National Assessment of First Nations Water and Wastewater Systems - Alberta Regional Roll-Up Report

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Prepared by: Neegan Burnside Ltd.
Prepared for: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
Date: January 2011
File No: FGY163080.4

PDF Version (2.5 Mb, 106 Pages)

Statement of Qualifications and Limitations for Regional Roll-Up Reports

This regional roll-up report has been prepared by Neegan Burnside Ltd. and a team of subconsultants (Consultant) for the benefit of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (Client). Regional summary reports have been prepared for the 8 regions, to facilitate planning and budgeting on both a regional and national level to address water and wastewater system deficiencies and needs.

The material contained in this Regional Roll-Up report is:

  • preliminary in nature, to allow for high level budgetary and risk planning to be completed by the Client on a national level.
  • based on a compilation of the data and findings from the individual community reports prepared and issued for a specific region.
  • not proposing to identify the preferred solution to address deficiencies for each community. Rather this report will identify possible solution(s) and probable preliminary costs associated with solution(s) presented in greater detail in the community reports. Community specific studies including more detailed evaluation will be required to identify both preferred solutions and final costs.
  • based on existing conditions observed by, or reported to the Consultant. This assessment does not wholly eliminate uncertainty regarding the potential for costs, hazards or losses in connection with a facility. Conditions existing but not recorded were not apparent given the level of study undertaken.
  • to be read in the context of its entirety.
  • not to be used for any purpose other than that agreed to with the Client. Any use which a third party makes of this report, or any reliance on or decisions to be made based on it, are the responsibility of such third parties. Any other user specifically denies any right to claims against the Consultant, Sub-Consultants, their Officers, Agents and Employees.

Risk as it pertains to health and safety issues and building code compliance is based upon hazards readily identifiable during a simple walk through of the water and wastewater facilities, and does not constitute a comprehensive assessment with regard to health and safety regulations and or building code regulations.

The Consultant accepts no responsibility for any decisions made or actions taken as a result of this report.

1.0 Introduction

The Government of Canada is committed to providing safe, clean drinking water in all First Nations communities, and to ensuring that wastewater services in all First Nations communities meet acceptable effluent quality standards. As part of this commitment, the Government announced the First Nations Water and Wastewater Action Plan (FNWWAP). The plan funds the construction and renovation of water and wastewater facilities, operator training, and public health activities related to water and wastewater on reserves. It also provided for a national, independent assessment – The National Assessment of First Nations Water and Wastewater Systems – which will inform the Government's future, long-term investment strategy. This assessment was also recommended by the Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples.

The purpose of the National Assessment is to define the current deficiencies and the operational needs of water and wastewater systems, identify the long-term water and wastewater needs of each community and recommend sustainable, long-term infrastructure development strategies.

The objectives of the National Assessment are to:

This assessment involved collecting background data and information about each community, undertaking a site visit, and preparing individual community reports for each participating First Nation. Neegan Burnside and its sub-consultants conducted an assessment for each of the eight regions. This report summarizes the findings for the Alberta region.

1.1 Site Visits

Site visits in the Alberta Region were undertaken by personnel from Neegan Burnside Ltd. and its sub-consultant, R.J. Burnside & Associates Limited, during September and October, 2009, and in May, June and July, 2010. Each visit included at least two team members. Additional participants including the Circuit Rider Trainer (CRT), an INAC Representative, an Environmental Health Officer (EHO) from Health Canada and a Tribal Council Representative were invited to attend. The additional participants that were able to attend are identified in each community report.

After confirming the number and type of systems that the First Nation uses to provide water and wastewater to the community, along with population and future servicing needs (planned development and population growth), an assessment was carried out of the water and wastewater systems, as well as 5% of the individual systems.

1.2 Reporting

Individual Community Reports have been prepared for each First Nation. In cases where the First Nation consisted of more than one community located in geographically distinct areas, a separate report was prepared for each community. In the Alberta region, there was 100% participation from the 44 First Nations, which resulted in the preparation of 54 individual community reports. A report was not submitted for one First Nation, which did not have any members living on-site and had no assets. Figure 1.1 indicates the location of each First Nation visited as a part of this study.

The reports include an assessment of existing communal systems and existing individual systems, identification of needs to meet Departmental, Federal and Provincial protocols and guidelines, and an assessment of existing servicing of the community along with projections of population and flows for future servicing for the 10 year period. Costing for the recommendations to meet Departmental protocol, Federal and provincial guidelines, and an evaluation of servicing alternatives along with life cycle costing for each feasible alternative are also included in each report.

An annual water inspection, risk evaluation and ACRS inspection was completed for each system and are included in the Appendices of each report.

Figure 1.1 - Alberta First Nations Visited

National Assessment of First Nation Water and Wastewater Systems

Description of Figure 1.1 – Alberta First Nations Visited

This image is a map of the location of each First Nations community that Neegan Burnside Ltd. visited in Alberta as part of the National Assessment of Water and Wastewater in First Nations Communities. Each site visit is marked by a green dot.

2.0 Regional Overview

The Alberta Region includes 44 First Nations. There are 82 water systems (57 First Nation systems and 25 Municipal Type Agreements) and 73 wastewater systems (60 First Nation systems and 13 Municipal Type Agreements).

A First Nation water or wastewater system consists of INAC-funded assets, and serves five or more residences or public facilities. A Municipal Type Agreement, on the other hand, is when First Nations are supplied with treated water from or send their wastewater to a nearby municipality or neighbouring First Nation or corporate entity as outlined in a formal agreement between the two parties.

The First Nation communities' populations range from 50 to 8,840 people, and household sizes range from 2.5 to 7.9 people per unit (ppu). The total number of homes is 14,503, and the average household size in the Alberta region is 4.8 ppu.

2.1 Water Servicing

There are a total of 82 water systems serving 42 of the 44 First Nations. Of the final two First Nations, one is serviced solely by individual wells, and the other has no members living on-site and does not have any water or wastewater systems.

For water treatment, the 82 water systems include:

  • 25 systems that receive their water supply through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 29 groundwater systems
  • 5 groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) systems
  • 23 surface water systems.

For water distribution, the 82 systems include:

  • 10 distribution systems that are maintained through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 72 distribution systems that are maintained by the First Nation.

The following is a summary of the level of service being provided to the homes within the Alberta region:

  • 38% of the homes (5,490) are piped
  • 31% of the homes (4,567) are on truck delivery
  • 31% of the homes (4,433) are serviced by individual wells
  • 13 homes reported to have no water service.

Table 2.1, below, provides an overview of the water systems by system classification, source type, treatment type and storage type.

In general, the treatment system classification reflects the complexity of the treatment process, and the distribution classification reflects the population of the community being serviced. Treatment systems labeled as "Small System' and "None" typically represent systems with either disinfection only or no treatment. The classification used for the Alberta region follows the regulations for Alberta.

Table 2.1 - Water Overview

Table 2.1 - Water Overview: System Classification
System Classification No. % of Total
None 2 2%
Small System 7 9%
Level I 18 22%
Level II 19 23%
Level III 11 14%
MTA 25 30%
Table 2.1 - Water Overview: Source Type
Source Type No. % of Total
Groundwater 29 36%
Surface Water 23 28%
Groundwater GUDI 5 6%
MTA 25 30%
Table 2.1 - Water Overview: Storage
Storage No. % of Total
None 20 24%
Standpipe 3 4%
Grade level 5 6%
Underground 54 66%
Table 2.1 - Water Overview: Treatment Type
Treatment Type No. % of Total
None - Direct Use 1 1%
Disinfection Only 17 21%
Greensand Filtration 8 10%
Slow Sand 1 1%
Conventional 24 29%
Membrane Filtration 6 7%
MTA 25 31%

2.2 Wastewater Servicing

There are a total of 73 wastewater systems that serve 39 First Nations. For the remaining five First Nations, three are serviced solely by individual septic systems, one is relying on privies and one has no members living on-site and has no system.

For wastewater treatment, the 73 systems include:

  • 13 wastewater systems are provided treatment through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 60 First Nation wastewater treatment systems, consisting of 54 systems using either facultative or aerated lagoons, 3 systems using a mechanical plant, 1 communal septic system and 2 "other" treatment type systems.

For wastewater collection, the 73 systems include:

  • 3 wastewater collection systems that are maintained through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 70 wastewater collection systems that are maintained by the First Nation.

The following is a summary of the level of service being provided to the homes within the Alberta region:

  • 32% of the homes (4,689) are piped
  • 11% of the homes (1,518) are on truck haul
  • 57% of the homes (8,217) are serviced by shootouts and individual septics
  • 79 homes reported to have no service.

The majority of the homes (63) without service are within one First Nation community.

The following table provides an overview of the wastewater systems by system classification and treatment type.

Table 2.2 - Wastewater Overview

Table 2.2 - Wastewater Overview: System Classification
System Classification No. % of Total
None 1 1%
Small System 6 9%
Level I 51 70%
Level II 1 1%
Level III 1 1%
MTA 13 18%
Table 2.2 - Wastewater Overview: Treatment Type
Treatment Type No. % of Total
Aerated Lagoon 2 3%
Facultative Lagoon 52 71%
Mechanical Treatment 3 4%
MTA 13 18%
Other 2 3%
Septic System 1 1%

For the systems listed as "None" and "Other":

  • "None" refers to a community that has decommissioned an old mechanical treatment plant and is currently constructing a new sewage lagoon
  • "Other" refers to one community that has a holding tank for ten homes and to another community that has a septic system with an unknown tile-field location.

3.0 Preliminary Results and Trends

3.1 Per Capita Consumption and Plant Capacity

Historical flow records were not available for the First Nations serviced by a Municipal Type Agreement or for approximately 35% of the First Nation communal water systems. For these First Nations, an average per capita demand of 325 L/c/d for piped and 90 L/c/d for trucked water were used. The average per capita demand for all systems ranged from 18 L/c/d to 842 L/c/d, with an average per capita demand of approximately 236 L/c/d.

For the 82 water systems, 31 are piped only, and the remaining 51 systems either have a combination of trucked and piped or they are all trucked. A per capita consumption of 90 L/c/d was used to calculate the demand for dwellings serviced by truck haul unless there was actual flow data available. This resulted in a lower per capita demand for these systems than for systems that were all piped.

For the 31 systems that were piped only, the average per capita demand ranged from 161 L/c/d to 842 L/c/d, with an average per capita demand of approximately 344 L/c/d. [Note 1]

The range of per capita flow is outlined in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 - Range of Per Capita Water Usage Rates
  No. of systems 2009
Less than 250 L/c/d 42
250 L/c/d to 375 L/c/d 34
Greater than 375 L/c/d 6

Historical flow data for wastewater was not available for most of the sewage systems. Therefore, to evaluate the ability of the existing infrastructure to meet current and projected needs, an average daily flow was calculated based on the actual or assumed per capita water consumption, plus an infiltration allowance of 90 L/c/d for piped flow.

The following figure provides a summary of the plant capacities for the 44 First Nations:

  • over capacity: the existing system is unable to meet the current needs
  • at capacity: the existing system is able to meet the current needs
  • available capacity: the existing system has sufficient capacity to meet more than the current needs
  • not enough data: insufficient data was available to determine the actual system capacity.

Figure 3.1 - Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities

Figure 3.1 - Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities

Description of Figure 3.1 – Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities

This graph illustrates the treatment capacities of water and wastewater systems for First Nations communities in Alberta. There are four categories: over capacity; at capacity; available capacity; and not enough data.

Water Systems

  • 7 water treatment systems (8.5 percent of the total number of water treatment systems) are operating over their estimated capacities.
  • 9 water systems (almost 11 percent of the total number of water treatment systems) are operating at their estimated capacities.
  • 63 water systems (almost 77 percent of the total number of water treatment systems) have available operating capacity.
  • There is not enough data to assess the operating capacities of 3 water systems (almost 4 percent of the total number of water treatment systems).

Wastewater Systems

  • 25 wastewater treatment systems (almost 33 percent of the total number of wastewater treatment systems) are operating over their estimated capacities.
  • 2 wastewater treatment systems (almost 3 percent of the total number of wastewater treatment systems) are operating at estimated capacities.
  • 37 wastewater treatment systems (almost 49 percent of the total number of wastewater treatment systems) have available capacity.
  • There is not enough data to assess the operating capacities of 9 of the wastewater treatment systems (almost 12 percent of the total number of wastewater treatment systems).

The data shows that 16 water systems and 27 wastewater systems are operating at or beyond their estimated capacities. For the plants identified as over capacity, the per capita demand is within typical values for the region, according to available records.

3.2 Distribution and Collection

The household size for the 44 First Nations ranges from 2.5 to 7.9 people per unit (ppu), with an average of 4.8 ppu. [Note 2] The total number of piped connections in the region is 5,490 for water and 4,689 for wastewater. The average length of watermain per connection is approximately 136 m and the average length of sewermain per connection is approximately 54 m.

As the table and figures below illustrate, there is no real correlation between the size of the community and the length of pipe per connection. The length of the watermain per connection is much greater than the length of the sanitary main per connection. This difference is likely because some communities provide only piped water service, so the homes are further apart to allow for the installation of individual sewage systems. It should also be noted that, in some cases, the data provided for the watermain includes dedicated transmission main lengths (no service connections) and non-distribution mains (i.e. intake pipes, raw water pipes). As a result, the average length per connection is inflated, particularly in smaller communities where the additional pipe length is spread over a smaller number of connections.

The table below indicates the number of water and wastewater systems that have pipe lengths above and below 30 m/connection. It should be noted that this information was not available for all of the systems.

Table 3.2 - Average Water Distribution and Wastewater Collection Pipe Lengths
  Watermain Sewer
Average m/connection 136 54
No. of systems with pipe lengths above 30 m/connection 65 52
No. of systems with pipe lengths below 30 m/connection 3 10

Figure 3.2 - Water Distribution: Average Pipe Length per Connection

Figure 3.2 - Water Distribution: Average Pipe Length per Connection

Description of Figure 3.2 - Water Distribution: Average Pipe Length per Connection

This scatterplot graph illustrates the relationship between the length per connection of water distribution pipes and the population size of the community that is being serviced in First Nations communities in Alberta. There is no real correlation between the size of the community and the length of pipe per connection.

The vast majority of water systems have an average pipe length per connection pipe above 30 meters per connection. Most of the communities have a population of less than 2000 people.

Figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection

Figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection

Description of Figure 3.3 – Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection

This scatterplot graph illustrates the relationship between the length per connection of wastewater collection (sewer) pipes and the population size of the community that is being serviced for First Nations communities in Alberta.There is no real correlation between the size of the community and the length of pipe per connection.

The majority of the systems have an average pipe length per connection that is above 30 meters per connection. Most of the communities being serviced have a population of less than 1000 people.

3.3 Water Risk Evaluation

A risk assessment has been completed for each water system according to the INAC Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines. Each facility is ranked in risk according to the following categories: Water Source, Design, Operation (and Maintenance), Reporting and Operators. The risk levels of all five categories are then used to determine the overall risk for the system.

Each of the five risk categories, as well as the overall risk level, is ranked numerically from 1 to 10. Low, medium and high risks are defined as follows:

  • Low Risk (1.0 to 4.0): These are systems that operate with minor deficiencies. Low-risk systems usually meet the water quality parameters that are specified by the appropriate Canadian Guidelines for drinking water (in particular, the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ)).
  • Medium Risk (4.1 to 7.0): These are systems with deficiencies, which — individually or combined — pose a medium risk to the quality of water and to human health. These systems do not generally require immediate action, but the deficiencies should be corrected to avoid future problems.
  • High Risk (7.1 to 10.0): These are systems with major deficiencies, which — individually or combined — pose a high risk to the quality of water. These deficiencies may lead to potential health and safety or environmental concerns. They could also result in water quality advisories against drinking the water (such as, but not limited to, boil water advisories), repetitive non-compliance with guidelines, and inadequate water supplies. Once systems are classified under this category, regions and First Nations must take immediate corrective action to minimize or eliminate deficiencies.

Regional Risk Summary:

Of the 82 water systems inspected:

  • 21 are categorized as high overall risk
  • 48 are categorized as medium overall risk
  • 13 are categorized as low overall risk.

The 13 low-risk systems include 11 Municipal Type Agreement systems, 1 surface water system and 1 GUDI system.

Neighbouring municipalities operate and maintain all of the Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) treatment systems and 10 of the 25 MTA distribution systems. The First Nations operate and maintain the distribution system of the remaining 15 MTA systems.

The table in Appendix E.1 summarizes the correlation between the component risk and the overall risk. In general, MTA systems have the lowest risk, followed by groundwater under the direct influence (GUDI) of surface water systems, then surface water systems, and, finally, groundwater systems.

Figure 3.4 provides a geographical representation of the final risk for the water systems that were inspected.

3.3.1 Overall System Risk by Source

The following table summarizes the overall system risk by water source. 41% of groundwater systems, 30% of surface water systems and 8% of MTA's were high risk. None of the GUDI systems were classified as high risk. Typically for MTA's, it is assumed that the municipality is operating their system in accordance with provincial legislation and therefore would have a low risk water supply. For the Alberta Region, however, there were a number of MTA water supplies where the treated water did not meet the GCDWQ, which resulted in a higher risk score. 20% of GUDI systems, 44% of MTA's and 4% of surface water systems were low risk. None of the groundwater systems were classified as low risk.

Table 3.3 - Summary of Overall Risk Levels by Water Source
Overall Risk Level Groundwater GUDI SurfaceWater MTA Total
High 12 0 7 2 21
Medium 17 4 15 12 48
Low 0 1 1 11 13
Total 29 5 23 25 82

3.3.2 Overall System Risk by Treatment Classification

The following table summarizes the overall system risk by the classification level of the treatment system. There is no clear pattern between the system classification level and the overall system risk, however, it is noted that Small and Level I systems have a medium and a high overall risk, whereas Level II and Level III systems have some low risk systems and some medium and high-risk systems.

Table 3.4 - Summary of Overall Risk Levels by Treatment System Classification
Overall Risk Level None Small System Level I Level II Level III MTA Total
High 0 3 8 3 5 2 21
Medium 2 4 10 15 5 12 48
Low 0 0 0 1 1 11 13
Total 2 7 18 19 11 25 82

Figure 3.4 - Alberta Water System Risk

Figure 3.4 - Alberta Water System Risk

Description of Figure 3.4 – Alberta Water System Risk

This image provides a map of the location of high, medium, and low-risk water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta. High-risk systems are identified with a red dot, medium-risk systems are identified with a yellow dot, and low-risk systems are identified with a green dot.

There is also a pie chart that illustrates the number and percentage of water systems that are high, medium, and low risk.

There are a total of 82 water systems. 21 water systems (or 26 percent of the total number of systems) are high-risk systems. 48 water systems (or 59 percent of the total number of systems) are medium-risk systems. 13 water systems (or 15 percent of the total number of systems) are low-risk systems.

Figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification

Figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification

Description of Figure 3.5 – Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification

This graph illustrates the risk profile of water treatment systems in First Nations communities in Alberta by treatment system classification. It illustrates what percentage of each type of system is high, medium and low risk. It also shows the mean overall risk level by treatment classification.

There are six treatment classifications: None; Small System; Level I; Level II; Level II; and MTA (Municipal Type Agreement).

None

  • The mean overall risk level for treatment systems classified as "None" is 6.30.
  • 100 percent of the systems classified as "None" are medium-risk systems.

Small Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Small Systems is 6.60.
  • 57 percent of the Small Systems are medium risk, and 43 percent of the Small Systems are high risk.

Level I Systems

  • The mean overall risk for the Level I Systems is 6.61.
  • 56 percent of the Level I Systems are medium risk and 44 percent of the Level I Systems are high risk.

