 540 Yes Underground 600
404 - Big River First Nation 657 545 551 Yes Underground 647
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation 847 847 568 Yes Underground 787
359 - Black Lake 778 778 1288 Yes Underground 1700
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation 735 735 691 Yes Underground 710
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 544 544 986 Yes Underground 837
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 164 164 59 Yes Underground 160
378 - Carry The Kettle 259 259 295 Yes Underground 175
401 - Clearwater River Dene 864 864 784 Yes Underground 1555
401 - Clearwater River Dene No None
366 - Cote First Nation 366 518 518 606 Yes Underground 380
361 - Cowessess 442 442 480 Yes Underground 372
361 - Cowessess 9.7 9.7 29 No None
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 268 268 405 Yes Underground 646
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 27.3 27.3 45.8 Yes Underground 29.5
389 - Day Star 169 169 159 Yes Underground 327.7
400 - English River First Nation 138.2 138.2 149.2 Yes Underground 190
400 - English River First Nation 821 821 755 Yes Underground 900
400 - English River First Nation No None
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation 337 337 469 Yes Underground 487.7
395 - Flying Dust First Nation 405 MTA None MTA
351 - Fond du Lac 1045 1037 929 Yes Underground 582
391 - Gordon 345 345 780 Yes Underground 909
352 - Hatchet Lake 950 950 1220.8 Yes Underground 959
397 - Island Lake First Nation 436 436 468 Yes Underground 579
397 - Island Lake First Nation 276 276 202 Yes Underground 207
370 - James Smith 886 458 931 Yes Underground 635
362 - Kahkewistahaw 518 518 496 Yes Underground
393 - Kawacatoose 389 389 409 Yes Underground 235
367 - Keeseekoose 630 630 438 Yes Underground 611.73
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation 276 276 423 Yes Underground 287
353 - Lac La Ronge 954 954 483 Yes Underground 569
353 - Lac La Ronge 244 MTA None MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge 1281 MTA Underground MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge 76 MTA None MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge 250 250 257 Yes Underground 266
353 - Lac La Ronge 1908 1908 1190 Yes Underground 1417
353 - Lac La Ronge 408 408 336 Yes Underground 485
379 - Little Black Bear 138 138 154 Yes Underground 132.3
340 - Little Pine 432 432 679 Yes Underground 383.5
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation 927 464 795 Yes Underground 863.2
374 - Mistawasis 75 Yes Grade level 11.4
374 - Mistawasis 458 458 715 Yes Grade level, Underground 560
374 - Mistawasis 42 Yes Grade level 13
374 - Mistawasis 59 41 99 Yes Grade level 15
374 - Mistawasis 42 Yes Grade level 13
354 - Montreal Lake 1002 852 507 Yes Underground 902
354 - Montreal Lake 550.8 550.8 430 Yes Underground 366
342 - Moosomin 613 613 507 Yes Underground 395
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fst. 465 389 633 Yes Underground 350
381 - Muscowpetung 222 222 50 Yes Underground 140
381 - Muscowpetung 65 65 6.5 Yes Underground 45
375 - Muskeg Lake 259 259 284 Yes Underground 377
371 - Muskoday First Nation 229 229 505 MTA Underground MTA
392 - Muskowekwan 300 300 683 Yes Underground 420.4
380 - Nekaneet Unknown Unknown No None
380 - Nekaneet 225 225 146 Yes Underground 276.5
380 - Nekaneet Unknown Unknown Yes Underground Unknown
408 - Ocean Man 199 199 129 Yes Underground 215.2
363 - Ochapowace 259 259 426 Yes Underground 523
382 - Okanese 191 191 247 Yes Underground 306
373 - One Arrow 518.4 518.4 473 Yes Underground 420
344 - Onion Lake 4320 4320 1406 Yes Underground 3400
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 125 125 157 Yes Underground 190
384 - Peepeekisis 138 138 671 Yes Underground 390
405 - Pelican Lake 544 544 392 Yes Underground 320
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 954 954 967 Yes Underground 636
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 27.6 27.6 53.6 Yes Underground 96.5
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Unknown Unknown 59 Yes Underground 4
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 1900 1900 1141 Yes Underground 1600
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Unknown Unknown 423 MTA None MTA
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 1054 1054 902 Yes Underground 1135
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 34 34 47 Yes Underground 255
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota 141 141 143 Yes Underground 158
385 - Piapot 360 360 218 Yes Underground 506
345 - Poundmaker 274 274 386 Yes Underground 115.4
345 - Poundmaker 154 154 308 Yes Underground 291.4
345 - Poundmaker MTA Underground MTA
356 - Red Earth 890 890 823 Yes Underground 1010
346 - Red Pheasant 587 510 452 Yes Underground 626
364 - Sakimay First Nations 33 MTA None MTA
364 - Sakimay First Nations 216 216 162 Yes Underground 187.7
347 - Saulteaux 315 315 331 Yes Underground 441.2
347 - Saulteaux 39 39 39 Yes Underground 73
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation 518 518 523 Yes Underground 975
386 - Standing Buffalo 229 229 453 Yes Underground 268
387 - Star Blanket 218 218 261 Yes Underground 437
387 - Star Blanket N/A N/A 86 Yes None Level I
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 950 950 490 Yes Underground 874
348 - Sweetgrass 1089 881 582 Yes Underground 562
368 - The Key First Nation 107 107 158 Yes Underground 135.6
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 76 76 43 Yes Grade level 11.4
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 1175 1175 594 Yes Underground 996
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation 328 328 285 Yes Underground 228
402 - Waterhen Lake 561 561 415 Yes Underground 1065
365 - White Bear 365 365 673 Yes Underground 492
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation 604.8 604.8 25.0 MTA Underground MTA
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation 216 216 310 Yes Underground 165
407 - Witchekan Lake 168 168 143 Yes Underground 600
388 - Wood Mountain 0.23 0.23 Yes None
376 - Yellow Quill 345.6 345.6 332 Yes Underground 1140
Table D.1-1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems (continued)
First Nation Information Distribution System Information
Band # - Band Name Distribution Class Population Served Homes Piped Homes Trucked Number of Trucks in Service Pipe Length Pipe Length / Connection
406 - Ahtahkakoop Level I 1472 103 186 2 4280 41
369 - Beardys and Okemasis Level I 1029 111 141 7 3901 35
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation Level I 941 146 6 1 15658 107
404 - Big River First Nation Level I 2126 23 310 5 2086.25 90
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation Level I 524 82 0 0 9349 114
359 - Black Lake Level I 1919 220 0 0 11278.3 51
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation Level I 791 200 27 0 14888 74
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation Level I 985 218 0 0 12959 59
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation Level I 136 30 0 0 3570 119
378 - Carry The Kettle Level I 1002 197 0 1 1893 9
401 - Clearwater River Dene Level I 981 151 3 0 9077 60
401 - Clearwater River Dene Small System 57 0 0 0
366 - Cote First Nation 366 Level I 664 157 94 0 13925 88
361 - Cowessess Level I 712 87 15 1 18843.9 216
361 - Cowessess Small System 23 7 0 0
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Level I 916 189 0 0 10082.1 53
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Level I 102 21 0 0 1995 95
389 - Day Star Level I 167 35 15 1 2029 57
400 - English River First Nation Level I 146 48 0 0 8107.8 168
400 - English River First Nation Level I 762 167 0 0 5398.24 32
400 - English River First Nation Small System 40 9 0 0 320 35
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation Level I 569 146 0 0 3236.7 22
395 - Flying Dust First Nation Level I 455 192 1 0 32419 168
351 - Fond du Lac Level I 1143 280 0 0 14413 51
391 - Gordon Level I 1248 261 0 0 905 3
352 - Hatchet Lake Level I 1521 200 1 0 8950 44
397 - Island Lake First Nation Level I 956 129 3 1 8783.1 68
397 - Island Lake First Nation Level I 346 48 0 0 10000 208
370 - James Smith Level I 2299 86 134 3 12466.4 144
362 - Kahkewistahaw Level I 621 130 5 1 12207.5 93
393 - Kawacatoose Level I 1182 75 96 1 4023 53
367 - Keeseekoose Level I 747 152 0 0 14612 96
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation Level I 440 89 0 0 3631.6 40
353 - Lac La Ronge Level I 301 87 0 0 10350 118
353 - Lac La Ronge Level I 657 51 92 2 4716 92
353 - Lac La Ronge Level II 1576 403 1 0 18569.46 46
353 - Lac La Ronge MTA 754 0 66 2
353 - Lac La Ronge Level I 413 67 48 1 5635 84
353 - Lac La Ronge Level II 1761 415 0 0 17225.5 41
353 - Lac La Ronge Level I 345 115 0 0 4460 38
379 - Little Black Bear Small System 212 3 37 1 1848 616
340 - Little Pine Level I 1029 211 22 1 17550.88 83
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation Level I 1122 216 0 0 9000 41
374 - Mistawasis Small System 77 9 0 0 1871 207
374 - Mistawasis Level I 1069 99 26 1 5718.5 57
374 - Mistawasis Small System 43 5 0 0 3663 732
374 - Mistawasis Small System 102 12 0 0 265 22
374 - Mistawasis Small System 43 5 0 0 176 35
354 - Montreal Lake Level I 1400 187 72 2 11095 59
354 - Montreal Lake Level I 754 110 66 2 3694 33
342 - Moosomin Level I 1256 177 11 1 8716 49
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fst. Level I 680 140 0 0 4649.4 33
381 - Muscowpetung N/A 377 0 75 1
381 - Muscowpetung N/A 80 0 0 0
375 - Muskeg Lake Level I 291 91 0 0 4263 46
371 - Muskoday First Nation Level I 671 197 2 1 13257.5 67
392 - Muskowekwan Level I 516 52 77 1 5999.72 115
380 - Nekaneet Small System 24 5 0 0
380 - Nekaneet Level I 100 31 1 1 5776 186
380 - Nekaneet Small System 82 17 0 0
408 - Ocean Man Level I 144 37 4 1 3152 85
363 - Ochapowace Level I 583 109 8 1 9050 83
382 - Okanese Level I 314 42 20 1 2064 49
373 - One Arrow Level I 712 134 32 3 18403 137
344 - Onion Lake Level II 3421 282 398 6 32295 114
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 Level I 603 25 117 1 2585.8 103
384 - Peepeekisis Level I 596 21 85 2 4808 228
405 - Pelican Lake Level I 863 92 84 2 11283 122
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Level I 1190 205 0 0 9696 47
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Level I 55 11 0 0 1030.6 93
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Small System 60 13 0 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Level II 1342 336 69 0 19996.2 59
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation MTA 520 100 0 0 2850 28
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Level I 1553 200 11 0 8846 44