Level II Systems

  • The overall risk level for Level II Systems is 5.39.
  • 5 percent of Level II Systems are low risk, 79 percent of Level II Systems are medium risk, and 16 percent of Level II Systems are high risk.

Level III Systems

  • The overall risk level for Level III Systems is 6.65.
  • 9 percent of Level III Systems are low risk, 46 percent of Level III Systems are medium risk, and 45 percent of Level III Systems are high risk.

MTA Systems

  • The overall risk level for MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems is 4.45.
  • 44 percent of MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems are low risk, 48 percent of MTA Systems are medium risk, and 8 percent of MTA systems are high risk.

3.3.3 Overall Risk by Number of Connections

In the Alberta region, approximately 70% of systems serving more than 100 connections are medium-risk systems and the remaining systems are fairly evenly split between high and low risk. For systems serving less than 100 connections, 50% of the systems are medium risk, 35% of the systems are high risk with the remaining 15% are low risk.

3.3.4 Component Risks: Water

The overall risk is comprised of five component risks: water source, design, operation, reporting and operator. Each of these component risk factors is discussed below.

Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

Description of Figure 3.6 – Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

This graph illustrates the mean risk score associated with each type of risk component for all water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

  • The overall risk level associated with the source component is 5.7.
  • The overall risk level associated with the design component is 5.8.
  • The overall risk level associated with the operation component is 6.6.
  • The overall risk level associated with the reporting component is 5.8.
  • The overall risk level associated with the operator component is 2.9.
Data for Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
  Source Design Operation Reporting Operator
Risk 5.7 5.8 6.6 5.8 2.9
Minimum 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Maximum 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Std. Dev. 3.5 2.7 2.5 3.7 2.8

3.3.5 Component Risk - Water: Source

The risk associated with the source has a mean score of 5.7 overall. The mean source risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 5.9
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 9.2
  • surface water at 9.5
  • Municipal Type Agreement at 1.3.

The data suggest that systems that rely on surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) usually have a higher component risk score than systems that rely on groundwater. The risk formula automatically assigns a higher base risk to these types of systems.

The following figure identifies drivers contributing to source risk scores.

Figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers

Figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.7 – Source Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to water source risk in First Nations communities in Alberta. There are four key risk drivers: No Source Water Plan; Deterioration of Water Quality Over Time; Risk of Contamination; and Insufficient Capacity to Meet Future Requirements.

  • There is no Source Water Protection Plan for 100 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.
  • 21 percent of the water systems have deteriorated over time.
  • There is a risk of contamination for 61 percent of the water systems.
  • There is insufficient capacity to meet future needs for 39 percent of the water systems.

3.3.6 Component Risk - Water: Design

The risk associated with the design has a mean score of 5.8 overall. The mean design risk score by type of source is:

  • Groundwater at 6.6
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 3.8
  • surface water at 6.2
  • Municipal Type Agreement at 5.0.

Groundwater systems have a higher design risk associated with them because they generally lack the proper treatment to meet aesthetic and operational guidelines. Generally, a groundwater system has an increased design risk if it does not have disinfection systems in place, or if there is insufficient contact time to ensure that the chlorination process is adequate. As part of the multi-barrier approach to water treatment, chlorination is now required for all water systems.

A higher risk for surface water sources and MTA's was typically due to MAC exceedances in the treated water or distribution system for disinfection by-products.

There are several key drivers of design risk in the region, including:

  • failure to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ)
  • exceeding the GCDWQ Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for bacteria
  • no disinfection system in place or a disinfection system that is not being used
  • no appropriate treatment in place to meet INAC's Protocol requirements
  • problems with system reliability
  • systems approaching or exceeding design capacity
  • systems not having appropriate waste management.

Figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers

Figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.8 – Design Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the design risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

There are eight key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Bacteriologial MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) due to Design;
  • Disinfection System Not in Place;
  • Failure to Meet GCDWQ (Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality) due to Design;
  • Inappropriate Treatment Processes;
  • Poor System Reliability;
  • No Design Flexibility;
  • Exceeds 75 percent Capacity; and
  • Inappropriate Waste Management.

The risk drivers are in red and green. The risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores. Failure to Meet Bacteriological MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) due to Design is the only risk driver in red. The rest of the risk drivers are in green.

  • 4 percent of the water systems failed to meet the Maximum Allowable Concentration of bacteria, which would result in these systems being given a high-risk score. These systems automatically received a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores.
  • There is no disinfection system in place for 4 percent of the water systems.
  • 51 percent of the water systems failed to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality due to the design.
  • There are inappropriate treatment processes for 37 percent of the water systems.
  • 49 percent of the water systems have poor system reliability.
  • There is no design flexibility for 28 percent of the water systems.
  • 49 percent of the water systems exceed 75 percent of their capacity.
  • 25 percent of the water systems have inappropriate waste management.

It should be noted that the drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high risk score, regardless of all of the other component risk scores.

3.3.7 Component Risk - Water: Operation

The risk associated with operation has a mean score of 6.6 overall. The mean operation risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 7.5
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 4.8
  • surface water at 6.3
  • Municipal Type Agreement at 6.3.

Areas that increased risk included operators not maintaining records, not having or not using approved Operation & Maintenance manuals, and not scheduling and performing maintenance activities. Increased effort focused on these areas would result in lowering both the component and the overall risk scores.

There are several key drivers of operation risk for water systems in the region, including:

  • failure to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ)
  • exceeding the GCDWQ Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for bacteria
  • maintenance logs being inadequately maintained
  • lack of general system maintenance
  • Emergency Response Plan not in place or not in use
  • Operation & Maintenance manual not available or not in use.

Figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers

Figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.9 – Operations Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

There are 7 key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Bacteriological MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) Due to Operations;
  • Failure to Meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ) Due to Operations;
  • Inadequate Operation Logs;
  • Inadequate Maintenance Logs;
  • Maintenance Not Adequately Performed;
  • Emergency Response Plan Not Available for Use; and
  • Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Manual Not Available or Not in Use.

Risk drivers are in red and green. The risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores. Failure to Meet Bacteriological Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) due to Operations is the only risk driver in red. The rest of the risk drivers are in green.

  • 16 percent of the water systems failed to meet the Maximum Allowable Concentration of bacteria due to operations. This is a red risk driver, so these systems would automatically be assigned a high-risk score.
  • 51 percent of the water systems failed to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality due to the operations.
  • 7 percent of the water systems have inadequate operation logs.
  • 72 percent of the water systems have inadequate maintenance logs.
  • Maintenance is not being adequately performed for 58 percent of the water systems.
  • There is no Emergency Response Plan in place for 89 percent of the water systems.
  • An Operation & Maintenance manual is not available or not in use for 81 percent of the water systems.

Figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings - Water Systems Operational Practices

Figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings - Water Systems Operational Practices

Description of Figure 3.10 – Summary of Findings – Water Systems Operational Practices

This graph identifies which operational practices are currently being performed, and which operational practices are not being performed for water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

Line Flushing

  • 73 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta practice line flushing.
  • 27 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta do not practice line flushing.

Line Swabbing

  • 100 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta practice line swabbing.

Hydrant Flushing

  • 80 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta practice hydrant flushing.
  • 20 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta do not practice hydrant flushing.

Reservoir Cleaning

  • 45 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta practice reservoir cleaning.
  • 55 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta do not practice reservoir cleaning.

Fire Pump Tests

  • 50 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta perform fire pump tests.
  • 50 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta do not perform fire pump tests.

SOPs On site

  • 67 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have Standard Operating Procedures on site.
  • 33 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta do not have Standard Operating Procedures on site.

Maintenance Scheduled and Performed

  • 55 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta schedule and perform maintenance.
  • 45 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta do not schedule and perform maintenance.

Repair and Upgrade Records

  • 57 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta keep records of repairs and upgrades.
  • 43 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta do not keep records of repairs and upgrades.

O & M Efforts Acceptable

  • Operation and maintenance efforts are acceptable for 93 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.
  • Operation and maintenance efforts are not acceptable for 7 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

All Components Working

  • All components are working for 51 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.
  • Not all components are working for 49 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

One or more major components are not working for approximately 49% of the systems. Although the operators for approximately 80% of systems undertake line and hydrant flushing, none swab watermain, approximately 55% do not clean reservoirs and approximately 50% do not test fire pumps. Records of system maintenance and repairs were available for only 57% of the systems.

3.3.8 Component Risk - Water: Reporting

The risk associated with reporting has a mean score of 5.8 overall. The risk score of 3.5 for Municipal Type Agreement systems reflects the minimal reporting required for these type of systems. The mean reporting risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 7.9
  • groundwater under the influence of surface water (GUDI) at 4.4
  • surface water at 5.8
  • Municipal Type Agreements at 3.5.

Poor record keeping and inconsistent records are the main drivers for reporting risk for all systems (77% and 47%). For systems with a Supervisory Data Acquisition (SCADA) system in place, an additional driver is that the instruments are not being calibrated to ensure that the information being recorded is accurate (32%).

An important consideration is that the systems were evaluated based on the requirements for monitoring and reporting as set out in INAC's Protocol. Typically, the monitoring and reporting being undertaken by the operators does not meet these requirements. Operator awareness and training could have a significant impact on these risk scores.

Figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers

Figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.11 – Reporting Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the main drivers that contribute to reporting risks for water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta. There are three key risk drivers: Inconsistent Records, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) not Calibrated and Confirmed Accurate; and Poor Records for Key Parameters.

  • 47 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have inconsistent records.
  • For 77 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, there are poor records for key parameters.
  • For 32 percent of water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADAs) are not calibrated and confirmed to be accurate.

3.3.9 Component Risk - Water: Operator

The risk associated with the operation has a mean score of 2.9 overall. Operator risk had the lowest overall component risk score for all types of systems. In the Alberta region, all but two of the systems have a primary operator and 75% of the systems have a secondary operator. Although more complicated systems (based on treatment classification) require an operator with a higher level of training, the risk associated with the operator is the highest for groundwater systems, which are not complicated systems. However, groundwater systems likely have the highest operator risk because operators are not being trained or certified. The mean operator risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 4.4
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 1.4
  • surface water at 2.7
  • Municipal Type Agreement at 1.6.

The extent to which existing systems have fully certified primary and backup operators is presented in Table 3.5. Of the 55 systems that require a certified operator for the water treatment system, 64% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 87% did not have a fully certified backup operator. Of the 69 systems that require a certified operator for the distribution system, 49% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 74% did not have a fully certified backup operator.

Table 3.5 - Water: Operator Status for Alberta Region
  Primary Operator Backup Operator
Treatment Distribution Treatment Distribution
No. of Systems Currently Without an Operator 2 3 14 20
No. of Systems with Operator with No Certification 17 27 16 20
No. of Systems with Operator Certified but not to the Required Level of the System 16 4 18 11
No. of Systems with Operator with Adequate Certification 20 35 7 18
No. of Systems Not Requiring Operators with Certification 27 13 27 13
Total No. of Systems 82 82 82 82

Those factors which frequently contribute to increased operator risk are identified in Figure 3.12. A lack of certification, lack of training and the lack of primary or backup operator are common drivers that increase operator risk.

Figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers

Figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.12 – Operator Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the main drivers that contribute to the operator risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

There are 5 key risk drivers:

  • No Primary Operator and/or Primary Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification
  • Primary Operator Uncertified and/or Insufficient Experience and Training for the Distribution System
  • Primary Operator Not Enrolled in Training
  • No Backup Operator and/or Backup Operator with Not Certified to Treatment System Classification
  • No Access to Fully Trained Operator.
  • For 64 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, there is no primary operator and/or the primary operator is not certified to the treatment classification.
  • For 45 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the primary operator is uncertified and/or has insufficient training for the distribution system.
  • For 37 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the primary operator is not enrolled in training.
  • For 55 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, there is no backup operator and/or the backup operator is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • 7 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have no access to a fully-trained operator.

3.4 Wastewater Risk Evaluation

A risk assessment was completed a risk assessment for each wastewater system according to INAC's Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines. The risk of each wastewater facility is ranked according to the following categories: effluent receiver, design, operation and maintenance, reporting, and operator. The overall risk score reflects a weighted average of risk scores under the individual categories.

Each of the five risk categories is ranked numerically from 1 to 10, as is the overall risk level of the entire system. A risk ranking of 1.0 to 4.0 represents a low risk, a risk ranking of 4.1 to 7.0 represents a medium risk and a risk of 7.1 to 10.0 represents a high risk.

Of the 73 wastewater systems inspected:

  • 12 are categorized as high overall risk
  • 44 are categorized as medium overall risk
  • 17 systems are categorized as low risk.

Appendix E.2 provides a table that summarizes the correlation between component risk and overall risk.

Figure 3.13 provides a geographical representation of the final risk for the wastewater systems that were inspected.

Figure 3.13 - Alberta Wastewater System Risk

Figure 3.13 - Alberta Wastewater System Risk

Description of Figure 3.13 – Alberta Wastewater System Risk

This image provides a map of the location of high-, medium-, and low-risk wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta. High-risk systems are identified with a red dot, medium-risk systems are identified with a yellow dot, and low-risk systems are identified with a green dot.

The map also includes a pie chart that illustrates the number and percentage of high-, medium-, and low-risk systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

There are a total of 73 wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta. Of these,

  • 12 systems are high risk, which represents 17 percent of the total number of systems.
  • 44 systems are medium risk, which represents 60 percent of the total number of systems.
  • 17 systems are low risk, which represents 23 percent of the total number of systems.

3.4.1 Overall System Risk by Treatment Classification

The following table demonstrates the correlation between the overall system risk and the classification level of the treatment system. In the Alberta region, the majority of the systems are Level I. There is only one Level II system and one Level III system, and there are six Small Systems. For Municipal Type Agreements, it is assumed that the municipality operates the system in accordance with provincial legislation, which results in a low-risk sewage receiver. 10 of the 13 Municipal Type Agreement systems are low risk.

There does not appear to be a correlation between the overall risk and the classification level in the Alberta region. Although treatment complexity increases from Small System to Level III, this increase does not appear to be a driver for overall system risk.

Figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification

Figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification

Description of Figure 3.14 – Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification

This graph illustrates the relationship between the mean overall system risk and the treatment system classification level for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta. It also illustrates the percentage of low, medium, and high overall risk scores by system type.

Small Systems

  • The mean overall risk level of Small Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta is 5.83.
  • 17 percent of Small Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a high overall risk level.
  • 83 percent of Small Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a medium overall risk level.

Level I Systems

  • The mean overall risk level of Level I Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta is 5.73.
  • 14 percent of Level I Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a low overall risk level.
  • 66 percent of Level I Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a medium overall risk level.
  • 20 percent of Level I Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a high overall risk level.

Level II Systems

  • The mean overall risk level of Level II Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta is 10.0.
  • 100 percent of the Level II Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a high overall risk.

Level III Systems

  • The mean overall risk level of Level III Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta is 4.1.
  • 100 percent of Level III Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a medium overall risk.

MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems

  • The mean overall risk level of MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta is 2.52.
  • 23 percent of MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a medium overall risk.
  • 77 percent of MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a low overall risk.

None

  • The mean overall risk level of systems classified as "None" in First Nations communities in Alberta is 4.4
  • 100 percent of systems classified as "None" in First Nations communities in Alberta have a medium overall risk.

3.4.2 Overall System Risk by Number of Connections

In the Alberta region, there is no clear pattern between the overall system risk and the number of connections.

3.4.3 Component Risks: Wastewater

The overall risk is comprised of five component risks: effluent receiver, design, operation, reporting and operators. Each of these component risk factors are discussed below.

Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

Description of Figure 3.15 – Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

The graph shows the mean risk score for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta by the type of risk component. There are five risk components: effluent; design; operation; reporting; and operator.

  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the risk associated with the effluent component has a mean score of 4.3.
  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the risk associated with the design component has a mean score of 4.6.
  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the risk associated with the operation component has a mean score of 7.3.
  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the risk associated with the reporting component has a mean score of 6.1.
  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the risk associated with the operator component has a mean score of 3.6.
Data for Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
  Effluent Design Operation Reporting Operator
Risk 4.3 4.6 7.3 6.1 3.6
Minimum 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Maximum 10.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Std. Dev. 2.8 2.0 2.2 4.3 3.2

3.4.4 Component Risk - Wastewater: Effluent Receiver

The risk associated with the effluent receiver has a mean risk score of 4.3 and a fairly even distribution of the risk scores.

There are two key drivers of this risk component:

  • the receiving environment
  • the extent to which the receiver is required for other human uses, such as fishing, recreation or drinking water.

Figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers

Figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.16 – Effluent Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the effluent risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.There are four key risk drivers:

  • High-Risk Effluent Receiver;
  • Possible Species at Risk in the Receiving Environment;
  • Nearby Human Use of the Receiving Environment; and
  • Receiving Environment is a Sensitive Area.
  • 44 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a high-risk effluent receiver.
  • 19 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta possibly have species at risk in the receiving environment.
  • There is human use nearby the receiving environment for 26 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.
  • For 1 percent of the of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the receiving environment is a sensitive area.

3.4.5 Component Risk - Wastewater: Design

The risk associated with the design has a mean score of 4.6. The design risk has the third lowest mean component score; however, excluding Municipal Type Agreement systems, 37 of the systems have a high- or medium-risk score and 23 have a low-risk score. In addition, all but one of the systems that have a high design risk also is a high overall risk system.

There are several key drivers of the design component risk scores in the region, including:

  • inappropriate treatment processes
  • problems with system reliability
  • system lacks the flexibility to meet future growth
  • system has exceeded the design capacity
  • inappropriate waste management.

Figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers

Figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.17 – Design Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the design risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

There are several key drivers that contribute to the design risk:

  • Design-Related Failure to meet the Guidelines;
  • Inappropriate Treatment Processes;
  • Poor System Reliability;
  • No Design Flexibility;
  • Exceeds 75 percent of Capacity;
  • Inappropriate Waste Management;
  • Does Not Meet Applicable Design Standards;
  • Plant/System (Workplace) Considered Dangerous.
  • 3 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have a design-related failure to meet guidelines.
  • 12 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have inappropriate treatment processes.
  • 79 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have poor system reliability.
  • 27 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have no design flexibility.
  • 49 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta exceed 75 percent of their estimated capacities.
  • 63 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have inappropriate waste management processes.
  • 12 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta do not meet applicable design standards.
  • For 3 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the plant or system (the workplace) is considered to be dangerous.

3.4.6 Component Risk - Wastewater: Operation

The risk associated with the operation has a mean score of 7.3. Most of the wastewater systems have a medium- or high-risk score. As a result, operation is identified as an area of opportunity for increased risk-mitigation efforts.

There are several key drivers of the operation risk in the region, including:

  • failure to meet Federal Effluent Guidelines
  • inadequate maintenance logs
  • general maintenance not being adequately performed
  • Emergency Response Plans not in place or not being used
  • Operation & Maintenance manuals not available or not being used.

Figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers

Figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.18 – Operation Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for wastewater in First Nations communities in Alberta. There are five key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Federal Effluent Quality Guidelines Due to Operations;
  • Inadequate Maintenance Logs;
  • Maintenance Not Adequately Performed;
  • Emergency Response Plan Not Available or Not in Place; and
  • Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Manual Not Available or Not in Use.
  • 7 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta fail to meet effluent quality guidelines due to operations.
  • 81 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have inadequate maintenance logs.
  • Maintenance is not being performed adequately for 63 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.
  • An Emergency Response Plan is not available or is not in use for 81 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.
  • An Operation and Maintenance (O & M) manual is not available or not in use for 86 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.

3.4.7 Component Risk - Wastewater: Reporting

The risk associated with reporting has a mean score of 6.1. This component score assesses the maintenance of effluent-testing and system-monitoring records. Poor record keeping is a significant factor in raising the overall risk ranking for many communities in this region. 32 systems have a low-risk score; 2 systems have a medium-risk score and 39 systems have a high-risk score.

The key drivers of the reporting risk in the region are:

  • inconsistent record keeping
  • inconsistent records for key parameters.

Figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers

Figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.19 – Reporting Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the reporting risk for wastewater in First Nations communities in Alberta. There are three key reporting risk drivers:

  • Inconsistent Records;
  • Poor Records for Key Parameters; and
  • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System not Calibrated and Confirmed Accurate.
  • There are inconsistent records for 55 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.
  • There are poor records for key parameters for 49 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta.
  • For 1 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System is not calibrated and confirmed to be accurate.

3.4.8 Component Risk - Wastewater: Operator

The risk associated with the operator has a mean score of 3.6. Operator risk is determined by whether or not the operators have adequate certification. Only 12 systems have a high-risk level because operators are not certified adequately and/or because a backup operator is not available. All 13 of the Municipal Type Agreement systems have a low operator risk. Of the remaining 60 systems, 12 are high risk, 15 are medium risk and 33 are low risk.

The extent to which existing wastewater systems have fully certified primary and backup operators is presented in Table 3.6. Of the 59 systems which require a certified operator for the wastewater treatment system, 63% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 83% did not have a fully certified backup operator. Of the 66 systems which require a certified operator for the collection system, 61% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 73% did not have a fully certified backup operator.

To ensure that the component risk remains low, it is important to ensure that all operators are enrolled in training and becoming certified to the level of their respective treatment systems.

Table 3.6 - Wastewater: Operator Status for Alberta Region
  Primary Operator Backup Operator
Treatment Collection Treatment Collection
No. of Systems Currently Without an Operator 3 4 22 25
No. of Systems with Operator with No Certification 28 30 15 18
No. of Systems with Operator Certified but not to the Required Level of the System 6 6 12 5
No. of Systems with Operator with Adequate Certification 22 26 10 18
No. of Systems Not Requiring Operators with Certification 14 7 14 7
Total No. of Systems 73 73 73 73

Those factors which frequently contribute to increased wastewater operator risk are identified in Figure 3.20. A lack of certification, lack of training and the lack of primary or backup operator are common drivers that increase operator risk.

Figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers

Figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers

Description of Figure 3.20 – Operators Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for wastewater in First Nations communities in Alberta. There are five key risk drivers:

  • No Primary Operator and/or Primary Operator not Certified to the Treatment System Classification;
  • Primary Operator Uncertified and/or has Insufficient Trainng/Experience for Collection System;
  • Primary Operator Not Enrolled in Training;
  • No Backup Operator and/or Backup Operator not Certified to Treatment System Classification; and
  • No Access to Fully Trained Operator.
  • 63 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have no primary operator and/or have a primary operator who is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • For 55 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the primary operator is uncertified and/or has insufficient training/experience for the collection system.
  • For 55 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta, the primary operator is not enrolled in training.
  • 63 percent wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have no backup operator and/or the backup operator is not certified to the appropriate level for the treatment system classification.
  • 12 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta have no access to a fully trained operator.

3.5 Plans

Information was collected regarding the availability of various documents, including Source Water Protection Plans (SWPP), Maintenance Management Plans (MMP), and Emergency Response Plans (ERP).

The following tables provide a summary of the percentages of First Nations that have plans in place:

Table 3.7 - Plans Summary: Water
Source Percentage of Water Systems that have a (an)...
Source Water Protection Plan Maintenance Management Plan Emergency Response Plan
Groundwater 0% 24% 7%
Groundwater GUDI 0% 20% 20%
MTA N/A 12% 12%
Surface Water 0% 35% 13%
Overall 0% 23% 11%
Table 3.8 - Plans Summary: Wastewater
Percentage of Wastewater Systems that have a (an)…
Maintenance Management Plan Emergency Response Plan
10% 19%

3.5.1 Source Water Protection Plan (SWPP)

Source water protection planning is one component in a multi-barrier approach to providing safe drinking water. Source Water Protection Plans seek to identify threats to the water source. They also establish policies and practices to prevent contamination of the water source and to ensure that the water service provider is equipped to take corrective action in the event of a contamination. Source water protection is appropriate for both groundwater and surface water sources.

For the Alberta region, there are no Source Water Protection Plans in place.

3.5.2 Maintenance Management Plans (MMP)

Maintenance Management Plans are intended to improve the effectiveness of maintenance activities. They plan, schedule, and document preventative maintenance activities, and they document unscheduled maintenance. The plans represent a change from reactive to proactive thinking, and when executed properly, they optimize maintenance spending, minimize service disruption and extend asset life.

In the Alberta region, 24% of groundwater systems, 20% of groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) systems, and 35% of surface water systems have a Maintenance Management Plan in place. For wastewater systems, 10% of the systems have a Maintenance Management Plan in place. Please note: the above statistics do not include Municipal Type Agreements.

3.5.3 Emergency Response Plans (ERP)

Emergency Response Plans are intended to be a quick reference to assist operators and other stakeholders in managing and in responding to emergency situations. Emergency Response Plans should be in place for both water and wastewater systems. They include key contact information for those who should be notified and who may be of assistance in case of emergency (agencies, contractors, suppliers, etc.), and they provide standard communication and response protocols. Emergency Response Plans identify recommended corrective actions for "foreseeable" emergencies, as well as methodologies for addressing unforeseen situations. They are essentially the last potential "barrier" in a multi-barrier approach to protecting the drinking water supply and the natural environment, and they provide the last opportunity to mitigate damages.

11% of the water systems and 19% of the wastewater systems have an Emergency Response Plan in place. The First Nations Technical Services Advisory Group's Circuit Rider Trainers have been assisting communities by providing a generic template for an Emergency Response Plan that can be modified to suit the needs of individual communities.

4.0 Cost Analysis

4.1 Upgrade to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water

In 2006, INAC began to develop a series of Protocol documents for centralised and decentralised water and wastewater systems in First Nations communities. The Protocols contain standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of these systems.

One of the objectives of this study was to review the existing water and wastewater infrastructure and to identify the potential upgrade costs to meet INAC's Protocols, and federal and provincial guidelines, standards, and regulations. The total estimated construction cost for water system upgrades to meet the INAC Protocol is $103.6 million.

Table 4.1 provides a breakdown of the estimated total capital costs. A separate line item is included for engineering and contigency.

Figure 4.1 provides a comparison graph of each of the categories.

Table 4.1 - Estimated Total Construction Costs: Water
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Building $3,239,500 $230,000 $1,968,500
Distribution $22,020,000 $5,064,000 $6,300,000
Equipment $997,900 $980,700 $994,600
Additional Fire Pumps $1,340,000 $0 $1,340,000
Monitoring Equipment $835,250 $512,750 $885,250
Source $7,779,550 $3,473,000 $7,235,050
Storage & Pumping $3,561,000 $2,847,500 $3,506,000
Treatment $37,425,600 $24,273,500 $37,420,100
Standby Power $5,695,000 $75,000 $5,505,000
Engineering & Contingencies $20,735,000 $9,390,250 $16,287,000
Construction Total Estimate $103,628,800 $46,846,700 $81,441,500

There are 9 water systems that may potentially have groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) supplies. Upgrade costs for these systems are estimated assuming that they will prove to be secure groundwater supplies and recommendations for GUDI studies are identified to confirm this.

If the GUDI studies indicate that these supplies should be considered to be surface water rather than groundwater, then additional upgrade requirements will be necessary for these systems to meet INAC's Protocols. It is estimated that, depending on system capacity and site indices, an additional $1.0 to 2.5 million will be required for each system that needs to be upgraded to surface-water treatment.

Figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water ($ - M)

Figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water ($ - M)

Description of Figure 4.1 – Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water ($- M)

This pie chart provides a breakdown (in millions of dollars) of the estimated construction costs of the upgrades that are required for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols. The costs are divided into ten categories:

  • Additional Fire Pumps;
  • Building;
  • Distribution;
  • Engineering & Contingencies;
  • Equipment;
  • Monitoring Equipment;
  • Source;
  • Standby Power;
  • Storage & Pumping; and
  • Treatment.
  • The cost of the additional fire pumps that are required for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 1.3 million dollars.
  • The building cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 3.2 million dollars.
  • The distribution cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 22 million dollars.
  • The cost for engineering and contingencies for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 20.7 million dollars.
  • The equipment cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 1 million dollars.
  • The cost for monitoring equipment for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 0.8 million dollars.
  • The source cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 7.8 million dollars.
  • The standby power cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 5.7 million dollars.
  • The storage and pumping cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 3.6 million dollars.
  • The treatment cost for water systems to meet INAC's Protocols is 37.4 million dollars.

Treatment, Distribution and Source are the construction categories with the highest cumulative costs to meet upgrades.

Treatment costs include:

  • Providing spare chemical feed equipment.
  • Providing spare disinfection equipment.
  • Providing additional filter trains.
  • Providing secondary containment for treatment chemicals.
  • Providing specific treatment equipment (i.e. arsenic, manganese, etc.).
  • Providing contact piping.
  • Providing surge suppression/uninterruptible power supplies for critical electronic equipment.
  • Upgrading the capacity of existing water treatment plant.

Distribution costs include:

  • Installing blow offs on dead ends.
  • Installing isolation valves.
  • Looping distribution systems.
  • Installing additional fire hydrants.
  • Providing additional water trucks.
  • Replacing cisterns.
  • Replacing pipeline.

Source costs include:

  • Abandoning and decommissioning wells.
  • Constructing raw water pipelines.
  • Drilling, testing, developing and equipping new wells.
  • Providing aeration systems for freeze protection.
  • Providing wellhead protection.
  • Providing standby power.
Table 4.2 - Estimated Total Non-Construction Costs: Water
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Training $820,000 $820,000 $820,000
GUDI Studies $410,000 $0 $410,000
Plans/Documentation $4,245,000 $2,985,000 $4,245,000
Studies $1,150,000 $585,000 $1,055,000
Non-Construction Total Estimate $6,625,000 $4,390,000 $6,530,000

Additional annual operations and maintenance costs, shown in Table 4.3, include costs that occur annually for items that are not currently being completed to meet protocols, such as calibrating monitoring equipment, additional sampling, cleaning the reservoir, and backup operator's salary.

Table 4.3 - Estimated Additional Annual Operation & Maintenance Costs: Water
Description Estimated Cost
Sampling $1,392,350
Operations $408,000
Operator $920,000
Water O&M Total Estimated Cost $2,720,350

The total estimated cost, inlcuding construction and non-construction costs, for water system upgrades to meet the INAC Protocol is $110 million. This excludes costs associated with potentially GUDI systems, which prove to be GUDI systems as discussed previously.

4.2 Upgrade to Meet INAC's Protocol: Wastewater

The total construction cost estimate for wastewater system upgrades to meet INAC Protocol is $50 million. Below is a list of the specific needs of the systems, the number of systems impacted by upgrades, and the total cost for each need.

Increasing treatment capacity, upgrading collection systems and providing standby power account for over 74% of the cost associated with necessary upgrades. 14 systems require increased capacity, which is a high-cost upgrade

Table 4.4 - Estimated Total Construction and Related Costs: Wastewater
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Building $100,000 $0 $0
Collection System $4,260,000 $3,980,000 $4,260,000
Equipment $5,000 $5,000 $5,000
Monitoring Equipment $817,000 $19,500 $817,000
Pumping Stations $2,056,000 $2,056,000 $2,056,000
Treatment $29,466,500 $18,686,500 $29,466,500
Standby Power $3,235,000 $3,235,000 $3,235,000
Engineering & Contingencies $10,019,050 $7,012,650 $9,994,700
Construction Total Estimate $49,958,550 $34,994,650 $49,834,200

Figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)

Figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)

Description of Figure 4.2 – Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)

This pie chart provides a breakdown of the estimated construction costs (in millions of dollars) for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Alberta to meet INAC's Protocol. The costs are divided into eight categories:

  • Building
  • Collection System
  • Engineering & Contingencies
  • Equipment
  • Monitoring Equipment
  • Pumping Stations
  • Standby Power
  • Treatment
  • The estimated building cost for the upgrades that are required for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.1 million dollars.
  • The estimated collection system cost for the upgrades that are required for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 4.3 million dollars.
  • The estimated engineering and contingencies cost for the upgrades that are required for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 10 million dollars.
  • The estimated equipment cost for the upgrades that are required for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.01 million dollars.
  • The estimated monitoring equipment cost for the upgrades that are required for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.8 million dollars.
  • The estimated pumping station cost for the upgrades that are required for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 2.1 million dollars.
  • The estimated standby power cost for the upgrades that are required for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 3.2 million dollars.
  • The estimated treatment cost for the upgrades that are required for wastewater systems to meet INAC's Protocol is 29.5 million dollars.

Treatment, Collection System and Standby Power are the categories with the highest cumulative upgrade costs.

Treatment costs include:

  • Constructing additional lagoon cells.
  • Constructing new mechanical treatment facilities.
  • Providing fences for security.
  • Providing flow meters.
  • Providing new pumping stations.

Collection System costs include:

  • Installing cleanouts.
  • Providing new sewage trucks.
  • Retrofitting sewage pumping stations.

Standby Power costs include:

  • Providing standby power for sewage pumping stations.
Table 4.5 - Estimated Total Non-Construction and Related Costs: Wastewater
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Training $310,000 $310,000 $310,000
Plans/Documentation $1,277,500 $917,500 $1,277,500
Studies $245,000 $205,000 $245,000
Non-Construction Total Estimate $1,832,500 $1,432,500 $1,832,500

Additional annual operations and maintenance costs, as shown in Table 4.6, include costs that occur annually, for items that are not currently being completed to meet protocols, such as calibrating monitoring equipment, additional sampling, and backup operator's salary.

Table 4.6 - Estimated Additional Annual Operation & Maintenance Costs: Wastewater
Description Estimated Cost
Sampling $92,500
Operations $6,000
Operator $280,000
Wastewater O&M Total Estimated Cost $378,500

The total estimated cost, including construction and non-construction costs, for wastewater system upgrades is $51.8 million.

4.3 Upgrade Cost Summary

Table 4.7 provides a summary of the upgrade costs to meet INAC's Protocol, and federal and provincial guidelines, standards and regulations.

Table 4.7 - Summary and Comparison of Upgrade Costs
  Total Estimated Cost
Water Wastewater
Upgrade to meet Protocol $110,253,800 $51,791,050
Upgrade to meet Federal Guidelines $51,236,700 $36,427,150
Upgrade to meet Provincial Guidelines $87,971,500 $51,666,700

The following tables present a breakdown of the estimated upgrade costs to meet INAC's Protocols by overall risk level.

Table 4.8 - Breakdown of Protocol Estimated Costs by Risk Level: Water
Risk Level Short Term Long Term Total
High $39,776,944 $0 $39,776,944
Medium $67,708,774 $0 $67,708,774
Low $2,768,082 $0 $2,768,082
Total $110,253,800 $0 $110,253,800
Table 4.9 - Breakdown of Protocol Estimated Costs by Risk Level: Wastewater
Risk Level Short Term Long Term Total
High $15,674,195 $0 $15,674,195
Medium $33,876,445 $0 $33,876,445
Low $2,240,410 $0 $2,240,410
Total $51,791,050 $0 $51,791,050

4.4 Asset Condition and Reporting System Needs

ACRS (Asset Condition and Reporting System) inspections were completed for all water and wastewater related assets. For the purposes of this assessment, ACRS needs were limited to required repairs of existing facilities, and did not include any upgrade costs, in order to avoid duplication with the Upgrade to Protocol needs identified. The following two tables (Tables 4.10 and 4.11) provide a summary of the required operation & maintenance repairs broken down by the type of asset for both water and wastewater systems.

Table 4.10 - ACRS Identified Needs: Water
Asset Code Description Estimated Cost
A5A Buildings $831,386
B1B Watermains $449,430
B1C/B1D Treatment $1,115,250
B1E Reservoirs $1,902,850
B1G Standpipe/Truckfill $1,385,450
B1F Community Wells $162,850
B1I Low Lift Pumping $106,500
B1H High Lift Pumping $322,150
E4A Trucks $357,450
B1Z Other $285,600
  Water ACRS Total Estimated Cost $6,918,916
Table 4.11 - ACRS Identified Needs: Wastewater
Asset Code Description Estimated Cost
A5B Buildings $183,800
B2A Sewers $141,542
B2H/B2J Lift Stations & Forcemains $1,679,451
B2C/B2D Treatment $37,500
B2E/B2I Lagoons $3,131,750
B2F Septic Systems $64,950
E3A Trucks $234,800
  Wastewater ACRS Total Estimated Cost $5,473,793

4.5 Community Servicing

An analysis was completed to evaluate future servicing alternatives for a 10-year design period. The analysis considers a variety of alternatives, including expanding existing systems, developing new systems, establishing local Municipal Type Agreements (if applicable), and using individual systems.

A theoretical operation and maintenance cost was developed for each alternative, along with a 30-year life-cycle cost. The cost of the upgrades that are necessary for systems to meet INAC's Protocol is included in the new servicing cost, if appropriate (i.e. for new servicing alternatives that include continued use of the existing system).

The following table summarizes the capital cost and the total estimated operation & maintenance cost of the recommended servicing alternatives.

Table 4.12 - Future Servicing Costs
  Total Estimated Cost Cost Per Connection
Water Wastewater Water Wastewater
Future Servicing Cost $410,000,000 $390,000,000 $19,600 $18,500
Annual O&M to service future growth $50,300,000 $26,300,000 $2,400 $1,300

The evaluation of future servicing included continuing to service the existing population with the same level of service that was currently in place and evaluating the options for providing service to the future 10 year growth for the community. Existing servicing included piped, trucked and individual servicing. In some cases, for example, the use of shootouts, the option of providing a higher level of service to some or all of the existing homes was also considered in the overall servicing strategy.

Predominantly, it was found that the life cycle costs for extending piped water and wastewater servicing for the future growth was the most cost effective solution. This assumes that future homes would be constructed in a compact subdivision setting adjacent to the existing serviced area. This however will need to be confirmed through detailed studies for each community.

Some residents may choose to continue to build homes in outlying areas, where individual servicing or truck haul may be more appropriate.

In several areas of Alberta, regional pipelines are in consideration or development. It is strongly worthwhile First Nations located adjacent to these areas, to consider joining the pipeline, which would mean, in effect, they would receive water through a Municipal Type Agreement.

5.0 Regional Summary

All 44 First Nations in the Alberta Region were visited during the completion of this project. The 44 First Nations are serviced by 82 water systems (including 25 Municipal Type Agreement systems) and 73 wastewater systems (including 13 Municipal Type Agreement systems). Several of the First Nations include multiple communities that are located far from each other.

The types of systems vary not only from First Nation to First Nation, but also from community to community within one First Nation. In the Alberta region, 69% of the homes are serviced by communal water (38% piped and 31% trucked), 31% are serviced by individual wells and less than 1% have no water service.

There are 23 surface water systems in the Alberta region. One of the common concerns for systems using lake water was that the water levels appear to be dropping. Lower lake-water levels appear to be affecting the quality of the raw water, which has reportedly changed over the last five years. Lower water levels are also having an impact on the intake location: some First Nations have had to extend their intake lines into deeper water. Because the raw water quality is poorer than it used to be, the cost of treatment is higher, and this will have a significant impact on future servicing costs.