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Level I 60 12 0 0 1805 150
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota Level I 163 10 13 1 1736.6 173
385 - Piapot Level I 683 25 114 2 9906 396
345 - Poundmaker Level I 580 166 0 0 5085 30
345 - Poundmaker Level I 270 45 0 0 2704 60
345 - Poundmaker Small System 72 18 0 0 1100 61
356 - Red Earth Level I 1450 198 0 0 16308.47 82
346 - Red Pheasant Level I 922 66 103 0 6594 99
364 - Sakimay First Nations MTA 33 9 0 0
364 - Sakimay First Nations Level I 225 19 37 1 3051 160
347 - Saulteaux Level I 806 126 4 1 4019 31
347 - Saulteaux Level I 40 10 0 0 2100 210
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation Level I 903 109 0 0 9579 87
386 - Standing Buffalo Level I 572 81 109 2 4864.5 60
387 - Star Blanket Level I 290 58 0 0 11917 205
387 - Star Blanket 88 22 0 0 360 16
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation Level I 1682 149 96 1 15125 101
348 - Sweetgrass Level I 600 108 45 1 6168 57
368 - The Key First Nation Level I 331 41 2 1 4010 97
349 - Thunderchild First Nation Level I 94 11 3 1 384 34
349 - Thunderchild First Nation Level I 1305 236 3 0 12963 54
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation Level I 292 62 0 0 3002.27 48
402 - Waterhen Lake Level I 1093 192 0 0 8709.7 45
365 - White Bear Level I 717 166 18 1 21883.2 131
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation MTA 23 8 0 0
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation Level I 285 100 0 0 10455.9 104
407 - Witchekan Lake Level I 546 61 3 1 2496 40
388 - Wood Mountain Level I 17 0 0 0
376 - Yellow Quill Level I 655 114 17 0 29840.2 261

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary (continued)

Table D.1 - 2: Regional Summary of Water Quality Information
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # - Band Name System # System Name System Type Water Source
406 - Ahtahkakoop 6695 AHTAHKAKOOP NO.104 Water Groundwater
369 - Beardys and Okemasis 6655 BEARDY'S NO. 97 AND OKEMASIS NO. 96 Water Groundwater
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation 6686 BIG ISLAND LAKE NO. 124 Water Groundwater
404 - Big River First Nation 6693 BIG RIVER NO. 118 Water Groundwater
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation 6692 TURNOR LAKE NO. 193B Water Groundwater
359 - Black Lake 6644 CHICKEN NO. 224 Water Surface Water
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation 6685 PETER POND NO. 193 Water Surface Water
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 6680 CANOE LAKE NO. 165 Water Surface Water
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 6698 EAGLES LAKE NO. 165C Water Groundwater
378 - Carry The Kettle 6663 ASSINIBOINE NO. 76 Water Groundwater
401 - Clearwater River Dene 6689 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 222 Water Groundwater
401 - Clearwater River Dene 6690 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 223 -THE LANDING Water Groundwater
366 - Cote First Nation 366 6652 COTE NO. 64 Water Groundwater GUDI
361 - Cowessess 6647 COWESSESS NO. 73 Water Groundwater
361 - Cowessess 17032 WELL #1 Water Groundwater
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 6622 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 -PEMMICAN PORTAGE Water Groundwater
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 6623 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 -RESERVE CENTRE Water Groundwater
389 - Day Star 6674 DAY STAR NO. 87 Water Groundwater
400 - English River First Nation 6687 LA PLONGE NO. 192 Water Groundwater
400 - English River First Nation 6688 WAPACHEWUNAK NO. 192D Water Surface Water
400 - English River First Nation 17031 WELL#2 Water Groundwater
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation 6675 FISHING LAKE NO. 89 Water Groundwater
395 - Flying Dust First Nation 6681 MEADOW LAKE NO. 105 - MTA Water MTA
351 - Fond du Lac 6625 FOND DULAC NO. 227 Water Groundwater
391 - Gordon 6676 GORDON NO. 86 Water Groundwater
352 - Hatchet Lake 6626 LAC LA HACHE NO. 220 Water Surface Water
397 - Island Lake First Nation 6683 MINISTIKWAN NO. 161 Water Surface Water
397 - Island Lake First Nation 6684 MINISTIKWAN NO. 161A -MUDIE LAKE Water Groundwater
370 - James Smith 6624 JAMES SMITH NO. 100 Water Groundwater
362 - Kahkewistahaw 6648 KAHKEWISTAHAW NO. 72 Water Groundwater
393 - Kawacatoose 6679 POORMAN NO. 88 Water Groundwater
367 - Keeseekoose 6653 KEESEEKOOSE NO. 66 Water Groundwater
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation 6662 KINISTIN NO. 91 Water Groundwater
353 - Lac La Ronge 6627 GRANDMOTHER'S BAY NO. 219 Water Surface Water
353 - Lac La Ronge 16041 KITSAKIE NO. 156B - MTA Water MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge 6629 LAC LA RONGE NO. 156 - MTA Water MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge LITTLE RED RIVER 106C -TRUCKED WATER FROM MONTREAL LAKE SIDE Water MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge 6631 MORIN LAKE NO. 217 Water Groundwater
353 - Lac La Ronge 6632 STANLEY NO. 157 Water Surface Water
353 - Lac La Ronge 6633 SUCKER RIVER NO. 156C Water Surface Water
379 - Little Black Bear 6664 LITTLE BLACK BEAR NO. 84 Water Groundwater
340 - Little Pine 6610 LITTLE PINE NO. 116 Water Groundwater
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation 6682 MAKWA LAKE NO. 129B Water Groundwater GUDI
374 - Mistawasis 17038 ISLAND LAKE VILLAGE Water Groundwater
374 - Mistawasis 6659 MISTAWASIS NO. 103 Water Groundwater
374 - Mistawasis 17041 PECHAWIS VILLAGE Water Groundwater
374 - Mistawasis 17040 SOUTH VILLAGE Water Groundwater
374 - Mistawasis 17039 WATSON VILLAGE Water Groundwater
354 - Montreal Lake 6634 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106 Water Surface Water
354 - Montreal Lake 6635 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106B -LITTLE RED RIVER Water Groundwater
342 - Moosomin 6611 MOOSOMIN NO. 112B Water Groundwater
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fs 6612 MOSQUITO NO. 109 Water Groundwater
381 - Muscowpetung 6666 MUSCOWPETUNG NO. 80 Water Groundwater
381 - Muscowpetung 15939 MUSCOWPETUNG NO. 80 - SCHOOL Water Groundwater
375 - Muskeg Lake 6660 MUSKEG LAKE NO. 102 Water Groundwater
371 - Muskoday First Nation 6656 MUSKODAY NO. 99 - MTA Water MTA
392 - Muskowekwan 6677 MUSKOWEKWAN NO. 85 - CORE AREA Water Groundwater
380 - Nekaneet 17035 MIDDLE CAMP WELL Water Groundwater
380 - Nekaneet 6665 NEKANEET NO. 160A Water Groundwater
380 - Nekaneet 17034 UPPER CAMP WELL Water Groundwater
408 - Ocean Man 6702 OCEAN MAN NO. 69 Water Groundwater
363 - Ochapowace 6649 OCHAPOWACE NO. 71 Water Groundwater
382 - Okanese 6667 OKANESE NO. 82 Water Groundwater
373 - One Arrow 6658 ONE ARROW NO. 95 Water Surface Water
344 - Onion Lake 6613 SEEKASKOOTCH NO. 119 Water Groundwater GUDI
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 6668 PASQUA NO. 79 Water Groundwater
384 - Peepeekisis 6669 PEEPEEKISIS NO. 81 Water Groundwater
405 - Pelican Lake 6694 CHITEK LAKE NO. 191 (both North and South are served) Water Surface Water
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6700 DESCHAMBEAULT LAKE Water Surface Water
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7105 KINOOSAO THOMAS CLARK NO. 204 Water Groundwater
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 17036 KISKACIWAN NO.208-WELL Water Groundwater
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6636 PELICAN NARROWS NO. 184B Water Surface Water
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 16045 SANDY BAY (WAPASKOKIMAW) NO. 202 - MTA Water MTA
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6637 SOUTHEND NO. 200 Water Groundwater GUDI
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6638 STURGEON WEIR NO. 184F Water Groundwater GUDI
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota 6703 PHEASANT RUMP NO. 68 Water Groundwater
385 - Piapot 6670 PIAPOT NO. 75 Water Groundwater
345 - Poundmaker 6614 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 - CENTRAL Water Groundwater
345 - Poundmaker 6615 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 -SCHOOL Water Groundwater
345 - Poundmaker 17037 POUNDMAKER NO.114-18B-WELL Water MTA
356 - Red Earth 6640 RED EARTH NO. 29 Water Surface Water
346 - Red Pheasant 6616 RED PHEASANT NO. 108 Water Groundwater
364 - Sakimay First Nations 6697 LITTLE BONENO. 74B Water MTA
364 - Sakimay First Nations 6650 SAKIMAY NO. 74 Water Groundwater
347 - Saulteaux 6618 SAULTEAUX NO. 159 Water Groundwater
347 - Saulteaux 6617 SAULTEAUX NO. 159A -BIRCH LAKE Water Groundwater
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation 6641 SHOAL LAKE NO. 28A Water Groundwater GUDI
386 - Standing Buffalo 6671 STANDING BUFFALO NO. 78 Water Groundwater
387 - Star Blanket 6672 STAR BLANKET NO. 83 Water Groundwater
387 - Star Blanket 6779 WA-PII MOOSTOOSIS (WHITE CALF) NO. 83A Water Groundwater
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 6646 STURGEON LAKE NO. 101 -WEST PLANT Water Surface Water
348 - Sweetgrass 6619 SWEET GRASS NO. 113 Water Groundwater
368 - The Key First Nation 6654 THE KEY NO. 65 Water Groundwater
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 17013 THUNDERCHILD 115C Water Groundwater GUDI
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 6620 THUNDERCHILD NO. 115B Water Groundwater
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation 6642 WAHPETON NO. 94A Water Groundwater
402 - Waterhen Lake 17009 WATERHEN 130 Water Surface Water
365 - White Bear 6651 WHITE BEAR NO. 70 Water Groundwater
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation DAKOTA DUNES CASINO WTP Water MTA
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation 6657 WHITECAP NO. 94 Water Groundwater
407 - Witchekan Lake 6696 WITCHEKAN LAKE NO. 117 Water Groundwater
388 - Wood Mountain 6673 WOOD MOUNTAIN NO. 160 Water Groundwater
376 - Yellow Quill 6661 NUT LAKE NO. 90 Water Groundwater
Table D.1 - 2: Regional Summary of Water Quality Information (continued)
First Nation Information Water Quality Information
Band # - Band Name Meets/ Does Not Meet GCDWQ Cause of Failure Fails Health Guidelines Fails Aesthetic Guidelines Fails MAC by Design Fails MAC by Operation DWA In Effect DWA Count
406 - Ahtahkakoop High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
369 - Beardys and Okemasis Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No Yes 1
404 - Big River First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No 3
359 - Black Lake High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes No No No Yes 1
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation High Freq OR High Mag Operation Yes No No No Yes 1