There are 29 groundwater systems and 5 groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) systems. It is recommended that communities that have a proven groundwater source continue to use groundwater to meet their needs for future growth.

There are 25 First Nations serviced by Municipal Type Agreements. With the expansion of regional pipelines, Municipal Type Agreements may become available to other First Nations as a servicing option.

There are a total of 73 wastewater systems: 54 lagoons, 13 Municipal Type Agreement systems, 3 mechanical sewage treatment systems, 1 communal septic system and 2 other treatment type systems. This is a cost- effective solution to providing wastewater servicing. It should be noted, however, that only 43% of the homes are serviced by communal wastewater, and the remaining 57% are serviced by individual septic systems or shootouts, or have no service. Shoot-outs are considered to be a major environmental and health concern because they discharge raw sewage in close proximity to the dwellings.

There are 21 water systems and 12 wastewater systems in the Alberta region identified as high-risk systems. Although there are multiple factors contributing to risk, design and operational concerns are given the most weight, particularly when the concern is related to the protection of public health or the environment. The high risk systems in the region typically require system upgrades or improved operational procedures to meet the guidelines for treated water quality or sewage effluent quality.

The data suggests that operator risk is the lowest of the component risks. However, it is important to provide ongoing training for operators to ensure that all systems are operated and maintained by trained/certified operators, and to ensure that operators complete monitoring and record keeping in accordance with INAC's Protocols.

Another area that should be addressed is the lack of planning tools, including Source Water Protection Plans, Operation & Maintenance Manuals, and Maintenance Management Plans.

Various individual First Nations commented that current Operation & Maintenance budgets are often insufficient to retain operators, to provide ongoing component replacement, and to perform all of the monitoring and recording requirements.

Wastewater sampling prior to effluent discharge appears to be another area that could be addressed in order to reduce the overall risk significantly. Sampling, testing and recording the effluent quality prior to discharge would reduce the reporting risk for these systems.

In the Alberta region, both Health Canada and the First Nations Technical Services Advisory Group (TSAG) are very active within the communities. In most communities, Health Canada provides Community Health Representatives, who regularly sample the water quality of treated and distributed water. TSAG provides the Circuit Rider Training Program to train and certify operators.

Footnotes

  1. By comparison, the average per capita consumption across Canada in 2004 was 329 L/c/d, according to Environment Canada data. (return to source paragraph)
  2. By comparison, according to Stats Canada, the average household size for Canada in 2009 was 2.5 ppu. (return to source paragraph)

Appendix A Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

Aeration (see also lagoon): The process of bringing air into contact with a liquid (typically water), usually by bubbling air through the liquid, spraying the liquid into the air, allowing the liquid to cascade down a waterfall, or by mechanical agitation. Aeration serves to (1) strip dissolved gases from solution, and/or (2) oxygenate the liquid. (Gowen Environmental)

Aesthetic Objective (AO): Aesthetic objectives are set for drinking water quality parameters such as colour or odour, where exceeding the objective may make the water less pleasant, but not unsafe. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater)

Ammonia (See also: Potable water; Effluent quality requirements): A pungent colorless gaseous alkaline compound of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3) that is very soluble in water and can easily be condensed to a liquid by cold and pressure (Merriam-Webster). Ammonia is used in several areas of water and wastewater treatment, such as pH control. It is also used in conjunction with chlorine to produce potable water. The existence of ammonia in wastewater is common in industrial sectors as a by-product of cleaning agents. This chemical impacts both human and environmental conditions. Treatment of ammonia can be completed in lagoon systems and mechanical plants. (R.M. Technologies)

Arsenic: A metallic element that forms a number of compounds. It is found in nature at low levels, mostly in compounds with oxygen, chlorine, and sulphur; these are called inorganic arsenic compounds. Organic arsenic in plants and animals combines with carbon and hydrogen. Inorganic arsenic is a human poison. Organic arsenic is less harmful. High levels of inorganic arsenic in food or water can be fatal. (Medicinenet.com)

Aquifer (confined): A layer of soil or rock below the land surface that is saturated with water. There are layers of impermeable material both above and below it, and it is under pressure so that when the aquifer is penetrated by a well, the water will rise above the top of the aquifer. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Aquifer (unconfined): An unconfined aquifer is one whose upper water surface (water table) is at atmospheric pressure, and thus is able to rise and fall. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

As-built/record drawings: Revised set of drawing submitted by a contractor upon completion of a project or a particular job. They reflect all changes made in the specifications and working drawings during the construction process, and show the exact dimensions, geometry, and location of all elements of the work completed under the contract. Also called as-built drawings or just as-builts.

ACRS Inspection (Asset Condition Reporting System Inspection): For centralised water and wastewater systems, an ACRS (asset condition reporting system) inspection of the system is to be performed once every three (3) years by a qualified person (consulting engineer, Tribal Council engineer), who is not from the First Nation involved, to assess the condition of the asset, adequacy of maintenance efforts, and need for additional maintenance work. The ACRS inspection report will be discussed with, and submitted to, the First Nation council and the INAC regional office. Inspections will be conducted in accordance with the ACRS Manual, a copy of which can be obtained from the INAC regional office.

Bacteria (plural) bacterium (singular): Microscopic living organisms usually consisting of a single cell. Bacteria can aid in pollution control by consuming or breaking down organic matter in sewage and/or other water pollutants. Some bacteria may also cause human, animal, and plant health problems. Bacteria are predominantly found in the intestines and feces of humans and animals. The presence of coliform bacteria in water indicates the contamination of water by raw or partially treated sewage. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Baffle (concrete and/or curtain): Vertical/horizontal impermeable barriers in a pond or reservoir. Baffles direct the flow of water into the longest possible path through the reservoir in order to eliminate short-circuiting in the water treatment system. In potable water treatment, short-circuiting can reduce the effectiveness of disinfectants. In effluent treatment, short-circuiting may result in an increase of pollutants at the outlet. Shortcircuiting occurs when water flows directly from the inlet to the outlet across a pond or reservoir. (Layfield)

BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand): The most widely used parameter of organic pollution applied to both wastewater and surface water is the 5-day BOD (BOD5). This determination involves the measurement of the dissolved oxygen used by microorganisms in the biochemical oxidation of organic matter. BOD test results are used to: determine the approximate quantity of oxygen that will be required to biologically stabilize the organic matter present; to determine the size of waste treatment facilities; to measure the efficiency of some treatment processes; and to determine compliance with wastewater discharge permits. (Metcalf & Eddy)

Capacity (actual vs. design): Refers to the capacity of the treatment system, with the "design capacity" being the flow rate proposed by the designer or manufacturer. If the system is not operating to design levels, the "actual capacity" could be limited by failing pumps, clogged filters or not meeting the Protocol (i.e. Protocol requires two filter trains such that one could operate while another is being cleaned/repaired and this was previously not explicitly required; therefore, the actual capacity is half of the design capacity).

Chemical feed equipment: All equipment associated with introducing chemicals to the raw water as part of the treatment process including coagulants, coagulant aids, disinfectants, etc.

Chlorine: A disinfectant used in either gas or liquid from gas that is added to water to protect the consumer from bacteria and other micro-organisms. It is widely used because it is inexpensive and easily injected into water. Because of its concentration, a gallon can treat a large amount of water. However, chlorine use does have drawbacks: when chlorine is used as a disinfectant it combines with naturally occurring decaying organic matter to form Trihalomethanes (THMs). (Vital Life Systems)

Chlorination: The application of chlorine to water, sewage or industrial wastes for disinfection (reduction of pathogens) or to oxidize undesirable compounds. (City of Toronto)

Chlorine Residual: The chlorine level in potable water immediately after it has been treated. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment)

Circuit Rider (see also Circuit Rider Training Program): Under the department's Circuit Rider Trainer Program (CRTP) INAC provides funds to engage circuit riders (third party water and wastewater system experts who provide water and wastewater system operators with on-site, mentoring, training, and emergency assistance). The third-party service providers that provide circuit rider services also provide operators with a 24/7 emergency hotline. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities)

Circuit Rider Training Program: The main vehicle by which most First Nations operators receive the required training to operate their systems. This program provides qualified experts who rotate through a circuit of communities, providing hands-on training for the operators on their own system. Circuit rider trainers also help the First Nations with minor troubles and issues of operation and maintenance of their systems. (INAC Plan of Action)

Cistern: A tank for storing potable water or other liquids, usually placed above the ground. (Bow River Basin Council, cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Class "D" Cost Estimates: A preliminary estimate, for each community visited, based on available site information, which indicates the approximate magnitude (+/- 40%) of the cost of the actions recommended in the report, and which may be used in developing long-term capital plans and for a preliminary discussion of proposed capital projects.

Collection piping: Sanitary sewer collecting wastewater from individual buildings and homes, for treatment and disposal at a public facility.

Component risk / component risk factors: The overall risk is determined by five component risks: water source/effluent, design, operation, reporting, and operator.

Community Health Representatives (CHRs): Health Canada's local health representatives. They undertake bacteriological and chlorine residual sampling of distributed water within most First Nation communities.

Contact piping: Dedicated watermain to provide chlorine contact time before potable water is distributed to the first user.

Containment liners (for on-site fuel storage): A form of secondary containment used for diesel driven generators or fire pumps.

Continuous discharge to a receiving body: The release of treated wastewater effluent to a lake, river, stream, etc. where the rate of release is continuous (i.e. not batch discharge).

Conventional Wastewater Treatment: Consists of preliminary processes, primary settling to remove heavy solids and floatable materials, secondary biological aeration to metabolize and flocculate colloidal and dissolved organics, and secondary settling to remove additional solids. Tertiary treatment such as disinfection or filtration to further treat the wastewater depending on the level of treatment required for discharge. Waste sludge drawn from these operations is thickened and processed for ultimate disposal, usually either land application or landfilling. Preliminary treatment processes include coarse screening, medium screening, shredding of solids, flow measuring, pumping, grit removal, and pre-aeration. Chlorination of raw wastewater sometimes is used for odor control and to improve settling characteristics of the solids.

Conventional Water Treatment: Consists of a combination of coagulation (adding chemicals called coagulants), flocculation (particles binding together with coagulants) and sedimentation (settling of particles) to remove a large amount of organic compounds and suspended particles, filtration (water passing through porous media) to remove bacteria protozoa and viruses (slow sand filtration) or suspended particles (rapid sand filtration), and disinfection to ensure all the bacteria protozoa and viruses are removed, and provide safe drinking water.

Cross connections: A cross connection is a link between a possible source of pollution and a potable water supply. A pollutant may enter the potable water system when a) the pressure of the pollution source exceeds the pressure of the potable water source or b) when a sudden loss of pressure occurs in the water system and "backflow" occurs. The flow through a water treatment plant should have no instances of treated water coming into contact with raw or wastewater. Backflow preventers should be tested regularly and any actual physical links should be removed.

Decentralized System: A group or groups of communal (as opposed to private) on-site water or wastewater systems. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Dedicated transmission main: A length of watermain which has no service connections or hydrants; can refer to the length of raw watermain from a raw water source to the water treatment plant or in the distribution system where there are larger distances between homes.

Discharge Frequency: The frequency in which treated wastewater is discharged; could be continuous, seasonal, annual, etc.

Discharge quality data: Data acquired through the completion of a laboratory analysis of treated wastewater effluent prior to obtaining permission to discharge. Relevant parameters for testing include: 5 day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Solids, Fecal Coliforms, pH, Phenols, Oils & Greases, Phosphorus and Temperature.

Disinfectant: A disinfectant is a chemical (commonly chlorine, chloramines, or ozone) or physical process (e.g., ultraviolet light) that inactivates or kills microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Disinfection: A process that has as its objective destroying or inactivating pathogenic micro-organisms in water. (Government of Alberta, Environmental Protection and EnhancementAct, cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Disinfection By-products: Disinfection by-products are chemical, organic and inorganic substances that can form during a reaction of a disinfectant with naturally present organic or anthropogenic matter in the water. (Lenntech)

Distribution Classification > piped / trucked: Refers to the classification of the delivery of potable water leaving the water treatment plant. This can be either piped (via watermain) or trucked (via truck delivery to individual homes/cisterns). The level of classification involves the number of house connections (population served).

Domestic flows: All demands in the water system excluding fire flows.

Drinking Water: Water of sufficiently high quality that can be consumed or used without risk of immediate or long term harm.

Drinking Water Advisory (DWA): Drinking Water Advisories (DWAs) are preventive measures that are regularly issued in municipalities and communities across Canada; they protect public health from waterborne contaminants that can be present in drinking water. A DWA can be issued in any community and may include boil water advisories, do not consume advisories and do not use advisories. (INAC "Fact Sheet")

Effluent: 1. The liquid waste of municipalities/communities, industries, or agricultural operations. Usually the term refers to a treated liquid released from a wastewater treatment process. (Bow River) 2. The discharge from any on-site sewage treatment component. (Alberta Municipal Affairs; cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Effluent quality data: Any test results or monitoring data that describes the condition of treated wastewater effluent.

Effluent Quality Requirements: All effluents from wastewater systems in Canada must comply with all applicable federal legislation including the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 and the Fisheries Act, as well as any other applicable legislation, including provincial, depending on the geographical location of the system. In addition, all discharges from First Nations wastewater systems shall meet the quality requirements found in the Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments - EPS 1-EC-76-1 (1976 Guidelines).

For the purposes of determining effluent quality related to ammonia and chlorine, the Notice Requiring the Preparation and Implementation of Pollution Prevention Plans for Inorganic Chloramines and Chlorinated Wastewater Effluents and the Guideline for the Release of Ammonia Dissolved in Water Found in Wastewater Effluents contain additional and/or updated information to the requirements provided in the 1976 Guidelines.

A copy of the Guideline for the Release of Ammonia Dissolved in Water Found in Wastewater Effluents can be found at Environment Canada's website. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities)

Effluent Receiver (also referred to as the receiving body; the receiving environment; the receiver) (see also Effluent and Component risks): The environment that receives treated wastewater, including lakes, rivers, wetlands, sub-surfaces, title fields, open marines, and enclosed bays. It may also refer to a community's method for dealing with wastewater (e.g. Municipal Type Agreements or evaporation).

Elevated Storage: A water tower, which is a reservoir or storage tank mounted on a tower-like structure at the summit of an area of high ground in a place where the water pressure would otherwise be inadequate for distribution at a uniform pressure. (Collins)

Emergency Response Plan (ERP): Emergency response plans for water and wastewater systems are intended to be a quick reference to assist operators and other stakeholders in managing and responding to emergency situations. They include key contact information for persons to be notified and for persons who may be of assistance (e.g. agencies, contractors, suppliers, etc.), as well as standard communication and response protocols. Emergency response plans identify recommended action for "foreseeable" emergencies, and provide methodologies for unforeseen situations.

Facultative Lagoon: The most common type of wastewater treatment lagoon used by small communities and individual households. Facultative lagoons rely on both aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of waste, can be adapted for use in most climates and require no machinery to treat wastewater.

Filter: A device used to remove solids from a mixture or to separate materials. Materials are frequently separated from water using filters. (Edwards Aquifier)

Filter train equipment: Includes all components that form part of the water filtration process from where the raw water enters the filter process to where the filtered water leaves the treatment unit. This does not refer to the disinfection equipment.

Filtration: The mechanical process which removes particulate matter by separating water from solid material, usually by passing it through sand. (Edwards Aquifier)

Fire pump tests: A monthly test for the basic operation and functionality of the fire pump.

Grade Level Storage: A treated water storage reservoir that is constructed at grade, typically with earth mounded on top to provide some frost protection.

GPS: Global Positioning System (GPS) -A navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver.

Groundwater: Groundwater is any water that is obtained from a subsurface water-bearing soil unit (called an aquifer). 1) Water that flows or seeps downward and saturates soil or rock, supplying springs and wells. The upper surface of the saturate zone is called the water table. 2) Water stored underground in rock crevices and in the pores of geologic materials that make up the Earth's crust. (INAC, Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater, confined: Groundwater that is under pressure significantly greater than atmospheric, with its upper limit the bottom of a bed with hydraulic conductivity distinctly lower than that of the material in which the confined water occurs. (INAC, Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater, unconfined: Water in an aquifer that has a water table that is exposed to the atmosphere. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI): This term refers to groundwater sources (e.g., wells, springs, infiltration galleries, etc.) where microbial pathogens are able to travel from nearby surface water to the groundwater source. (Government of Nova Scotia)

Guidelines: Guidelines as referred to in this Assessment include all federal and provincial water and wastewater guidelines for domestic potable water and household sanitary waste. These guidelines include the "Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality" and all its recommended health and aesthetic guidelines for water quality.

Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ): Water quality guidelines developed by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water and have been published by Health Canada since 1968.

Canadian drinking water supplies are generally of excellent quality. However, water in nature is never "pure." It picks up traces of everything it comes into contact with, including minerals, silt, vegetation, fertilizers, and agricultural run-off. While most of these substances are harmless, some may pose a health risk. To address this risk, Health Canada works with the provincial and territorial governments to develop guidelines that set out the maximum acceptable concentrations of these substances in drinking water. These drinking water guidelines are designed to protect the health of the most vulnerable members of society, such as children and the elderly. The guidelines set out the basic parameters that every water system should strive to achieve in order to provide the cleanest, safest and most reliable drinking water possible.

The Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality deal with microbiological, chemical and radiological contaminants. They also address concerns with physical and aesthetic characteristics of water, such as taste and odour. (Health Canada)

Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments, April 1976: The purpose of these guidelines is to indicate the degree of treatment and effluent quality that will be applicable to all wastewater discharged from existing and proposed Federal installations. Use of these guidelines is intended to promote a consistent wastewater approach towards the cleanup and prevention of water pollution and ensure that the best practicable control technologies used. (Government of Canada)

Highlift Pumping: Refers to pumps installed that provide treated water into the water distribution system at pressure; either directly or via water tower.

Hydrant Flushing (see line flushing and swabbing)

Influent: Water, wastewater, or other liquid flowing into a reservoir, basin or treatment plant. (Gowen)

Lagoon: A shallow pond where sunlight, bacterial action, and oxygen work to purify wastewater. Lagoons are typically used for the storage of wastewaters, sludges, liquid wastes, or spent nuclear fuel. (Edwards Aquifier)

Lagoon, aerated: See Aeration

Lagoon, facultative: See Facultative Lagoon.

L/c/d: Measurement of daily water usage as Litres per capita, per day.

Level of Service Standards (INAC): The Level of Service Standards (LOSS), determined on a national basis, are the levels of service that the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) is prepared to financially support to assist First Nations in providing community services comparable to the levels of service that would generally be available in non-native communities of similar size and circumstances.

The Level of Service Standards provide a description of criteria which will be used to establish the level of funding for safe, cost-effective, domestic water supply and wastewater disposal systems for on-reserve housing units and administrative, operative, institutional and recreational buildings. (INAC "Water and Sewage Systems")

Lift Station (also Pumping Station): A point in the sewer system where the wastewater needs to be pumped (lifted) to a higher elevation so that gravity can be used to bring the wastewater to the treatment plant. (Hailey City Hall Public Works)

Line flushing and swabbing (also referred to as watermain swabbing and flushing): Watermain swabbing entails inserting a soft material shaped like a bullet into the watermain through a fire hydrant. The diameter is slightly larger than the watermain and the bullet (swab) is pushed along the watermain by water pressure. As it passes through the watermain, the swab executes a scouring action on the sediment inside the watermain.

During watermain flushing, high velocity water flowing from hydrants is used to remove loose sediment from watermains. (City of Guelph)

L/p/d: Measurement of daily water usage as Litres per person, per day.

MAC (Maximum acceptable concentration): In the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ), Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MACs) have been established for certain physical, chemical, radiological and microbiological parameters or substances that are known or suspected to cause adverse effects on health. For some parameters, Interim Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (IMACs) are also recommended in the guidelines.

Drinking water that continually has a substance at a greater concentration than the specified MACs will contribute significantly to consumer exposure to the substance and may, in some instances, produce harmful health effects. However, the short-term presence of substances above the MAC levels does not necessarily mean the water constitutes a risk to health. (INAC, National Assessment Summary Report)

Maintenance Management Plan (MMP): Maintenance management plans apply to both water and wastewater systems. They are intended to improve the effectiveness of maintenance activities and are focused on planning, scheduling, and documenting preventative maintenance activities and on documenting unscheduled maintenance.

Manganese: Manganese is a mineral that naturally occurs in rocks and soil and is a normal constituent of the human diet. In some places, it exists in well water as a naturally occurring groundwater mineral, but may also be present due to underground pollution sources. Manganese may become noticeable in tap water at concentrations greater than 0.05 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of water by imparting a colour, odour, or taste to the water. However, health effects from manganese are not a concern until concentrations are approximately 10 times higher. (Conneticut Dept. of Health)

Mechanical Plant/ Mechanical Treatment: Refers to any type of wastewater treatment plant including treatments systems consisting of rotating biological contactors (RBC), sequencing batch reactors (SBR), extended aeration (EA), etc. It does not include natural forms of wastewater treatment like lagoons or septic systems.

Metals Scan (Full): A full metal scan refers to what laboratories call Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis for the evaluation of trace metals in water samples. This test covers a complete scan of over 20 trace metals in a single analysis.

Municipal Type Agreement (MTA): The situation where First Nations are supplied with treated water from or send their wastewater to a nearby municipality, as outlined in a formal agreement between the two parties. The term is also used in this report to describe a system where the First Nation is supplied with treated water or wastewater treatment services by another First Nation or other independent body such as a corporate entity such as a Casino etc.

Multi-Barrier Approach: Approach used to ensure that drinking water is safe. In the past, the term ‘multi-barrier' referred only to the barriers involved in the actual treatment of raw water to provide quality drinking water. This approach has now been expanded to include a number of key elements that are an integral part of a drinking water program to ensure delivery of safe, secure supplies of drinking water. Barriers may be physical (eg: filter) or administrative (eg: planning) in nature. (Alberta Environment, Glossary & Alberta's Drinking Water Program)

None: Indicates that the treatment and/or distribution/collection system has not been classified.

O & M: Operation and Maintenance.

Operational Plan (OP): An Operational Plan is the primary instrument for communicating the Community's quality management system (QMS) from the public works departments (water and wastewater) to Chief and Council, and from Council to INAC, Health Canada and the community members.

Phosphorus: A non-metallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs widely especially as phosphates (Merriam-Webster). Phosphorus occurs naturally in rocks, soil, animal waste, plant material, and even the atmosphere. In addition to these natural sources, phosphorus comes from human activities such as agriculture, discharge of industrial and municipal waste, and surface water runoff from residential and urban areas. Nutrients held in soil can be dissolved in water and carried off by leaching, tile drainage or surface runoff.

Phosphorus does not pose a direct threat to human health; it is an essential component of all cells and is present in bones and teeth. It does, however, pose an indirect threat to both aesthetics and to human health by affecting source waters used for drinking and recreation. For example, excessive nutrients can promote the growth of algal blooms, which can contribute to a wide range of water quality problems by affecting the potability, taste, odour, and colour of the water. (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment)

Piped Distribution System: A water distribution system which relies on pipes to convey water through pumping or elevated storage to the end user. Different from trucked distribution in that a trucked distribution system delivers water to end users in batch quantities to individual holding tanks (cisterns).

Potable water: Potable water is water that is destined for human consumption. For the purposes of the Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities, water destined for human consumption is water that is consumed directly as drinking water, water that is used in cooking, water that is used to wash food, and water that is used for bathing infants (individuals under 1 year in age). (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities)

PPU: People per unit. Measurement to describe housing density.

Primary Operator: The main operator of a water or wastewater system. The primary operator must be certified to the level of the treatment and distribution/collection system.

Primary Wastewater Treatment: Removal of particulate materials from domestic wastewater, usually done by allowing the solid materials to settle as a result of gravity. Typically, the first major stage of treatment encountered by domestic wastewater as it enters a treatment facility. Primary treatment plants generally remove 25 to 35 percent of the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and 45 to 65 percent of the total suspended matter. Also, any process used for the decomposition, stabilization, or disposal of sludges produced by settling. (North American Lake Management Society; cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Protocol for Safe Drinking Water in First Nations Communities: Standards for design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of drinking water systems and is intended for use by First Nations staff responsible for water systems. It is also intended for use by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) staff, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) for INAC staff, and all others involved in providing advice or assistance to First Nations in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of their drinking water systems in their communities, in accordance with established federal or provincial standards, whichever are the most stringent.

Any water system that produces drinking water destined for human consumption, that is funded in whole or in part by INAC, and that serves five or more households or a public facility, must comply with the requirements of this protocol. (INAC Protocol)

Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC): A quality management system that focuses on fulfilling quality requirements and providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.

Reporting Risk: The Reporting risk level is the risk inherent with the operational method of recording data and providing the required reports. This would include both manual and automatic methods of record keeping. The reporting risk ranking is based on the adequacy of the operational records and the number of reports submitted during the year compared to the total number of records and reports required according to the appropriate legislation, standards, and operation procedures of the system in question.

Reservoir: A man-made lake that collects and stores water for future use. During periods of low river flow, reservoirs can release additional flow if water is available. (Government of Alberta, Water for Life, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Reservoir Cleaning: This involves the pump-down, clean-out, removal of settled material, disinfection and refill of a water storage reservoir. This activity requires confined space entry equipment and training.

Retrofit: 1. To furnish with new or modified parts or equipment not available or considered necessary at the time of manufacture; 2. To install (new or modified parts or equipment) in something previously manufactured or constructed; 3. To adapt to a new purpose or need: modify. (Merriam-Webster)

Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC): A technology used to treat wastewater classified as mechanical treatment.

Risk (Management Risk Level/Management Risk Score): Risk is defined in INAC's Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities (Revised 2010). These guidelines follow the Multi-Barrier Approach for water management. This approach, developed by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Water Quality Task Group, is intended to prevent the presence of water-borne contaminants in drinking water by ensuring effective safeguards are in place at each stage of a drinking water system.

Following that approach, INAC assesses five main components of a system to determine an overall system management risk score:

Each of these components is assigned a risk score, which are then weighed to determine the overall management risk score of a system. The resulting score will then result in the management of the system as being classified as either high risk, medium risk, or low risk.

-High Risk: Major deficiencies in most of the components. Should a problem arise, the system and management as a whole is unlikely to be able to compensate, thus there is a high probability that any problem could result in unsafe water. Issues should be addressed as soon as possible.

-Medium Risk: Minor deficiencies in several components, or major deficiencies in one or two components. Should a problem arise, the system and management can probably compensate for the problem, but the noted deficiencies makes this uncertain, thus there is a medium probability that any problem could result in unsafe water. Issues need to be addressed.

-Low Risk: Minor or no deficiencies with the system or management. Should a problem occur, it is likely that the system and management as a whole will be able to compensate and continue to provide safe water while the issue is being resolved.

It is important to distinguish between INAC's system management risk level and drinking water quality. The actual quality of the water produced by a system is but one part of determining the overall system management risk level.

Unsafe drinking water is noted through the implementation of Drinking Water Advisories (DWA), not by the management risk level of the system. DWA come in multiple forms, the most common being the boil water advisory.

A system with a high-risk ranking under INAC's management evaluation is, because of its multiple deficiencies, likely to be unable to cope with problems that may occur in the system that result in a DWA. This means that DWA are likely to occur more frequently and to have a longer-term duration on a high-risk system. On the other hand, while problems can and do occur in low-risk systems, because of better overall risk management, these systems are more likely to address the problem in the short term, resulting in the rapid removal of problems and DWA.

This means that a high-risk drinking system can still produce perfectly safe and potable water. Deficiencies should be addressed as quickly as possible, however, before any issues arise with the water quality. (INAC, Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines)

SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system: Refers to a control and/or computer system that can monitor, record and control infrastructure, or facility-based processes.

Screened reservoir vents: Reservoir vents should be screened to allow air movement and to prevent vermin from entering.

Seasonal discharge: Discharge of wastewater at times of maximum or substantial stream flow. This may vary from location to location.

Secondary containment for treatment chemicals: Secondary containment is required for the storage of all regulated hazardous materials. Secondary containment must be constructed using materials capable of containing a spill or leak for at least as long as the period between monitoring inspections. A means of providing overfill protection for any primary container may be required. This may be an overfill prevention device and/or an attention getting high level alarm. Materials that in combination may cause a fire or explosion, the production of a flammable, toxic, poisonous gas, or the deterioration of a primary or secondary container will be separated in both the primary and secondary treatment containment so as to avoid intermixing.

Secondary Treatment: involving the biological process of reducing suspended, colloidal, and dissolved organic/inorganic matter in effluent from primary treatment systems and which generally removes 80 to 95 percent of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and suspended matter. Secondary wastewater treatment may be accomplished by biological or chemical-physical methods. Activated sludge and trickling filters are two of the most common means of secondary treatment. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Septic tank: A tank used to detain domestic wastes to allow the settling of solids prior to distribution to a leach field for soil absorption. Septic tanks are used when a piped wastewater collection system is not available to carry them to a treatment plant. A settling tank in which settled sludge is in immediate contact with sewage flowing through the tank, and wherein solids are decomposed by anaerobic bacterial action. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater)

Septic system: A combination of underground pipe(s) and holding tank(s) which are used to hold, decompose, and clean wastewater for subsurface disposal. (Bow River, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR): A treatment technology used to treat wastewater classified as mechanical treatment.

Sewage treatment plant (STP) (also known as Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) or Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP)): Facility designed to treat wastewater (sewage) by removing materials that may damage water quality and threaten public health. (Ontario Ministry of Environment)

Sewage treatment systems: Facility or system designed to treat wastewater (sewage) by removing materials that may damage water quality and threaten public health. (Ontario Ministry of Environment)

Shoot-out: A septic system consisting of a septic tank with untreated wastewater effluent being discharged to the surface; this poses a health risk.

Sludge: The accumulated wet or dry solids that are separated from wastewater during treatment. This includes precipitates resulting from the chemical or biological treatment of wastewater. (Government of Alberta, Activities, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Source Classification: The determination of the water source classification in this assessment includes the options of: surface water, groundwater, GUDI or MTA. Surface water includes water from lakes or rivers; groundwater includes any well water that is not influenced by surface water infiltration; GUDI is any groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water; MTA as a source refers to the community acquiring the treated water from a municipality.

Source risk: The risk inherent in the quality and quantity of the raw source water prior to treatment.

Source Water Protection: 1. The prevention of pollution of the lakes, reservoirs, rivers, streams, and groundwater that serve as sources of drinking water. Wellhead protection would be an example of a source water protection approach that protects groundwater sources, whereas management of land around a lake or reservoir used for drinking water would be an example for surface water supplies. Source water protection programs typically include: delineating source water protection areas; identifying sources of contamination; implementing measures to manage these changes; and planning for the future. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

2. Action taken to control or minimize the potential for introduction of chemicals or contaminants in source waters, including water used as a source of drinking water (Alberta Environment, Standards and Guidelines, cited in Alberta Glossary).

SPS: An abbreviation of the term sewage pumping station.

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs): An SOP is a written document or instruction detailing all steps and activities of a process or procedure. This would include all procedures used in water/wastewater treatment processes that could affect the quality.

Standpipe Storage: An above-grade storage facility where the storage volume is contained within the entirety of the structure. This type of storage is most feasible for use where there is sufficient change in the topography to allow for maximum usable volume in the standpipe.

Storage Type: Refers to whether the community water storage is via grade-level, below-grade or elevated storage (including standpipes and towers). In some cases there is no storage thus the storage type would be considered "direct pump."

Surface water: Surface water is any water that is obtained from sources, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs that are open to the atmosphere. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Designer: A system designer is a person, such as a professional engineer, who is qualified to design a water or wastewater systems. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Operator: A system operator is a First Nation employee or third party under contract to a First Nation who is tasked with managing a water or wastewater system. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Manager: A system manager is a First Nation employee or third party under contract to a First Nation who is tasked with managing a water or wastewater system. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

Tertiary Treatment: Selected biological, physical, and chemical separation processes to remove organic and inorganic substances that resist conventional treatment practices. Tertiary Treatment processes may consist of flocculation basins, clarifiers, filters, and chlorine basins or ozone or ultraviolet radiation processes. Tertiary techniques may also involve the application of wastewater to land to allow the growth of plants to remove plant nutrients. Can include advanced nutrient removal processes. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Trihalomethanes (THMs): Chemical compounds that can be formed when water is disinfected using chlorine or bromine as the chemical disinfection agent. These chemical compounds are formed when organic material present in the raw source water reacts with chlorine or bromine. Therefore, THMs are classified as disinfection by-products (DBPs). The primary source of organic material comes from decaying vegetation found in lakes, rivers and streams and for this reason, THMs are more commonly observed in water systems that use a surface water source. The four chemical compounds that are measured and used to calculate total THMs are: chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and chlorodibromomethane (CDBM). THMs are a concern in potable water because there is scientific evidence that they may pose a risk in the development of cancer.

Treatment Certification: The treatment level to which an operator is certified for water treatment and distribution and wastewater treatment and collection systems (see Treatment Classification).

Treatment Classification: The size (flow) and complexity of a water or wastewater system is used to determine the Class of a system using a point template. The knowledge and experience it takes to operate a system is closely related to its classification and is reflected in the level of certification of the operator. Systems that are small and relatively simple, are classified as Small Water or Wastewater Systems. Larger or more complex systems are ranked as Class I, II, III, and IV with the highest being Class IV. Systems should be operated under the supervision of an operator certified to at least the same level of the facility.

TSS (Total Suspended Solids): Measure of the amount of non-dissolved solid material present in water or wastewater. Total suspended solids (TSS) can cause: a) interference with light penetration (in UV applications), b) build-up of sediment and c) can carry nutrients and other toxic pollutants that cause algal blooms and potential reduction in aquatic habitat (wastewater).

Underground Storage: A water storage facility (reservoir/clearwell) which is located 100% below-grade. Often located below the water treatment plant.

Waste: Any solid or liquid material, product, or combination of them that is intended to be treated or disposed of or that is intended to be stored and then treated or disposed. This does not include recyclables. (Government of Alberta, Activities Designation Regulation, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Waste management plan: A Waste Management Plan identifies and describes types of waste generated during operations and how they are managed and disposed of.

Wastewater (Industrial Wastewater, Domestic Wastewater): A combination of liquid and water-carried pollutants from homes, businesses, industries, or farms; a mixture of water and dissolved or suspended solids. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Wastewater System: an organized process and associated structures for collecting, treating, and disposing of wastewater. For the purposes of this report, it is a system serving five or more houses. It includes any or all of the following:

  1. Sewers and pumping stations that make up a wastewater collection system.
  2. Sewers and pumping stations that transport untreated wastewater from a wastewater collection system to a wastewater treatment plant.
  3. Wastewater treatment plants.
  4. Facilities that provide storage for treated wastewater.
  5. Wastewater sludge treatment and disposal facilities.
  6. Sewers that transport treated wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant to the place where it is disposed of.
  7. Treated wastewater outfall facilities, including the outfall structures to a watercourse or any structures for disposal of treated wastewater to land or to wetlands. (Government of Alberta, Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Wastewater Treatment: Any of the mechanical, chemical or biological processes used to modify the quality of wastewater (sewage) in order to make it more compatible or acceptable to man and his/her environment. (North American Lake Management System, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Wastewater Treatment Plant: Any structure, thing, or process used for the physical, chemical, biological, or radiological treatment of wastewater before it is returned to the environment. The term also includes any structure, thing, or process used for wastewater storage or disposal, or sludge treatment, storage, or disposal. (Government of Alberta, Activities, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Watermain: A principal pipe in a system of pipes for conveying water, especially one installed underground. (American Heritage Dictionary)

Water quality: The term used to describe the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water, usually with respect to its suitability for a particular purpose. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

Water use: The term water use refers to water that is used for a specific purpose, such as for domestic use, irrigation, or industrial processing. Water use pertains to human interaction with and influence on the hydrolic cycle, and includes elements, such as water withdrawal from surface- and ground-water sources, water delivery to homes and businesses, consumptive use of water, water released from wastewater-treatment plans, water returned to the environment, and in-stream uses, such as using water to produce hydroelectric power. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

Water Well: An opening in the ground, whether drilled or altered from its natural state, that is used for the production of groundwater, obtaining data on groundwater, or recharging an underground formation from which groundwater can be recovered. By definition in the provincial Water Act, a water well also includes any related equipment, buildings, and structures. (Government of Alberta, Water for Life, cited in Alberta, Glossary)

Wellhead Protection Area: A protected surface and subsurface zone surrounding a well or well field supplying a public water system to keep contaminants from reaching the well water. (Edwards Aquifier)

Wellhead Protection Plan: A wellhead protection plan defines the wellhead protection area, identifies potential sources of contamination, manages the potential contaminant sources including properly decommissioning abandoned wells, identifies emergency and contingency plans (i.e. what to do if the well becomes contaminated or requires additional capacity) and provides overall public awareness.

References

Alberta Environment. Alberta's Drinking Water Program: A ‘Source to Tap, Multi-barrier' Approach, 2008. Unpublished

Alberta Environment, Partnerships and Strategies Section. Glossary of Terms Related to Water and Watershed Management in Alberta. 1st Edition. November 2008 (330 Kb)

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Alberta Environment. Standards and Guidelines for Municipal Waterworks, Wastewater and Storm Drainage Systems, 2006.

Alberta Municipal Affairs. Alberta Private Sewage Systems Standard of Practice Handbook, 2000.

Bow River Basin Council. Guidebook to Water Management: Background Information on Organizations, Policies, Legislation, Programs, and Projects in the Bow River Basin, 2002

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition 2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009.

City of Toronto. Biosolids and Residuals Masterplan (128 Kb)

Government of Canada. Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments, April 1976.

Layfield Environmental Systems. "AquaGuide Floating and Fixed Baffles

Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Technical Report: Drinking Water System at the Kashechewan First Nation. November 10, 2005.

R.M. Technologies;Water Treatment

UNEP (2000) International source book on environmentally sound technologies for wastewater and stormwater management

Waterwiki

Connecticut Department of Health, Drinking Water Section. Fact Sheet: Manganese in Drinking Water (257 Kb)

Edwards Aquifier Website: Glossary of Water Resource Terms

Government of Alberta. Activities Designation Regulation, 2003

Government of Alberta. Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, 2000

Government of Alberta. Water for Life: Alberta's Strategy for Sustainability., 2003

Government of British Columbia, Environmental Protection Division. Glossary of Water Terms.

Government of Nova Scotia. Government of Nova Scotia. "Protocol for Determining Groundwater Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water." (142 Kb)

Gowen Environmental Ltd. "Contaminated and Hazardous Waste Site Management Glossary I."

Hailey City Hall, Public Works

Health Canada. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines

Lenntech Water Treatment Solutions. "Disinfection By-Products."

Medicinenet.com. "Definition of Arsenic."