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Operation Yes Yes No No No 0
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No 2
378 - Carry The Kettle High Freq, Low Mag Operation N/A N/A No No No 0
401 - Clearwater River Dene High Freq AND High Mag Operation Yes Yes No No No 0
401 - Clearwater River Dene Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
366 - Cote First Nation 366 Low Freq, Low Mag Design N/A N/A No No Yes 1
361 - Cowessess High Freq AND High Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
361 - Cowessess High Freq AND High Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
389 - Day Star Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
400 - English River First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Both N/A N/A No No No 0
400 - English River First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Design Yes No No No No 0
400 - English River First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
395 - Flying Dust First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Design Yes No No No 2
351 - Fond du Lac Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
391 - Gordon Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
352 - Hatchet Lake Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
397 - Island Lake First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No 4
397 - Island Lake First Nation High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes Yes No No No 0
370 - James Smith High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes No Yes No No 0
362 - Kahkewistahaw Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
393 - Kawacatoose Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No 4
367 - Keeseekoose Low Freq, Low Mag Design Yes Yes No No Yes 1
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Design Yes Yes No No No 0
353 - Lac La Ronge High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes No No No No 0
353 - Lac La Ronge Meets Requirements Unknown No No No No Yes 1
353 - Lac La Ronge High Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes No No No No 0
353 - Lac La Ronge High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
353 - Lac La Ronge Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes No No No No 0
353 - Lac La Ronge High Freq, Low Mag Design Yes No No No No 0
353 - Lac La Ronge Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
379 - Little Black Bear Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
340 - Little Pine Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No Yes 1
374 - Mistawasis Meets Requirements Design Yes No No No Yes 1
374 - Mistawasis Low Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No Yes 1
374 - Mistawasis Low Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No Yes 1
374 - Mistawasis Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
374 - Mistawasis Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
354 - Montreal Lake High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No Yes 1
354 - Montreal Lake Low Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No Yes No 0
342 - Moosomin High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No No 0
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fs Low Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No Yes 1
381 - Muscowpetung High Freq, Low Mag Design N/A N/A No No No 0
381 - Muscowpetung Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No 3
375 - Muskeg Lake High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No Yes 1
371 - Muskoday First Nation Meets Requirements Unknown Yes No No No No 0
392 - Muskowekwan High Freq, Low Mag Operation N/A N/A No No No 0
380 - Nekaneet High Freq AND High Mag Design Yes Yes Yes Yes No 0
380 - Nekaneet High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes Yes No No 0
380 - Nekaneet High Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No Yes No 0
408 - Ocean Man Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
363 - Ochapowace High Freq, Low Mag Design N/A N/A No No No 0
382 - Okanese High Freq AND High Mag Operation Yes No No Yes Yes 1
373 - One Arrow Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No No 2
344 - Onion Lake High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes No No Yes No 0
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
384 - Peepeekisis Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
405 - Pelican Lake High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes Yes No No Yes 1
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes No No No Yes 1
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation High Freq, Low Mag Design Yes No No No No 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation High Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No No No 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Meets Requirements Operation No No No No No 0
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
385 - Piapot Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
345 - Poundmaker High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes Yes No Yes Yes 1
345 - Poundmaker High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes Yes No Yes Yes 1
345 - Poundmaker High Freq AND High Mag Design Yes N/A No No Yes 1
356 - Red Earth High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes Yes No No No 0
346 - Red Pheasant Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
364 - Sakimay First Nations High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
364 - Sakimay First Nations High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No Yes 1
347 - Saulteaux High Freq, Low Mag Both No Yes No No Yes 1
347 - Saulteaux Low Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No No 0
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes Yes No No 2
386 - Standing Buffalo Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
387 - Star Blanket High Freq AND High Mag Operation No Yes No Yes Yes 1
387 - Star Blanket High Freq AND High Mag Design No Yes No No Yes 1
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes Yes No Yes No 0
348 - Sweetgrass Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No Yes Yes 1
368 - The Key First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Both No Yes No No Yes 1
349 - Thunderchild First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No Yes 1
349 - Thunderchild First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No 2
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes Yes No Yes No 0
402 - Waterhen Lake High Freq, Low Mag Design Yes Yes No No No 0
365 - White Bear High Freq AND High Mag Operation No Yes No No Yes 1
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
407 - Witchekan Lake High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes Yes Yes Yes 2
388 - Wood Mountain High Freq AND High Mag Operation Yes Yes No Yes No 0
376 - Yellow Quill Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No 2

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary (continued)

Table D.1 - 3: Regional Summary of Water Operator Information
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # - Band Name System # System Name System Type Water Source
406 - Ahtahkakoop 6695 AHTAHKAKOOP NO.104 Water Groundwater
369 - Betabpdys and Okemasis 6655 BEARDY'S NO. 97 AND OKEMASIS NO. 96 Water Groundwater
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation 6686 BIG ISLAND LAKE NO. 124 Water Groundwater
404 - Big River First Nation 6693 BIG RIVER NO. 118 Water Groundwater
403 - Birch Ntabprows First Nation 6692 TURNOR LAKE NO. 193B Water Groundwater
359 - Black Lake 6644 CHICKEN NO. 224 Water Surface Water
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation 6685 PETER POND NO. 193 Water Surface Water
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 6680 CANOE LAKE NO. 165 Water Surface Water
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 6698 EAGLES LAKE NO. 165C Water Groundwater
378 - Carry The Kettle 6663 ASSINIBOINE NO. 76 Water Groundwater
401 - Clearwater River Dene 6689 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 222 Water Groundwater
401 - Clearwater River Dene 6690 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 223 -THE LANDING Water Groundwater
366 - Cote First Nation 366 6652 COTE NO. 64 Water GroundwaterGUDI
361 - Cowessess 6647 COWESSESS NO. 73 Water Groundwater
361 - Cowessess 17032 WELL #1 Water Groundwater
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 6622 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 - PEMMICAN PORTAGE Water Groundwater
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 6623 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 -RESERVE CENTRE Water Groundwater
389 - Day Star 6674 DAY STAR NO. 87 Water Groundwater
400 - English River First Nation 6687 LA PLONGE NO. 192 Water Groundwater
400 - English River First Nation 6688 WAPACHEWUNAK NO. 192D Water Surface Water
400 - English River First Nation 17031 WELL#2 Water Groundwater
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation 6675 FISHING LAKE NO. 89 Water Groundwater
395 - Flying Dust First Nation 6681 MEADOW LAKE NO. 105 - MTA Water MTA
351 - Fond du Lac 6625 FOND DULAC NO. 227 Water Groundwater
391 - Gordon 6676 GORDON NO. 86 Water Groundwater
352 - Hatchet Lake 6626 LAC LA HACHE NO. 220 Water Surface Water
397 - Island Lake First Nation 6683 MINISTIKWAN NO. 161 Water Surface Water
397 - Island Lake First Nation 6684 MINISTIKWAN NO. 161A - MUDIE LAKE Water Groundwater
370 - James Smith 6624 JAMES SMITH NO. 100 Water Groundwater
362 - Kahkewistahaw 6648 KAHKEWISTAHAW NO. 72 Water Groundwater
393 - Kawacatoose 6679 POORMAN NO. 88 Water Groundwater
367 - Keeseekoose 6653 KEESEEKOOSE NO. 66 Water Groundwater
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation 6662 KINISTIN NO. 91 Water Groundwater
353 - Lac La Ronge 6627 GRANDMOTHER'S BAY NO. 219 Water Surface Water
353 - Lac La Ronge 16041 KITSAKIE NO. 156B - MTA Water MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge 6629 LAC LA RONGE NO. 156 - MTA Water MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge LITTLE RED RIVER 106C -TRUCKED WATER FROM MONTREAL LAKE SIDE Water MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge 6631 MORIN LAKE NO. 217 Water Groundwater
353 - Lac La Ronge 6632 STANLEY NO. 157 Water Surface Water
353 - Lac La Ronge 6633 SUCKER RIVER NO. 156C Water Surface Water
379 - Little Black Bear 6664 LITTLE BLACK BEAR NO. 84 Water Groundwater
340 - Little Pine 6610 LITTLE PINE NO. 116 Water Groundwater
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation 6682 MAKWA LAKE NO. 129B Water GroundwaterGUDI