Vital Life Systems. "Water Treatment Terminology." (114 Kb)

Appendix B System Summary

Appendix B.1 Water System Summary

Regional Roll-Up Summary: Water

Region: Alberta
Total No. of First Nations: 44
Participating No. of First Nations: 44
Participation Level: 100%
No. of Community Reports Issued:
54

 GroundwaterGUDISurfaceMTATotals
Total No. of Systems 29 5 23 25 82
System Age
0-5 years (2006 - 2010) 2 0 3 3 8
6-10 years (2001 - 2005) 3 3 3 2 11
10-15 years (1996 - 2000) 7 1 3 4 15
15 -20 years (1991 - 1995) 5 0 4 1 10
> 20 years (≤ 1990) 12 1 10 15 38
Treatment
None - Direct Use 1 0 0 0 1
Disinfection only 17 0 0 0 17
Conventional Filtration 11 5 23 1 40
MTA 0 0 0 24 24
Classification - Treatment
Small system 7 0 0 0 7
Level I 18 0 0 0 18
Level II 2 5 12 0 19
Level III 0 0 11 0 11
MTA 0 0 0 25 25
None 2 0 0 0 2
Classification - Distribution
Small system 20 1 10 4 35
Level I 8 2 12 8 30
Level II 1 2 1 0 4
MTA 0 0 0 10 10
None 0 0 0 3 3
Distribution
Piped 17 2 5 7 31
Trucked 1 0 1 8 10
Self Haul 0 0 0 0 0
Combined 11 3 17 10 41
Water Quality
Fails Health
Yes, fails health due to: 15 0 18 12 45
Design 4 0 6 3 13
Operation 6 0 5 0 11
Combination 4 0 7 5 16
Unknown 1 0 0 4 5
Fails Aesthetic
Yes, fails aesthetic due to: 20 1 11 0 32
Design 9 0 2 0 11
Operation 6 1 3 0 10
Combination 4 0 6 0 10
Unknown 1 0 0 0 1
Primary Operator - Treatment
Not certified 12 0 5 0 17
No operator 2 0 0 0 2
Not required 2 0 0 25 27
Certified to Level 12 3 5 0 20
Certified 1 2 13 0 16
Back-up Operator - Treatment
Not certified 8 0 8 0 16
No operator 10 0 4 0 14
Not required 2 0 0 25 27
Certified to Level 4 1 2 0 7
Certified 5 4 9 0 18
Primary Operator - Distribution
Not certified 14 0 6 7 27
No operator 2 0 0 1 3
Not required 0 0 0 13 13
Certified to Level 13 5 13 4 35
Certified 0 0 4 0 4
Back-up Operator - Distribution
Not certified 8 0 8 4 20
No operator 12 0 4 4 20
Not required 0 0 0 13 13
Certified to Level 4 2 8 4 18
Certified 5 3 3 0 11
Risk (mean)GroundwaterGUDISurfaceMTAMeanMean excluding MTA
Final 6.6 4.2 6.1 4.4 5.7 6.2
Source 5.9 9.2 9.5 1.3 5.7 7.6
Design 6.6 3.8 6.2 5.0 5.8 6.2
Operations 7.5 4.8 6.3 6.3 6.6 6.8
Reporting 7.9 4.4 5.8 3.5 5.8 6.8
Operator 4.4 1.4 2.7 1.6 2.9 3.5

Appendix B.2 Wastewater System Summary

Regional Roll-Up Summary: Wastewater

Region: Alberta
Total No. of First Nations: 44
Participating No. of First Nations: 44
Participation Level: 100%
No. of Community Reports Issued: 54

 SepticAerated LagoonFacultative LagoonMechanicalOtherMTATotals
Total No. of Systems 1 2 52 3 2 13 73
System Age
0-5 years
(2006 - 2010)
0 0 3 2 0 0 5
6-10 years
(2001 - 2005)
0 1 8 0 2 1 12
10-15 years
(1996 - 2000)
0 0 13 0 0 1 14
15 -20 years
(1991 - 1995)
0 0 11 0 0 2 13
> 20 years
(≤ 1990)
1 1 17 1 0 9 29
Classification - Treatment
Small System 1 0 5 0 0 0 6
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 13 13
Level I 0 2 47 1 1 0 51
Level II 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Level III 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
None 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Classification - Collection
Small System 1 1 31 3 2 4 42
Level I 0 1 19 0 0 3 23
Level II 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 3 3
None 0 0 1 0 0 3 4
Collection
Piped 1 1 32 2 1 7 44
Trucked 0 0 3 0 0 4 7
Combined 0 1 17 1 1 2 22
Effluent Quality
No data 1 2 45 1 2 13 64
Meets 0 0 2 1 0 0 3
Does not meet 0 0 5 1 0 0 6
Primary Operator - Treatment
Not certified 1 0 25 2 0 0 28
No operator 0 0 3 0 0 0 3
Not required 0 0 0 0 1 13 14
Certified to Level 0 2 18 1 1 0 22
Certified 0 0 6 0 0 0 6
Back-Up Operator - Treatment
Not certified 0 1 13 1 0 0 15
No operator 1 0 19 1 1 0 22
Not required 0 0 0 0 1 13 14
Certified to Level 0 1 9 0 0 0 10
Certified 0 0 11 1 0 0 12
Primary Operator - Collection
Not certified 1 0 24 2 1 2 30
No operator 0 0 3 0 0 1 4
Not required 0 0 1 0 0 6 7
Certified to Level 0 2 19 1 1 3 26
Certified 0 0 5 0 0 1 6
Back-Up Operator - Collection
Not certified 0 1 14 1 0 2 18
No operator 1 0 18 1 2 3 25
Not required 0 0 1 0 0 6 7
Certified to Level 0 1 15 1 0 1 18
Certified 0 0 4 0 0 1 5
Receiver
Large river 0 0 1 1 0 0 2
River 0 0 12 1 0 0 13
Lake, reservoir 0 0 3 0 0 0 3
Creek 0 1 11 0 0 0 12
Wetland 0 1 13 0 0 0 14
Sub-surface / Ground 0 0 5 0 1 0 6
Tile field 1 0 0 1 0 0 2
Evaporation 0 0 4 0 0 0 4
Other 0 0 3 0 1 0 4
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 13 13
Risk (mean)SepticAerated LagoonFacul-tative LagoonMech- anicalOtherMTAMeanMean excluding MTA
Final 7.4 6.0 5.7 6.6 4.0 2.5 5.2 5.8
Effluent Receiver 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.7 4.5 1.5 4.3 4.9
Design 7.0 7.0 5.0 4.3 5.5 2.2 4.6 5.1
Operations 10.0 9.0 8.0 5.7 7.0 4.8 7.3 7.9
Reporting 10.0 10.0 6.7 7.7 1.0 3.1 6.1 6.7
Operator 8.0 1.0 4.2 5.7 1.0 1.0 3.6 4.1

Appendix C Site Visit Methodology

Site Visits

Typical Day

Arrive in Community – Lead/Senior Inspector & Technical Support
  • Meet with Circuit Rider and/or DIAND representative and First Nation/Tribal Council Representatives to undergo introductions and provide a brief synopsis of the activities to be undertaken for the day. This is based on the assumption that the First Nation has been fully briefed by DIAND on the purpose, process and benefits for the First Nation to cooperate and collaborate with the project.
  • Confirm the various components that the First Nation uses to provide water to the entire community (i.e. number and types of distribution systems, source types, private wells, etc.) to help build assessment form for the community.
  • Pre-select areas to undertake private system evaluations on community map.
  • Confirm any missing background data that may be available allowing the First Nation time during the day to have Public Works Director/Supervisor/Secretary/ etc to locate such materials.
Lead/Senior – Inspector
  • Meet with Chief/Housing Manager/Band Manager/Finance Manager, to identify:
    • future servicing needs (planned development and population growth)
    • servicing constraints (source availability, soils, groundwater, bedrock, topography, etc.)
    • identify the extent to which non structural solutions or optimization strategies (water conservation, leak reduction, etc) have been previously investigated or implemented
    • confirm current population and housing numbers
    • obtain financial information not previously provided
    • note community concerns related to future servicing.
  • Complete a walk through of the water plant from source to storage.
  • Prepare a flow schematic (internal use).
  • Complete the assessment questionnaire on treatment/storage/operations/ operator(s) etc. with Operator/Circuit Rider.
  • Take photographs.
  • Travel to main sewage pumping station and wastewater treatment facility.
  • Complete a walk through of the plant from influent to effluent.
  • Prepare a flow schematic (internal use).
  • Complete assessment questionnaire.
  • Take photographs.
  • Complete ACRS update.
  • Repeat for additional water or wastewater facilities.
  • Review information collected by Technical Support
  • Gather all background/operational data gathered by First Nation.
  • Complete overall notes.
Technical Support
  • Gather any relevant operational data (water and wastewater), if not already provided and arrange with the First Nation to have copied/scanned that day.
  • Obtain GPS coordinates of source(s) and treatment.
  • Complete the source questions on the assessment questionnaire.
  • Undertake sampling of the raw and/or treated water, if necessary.
  • Take photographs.
  • Complete ACRS update.
  • Travel around community with First Nation representative and undertake private system assessments for water and/or septic including GPS coordinates, photographs, assessment forms and sampling.
  • Meet back with Lead/Senior Inspector at wastewater location and assist with sampling, if required.

Sampling Requirements

Water Sampling

The terms of reference state, "The sampling program for public water systems should reflect the requirements of the most stringent regulations applicable in the Province in which the community is located. However, should an adequate sampling program already be in place, then existing data may be used. Bidders should assume sampling and testing will be required for 5% of total wells, septics, and cisterns identified in SW5. Septics and cisterns only require a visual inspection. All bidders are required to carry a $500,000 allowance for this purpose. Any variances should be identified in the Inception Report."

Health Canada data is anticipated to be available for the majority of the water systems. Where data is not available, sampling will be conducted as part of the inspection.

Minimum existing data required will include:

Community systems

  • bacteriological – monthly available for previous year
  • general chemistry – annually (treated)
  • full Volatile Organic Compound analysis – within 5 years

Private wells

  • bacteriological – one sample within past year
  • basic chemistry – one sample within past year

For public systems where data is not available, treated water samples will be obtained and submitted to a laboratory for testing that would include; Basic Chemistry, Full Metals Scan, Bacteria and Volatile Organic Compounds.

For public systems that include a piped distribution system and where distributed water quality data is not available, a sample will be taken from the most remote point in the distribution system and sampled for Disinfection By-Products.

For individual wells, samples will be obtained from a representative number of wells (5% of total wells) in the community. The testing will include; Basic Chemistry, Full Metals Scan and Bacteria.

Wastewater Sampling

For systems lacking existing discharge quality data, and that will be discharging at the time of the site visit, representative samples will be obtained and submitted to a laboratory for testing. This would include seasonal discharges at the time of the site visit and from plants with continuous discharge to a receiving body. Sewage treatment systems providing an equivalent to secondary treatment (lagoons, and mechanical facilities) for which effluent quality data does not include the parameters of BOD5, TSS, and E.Coli, will be sampled in the field, if they are in fact discharging at the time of site visit. Similarly, sewage treatment systems providing an equivalent to tertiary treatment for which effluent quality data does not include BOD5, TSS, Ammonia, Total Phosphorous and E.Coli, will be sampled in the field, if they are in fact discharging at the time of the site visit.

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary

Table D.1 - 1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source Treatment Class Const Year Design Capacity [m3/d] Actual Capacity [m3/d] Max Daily Volume [m3/d] Disin-fection
438 Alexander 6731 ALEXANDER NO. 134 (6650) MTA MTA 1989       MTA
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 6730 ALEXIS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 133 (6649) Surface Water Level II 1997 821 450 450 Yes
445 Beaver First Nation 6739 BEAVER - BOYER NO. 164 (6661) Surface Water Level III 1995 233 233 164 Yes
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation 6764 BEAVER LAKE NO. 131 (6701) Surface Water Level II 1982 259.2 181.4 216.72 Yes
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6757 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166 (6691) MTA MTA 0     62 MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6758 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166A (6692) MTA MTA 0     757 MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6759 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166B (6693) MTA MTA 0     14.4 MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6760 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166C (6694) Surface Water Level II 2001 254 254 183 Yes
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6761 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166D (6695) MTA MTA 1999     1130.6 MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6725 BLOOD NO. 148 - LEVERN (6645) Ground- water Level I 2004 450 450 351 Yes
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6728 BLOOD NO. 148 - MOSES LAKE (6645) MTA MTA 1968 Unknown Unknown 552 MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6726 BLOOD NO. 148 - OLD AGENCY (6645) Ground- water Level I 2006 916 916 68 Yes
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6723 BLOOD NO. 148 - ST. MARY (6645) Ground- water Level I 1995 Unknown Unknown 183 Yes
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6724 BLOOD NO. 148 - ST. PAUL (6645) Ground- water Level I 1996 240 240 212 Yes
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6722 BLOOD NO. 148 - STANDOFF (UPPER/ LOWER) (6645) Ground- water Level I 1997 3456 3456 1334 Yes
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6727 BLOOD NO. 148 - WHOOP UP (6645) Ground- water GUDI Level II 2001 262 262 96 Yes
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation 6776 CHIPE- WYAN PRAIRIE - JANVIER NO. 194 (6726) MTA MTA 1997     402 MTA
464 Cold Lake First Nations 6768 COLD LAKE NO. 149 (6712) MTA MTA 1973 314 273 273 MTA
448 Dene Tha' 6745 DENE THA' - BUSHE RIVER NO. 207 (6670) MTA MTA 0       MTA
448 Dene Tha' 6746 DENE THA' - HAY LAKE NO. 209 CHATEH (6671) Surface Water Level III 1967 538 538 462 Yes
448 Dene Tha' 6747 DENE THA' - UPPER HAY RIVER NO. 212 MEANDER (6673) Ground- water Level I 1984 622 622 405 Yes
450 Driftpile First Nation 6749 DRIFTPILE RIVER NO. 150 (6677) Surface Water Level III 2006 600 600 595 Yes
451 Duncan's First Nation 6750 DUNCANS NO. 151A (6678) Ground- water Small System 1993 330 330 150 Yes
440 Enoch Cree Nation 6733 ENOCH - STONY PLAIN NO. 135 (6652) Ground- water Level I 1972 1032 1032 507 Yes
440 Enoch Cree Nation NEW001 MILLENIUM (NE SUBDIV- ISION) WATER SYSTEM MTA MTA 2005 51 51 51 MTA
443 Ermine- skin Tribe 6736 ERMINE- SKIN NO. 138 (6657) Ground- water Level I 1970 1296 862 903 Yes
467 Fort McKay First Nation 6773 FORT MCKAY NO. 174 (6718) MTA MTA 2004 900 900 672 MTA
468 Fort McMurray First Nation 6774 FORT MCMURRAY - GREGOIRE LAKE NO. 176 (6722) MTA MTA 1985 185 185 185 MTA
465 Frog Lake 6771 FROG LAKE - UNIPOU- HEOS NO. 121 (6715) Surface Water Level II 1994 1227 984 873 Yes
469 Heart Lake 6775 HEART LAKE NO. 167 (6725) Surface Water Level II 1986 238 238 175 Yes
449 Horse Lake First Nation 6748 HORSE LAKES NO. 152B (6676) Ground- water Small System 1985 907 690 480 Yes
452 Kapa- we'no First Nation 6751 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 150B (6680) MTA MTA 1984 114 114 114 MTA
452 Kapa- we'no First Nation 7099 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 231 NARROWS (9092) Surface Water Level II 2001 138 138 20 Yes
466 Kehewin Cree Nation 6772 KEHEWIN NO. 123 (6717) Surface Water Level II 1993 838 518 478 Yes
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6743 LRRCN - FOX LAKE NO. 162 (6666) Surface Water Level III 1988 1088 1088 1018 Yes
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6778 LRRCN - GARDEN CREEK INDIAN SETTL. (6736) Surface Water Level III 1987 563 563 546 Yes
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6744 LRRCN - JOHN D'OR PRAIRIE NO. 215 (6667) Surface Water Level III 1987 760 760 687 Yes
476 Loon River Cree 6464 LOON RIVER NO. 235 (9389) MTA MTA 1999 388 388 388 MTA
439 Louis Bull Tribe 6738 LOUIS BULL - PIGEON LAKE NO. 138A (6660) Ground- water Level I 2006 5.52 5.52 3 Yes
439 Louis Bull Tribe NEW002 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) - Pump- house #1 Ground- water None 1980 230 230 234 Yes
439 Louis Bull Tribe 6732 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) - Pump- house #2 Ground- water Level I 1994 655 655 585 Yes
439 Louis Bull Tribe NEW001 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) - Pump- house #3 Ground- water None 2004 262 262 56 Yes
453 Lubicon Lake NEW001 LUBICON LAKE COMM- UNITY WATER SYSTEM MTA MTA 0       MTA
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7097 MIKISEW - DOG HEAD NO. 218 (8495) MTA MTA 0       MTA
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 6777 MIKISEW CREE - ALLISON BAY NO. 219 (6734) Ground- water Small System 1998 118 118 102 Yes
442 Montana 6735 MONTANA NO. 139 (6656) Ground- water Level II 1996 327 327 332 Yes
431 O'Chiese First Nation NEW001 BREMNER- VILLE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Small System 1988 112 112 38 Yes
431 O'Chiese First Nation 6714 TOWNSITE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Small System 1996 199 199 79 Yes
441 Paul 6734 PAUL - WABAMUN NO. 133A (6653) Ground- water Level I 1982 795 795 246 Yes
436 Piikani Nation 6729 PIIKANI RESERVE (6647) Ground- water GUDI Level II 1987 2200 1581 1070 Yes
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 6765 SADDLE LAKE NO. 125 (6702) Surface Water Level III 1987 1382 1382 1271 Yes
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 6766 WHITEFISH LAKE NO. 128 - GOODFISH (6703) Surface Water Level II 1981 786 786 421 Yes
462 Saddle Lake First Nation NEW001 WHITEFISH WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1997 190 190 117 Yes
444 Samson 6737 SAMSON NO. 137 (6658) Ground- water Level I 1978 2780 2780 1591 Yes
454 Sawridge 6752 SAWRIDGE NO. 150G (6683) MTA MTA 0     41.3 MTA
430 Siksika Nation 6712 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - EAST SIKSIKA (6636) Ground- water GUDI Level II 2000 528 528 602 Yes
430 Siksika Nation 6708 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - SHOULDICE (6636) Ground- water Small System 1989 240 240 52 Yes
430 Siksika Nation NEW001 WEST SIKSIKA (ARTHUR AYOUNG- MAN) WATER SYSTEM Ground- water GUDI Level II 2002 1210 1210 970 Yes
477 Smith's Landing First Nation NEW001 SMITH'S LANDING FIRST NATION MTA MTA MTA 0       MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation NEW001 NAKODA RESORT (CASINO) WATER SYSTEM MTA MTA 2008 Unknown Unknown 23 MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6716 STONEY - BIG HORN NO. 144A (6640) Ground- water Level II 2000 544 544 78 Yes
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6717 STONEY - EDEN VALLEY NO. 216 (6641) Surface Water Level II 2006 504 504 229 Yes
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6719 STONEY NO. 142- 143- 144 EAST MORLEY (6642) Surface Water Level II 1999 14.4 14.4 14 Yes
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6718 STONEY NO. 142- 143- 144 MORLEY TOWNSITE (6642) Ground- water GUDI Level II 2001 761 761 269 Yes
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6720 STONEY NO. 142- 143- 144 NORTH SIDE (6642) Ground- water Level I 1978 1503 1503 233 Yes
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation 6754 STURGEON LAKE NO. 154 (6685) Surface Water Level III 1994 1200 1200 571 Yes
456 Sucker Creek 6755 SUCKER CREEK NO. 150A (6688) Surface Water Level III 2004 864 864 280 Yes
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW001 BLUE PUMP- HOUSE Ground- water Level I 1993 173 173 173 No
434 Sunchild First Nation 6721 SUNCHILD NO. 202 (6644) Ground- water Level I 1985 483 272 191 Yes
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW003 WEST PUMP- HOUSE (Westend Pumphouse) Ground- water Level I 1995 129.6 130 84.8 Yes
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW002 WEST WATER TREATMENT PLANT (New Subdivision WTP) Ground- water Level I 2001 164 164 143 Yes
457 Swan River First Nation 6756 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) MTA MTA 2007 500 500 226.2 MTA
457 Swan River First Nation NEW001 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) - Rural Water System MTA MTA 1990 114.3 38.1 114.3 MTA
446 Tallcree   Beaver Ranch Truck Haul System MTA MTA 1990       MTA
446 Tallcree 6741 TALL CREE NO. 173 - SOUTH (6664) Surface Water Level III 1989 120 120 262 Yes
446 Tallcree 6742 TALL CREE NO. 173A NORTH (6665) Surface Water Level III 2008 348 348 320 Yes
446 Tallcree 7100 TALLCREE - FORT VERMILION NO. 173B (9142) MTA MTA 1994       MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation   Business Park MTA Water System MTA MTA 2007     169 MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation 6715 TSUU T'INA NATION NO. 145 (6639) Ground- water Small System 1989 233 233 89 Yes
459 Whitefish Lake 6762 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 - UTIK- OOMAK LAKE NO. 155 (Atikameg) (6696) Surface Water Level II 1989 544.8 346 344 Yes
459 Whitefish Lake 6763 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 - UTIK- OOMAK LAKE NO. 155A (6697) Ground- water Level I 1997 138 22 15 Yes
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 6462 WOODLAND CREE NO. 226 - CADOTTE LAKE (9067) MTA MTA 1999 377 377 377 MTA
Table D.1 - 1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems (continued)
First Nation Information Storage Information
Band # Band Name Storage Type Storage Capacity
438 Alexander Underground MTA
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation Underground 720
445 Beaver First Nation Underground 409
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation Underground 365
458 Bigstone Cree Nation None MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation   MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation None MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Underground 460
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Underground MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Underground 1018
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) None MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Underground 220
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Underground 1010
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Underground 350
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Underground 3636
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Underground 96
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation   MTA
464 Cold Lake First Nations Underground MTA
448 Dene Tha' None MTA
448 Dene Tha' Underground 2394
448 Dene Tha' Underground 1040
450 Driftpile First Nation Underground 1650
451 Duncan's First Nation Underground 374
440 Enoch Cree Nation Underground 275
440 Enoch Cree Nation Standpipe MTA
443 Ermineskin Tribe Underground 1892
467 Fort McKay First Nation   MTA
468 Fort McMurray First Nation Underground MTA
465 Frog Lake Underground 800
469 Heart Lake Underground 1245
449 Horse Lake First Nation Underground 324
452 Kapawe'no First Nation None MTA
452 Kapawe'no First Nation Standpipe 48
466 Kehewin Cree Nation Underground 105
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Underground 528
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Underground 510
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Underground 880
476 Loon River Cree Underground MTA
439 Louis Bull Tribe Underground 137
439 Louis Bull Tribe Underground 114
439 Louis Bull Tribe Underground 1138
439 Louis Bull Tribe Grade level 2.2
453 Lubicon Lake   MTA
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation None MTA
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation Underground 249
442 Montana Underground 624
431 O'Chiese First Nation    
431 O'Chiese First Nation Underground 480
441 Paul Underground 636
436 Piikani Nation Underground 1258
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Underground 650
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Underground 1450
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Underground 475
444 Samson Underground 1136
454 Sawridge None MTA
430 Siksika Nation Underground 345
430 Siksika Nation Underground 38
430 Siksika Nation Underground 650
477 Smith's Landing First Nation None MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation   MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Underground 910
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Grade level, Underground 1040
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Underground 45
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Grade level, Underground 1390
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Standpipe 640
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation Underground 717
456 Sucker Creek Underground 800
434 Sunchild First Nation None  
434 Sunchild First Nation Underground 760
434 Sunchild First Nation Grade level 5
434 Sunchild First Nation Underground 480
457 Swan River First Nation Underground MTA
457 Swan River First Nation None MTA
446 Tallcree None MTA
446 Tallcree Underground 590
446 Tallcree Underground 700
446 Tallcree None MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation None MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Grade level 46
459 Whitefish Lake Underground 360
459 Whitefish Lake Underground 255
474 Woodland Cree First Nation None MTA
Table D.1 - 1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems (continued)
First Nation Information Distribution System Information
Band # Band Name Distribution Class Population Served Homes Piped Homes Trucked Number of Trucks in Service Pipe Length Pipe Length/ Connection
438 Alexander Level I 888 83 111 2 14895.8 179
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation Level I 551 95 0 0 11549 121
445 Beaver First Nation Small System 521 0 132 2    
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation Small System 430 34 68 1 10417 306
458 Bigstone Cree Nation MTA 492 0 78 3    
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Level I 1091 143 30 3 7003.5 48
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Small System 328 0 52 2    
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Small System 347 26 29 2 3383 130
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Level I 1666 203 61 3 15330 75
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Level I 1199 75 147 4 7399 98
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) MTA 1075 69 130 4 9465.2 137
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Level I 270 11 39 4 9544.34 867
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Level I 108 20 0 0 2859 142
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Level I 216 40 0 0 500.2 12
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Level I 3315 376 238 4 58904 156
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Small System 102 11 8 4 6441 585
470 Chipe- wyan Prairie First Nation Level I 458 115 15 1 5305 46
464 Cold Lake First Nations Level I 1191 29 209 2 12591 434
448 Dene Tha' NA 511 0 142 1    
448 Dene Tha' Level I 1215 86 206 1 8642 100
448 Dene Tha' Small System 467 120 10 1 5271 43
450 Driftpile First Nation Level I 1037 166 89 2 18987.95 114
451 Duncan's First Nation Small System 195 35 14 1 5028 143
440 Enoch Cree Nation Level I 969 88 100 3 4178 47
440 Enoch Cree Nation Level I 52 10 0 0 500 50
443 Ermine- skin Tribe Level I 1162 130 41 3 17318 133
467 Fort McKay First Nation MTA 700 183 0 0 1130 6
468 Fort McMurray First Nation MTA 331 0 78 1    
465 Frog Lake Level II 900 28 233 7 20026.5 715
469 Heart Lake Small System 255 17 30 1 2991 175
449 Horse Lake First Nation Small System 492 91 0 0 6549 71
452 Kapa- we'no First Nation MTA 126 40 4 0 1827 45
452 Kapa- we'no First Nation Small System 1 0 0 0    
466 Kehewin Cree Nation Level I 1189 98 204 3 18399 187
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Level I 2187 183 106 2 12789 69
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Level I 727 97 0 0 5277 54
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Level I 1545 195 87 2 8562 43
476 Loon River Cree Level I 573 90 49 0 25002 277
439 Louis Bull Tribe Small System 95 0 0 0    
439 Louis Bull Tribe Small System 240 34 0 0 6719 197
439 Louis Bull Tribe Level I 720 94 8 0 6130 65
439 Louis Bull Tribe Small System 57 8 0 0 5195 649
453 Lubicon Lake NA 309 0 63 1    
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation NA 101 0 39 2    
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation Small System 82 33 0 0 1982 60
442 Montana Small System 483 73 25 1 4727 64
431 O'Chiese First Nation Small System 39 11 0 0 540 49
431 O'Chiese First Nation Small System 81 23 0 0 1796 78
441 Paul Small System 362 47 25 1 11785 250
436 Piikani Nation Level I 1522 188 40 2 119122.5 633
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Level I 4508 178 449 5 11125 62
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Level I 1943 29 241 4 6960.5 240
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Small System 284 0 40 1    
444 Samson Level II 1675 313 0 0 22532.5 71
454 Sawridge MTA 51 16 4 1 1556 97
430 Siksika Nation Level II 532 131 0 0 28832 220
430 Siksika Nation Small System 53 13 0 0 500 38
430 Siksika Nation Level II 1941 478 0 0 42997 89
477 Smith's Landing First Nation MTA 50 0 17 0    
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation MTA 24 5 0 0    
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Small System 80 16 0 0 11736 733
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Small System 192 13 27 0 4136 318
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Small System 29 6 0 0 3860 643
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Level I 1036 10 207 6 9491 949
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Small System 239 50 0 0 15333 306
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation Level I 1408 116 170 3 13190 113
456 Sucker Creek Level I 845 55 174 3 11060 201
434 Sunchild First Nation Small System 122 25 0 0 700 28
434 Sunchild First Nation Small System 196 40 0 0 5766 144
434 Sunchild First Nation Small System 29 6 0 0 640 106
434 Sunchild First Nation Small System 147 30 0 0 1085 36
457 Swan River First Nation Small System 324 66 0 0 2118 32
457 Swan River First Nation MTA 127 26 0 0    
446 Tallcree MTA 31 0 6 0    
446 Tallcree Small System 257 49 1 0 6064 123
446 Tallcree Small System 242 40 1 0 3956 98
446 Tallcree Small System 113 22 0 0 1569 71
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Small System 207 50 0 0 9093 181
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Small System 152 7 30 1 2307 329
459 Whitefish Lake Level I 897 138 104 2 24197.2 175
459 Whitefish Lake Small System 119 0 30 1    
474 Woodland Cree First Nation Level I 913 64 126 0 9081 141

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary (continued)

Table D.1 - 2: Water System Information
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source
438 Alexander 6731 ALEXANDER NO. 134 (6650) MTA
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 6730 ALEXIS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 133 (6649) Surface Water
445 Beaver First Nation 6739 BEAVER - BOYER NO. 164 (6661) Surface Water
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation 6764 BEAVER LAKE NO. 131 (6701) Surface Water
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6757 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166 (6691) MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6758 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166A (6692) MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6759 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166B (6693) MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6760 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166C (6694) Surface Water
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6761 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166D (6695) MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6725 BLOOD NO. 148 - LEVERN (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6728 BLOOD NO. 148 - MOSES LAKE (6645) MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6726 BLOOD NO. 148 - OLD AGENCY (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6723 BLOOD NO. 148 - ST. MARY (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6724 BLOOD NO. 148 - ST. PAUL (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6722 BLOOD NO. 148 - STANDOFF (UPPER/LOWER) (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6727 BLOOD NO. 148 - WHOOP UP (6645) Groundwater GUDI
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation 6776 CHIPEWYAN PRAIRIE - JANVIER NO. 194 (6726) MTA
464 Cold Lake First Nations 6768 COLD LAKE NO. 149 (6712) MTA
448 Dene Tha' 6745 DENE THA' -BUSHE RIVER NO. 207 (6670) MTA
448 Dene Tha' 6746 DENE THA' - HAY LAKE NO. 209 CHATEH (6671) Surface Water
448 Dene Tha' 6747 DENE THA' - UPPER HAY RIVER NO. 212 MEANDER (6673) Groundwater
450 Driftpile First Nation 6749 DRIFTPILE RIVER NO. 150 (6677) Surface Water
451 Duncan's First Nation 6750 DUNCANS NO. 151A (6678) Groundwater
440 Enoch Cree Nation 6733 ENOCH -STONY PLAIN NO. 135 (6652) Groundwater
440 Enoch Cree Nation NEW001 MILLENIUM (NE SUBDIVISION) WATER SYSTEM MTA
443 Ermineskin Tribe 6736 ERMINESKIN NO. 138 (6657) Groundwater
467 Fort McKay First Nation 6773 FORT MCKAY NO. 174 (6718) MTA
468 Fort McMurray First Nation 6774 FORT MCMURRAY - GREGOIRE LAKE NO. 176 (6722) MTA
465 Frog Lake 6771 FROG LAKE - UNIPOUHEOS NO. 121 (6715) Surface Water
469 Heart Lake 6775 HEART LAKE NO. 167 (6725) Surface Water
449 Horse Lake First Nation 6748 HORSE LAKES NO. 152B (6676) Groundwater
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 6751 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 150B (6680) MTA
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 7099 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 231 NARROWS (9092) Surface Water
466 Kehewin Cree Nation 6772 KEHEWIN NO. 123 (6717) Surface Water
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6743 LRRCN - FOX LAKE NO. 162 (6666) Surface Water
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6778 LRRCN - GARDEN CREEK INDIAN SETTL. (6736) Surface Water
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6744 LRRCN - JOHN D'OR PRAIRIE NO. 215 (6667) Surface Water
476 Loon River Cree 6464 LOON RIVER NO. 235 (9389) MTA
439 Louis Bull Tribe 6738 LOUIS BULL - PIGEON LAKE NO. 138A (6660) Groundwater
439 Louis Bull Tribe NEW002 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) - Pumphouse #1 Groundwater
439 Louis Bull Tribe 6732 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) - Pumphouse #2 Groundwater
439 Louis Bull Tribe NEW001 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) - Pumphouse #3 Groundwater
453 Lubicon Lake NEW001 LUBICON LAKE COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEM MTA
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7097 MIKISEW - DOG HEAD NO. 218 (8495) MTA
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 6777 MIKISEW CREE - ALLISON BAY NO. 219 (6734) Groundwater
442 Montana 6735 MONTANA NO. 139 (6656) Groundwater
431 O'Chiese First Nation NEW001 BREMNERVILLE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
431 O'Chiese First Nation 6714 TOWNSITE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
441 Paul 6734 PAUL - WABAMUN NO. 133A (6653) Groundwater
436 Piikani Nation 6729 PIIKANI RESERVE (6647) Groundwater GUDI
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 6765 SADDLE LAKE NO. 125 (6702) Surface Water
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 6766 WHITEFISH LAKE NO. 128 - GOODFISH (6703) Surface Water
462 Saddle Lake First Nation NEW001 WHITEFISH WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
444 Samson 6737 SAMSON NO. 137 (6658) Groundwater
454 Sawridge 6752 SAWRIDGE NO. 150G (6683) MTA
430 Siksika Nation 6712 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - EAST SIKSIKA (6636) Groundwater GUDI
430 Siksika Nation 6708 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - SHOULDICE (6636) Groundwater
430 Siksika Nation NEW001 WEST SIKSIKA (ARTHUR AYOUNGMAN) WATER SYSTEM Groundwater GUDI
477 Smith's Landing First Nation NEW001 SMITH'S LANDING FIRST NATION MTA MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation NEW001 NAKODA RESORT (CASINO) WATER SYSTEM MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6716 STONEY - BIG HORN NO. 144A (6640) Groundwater
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6717 STONEY - EDEN VALLEY NO. 216 (6641) Surface Water
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6719 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 EAST MORLEY (6642) Surface Water
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6718 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 MORLEY TOWNSITE (6642) Groundwater GUDI
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6720 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 NORTH SIDE (6642) Groundwater
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation 6754 STURGEON LAKE NO. 154 (6685) Surface Water
456 Sucker Creek 6755 SUCKER CREEK NO. 150A (6688) Surface Water
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW001 BLUE PUMPHOUSE Groundwater
434 Sunchild First Nation 6721 SUNCHILD NO. 202 (6644) Groundwater
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW003 WEST PUMPHOUSE (Westend Pumphouse) Groundwater
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW002 WEST WATER TREATMENT PLANT (New Subdivision WTP) Groundwater
457 Swan River First Nation 6756 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) MTA
457 Swan River First Nation NEW001 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) - Rural Water System MTA
446 Tallcree   Beaver Ranch Truck Haul System MTA
446 Tallcree 6741 TALL CREE NO. 173 - SOUTH (6664) Surface Water
446 Tallcree 6742 TALL CREE NO. 173A NORTH (6665) Surface Water
446 Tallcree 7100 TALLCREE - FORT VERMILION NO. 173B (9142) MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation   Business Park MTA Water System MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation 6715 TSUU T'INA NATION NO. 145 (6639) Groundwater
459 Whitefish Lake 6762 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 - UTIKOOMAK LAKE NO. 155 (Atikameg) (6696) Surface Water
459 Whitefish Lake 6763 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 - UTIKOOMAK LAKE NO. 155A (6697) Groundwater
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 6462 WOODLAND CREE NO. 226 - CADOTTE LAKE (9067) MTA
Table D.1 - 2: Water Quality Information
First Nation Information Water Quality Information
Band # Band Name Meets/Does Not Meet GCDWQ Cause of Failure Fails Health Guide- lines Fails Aesthetic Guide- lines Fails MAC by Design Fails MAC by Oper- ation DWA In Effect DWA Count
438 Alexander Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation High Freq AND High Mag Operation Yes Yes Yes Yes   2
445 Beaver First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes Yes No No Yes 1
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation High Freq OR High Mag Design Yes No No No No 0
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Both Yes No No No No 0
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A N/A No No 0
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Both Yes No No No No 0
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Low Freq, Low Mag Unknown Yes Yes Yes Yes No 0
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) High Freq OR High Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) High Freq OR High Mag Design Yes Yes No No Yes 1
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
464 Cold Lake First Nations High Freq OR High Mag Design Yes No No No No 0
448 Dene Tha' High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes No Yes Yes No 0
448 Dene Tha' High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes Yes No No Yes 1
448 Dene Tha' High Freq AND High Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
450 Driftpile First Nation Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
451 Duncan's First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
440 Enoch Cree Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Design Yes Yes No Yes No 0
440 Enoch Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
443 Ermineskin Tribe High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No No 0
467 Fort McKay First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
468 Fort McMurray First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
465 Frog Lake High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes No No Yes Yes 1
469 Heart Lake High Freq OR High Mag Design Yes No No No   2
449 Horse Lake First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Design Yes Yes No No Yes 1
452 Kapawe'no First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
452 Kapawe'no First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes No No No Yes 1
466 Kehewin Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
447 Little Red River Cree Nation High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes Yes No No No 0
447 Little Red River Cree Nation High Freq OR High Mag Operation Yes Yes No No Yes 1
447 Little Red River Cree Nation High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes Yes No No   2
476 Loon River Cree Low Freq, Low Mag Unknown Yes No No No No 0
439 Louis Bull Tribe High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No No No 0
439 Louis Bull Tribe High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
439 Louis Bull Tribe Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
439 Louis Bull Tribe High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
453 Lubicon Lake High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes No Yes Yes No 0
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
442 Montana High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes Yes No No No 0
431 O'Chiese First Nation High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes No No No Yes 1
431 O'Chiese First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Operation N/A N/A No No   2
441 Paul High Freq OR High Mag Operation Yes Yes No No No 0
436 Piikani Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes No Yes No 0
462 Saddle Lake First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Design Yes Yes No No No 0
462 Saddle Lake First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Design Yes Yes No No No 0
444 Samson High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No Yes 1
454 Sawridge Low Freq, Low Mag Design Yes No No No No 0
430 Siksika Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
430 Siksika Nation High Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
430 Siksika Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
477 Smith's Landing First Nation High Freq AND High Mag Unknown N/A N/A No No No 0
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No Yes Yes 1
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation High Freq OR High Mag Design Yes No No No Yes 1
456 Sucker Creek High Freq OR High Mag Design Yes No No No No 0
434 Sunchild First Nation High Freq AND High Mag Design Yes No No No No 0
434 Sunchild First Nation High Freq AND High Mag Operation Yes No No No No 0
434 Sunchild First Nation High Freq AND High Mag Operation Yes Yes No Yes Yes 1
434 Sunchild First Nation High Freq AND High Mag Operation Yes No No Yes No 0
457 Swan River First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Unknown Yes No No No No 0
457 Swan River First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Unknown Yes No No No No 0
446 Tallcree High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes No N/A No No 0
446 Tallcree High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes Yes No Yes Yes 1
446 Tallcree Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes No No No Yes 1
446 Tallcree Low Freq, Low Mag Design Yes No No No No 0
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation High Freq, Low Mag Both No Yes No No No 0
459 Whitefish Lake Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes No No No No 0
459 Whitefish Lake High Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No No Yes 1
474 Woodland Cree First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Unknown Yes No No No No 0