374 - Mistawasis 17038 ISLAND LAKE VILLAGE Water Groundwater
374 - Mistawasis 6659 MISTAWASIS NO. 103 Water Groundwater
374 - Mistawasis 17041 PECHAWIS VILLAGE Water Groundwater
374 - Mistawasis 17040 SOUTH VILLAGE Water Groundwater
374 - Mistawasis 17039 WATSON VILLAGE Water Groundwater
354 - Montreal Lake 6634 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106 Water Surface Water
354 - Montreal Lake 6635 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106B -LITTLE RED RIVER Water Groundwater
342 - Moosomin 6611 MOOSOMIN NO. 112B Water Groundwater
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Betabps Head, Lean Man Fs 6612 MOSQUITO NO. 109 Water Groundwater
381 - Muscowpetung 6666 MUSCOWPETUNG NO. 80 Water Groundwater
381 - Muscowpetung 15939 MUSCOWPETUNG NO. 80 -SCHOOL Water Groundwater
375 - Muskeg Lake 6660 MUSKEG LAKE NO. 102 Water Groundwater
371 - Muskoday First Nation 6656 MUSKODAY NO. 99 - MTA Water MTA
392 - Muskowekwan 6677 MUSKOWEKWAN NO. 85 -CORE AREA Water Groundwater
380 - Nekaneet 17035 MIDDLE CAMP WELL Water Groundwater
380 - Nekaneet 6665 NEKANEET NO. 160A Water Groundwater
380 - Nekaneet 17034 UPPER CAMP WELL Water Groundwater
408 - Ocean Man 6702 OCEAN MAN NO. 69 Water Groundwater
363 - Ochapowace 6649 OCHAPOWACE NO. 71 Water Groundwater
382 - Okanese 6667 OKANESE NO. 82 Water Groundwater
373 - One Arrow 6658 ONE ARROW NO. 95 Water Surface Water
344 - Onion Lake 6613 SEEKASKOOTCH NO. 119 Water GroundwaterGUDI
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 6668 PASQUA NO. 79 Water Groundwater
384 - Peepeekisis 6669 PEEPEEKISIS NO. 81 Water Groundwater
405 - Pelican Lake 6694 CHITEK LAKE NO. 191 (both North and South are served) Water Surface Water
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6700 DESCHAMBEAULT LAKE Water Surface Water
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7105 KINOOSAO THOMAS CLARK NO. 204 Water Groundwater
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 17036 KISKACIWAN NO.208-WELL Water Groundwater
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6636 PELICAN NARROWS NO. 184B Water Surface Water
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 16045 SANDY BAY (WAPASKOKIMAW) NO. 202 - MTA Water MTA
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6637 SOUTHEND NO. 200 Water GroundwaterGUDI
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 6638 STURGEON WEIR NO. 184F Water GroundwaterGUDI
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota 6703 PHEASANT RUMP NO. 68 Water Groundwater
385 - Piapot 6670 PIAPOT NO. 75 Water Groundwater
345 - Poundmaker 6614 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 -CENTRAL Water Groundwater
345 - Poundmaker 6615 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 -SCHOOL Water Groundwater
345 - Poundmaker 17037 POUNDMAKER NO.114-18B-WELL Water MTA
356 - Red Etabpth 6640 RED EARTH NO. 29 Water Surface Water
346 - Red Pheasant 6616 RED PHEASANT NO. 108 Water Groundwater
364 - Sakimay First Nations 6697 LITTLE BONE NO. 74B Water MTA
364 - Sakimay First Nations 6650 SAKIMAY NO. 74 Water Groundwater
347 - Saulteaux 6618 SAULTEAUX NO. 159 Water Groundwater
347 - Saulteaux 6617 SAULTEAUX NO. 159A -BIRCH LAKE Water Groundwater
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation 6641 SHOAL LAKE NO. 28A Water GroundwaterGUDI
386 - Standing Buffalo 6671 STANDING BUFFALO NO. 78 Water Groundwater
387 - Star Blanket 6672 STAR BLANKET NO. 83 Water Groundwater
387 - Star Blanket 6779 WA-PII MOOS-TOOSIS (WHITE CALF) NO. 83A Water Groundwater
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 6646 STURGEON LAKE NO. 101 -WEST PLANT Water Surface Water
348 - Sweetgrass 6619 SWEET GRASS NO. 113 Water Groundwater
368 - The Key First Nation 6654 THE KEY NO. 65 Water Groundwater
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 17013 THUNDERCHILD 115C Water GroundwaterGUDI
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 6620 THUNDERCHILD NO. 115B Water Groundwater
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation 6642 WAHPETON NO. 94A Water Groundwater
402 - Waterhen Lake 17009 WATERHEN 130 Water Surface Water
365 - White Betabp 6651 WHITE BEAR NO. 70 Water Groundwater
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation DAKOTA DUNES CASINO WTP Water MTA
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation 6657 WHITECAP NO. 94 Water Groundwater
407 - Witchekan Lake 6696 WITCHEKAN LAKE NO. 117 Water Groundwater
388 - Wood Mountain 6673 WOOD MOUNTAIN NO. 160 Water Groundwater
376 - Yellow Quill 6661 NUT LAKE NO. 90 Water Groundwater
Table D.1 - 3: Regional Summary of Water Operator Information (continued)
First Nation Information Operator Information
Band # - Band Name Primary Operator Exists Primary Operator Treatment Class Primary Operator Distribution Class Secondary Operator Exists Secondary Operator Treatment Class Secondary Operator Distribution Class
406 - Ahtahkakoop Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
369 - Beardys and Okemasis Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level I Level I
404 - Big River First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
359 - Black Lake Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I
378 - Carry The Kettle Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
401 - Clearwater River Dene Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
401 - Clearwater River Dene No Not Required No Operator No Not Required No Operator
366 - Cote First Nation 366 Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
361 - Cowessess Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
361 - Cowessess Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
389 - Day Star Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
400 - English River First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level II
400 - English River First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
400 - English River First Nation Yes Not Required Level I Yes Not Required No Certification
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level II No Not Required No Operator
395 - Flying Dust First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required
351 - Fond du Lac Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
391 - Gordon Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
352 - Hatchet Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
397 - Island Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I No Certification
397 - Island Lake First Nation Yes Level I No Certification Yes Level II Level I
370 - James Smith Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
362 - Kahkewistahaw Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
393 - Kawacatoose Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
367 - Keeseekoose Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Not Required Level II Yes Not Required Level II
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Not Required Level II Yes Not Required Level II
353 - Lac La Ronge NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
379 - Little Black Bear Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
340 - Little Pine Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
374 - Mistawasis Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
374 - Mistawasis Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
374 - Mistawasis Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
374 - Mistawasis Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
374 - Mistawasis Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
354 - Montreal Lake Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
354 - Montreal Lake Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level II
342 - Moosomin Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level I
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fs Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level II
381 - Muscowpetung Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
381 - Muscowpetung Yes Level II No Operator Yes No Certification No Operator
375 - Muskeg Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
371 - Muskoday First Nation Yes Not Required Level I No Not Required
392 - Muskowekwan Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
380 - Nekaneet Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
380 - Nekaneet Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
380 - Nekaneet Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
408 - Ocean Man Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
363 - Ochapowace Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
382 - Okanese Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
373 - One Arrow Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
344 - Onion Lake Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
384 - Peepeekisis Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
405 - Pelican Lake Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level I Level II Yes Level I Level I
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level II
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
385 - Piapot Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level II
345 - Poundmaker Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level II
345 - Poundmaker Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level II
345 - Poundmaker Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level II
356 - Red Earth Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
346 - Red Pheasant Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level II
364 - Sakimay First Nations Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
364 - Sakimay First Nations Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
347 - Saulteaux Yes Level I Level I No No Certification Level I
347 - Saulteaux Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification Level I
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
386 - Standing Buffalo Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
387 - Star Blanket Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
387 - Star Blanket Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
348 - Sweetgrass Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
368 - The Key First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
349 - Thunderchild First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
349 - Thunderchild First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Not Required No Operator
402 - Waterhen Lake Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I No Certification
365 - White Bear Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level II Level I
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required No Certification
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
407 - Witchekan Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
388 - Wood Mountain Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
376 - Yellow Quill Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I

Appendix D.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Summary

Table D.2 - 1: Regional Summary of Wastewater Treatment
First Nation Information Wastewater System Information
Band # - Band Name System # System Name Const Year Receiver Name Treatment Class Design Capacity [m3/d] Max Daily Volume [m3/d]
406 - Ahtahkakoop 7447 AHTAHKAKOOP NO. 104 1985 Creek Level I 128 156
369 - Beardys and Okemasis 7408 BEARDY'S NO. 97 AND OKEMASIS NO. 96 1992 Wetland Level I 110 130.3
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation 7438 BIG ISLAND LAKE NO. 124 1980 Wetland Level I 150 58
404 - Big River First Nation 7445 BIG RIVER NO. 118 2009 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 230 108
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation 16046 TURNOR LAKE NO. 193B - MTA 1983 MTA MTA 217 217
359 - Black Lake 7396 CHICKEN NO. 224 1992 Lake, Reservoir Level I 538 796
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation 7437 PETER POND NO. 193 1994 Lake, Reservoir Level I 403 292
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 7432 CANOE LAKE NO. 165 1981 Lake, Reservoir Level I 424 418
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 7450 EAGLES LAKE NO. 165C 2001 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 81.1 28.0
378 - Carry The Kettle 7416 ASSINIBOINE NO. 76 1994 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 68.6 34.5
401 - Clearwater River Dene 7441 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 222 2000 Lake, Reservoir Level I 324 397
366 - Cote First Nation 366 7405 COTE NO. 64 1980 River Level I 114 114
361 - Cowessess 7400 COWESSESS NO. 73 1994 River Level I 383 274
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 7374 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 - PEMMICAN PORTAGE 1996 Wetland Level I 147 245
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 7375 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 - RESERVE CENTRE 1984 Wetland Level I 6.8 10.1
389 - Day Star 7427 DAY STAR NO. 87 1993 Wetland Level I 64.8
400 - English River First Nation 7439 LA PLONGE NO. 192 1997 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 76 61
400 - English River First Nation 7440 WAPACHEWUNAK NO. 192D 1990 River Level I 103 333
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation 7428 FISHING LAKE NO. 89 1993 Wetland Level I 61 41
395 - Flying Dust First Nation 7433 MEADOW LAKE NO. 105 2008 Wetland Level I 247 119
351 - Fond du Lac 7377 FOND DULAC NO. 227 1998 Lake, Reservoir Level I 634 474
391 - Gordon 7429 GORDON NO. 86 1991 Wetland Level I 66
352 - Hatchet Lake 7378 LAC LA HACHE NO. 220 1996 Wetland Level I 548 674.4
397 - Island Lake First Nation 7435 MINISTIKWAN NO. 161 1994 Wetland Level I 115 119
370 - James Smith 7376 JAMES SMITH NO. 100 1986 Evapouration Level I 263 299
362 - Kahkewistahaw 7401 KAHKEWISTAHAW NO. 72 1979 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 28.4 49
393 - Kawacatoose 7431 POORMAN NO. 88 2001 Wetland Level I 656 178
367 - Keeseekoose 7406 KEESEEKOOSE NO. 66 1975 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 111 78.7
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation 7415 KINISTIN NO. 91 1991 Wetland Level I 52 122
353- Lac La Ronge 7379 GRANDMOTHER'S BAY NO. 219 1997 Wetland Level I 168 125
353 - Lac La Ronge 16042 KITSAKIE NO. 156B - MTA 1995 MTA MTA 135
353 - Lac La Ronge 7381 LAC LA RONGE NO. 156 1996 Wetland Level I 1740 1121
353 - Lac La Ronge 7383 MORIN LAKE NO. 217 1995 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 204 131
353 - Lac La Ronge 7384 STANLEY NO. 157 2007 Wetland Level I 1146 657
353 - Lac La Ronge 7385 SUCKER RIVER NO. 156C 1996 Wetland Level I 177 139
353 - Lac La Ronge WASTEWATER TRUCK HAUL SYSTEM 0 MTA MTA NA 60
340 - Little Pine 7362 LITTLE PINE NO. 116 1997 Evapouration Level I 133 122
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation 7434 MAKWA LAKE NO. 129B 1999 Wetland Level I 401 278
374 - Mistawasis 7412 MISTAWASIS NO. 103 1995 Wetland Level I 63 149
354 - Montreal Lake 7386 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106 1993 Wetland Level I 202 163
354 - Montreal Lake 17055 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106 - BITTERN LAKE SUBDIVISION 2008 Wetland Level I 75 39
354 - Montreal Lake 7387 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106B - LITTLE RED RIVER 1996 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 141 89
342 - Moosomin 7363 MOOSOMIN NO. 112B 1993 Wetland Level I 57 152
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fs 7364 MOSQUITO NO. 109 1994 Wetland Level I 79 87
381 - Muscowpetung 7419 MUSCOWPETUNG NO. 80 1995 Evapouration Level I 17.5 31
375 - Muskeg Lake 7413 MUSKEG LAKE NO. 102 1989 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 91 54
371 - Muskoday First Nation 7409 MUSKODAY NO. 99 1989 Wetland Level I 121 168.9
392 - Muskowekwan 7430 MUSKOWEKWAN NO. 85 - CORE AREA & MEC 1993 Wetland Level I 97.8 77.6
380 - Nekaneet 7418 NEKANEET NO. 160A 1990 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 14.4 46
408 - Ocean Man 17008 OCEAN MAN NO. 69 1993 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 55 29
363 - Ochapowace 7402 OCHAPOWACE NO. 71 2006 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 77
382 - Okanese 7420 OKANESE NO. 82 1993 Wetland Level I 83 36
373 - One Arrow 7411 ONE ARROW NO. 95 1994 Wetland Level I 39.9 163
344 - Onion Lake 7365 SEEKASKOOTCH NO. 119 - CT 1994 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 441 253
344 - Onion Lake SEEKASKOOTCH NO. 119 - RC 2007 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 248.3 123
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 7421 PASQUA NO. 79 2008 Evapouration Level I 56 43.2
384 - Peepeekisis 7422 PEEPEEKISIS NO. 81 1999 Evapouration Level I 136 22
405 - Pelican Lake 7446 CHITEK LAKE NO. 191 - Northcore subdivision Lagoon 1994 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 114 108
405 - Pelican Lake NEW001 CHITEK LAKE NO. 191 - Southcore Subdivision Lagoon 2004 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 114 80
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7452 DESCHAMBEAULT LAKE 1997 Wetland Level I 499 494
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7646 KINOOSAO THOMAS CLARK NO. 204 1997 Wetland Level I 2.6 22.8
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7388 PELICAN NARROWS NO. 184B 1997 Wetland Level I 740 691
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 16119 SANDY BAY (WAPASKOKIMAW) NO. 202 - MTA 1993 MTA MTA Unknown 216
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7389 SOUTHEND NO. 200 2007 Wetland Level I 683 493
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7390 STURGEON WEIR NO. 184F 2006 Wetland Level I 33 21
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota 7455 PHEASANT RUMP NO. 68 1993 Evapouration Level I 107 30
385 - Piapot 7423 PIAPOT NO. 75 1994 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 48.2 48.9
345 - Poundmaker 7366 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 - SCHOOL 1998 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 127 87
356 - Red Earth 7391 CARROT RIVER NO. 29A 1994 Wetland Level I 63 288
356 - Red Earth 7392 RED EARTH NO. 29 1997 Wetland Level I 132 144
346 - Red Pheasant 7368 RED PHEASANT NO. 108 1985 Wetland Level I 151 77.5
364 - Sakimay First Nations 7403 SAKIMAY NO. 74 1997 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 136.5 19
347 - Saulteaux 7370 SAULTEAUX NO. 159 1999 Other Level I 47 65.7
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation 7393 SHOAL LAKE NO. 28A 1995 Wetland Level I 227 286
386 - Standing Buffalo 7424 STANDING BUFFALO NO. 78 1995 Evapouration Level I 83.3 158
387 - Star Blanket 7425 STAR BLANKET NO. 83 1994 Wetland Level I 83 31
387 - Star Blanket 16059 WA-PII MOOS-TOOSIS INDIAN RES. (WHITE CALF) NO. 83A 1998 MTA MTA 36.5
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 7399 STURGEON LAKE NO. 101 - EAST LAGOON 1995 Wetland Level I 127 153
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 7398 STURGEON LAKE NO. 101 - WEST LAGOON 1977 Wetland Level I 56 99
348 - Sweetgrass 7371 SWEET GRASS NO. 113 1995 Wetland Level I 109 86
368 - The Key First Nation 7407 THE KEY NO. 65 1995 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 20.6 29.4
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 7372 THUNDERCHILD NO. 115B 1994 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 86 138
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation 7394 WAHPETON NO. 94A 1997 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 105 82
402 - Waterhen Lake 7443 WATERHEN NO. 130 1999 Wetland Level I 240 107
365 - White Bear 7404 WHITE BEAR NO. 70 - SCHOOL & RESORT LAGOONS 1991 Wetland Level I 20 16
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation 7410 WHITECAP NO. 94 1996 Wetland Level I 350 113.7
407 - Witchekan Lake 7448 WITCHEKAN LAKE NO. 117 1990 Creek Level I 108 130
376 - Yellow Quill 7414 NUT LAKE NO. 90 1993 Wetland Level I 137 39.4
Table D.2 - 1: Regional Summary of Wastewater Treatment (continued)
First Nation Information Wastewater System Information
Band # - Band Name Wastewater System Type Wastewater Treatment Level Wastewater Disinfection Chlorine Wastewater Disinfection UV Discharge Frequency Wastewater Sludge Treatment
406 - Ahtahkakoop Faculative lagoon Secondary Other No
369 - Beardys and Okemasis Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
404 - Big River First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
359 - Black Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
378 - Carry The Kettle Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall Yes
401 - Clearwater River Dene Faculative lagoon Secondary Fall No
366 - Cote First Nation 366 Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
361 - Cowessess Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall Yes
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
389 - Day Star Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
400 - English River First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
400 - English River First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
395 - Flying Dust First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring No
351 - Fond du Lac Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
391 - Gordon Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
352 - Hatchet Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
397 - Island Lake First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
370 - James Smith Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
362 - Kahkewistahaw Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
393 - Kawacatoose Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
367 - Keeseekoose Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
353 - Lac La Ronge Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
353 - Lac La Ronge MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
353 - Lac La Ronge Faculative lagoon Primary No No Other No
353 - Lac La Ronge Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
353 - Lac La Ronge Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
353 - Lac La Ronge MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
340 - Little Pine Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
374 - Mistawasis Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
354 - Montreal Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
354 - Montreal Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
354 - Montreal Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
342 - Moosomin Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fs Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
381 - Muscowpetung Faculative lagoon Primary No No Other No
375 - Muskeg Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
371 - Muskoday First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
392 - Muskowekwan Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
380 - Nekaneet Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Continuous Yes
408 - Ocean Man Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
363 - Ochapowace Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
382 - Okanese Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
373 - One Arrow Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
344 - Onion Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring No
344 - Onion Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring No
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
384 - Peepeekisis Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
405 - Pelican Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
405 - Pelican Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Primary No No Spring, fall No
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
385 - Piapot Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
345 - Poundmaker Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
356 - Red Earth Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
356 - Red Earth Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
346 - Red Pheasant Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
364 - Sakimay First Nations Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
347 - Saulteaux Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
386 - Standing Buffalo Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
387 - Star Blanket Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
387 - Star Blanket MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
348 - Sweetgrass Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
368 - The Key First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
349 - Thunderchild First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring No
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
402 - Waterhen Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
365 - White Bear Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
407 - Witchekan Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
376 - Yellow Quill Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No

Appendix D.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Summary (continued)

Table D.2 - 2: Regional Summary of Wastewater Collection Systems, Effluent Quality and Operators
First Nation Information Collection System Information
Band # - Band Name System # System Name Collection Type Collection Class Pop. Served Homes Piped Homes Trucked
406 - Ahtahkakoop 7447 AHTAHKAKOOP NO. 104 Piped, Trucked Level I 495 62 37
369 - Beardys and Okemasis 7408 BEARDY'S NO. 97 AND OKEMASIS NO. 96 Piped, Trucked Level I 404 80 19
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation 7438 BIG ISLAND LAKE NO. 124 Piped, Trucked Level I 181 26 2
404 - Big River First Nation 7445 BIG RIVER NO. 118 Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level I 741 20 96
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation 16046 TURNOR LAKE NO. 193B -MTA Piped Level I 524 82 0
359 - Black Lake 7396 CHICKEN NO. 224 Piped Level I 1919 220 0
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation 7437 PETER POND NO. 193 Piped, Trucked Level I 791 200 27
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 7432 CANOE LAKE NO. 165 Piped Level I 985 218 0
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 7450 EAGLES LAKE NO. 165C Piped Level I 141 31 0
378 - Carry The Kettle 7416 ASSINIBOINE NO. 76 Piped Level I 1002 33 0
401 - Clearwater River Dene 7441 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 222 Piped, Trucked Level I 981 149 5
366 - Cote First Nation 366 7405 COTE NO. 64 Piped Level I 664 104 0
361 - Cowessess 7400 COWESSESS NO. 73 Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level I 712 88 3
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 7374 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 - PEMMICAN PORTAGE Piped Level I 916 189 0
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 7375 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 - RESERVE CENTRE Piped Level I 0 0 0
389 - Day Star 7427 DAY STAR NO. 87 Piped, Low Pressure Level I 167 13 0
400 - English River First Nation 7439 LA PLONGE NO. 192 Piped Level I 140 46 0
400 - English River First Nation 7440 WAPACHEWUNAK NO. 192D Piped, Trucked Level I 762 167 9
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation 7428 FISHING LAKE NO. 89 Piped Level I 569 34 0
395 - Flying Dust First Nation 7433 MEADOW LAKE NO. 105 Piped Level I 308 130 0
351 - Fond du Lac 7377 FOND DULAC NO. 227 Piped Level I 1143 280 0
391 - Gordon 7429 GORDON NO. 86 Piped, Trucked Level I 1248 0 1
352 - Hatchet Lake 7378 LAC LA HACHE NO. 220 Piped Level I 1521 221 0
397 - Island Lake First Nation 7435 MINISTIKWAN NO. 161 Piped Level I 418 58 0
370 - James Smith 7376 JAMES SMITH NO. 100 Piped, Trucked Level I 1034 86 15
362 - Kahkewistahaw 7401 KAHKEWISTAHAW NO. 72 Piped Level I 621 28 0
393 - Kawacatoose 7431 POORMAN NO. 88 Piped, Trucked Level I 1182 76 8
367 - Keeseekoose 7406 KEESEEKOOSE NO. 66 Piped Level I 257 53 0
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation 7415 KINISTIN NO. 91 Piped, Low Pressure Level I 297 60 0
353 - Lac La Ronge 7379 GRANDMOTHER'S BAY NO. 219 Piped Level I 301 87 0
353 - Lac La Ronge 16042 KITSAKIE NO. 156B -MTA Piped, Trucked Level I 657 51 92
353 - Lac La Ronge 7381 LAC LA RONGE NO. 156 Piped, Trucked Level II 1576 403 1
353 - Lac La Ronge 7383 MORIN LAKE NO. 217 Piped, Trucked Level I 413 67 40
353 - Lac La Ronge 7384 STANLEY NO. 157 Piped, Trucked Level II 1761 411 4
353 - Lac La Ronge 7385 SUCKER RIVER NO. 156C Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level I 345 98 17
353 - Lac La Ronge WASTEWATER TRUCK HAUL SYSTEM Trucked MTA 13 0 13
340 - Little Pine 7362 LITTLE PINE NO. 116 Piped, Trucked Level I 388 49 39
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation 7434 MAKWA LAKE NO. 129B Piped Level I 535 103 0
374 - Mistawasis 7412 MISTAWASIS NO. 103 Piped, Trucked Level I 359 38 4
354 - Montreal Lake 7386 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106 Piped, Trucked Level I 888 155 10
354 - Montreal Lake 17055 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106 - BITTERN LAKE SUBDIVISION Piped, Trucked Level I 242 30 15
354 - Montreal Lake 7387 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106B - LITTLE RED RIVER Piped, Trucked Level I 214 54 78
342 - Moosomin 7363 MOOSOMIN NO. 112B Piped Level I 588 88 0
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fst. 7364 MOSQUITO NO. 109 Piped Level I 204 42 0
381 - Muscowpetung 7419 MUSCOWPETUNG NO. 80 Trucked NA 377 0 65
375 - Muskeg Lake 7413 MUSKEG LAKE NO. 102 Piped Level I 131 41 0
371 - Muskoday First Nation 7409 MUSKODAY NO. 99 Piped, Trucked Level I 415 118 5
392 - Muskowekwan 7430 MUSKOWEKWAN NO. 85 - CORE AREA & MEC Piped, Trucked Level I 516 50 5
380 - Nekaneet 7418 NEKANEET NO. 160A Piped Level I 71 23 0
408 - Ocean Man 17008 OCEAN MAN NO. 69 Piped Level I 144 28 0
363 - Ochapowace 7402 OCHAPOWACE NO. 71 Piped Level I 583 7 0
382 - Okanese 7420 OKANESE NO. 82 Piped, Trucked Level I 314 22 0
373 - One Arrow 7411 ONE ARROW NO. 95 Piped, Trucked Level I 459 99 8
344 - Onion Lake 7365 SEEKASKOOTCH NO. 119 -CT Piped, Trucked Level I 629 120 5
344 - Onion Lake SEEKASKOOTCH NO. 119 -RC Piped Level I 297 59 0
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 7421 PASQUA NO. 79 Piped, Trucked Level I 603 23 7
384 - Peepeekisis 7422 PEEPEEKISIS NO. 81 Piped, Trucked Level I 596 10 1
405 - Pelican Lake 7446 CHITEK LAKE NO. 191 - Northcore subdivision Lagoon Piped Level I 260 53 0
405 - Pelican Lake NEW001 CHITEK LAKE NO. 191 - Southcore Subdivision Lagoon Piped Level I 191 39 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7452 DESCHAMBEAULT LAKE Piped Level I 1190 205 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7646 KINOOSAO THOMAS CLARK NO. 204 Piped Level I 55 11 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7388 PELICAN NARROWS NO. 184B Piped, Trucked Level I 1342 336 69
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 16119 SANDY BAY (WAPASKOKIMAW) NO. 202 - MTA Piped MTA 520 100 0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7389 SOUTHEND NO. 200 Piped, Trucked Level I 1553 200 11
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7390 STURGEON WEIR NO. 184F Piped Level I 60 12 0
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota 7455 PHEASANT RUMP NO. 68 Piped, Trucked Level I 163 12 1
385 - Piapot 7423 PIAPOT NO. 75 Piped Level I 683 25 0
345 - Poundmaker 7366 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 - SCHOOL Piped, Trucked Level I 188 35 12
356 - Red Earth 7391 CARROT RIVER NO. 29A Piped, Trucked Level I 959 107 24
356 - Red Earth 7392 RED EARTH NO. 29 Piped, Trucked Level I 491 50 17
346 - Red Pheasant 7368 RED PHEASANT NO. 108 Piped, Trucked Level I 295 52 2
364 - Sakimay First Nations 7403 SAKIMAY NO. 74 Piped, Trucked Level I 225 9 6
347 - Saulteaux 7370 SAULTEAUX NO. 159 Piped Level I 186 30 0
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation 7393 SHOAL LAKE NO. 28A Piped Level I 887 108 0
386 - Standing Buffalo 7424 STANDING BUFFALO NO. 78 Trucked Small System 572 0 183
387 - Star Blanket 7425 STAR BLANKET NO. 83 Piped Level I 290 16 0
387 - Star Blanket 16059 WA-PII MOOS-TOOSIS INDIAN RES. (WHITE CALF) NO. 83A Piped MTA 88 22 0
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 7399 STURGEON LAKE NO. 101 - EAST LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level I 742 70 38
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 7398 STURGEON LAKE NO. 101 - WEST LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level I 481 33 37
348 - Sweetgrass 7371 SWEET GRASS NO. 113 Piped Level I 212 54 0
368 - The Key First Nation 7407 THE KEY NO. 65 Piped Level I 331 14 0
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 7372 THUNDERCHILD NO. 115B Piped, Trucked Level I 453 76 6
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation 7394 WAHPETON NO. 94A Piped Level I 292 30 0
402 - Waterhen Lake 7443 WATERHEN NO. 130 Piped Level I 666 117 0
365 - White Bear 7404 WHITE BEAR NO. 70 - SCHOOL & RESORT LAGOONS Piped, Trucked Level I 717 0 18
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation 7410 WHITECAP NO. 94 Piped Level I 208 73 0
407 - Witchekan Lake 7448 WITCHEKAN LAKE NO. 117 Piped Level I 495 58 0
376 - Yellow Quill 7414 NUT LAKE NO. 90 Piped Level I 125 25 0
Table D.2 - 2: Regional Summary of Wastewater Collection Systems, Effluent Quality and Operators (continued)
First Nation Information Collection System Information Effluent Quality
Band # - Band Name No. of Trucks in Service Pipe Length Pipe Length / Connec- tion Low Pressure Sewer No. of Pumping Stations Meets Federal Guidelines (1976) Cause of Failure
406 - Ahtahkakoop 1 3364 54 No 1 Unknown Unknown
369 - Beardys and Okemasis 0 2821 35 No 2 High Freq OR High Mag Unknown
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation 1 1984 76 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
404 - Big River First Nation 3 754 37 Yes 2 Unknown Unknown
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation 0 3519 42 No 2 MTA MTA
359 - Black Lake 0 7904 35 No 3 Unknown Unknown
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation 0 8468 42 No 3 Unknown Unknown
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 0 9406.8 43 No 3 Unknown Unknown
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 0 2055 66 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
378 - Carry The Kettle 0 1536 46 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
401 - Clearwater River Dene 0 6369 42 No 1 Unknown Unknown
366 - Cote First Nation 366 0 3832 36 No 0 Low Freq, Low Mag Design
361 - Cowessess 1 2871 32 Yes 2 High Freq, Low Mag Operation
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 0 6197.1 32 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Design
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 0 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
389 - Day Star 1 Yes 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
400 - English River First Nation 0 6712.3 145 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Unknown
400 - English River First Nation 1 5848.6 35 No 2 Unknown Unknown
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation 2 2473.5 72 No 3 High Freq, Low Mag Operation
395 - Flying Dust First Nation 0 4662 35 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
351 - Fond du Lac 0 7505.5 26 No 6 Unknown Unknown
391 - Gordon 1 No 2 High Freq OR High Mag Design
352 - Hatchet Lake 0 6224 28 No 3 Unknown Unknown
397 - Island Lake First Nation 1 2867 49 No 0 Low Freq, Low Mag Design & Opera
370 - James Smith 1 4308 50 No 1 High Freq AND High Mag Design & Opera
362 - Kahkewistahaw 0 2135 76 No 1 High Freq AND High Mag Design
393 - Kawacatoose 1 3643.5 47 No 1 Unknown Unknown
367 - Keeseekoose 0 2023 38 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation 1 2815 46 Yes 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
353 - Lac La Ronge 0 5550 63 No 5 Meets Requirements Unknown
353 - Lac La Ronge 2 2109.4 41 No 1 MTA MTA
353 - Lac La Ronge 0 14642.7 36 No 6 Meets Requirements Unknown
353 - Lac La Ronge 1 3530 52 No 2 Unknown Unknown
353 - Lac La Ronge 0 11109 27 No 4 Meets Requirements Operation
353 - Lac La Ronge 0 2693 27 Yes 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
353 - Lac La Ronge 0 No MTA MTA
340 - Little Pine 1 3163.4 64 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Unknown
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation 0 6007 58 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Operation
374 - Mistawasis 1 1961 51 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
354 - Montreal Lake 1 5065 32 No 2 Low Freq, Low Mag Operation
354 - Montreal Lake 1 2535 84 No 1 Unknown Unknown
354 - Montreal Lake 1 2339 43 No 2 Unknown Unknown
342 - Moosomin 1 4656 52 No 2 Low Freq, Low Mag Design
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fst. 0 3440 81 No 1 High Freq AND High Mag Design & Opera
381 - Muscowpetung 1 No Unknown Unknown
375 - Muskeg Lake 1 1181.3 28 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
371 - Muskoday First Nation 1 4176 35 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
392 - Muskowekwan 0 5326.19 106 No 1 Unknown Unknown
380 - Nekaneet 0 1705 74 No 1 High Freq, Low Mag Design
408 - Ocean Man 0 1386 49 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
363 - Ochapowace 0 1100 157 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Design & Opera
382 - Okanese 1 1468 66 No 1 High Freq AND High Mag Design
373 - One Arrow 1 3346 33 No 2 High Freq OR High Mag Design & Opera
344 - Onion Lake 2 6780 56 No 2 Low Freq, Low Mag Operation
344 - Onion Lake 0 2495 42 No 2 Unknown Unknown
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 contracted ou 2601.5 113 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
384 - Peepeekisis 1 2719 271 No 1 High Freq, Low Mag Operation
405 - Pelican Lake 0 2257.3 42 No 1 Unknown Design & Opera
405 - Pelican Lake 0 168 4 No 2 Unknown Unknown
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 1 6125 29 No 8 Meets Requirements Unknown
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 0 629 57 No 1 Unknown Unknown
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 1 12071.5 35 No 8 High Freq AND High Mag Design & Opera
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 0 1958 19 No 1 MTA MTA
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 0 4698.1 23 No 4 Unknown Unknown
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 0 1040 86 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota 1 1253.1 104 No 1 Unknown Unknown
385 - Piapot 0 1770 70 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
345 - Poundmaker 1 4451 127 No 1 Unknown Unknown
356 - Red Earth 0 3328 31 No 2 Low Freq, Low Mag Design & Opera
356 - Red Earth 1 4486.9 89 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
346 - Red Pheasant 0 2523 48 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
364 - Sakimay First Nations 1 335 37 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Operation
347 - Saulteaux 0 2382 79 No 1 Unknown Unknown
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation 0 4265 39 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
386 - Standing Buffalo 2 No Meets Requirements Unknown
387 - Star Blanket 1 1640 102 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
387 - Star Blanket 0 713 32 No MTA MTA
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 1 2305 32 No 1 High Freq, Low Mag Operation
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation 1 705 21 No 2 High Freq, Low Mag Design & Opera
348 - Sweetgrass 0 2231 41 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Operation
368 - The Key First Nation 0 1005 71 No 1 High Freq, Low Mag Design
349 - Thunderchild First Nation 2 6861 90 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation 0 1458.91 48 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
402 - Waterhen Lake 1 7665.6 65 No 1 High Freq, Low Mag Operation
365 - White Bear 1 No 1 High Freq, Low Mag Operation
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation 0 1817.4 24 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Operation
407 - Witchekan Lake 0 2552.7 44 No 1 Unknown Unknown
376 - Yellow Quill 1 1653.3 66 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
Table D.2 - 2: Regional Summary of Wastewater Collection Systems, Effluent Quality and Operators (continued)
First Nation Information Operator Information
Band # - Band Name Primary Operator Exists Primary Operator Treatment Class Primary Operator Collection Class Secondary Operator Exists Secondary Operator Treatment Class Secondary Operator Collection Class
406 - Ahtahkakoop Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
369 - Beardys and Okemasis Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level I Level I
404 - Big River First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
359 - Black Lake Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
398 - Buffalo River Dene Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
378 - Carry The Kettle Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
401 - Clearwater River Dene Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
366 - Cote First Nation 366 Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
361 - Cowessess Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
389 - Day Star Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
400 - English River First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
400 - English River First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation Yes Level I Level II No No Operator No Operator
395 - Flying Dust First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
351 - Fond du Lac Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
391 - Gordon Yes Level I Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
352 - Hatchet Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
397 - Island Lake First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
370 - James Smith Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
362 - Kahkewistahaw Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
393 - Kawacatoose Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
367 - Keeseekoose Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level I
353 - Lac La Ronge Yes Level I Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
353 - Lac La Ronge NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
340 - Little Pine Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
396 - Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
374 - Mistawasis Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
354 - Montreal Lake Yes Level I Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
354 - Montreal Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
354 - Montreal Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
342 - Moosomin Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fst. Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
381 - Muscowpetung Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
375 - Muskeg Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
371 - Muskoday First Nation Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
392 - Muskowekwan Yes Level I Level II Yes Level I Level II
380 - Nekaneet Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
408 - Ocean Man Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
363 - Ochapowace Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
382 - Okanese Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
373 - One Arrow Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
344 - Onion Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
344 - Onion Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
384 - Peepeekisis Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
405 - Pelican Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
405 - Pelican Lake Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level I Level I
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation No Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
385 - Piapot Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
345 - Poundmaker Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
356 - Red Earth Yes No Certification Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
356 - Red Earth Yes No Certification Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
346 - Red Pheasant Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
364 - Sakimay First Nations Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
347 - Saulteaux Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification Small System
357 - Shoal Lake Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
386 - Standing Buffalo Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
387 - Star Blanket Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
387 - Star Blanket Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
360 - Sturgeon Lake First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
348 - Sweetgrass Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
368 - The Key First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
349 - Thunderchild First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
358 - Wahpeton Dakota Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Small System Small System
402 - Waterhen Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
365 - White Bear Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
372 - Whitecap Dakota First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
407 - Witchekan Lake Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
376 - Yellow Quill Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification

Appendix E Risk Summary

Appendix E.1 Individual First Nation Water Risk Summary

Legend
  Risk Level
High Risk 8.0 - 10.0
Medium Risk 5.0 - 7.0
Low Risk 1.0 - 4.0
Table E.1: Individual First Nation Water Risk Summary
Band # - Band Name System # System Name Water Source Treat-
ment Class
Source Risk Design Risk Opera-
tions Risk
Report Risk Oper-
ator Risk
Final Risk Score
406 - Ahtahkakoop 6695 Ahtahkakoop NO.104 Groundwater Level I 7.0 8.0 5.0 8.0 1.0 5.6
369 - Beardys and Okemasis 6655 BEARDY'S NO. 97 AND OKEMASIS NO. 96 Groundwater Level I 9.0 3.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 4.8
399 - Big Island Lake Cree Nation 6686 BIG ISLAND LAKE NO. 124 Groundwater Level I 6.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 3.0 6.7
404 - Big River First Nation 6693 BIG RIVER NO. 118 Groundwater Level I 7.0 4.0 8.0 9.0 1.0 5.4
403 - Birch Narrows First Nation 6692 TURNOR LAKE NO. 193B Groundwater Level I 6.0 3.0 8.0 7.0 1.0 4.8
394 - Canoe Lake Cree First Nation 6698 EAGLES LAKE NO. 165C Groundwater Level I 7.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 6.7
378 - Carry The Kettle 6663 ASSINIBOINE NO. 76 Groundwater Level I 6.0 5.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 5.5
401 - Clearwater River Dene 6689 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 222 Groundwater Level I 7.0 3.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 5.8
401 - Clearwater River Dene 6690 CLEARWATER RIVER NO. 223 - THE LANDING Groundwater Level I 8.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 8.9
361 - Cowessess 6647 COWESSESS NO. 73 Groundwater Level II 7.0 6.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 5.2
361 - Cowessess 17032 WELL #1 Groundwater None 6.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 6622 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 - PEMMICAN PORTAGE Groundwater Level I 5.0 4.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 4.8
350 - Cumberland House Cree Nation 6623 CUMBERLAND NO. 20 - RESERVE CENTRE Groundwater Level I 4.0 2.0 3.0 6.0 1.0 2.7
389 - Day Star 6674 DAY STAR NO. 87 Groundwater Level II 6.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.1
400 - English River First Nation 6687 LA PLONGE NO. 192 Groundwater Level I 6.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 1.0 6.3
400 - English River First Nation 17031 WELL#2 Groundwater None 5.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
390 - Fishing Lake First Nation 6675 FISHING LAKE NO. 89 Groundwater Level II 6.0 3.0 5.0 4.0 1.0 3.6
351 - Fond du Lac 6625 FOND DU LAC NO. 227 Groundwater Level I 5.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 1.0 5.1
391 - Gordon 6676 GORDON NO. 86 Groundwater Level II 5.0 4.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 3.5
397 - Island Lake First Nation 6684 MINISTIKWAN NO. 161A - MUDIE LAKE Groundwater Level I 7.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 6.5
370 - James Smith 6624 JAMES SMITH NO. 100 Groundwater Level I 6.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
362 - KAHKEWISTAHAW 6648 KAHKEWISTAHAW NO. 72 Groundwater Level II 8.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 2.9
393 - Kawacatoose 6679 POORMAN NO. 88 Groundwater Level II 9.0 3.0 6.0 6.0 1.0 4.4
367 - Keeseekoose 6653 KEESEEKOOSE NO. 66 Groundwater Level I 5.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 1.0 5.3
377 - Kinistin Saulteaux Nation 6662 KINISTIN NO. 91 Groundwater Level I 5.0 8.0 3.0 7.0 1.0 4.7
353 - Lac La Ronge 6631 MORIN LAKE NO. 217 Groundwater Level I 6.0 3.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.2
379 - Little Black Bear 6664 LITTLE BLACK BEAR NO. 84 Groundwater Level II 5.0 5.0 1.0 7.0 6.0 4.2
340 - Little Pine 6610 LITTLE PINE NO. 116 Groundwater Level I 7.0 4.0 2.0 8.0 1.0 3.5
374 - Mistawasis 17038 ISLAND LAKE VILLAGE Groundwater Small System 5.0 4.0 1.0 8.0 1.0 3.0
374 - Mistawasis 6659 MISTAWASIS NO. 103 Groundwater Level I 7.0 8.0 1.0 8.0 1.0 4.4
374 - Mistawasis 17041 PECHAWIS VILLAGE Groundwater Small System 6.0 8.0 1.0 5.0 1.0 4.0
374 - Mistawasis 17040 SOUTH VILLAGE Groundwater Small System 5.0 4.0 1.0 5.0 1.0 2.7
374 - Mistawasis 17039 WATSON VILLAGE Groundwater Small System 5.0 5.0 1.0 5.0 1.0 3.0
354 - Montreal Lake 6635 MONTREAL LAKE NO. 106B - LITTLE RED RIVER Groundwater Level I 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 1.0 8.0
342 - Moosomin 6611 MOOSOMIN NO. 112B Groundwater Level I 8.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 1.0 6.7
343 - Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man Fst.Natns. 6612 MOSQUITO NO. 109 Groundwater Level I 6.0 8.0 1.0 8.0 1.0 4.3
381 - Muscowpetung 6666 Muscowpetung NO. 80 Groundwater Level I 5.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.5
381 - Muscowpetung 15939 Muscowpetung NO. 80 - SCHOOL Groundwater Level I 5.0 1.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
375 - Muskeg Lake 6660 MUSKEG LAKE NO. 102 Groundwater Level I 9.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 6.9
392 - Muskowekwan 6677 Muskowekwan NO. 85 - CORE AREA Groundwater Level II 8.0 5.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 5.2
380 - Nekaneet 17035 MIDDLE CAMP WELL Groundwater Small System 10.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
380 - Nekaneet 6665 NEKANEET NO. 160A Groundwater Level I 5.0 8.0 7.0 7.0 1.0 8.0
380 - Nekaneet 17034 UPPER CAMP WELL Groundwater Small System 10.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
408 - Ocean Man 6702 OCEAN MAN NO. 69 Groundwater Level I 4.0 1.0 3.0 5.0 1.0 2.3
363 - OCHAPOWACE 6649 OCHAPOWACE NO. 71 Groundwater Level I 6.0 8.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 3.7
382 - Okanese 6667 OKANESE NO. 82 Groundwater Level II 5.0 3.0 8.0 7.0 1.0 8.0
383 - Pasqua First Nation #79 6668 PASQUA NO. 79 Groundwater Level II 4.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.5
384 - Peepeekisis 6669 PEEPEEKISIS NO. 81 Groundwater Level II 9.0 4.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 5.0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 7105 KINOOSAO THOMAS CLARK NO. 204 Groundwater Level I 6.0 4.0 8.0 6.0 1.0 5.0
355 - Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation 17036 KISKACIWAN NO.208-WELL Groundwater Small System 5.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 4.0 7.1
409 - Pheasant Rump Nakota 6703 PHEASANT RUMP NO. 68 Groundwater Level I 7.0 4.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 3.1
385 - Piapot 6670 PIAPOT NO. 75 Groundwater Level II 7.0 3.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 3.1
345 - Poundmaker 6614 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 - CENTRAL Groundwater Level I 8.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
345 - Poundmaker 6615 POUNDMAKER NO. 114 - SCHOOL Groundwater Level I 9.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
346 - Red Pheasant 6616 RED PHEASANT NO. 108 Groundwater Level I 7.0 4.0 5.0 8.0 1.0 4.4
364 - Sakimay First Nations 6650 SAKIMAY NO. 74 Groundwater Level I 5.0 8.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 3.8
347 - Saulteaux 6618 SAULTEAUX NO. 159 Groundwater Level I 6.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 6.9
347 - Saulteaux 6617 SAULTEAUX NO. 159A - BIRCH LAKE Groundwater Level I 5.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 6.8
386 - Standing Buffalo 6671 STANDING BUFFALO NO. 78 Groundwater Level II 6.0 5.0 2.0 8.0 2.0 3.9
387 - Star Blanket 6672 STAR BLANKET NO. 83 Groundwater Level II 6.0 5.0 8.0 2.0 1.0 8.0
387 - Star Blanket 6779 WA-PII MOOS- TOOSIS (WHITE CALF)NO. 83A