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary (continued)

Table D.1 - 3: Water System Information
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source
438 Alexander 6731 ALEXANDER NO. 134 (6650) MTA
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 6730 ALEXIS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 133 (6649) Surface Water
445 Beaver First Nation 6739 BEAVER - BOYER NO. 164 (6661) Surface Water
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation 6764 BEAVER LAKE NO. 131 (6701) Surface Water
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6757 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166 (6691) MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6758 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166A (6692) MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6759 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166B (6693) MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6760 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166C (6694) Surface Water
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6761 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166D (6695) MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6725 BLOOD NO. 148 - LEVERN (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6728 BLOOD NO. 148 - MOSES LAKE (6645) MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6726 BLOOD NO. 148 - OLD AGENCY (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6723 BLOOD NO. 148 -ST. MARY (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6724 BLOOD NO. 148 - ST. PAUL (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6722 BLOOD NO. 148 - STANDOFF (UPPER/LOWER) (6645) Groundwater
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6727 BLOOD NO. 148 - WHOOP UP (6645) Groundwater GUDI
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation 6776 CHIPEWYAN PRAIRIE - JANVIER NO. 194 (6726) MTA
464 Cold Lake First Nations 6768 COLD LAKE NO. 149 (6712) MTA
448 Dene Tha' 6745 DENE THA' -BUSHE RIVER NO. 207 (6670) MTA
448 Dene Tha' 6746 DENE THA' - HAY LAKE NO. 209 CHATEH (6671) Surface Water
448 Dene Tha' 6747 DENE THA' - UPPER HAY RIVER NO. 212 MEANDER (6673) Groundwater
450 Driftpile First Nation 6749 DRIFTPILE RIVER NO. 150 (6677) Surface Water
451 Duncan's First Nation 6750 DUNCANS NO. 151A (6678) Groundwater
440 Enoch Cree Nation 6733 ENOCH -STONY PLAIN NO. 135 (6652) Groundwater
440 Enoch Cree Nation NEW001 MILLENIUM (NE SUBDIVISION) WATER SYSTEM MTA
443 Ermineskin Tribe 6736 ERMINESKIN NO. 138 (6657) Groundwater
467 Fort McKay First Nation 6773 FORT MCKAY NO. 174 (6718) MTA
468 Fort McMurray First Nation 6774 FORT MCMURRAY -GREGOIRE LAKE NO. 176 (6722) MTA
465 Frog Lake 6771 FROG LAKE - UNIPOUHEOS NO. 121 (6715) Surface Water
469 Heart Lake 6775 HEART LAKE NO. 167 (6725) Surface Water
449 Horse Lake First Nation 6748 HORSE LAKES NO. 152B (6676) Groundwater
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 6751 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 150B (6680) MTA
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 7099 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 231 NARROWS (9092) Surface Water
466 Kehewin Cree Nation 6772 KEHEWIN NO. 123 (6717) Surface Water
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6743 LRRCN - FOX LAKE NO. 162 (6666) Surface Water
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6778 LRRCN - GARDEN CREEK INDIAN SETTL. (6736) Surface Water
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6744 LRRCN - JOHN D'OR PRAIRIE NO. 215 (6667) Surface Water
476 Loon River Cree 6464 LOON RIVER NO. 235 (9389) MTA
439 Louis Bull Tribe 6738 LOUIS BULL - PIGEON LAKE NO. 138A (6660) Groundwater
439 Louis Bull Tribe NEW002 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) - Pumphouse #1 Groundwater
439 Louis Bull Tribe 6732 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) - Pumphouse #2 Groundwater
439 Louis Bull Tribe NEW001 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) - Pumphouse #3 Groundwater
453 Lubicon Lake NEW001 LUBICON LAKE COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEM MTA
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7097 MIKISEW - DOG HEAD NO. 218 (8495) MTA
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 6777 MIKISEW CREE - ALLISON BAY NO. 219 (6734) Groundwater
442 Montana 6735 MONTANA NO. 139 (6656) Groundwater
431 O'Chiese First Nation NEW001 BREMNERVILLE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
431 O'Chiese First Nation 6714 TOWNSITE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
441 Paul 6734 PAUL - WABAMUN NO. 133A (6653) Groundwater
436 Piikani Nation 6729 PIIKANI RESERVE (6647) Groundwater GUDI
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 6765 SADDLE LAKE NO. 125 (6702) Surface Water
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 6766 WHITEFISH LAKE NO. 128 - GOODFISH (6703) Surface Water
462 Saddle Lake First Nation NEW001 WHITEFISH WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
444 Samson 6737 SAMSON NO. 137 (6658) Groundwater
454 Sawridge 6752 SAWRIDGE NO. 150G (6683) MTA
430 Siksika Nation 6712 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - EAST SIKSIKA (6636) Groundwater GUDI
430 Siksika Nation 6708 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - SHOULDICE (6636) Groundwater
430 Siksika Nation NEW001 WEST SIKSIKA (ARTHUR AYOUNGMAN) WATER SYSTEM Groundwater GUDI
477 Smith's Landing First Nation NEW001 SMITH'S LANDING FIRST NATION MTA MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation NEW001 NAKODA RESORT (CASINO) WATER SYSTEM MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6716 STONEY - BIG HORN NO. 144A (6640) Groundwater
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6717 STONEY - EDEN VALLEY NO. 216 (6641) Surface Water
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6719 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 EAST MORLEY (6642) Surface Water
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6718 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 MORLEY TOWNSITE (6642) Groundwater GUDI
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6720 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 NORTH SIDE (6642) Groundwater
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation 6754 STURGEON LAKE NO. 154 (6685) Surface Water
456 Sucker Creek 6755 SUCKER CREEK NO. 150A (6688) Surface Water
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW001 BLUE PUMPHOUSE Groundwater
434 Sunchild First Nation 6721 SUNCHILD NO. 202 (6644) Groundwater
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW003 WEST PUMPHOUSE (Westend Pumphouse) Groundwater
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW002 WEST WATER TREATMENT PLANT (New Subdivision WTP) Groundwater
457 Swan River First Nation 6756 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) MTA
457 Swan River First Nation NEW001 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) - Rural Water System MTA
446 Tallcree   Beaver Ranch Truck Haul System MTA
446 Tallcree 6741 TALL CREE NO. 173 - SOUTH (6664) Surface Water
446 Tallcree 6742 TALL CREE NO. 173A NORTH (6665) Surface Water
446 Tallcree 7100 TALLCREE - FORT VERMILION NO. 173B (9142) MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation   Business Park MTA Water System MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation 6715 TSUU T'INA NATION NO. 145 (6639) Groundwater
459 Whitefish Lake 6762 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 - UTIKOOMAK LAKE NO. 155 (Atikameg) (6696) Surface Water
459 Whitefish Lake 6763 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 - UTIKOOMAK LAKE NO. 155A (6697) Groundwater
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 6462 WOODLAND CREE NO. 226 - CADOTTE LAKE (9067) MTA
Table D.1 - 3: Operator Information
First Nation Information Operator Information
Band # Band Name Primary Operator Exists Primary Operator Treatment Class Primary Operator Distribution Class Secondary Operator Exists Secondary Operator Treatment Class Secondary Operator Distribution Class
438 Alexander Yes Not Required No Certification No Not Required  
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation Yes Level II No Certification Yes Not Required No Certification
445 Beaver First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
458 Bigstone Cree Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required Level I
458 Bigstone Cree Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level II Level II
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required Level II
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Not Required No Operator
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required No Certification
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Not Required No Operator
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Not Required No Operator
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Not Required No Operator
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Not Required No Operator
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Not Required No Operator
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation Yes Not Required No Certification No Not Required  
464 Cold Lake First Nations Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required No Certification
448 Dene Tha' NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
448 Dene Tha' Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification Level I
448 Dene Tha' Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
450 Driftpile First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
451 Duncan's First Nation Yes Not Required No Operator Yes No Certification No Certification
440 Enoch Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
440 Enoch Cree Nation Yes Not Required No Certification No Not Required  
443 Ermineskin Tribe Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
467 Fort McKay First Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
468 Fort McMurray First Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
465 Frog Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
469 Heart Lake Yes Not Required No Operator Yes Not Required No Operator
449 Horse Lake First Nation Yes Not Required No Operator Yes No Certification No Certification
452 Kapawe'no First Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
452 Kapawe'no First Nation Yes Level III Level I No Not Required No Operator
466 Kehewin Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Yes Not Required No Operator Yes No Certification No Certification
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Yes Not Required No Operator Yes No Certification No Certification
476 Loon River Cree Yes Not Required Level I Yes Not Required No Certification
439 Louis Bull Tribe Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
439 Louis Bull Tribe Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
439 Louis Bull Tribe Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
439 Louis Bull Tribe Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
453 Lubicon Lake No Not Required   No Not Required  
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required No Certification
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
442 Montana Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
431 O'Chiese First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
431 O'Chiese First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
441 Paul Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
436 Piikani Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Not Required No Operator
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Not Required No Operator
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Not Required No Operator
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Not Required No Operator
444 Samson Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level II Level II
454 Sawridge Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required No Certification
430 Siksika Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
430 Siksika Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
430 Siksika Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
477 Smith's Landing First Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level I
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
456 Sucker Creek Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
434 Sunchild First Nation No No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
434 Sunchild First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
434 Sunchild First Nation No Not Required No Operator No Not Required No Operator
434 Sunchild First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
457 Swan River First Nation Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required No Certification
457 Swan River First Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
446 Tallcree NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
446 Tallcree Yes Not Required Level I Yes Level II Level I
446 Tallcree Yes Level II Level I Yes Not Required Level I
446 Tallcree Yes Not Required Level I Yes Not Required  
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required No Certification
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
459 Whitefish Lake Yes Not Required No Operator No Not Required No Operator
459 Whitefish Lake Yes Not Required No Operator No Not Required No Operator
474 Woodland Cree First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification

Appendix D.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Summary

Table D.2 - 1: First Nation Information and Wastewater System Information
First Nation Information Wastewater System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Const Year Receiver Name Treatment Class Design Capacity [m3/d] Max Daily Volume [m3/d]
438 Alexander 7483 ALEXANDER NO. 134 (6650) 1989 River Level I 180 105
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 7482 ALEXIS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 133 (6649) 2006 Creek Level I 617 233
445 Beaver First Nation 7492 BEAVER - BOYER NO. 164 (6661) 2000 River Level I 57 77
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation 7514 BEAVER LAKE NO. 131 (6701) 1983 Wetland Level I 12.3 50
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7507 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166 (6691) 0 MTA MTA   8.1
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7508 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166A (6692) 0 MTA MTA   380.5
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7509 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166B (6693) 2000 Wetland Level I 177 186.5
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7510 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166C (6694) 1991 River Small System 47 59
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7511 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166D (6695) 1999 MTA MTA   176.2
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7477 BLOOD NO. 148 -LEVERN (6645) 1990 Other Level I 42 99
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7480 BLOOD NO. 148 -MOSES LAKE (6645) 1975 MTA MTA Unknown 123
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7478 BLOOD NO. 148 -OLD AGENCY (6645) 1980 Other Level I 5 22
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7475 BLOOD NO. 148 -ST. MARY (6645) 1994 Creek Level I 84 38
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7476 BLOOD NO. 148 -ST. PAUL (6645) 1998 Other Level I 52 53
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7474 BLOOD NO. 148 -STANDOFF (6645) 1990 Wetland Level I 760 642
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation 7526 CHIPEWYAN PRAIRIE - JANVIER NO. 194 (6726) 1993 Wetland Level I 200 155
464 Cold Lake First Nations 7518 COLD LAKE NO. 149 (6712) 1985 River Level I 54 46
464 Cold Lake First Nations 7519 COLD LAKE NO. 149A (6713) 2002 MTA MTA Unknown 10
448 Dene Tha' 7498 DENE THA' - BUSHE RIVER NO. 207 (6670) 0 MTA MTA    
448 Dene Tha' 7499 DENE THA' - HAY LAKE NO. 209 CHATEH (6671) 2002 Creek Level I 492 278
448 Dene Tha' 7500 DENE THA' - UPPER HAY RIVER NO. 212 MEANDER (6673) 1985 River Level II 168.5 189.5
450 Driftpile First Nation 7502 DRIFTPILE RIVER NO. 150 (6677) 2004 Creek Level I 600 493
451 Duncan's First Nation 7503 DUNCANS NO. 151A (6678) 1992 Wetland Small System 73 58
440 Enoch Cree Nation 7485 ENOCH -STONY PLAIN NO. 135 (6652) 1992 Lake, Reservoir Level I 121 235
440 Enoch Cree Nation   MILLENIUM (NE SUBDIVISION) WASTEWATER HOLDING TANK 2005 Other None 3.2 21.6
443 Ermineskin Tribe 7489 ERMINESKIN NO. 138 (6657) 1992 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 663 327
467 Fort McKay First Nation 7523 FORT MCKAY NO. 174 (6718) 0 MTA MTA 656 314
468 Fort McMurray First Nation 7524 FT. MCMURRAY - GREGOIRE LAKE NO. 176 (6722) 1995 Sub-Surface/ Ground Small System 81 31
465 Frog Lake 7521 FROG LAKE -UNIPOUHEOS NO. 121(6715) 1993 Wetland Level I 183 27
469 Heart Lake 7525 HEART LAKE NO. 167 (6725) 1984 Creek Level I 14.4  
449 Horse Lake First Nation 7501 HORSE LAKES NO. 152B (6676) 2003 River Level I 165 224
452 Kapawe'no First Nation NEW001 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 150B (6680) 1984 MTA MTA 48 48
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 7639 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 231 (9092) 2002 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 6 6
466 Kehewin Cree Nation 7522 KEHEWIN NO. 123 (6717) 2003 Wetland Level I 277 35
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 7496 LRRCN -FOX LAKE NO. 162 (6666) 1989 River Level I 220 519
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 7528 LRRCN -GARDEN CREEK INDIAN SETTLEMENT (6736) 1989 River Level I 130 262
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 7497 LRRCN -JOHN D'OR PRAIRIE NO. 215 (6667) 1996 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 145 374
476 Loon River Cree 7239 LOON LAKE NO. 235 (9389) 2000 Creek Level I 115 154
439 Louis Bull Tribe 7491 LOUIS BULL -PIGEON LAKE NO. 138A (6660) 2006 Evapouration Level I 106 3
439 Louis Bull Tribe 7484 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) 1997 Creek Level I 468 422
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7527 MIKISEW CREE - ALLISON BAY NO. 219 (6734) 1998 Evapouration Small System 96 34
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7637 MIKISEW CREE - DOG HEAD NO. 218 (8495) 0 MTA MTA    
442 Montana 7488 MONTANA NO. 139 (6656) 1996 Wetland Level I 398 149
431 O'Chiese First Nation NEW002 BREMNERVILLE SEPTIC SYSTEM 1988 Tile Field Small System Unknown 16
431 O'Chiese First Nation 7466 TOWNSITE COMMUNITY LAGOON SYSTEM 1995 Wetland Level I 96 38
441 Paul 7487 PAUL -WABAMUN NO. 133A (6653) 1984 Creek Level I 96 45
441 Paul   WABAMUN 133A SUBDIVISION LAGOON 1997 Wetland Level I 77 50
436 Piikani Nation 7481 PIIKANI RESERVE (6647) 1990 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 1282 558
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 7515 SADDLE LAKE NO. 125 (6702) 1975 River Level I 89 267
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 7516 WHITE FISH LAKE NO. 128 -GOODFISH (6703) 2010 Wetland Level I 381 257
462 Saddle Lake First Nation NEW002 WHITEFISH WASTEWATER SYSTEM 1996 Evapouration Level I 13.8 14.8
444 Samson 7490 SAMSON NO. 137 (6659) 1972 River Level I 848 786
454 Sawridge NEW001 SAWRIDGE NO. 150G (6683) 0 MTA MTA    
430 Siksika Nation 7461 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - LITTLE WASHINGTON (6636) 1989 River Level I 142.5 173
430 Siksika Nation 7460 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - SHOULDICE (6636) 1990 Evapouration Level I 14.5 22
430 Siksika Nation 7463 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - STOBART (6636) 1998 Creek Level I 51.5 64
430 Siksika Nation 7457 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - TOWNSITE (6636) 2001 Creek Level I 666 569
430 Siksika Nation 7462 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - WEST END (6636) 1987 Lake, Reservoir Level I 50 167
477 Smith's Landing First Nation NEW002 Smith's Landing First Nation MTA 0 MTA MTA    
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 7468 STONEY -BIG HORN NO. 144A (6640) 2008 Tile Field Level I 24 5
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 7470 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 MORLEY TOWNSITE (6642) 2009 Large River Level III 500 50
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation 7504 STURGEON LAKE NO. 154 (6685) 2001 Lake, Reservoir Level I 795 314
456 Sucker Creek 7505 SUCKER CREEK NO. 150A (6688) 2001 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level I 226 135
434 Sunchild First Nation 7473 SUNCHILD NO. 202 (6644) 1978 Creek Level I 114 82
457 Swan River First Nation 7506 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) 2002 River Level I 243 212
446 Tallcree 7494 TALL CREE NO. 173 -SOUTH (6664) 1998 Large River Level I 40 85
446 Tallcree 7495 TALL CREE NO. 173A NORTH (6665) 1985 Wetland Level I 61 103
446 Tallcree 7640 TALLCREE -FORT VERMILION NO. 173B (9142) 1994 MTA MTA    
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation NEW001 BUSINESS PARK MTA SEWAGE 1992 MTA MTA   215
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation 7467 TSUU T'INA NATION NO. 145 (6639) 1993 Creek Level I 26.3 63
459 Whitefish Lake 7512 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 -UTIKOOMAK LAKE NO. 155 (Atikameg) (6696) 1997 River Level I 351 214
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 7237 WOODLAND CREE NO. 226 - CADOTTE LAKE (9067) 1991 Wetland Level I 164 168
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 7238 WOODLAND CREE NO. 228 - MARTEN LAKE (9069) 2001 Wetland Small System 25 13
Table D.2 - 1: Wastewater System Information
First Nation Information Wastewater System Information
Band # Band Name Wastewater System Type Wastewater Treatment Level Wastewater Disinfection Chlorine Wastewater Disinfection UV Discharge Frequency Wastewater Sludge Treatment
438 Alexander Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
445 Beaver First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation Aerated lagoon Secondary     Continuous No
458 Bigstone Cree Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
458 Bigstone Cree Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Faculative lagoon Primary No No Spring, fall No
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other Yes
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
464 Cold Lake First Nations Faculative lagoon Secondary     Fall No
464 Cold Lake First Nations MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
448 Dene Tha' MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
448 Dene Tha' Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
448 Dene Tha' RBC Secondary No No Continuous No
450 Driftpile First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
451 Duncan's First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
440 Enoch Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
440 Enoch Cree Nation Other   No No Other Yes
443 Ermineskin Tribe Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
467 Fort McKay First Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
468 Fort McMurray First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
465 Frog Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
469 Heart Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
449 Horse Lake First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
452 Kapawe'no First Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
452 Kapawe'no First Nation Other Secondary No No Continuous No
466 Kehewin Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary     Other No
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other Yes
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
476 Loon River Cree Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
439 Louis Bull Tribe Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
439 Louis Bull Tribe Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other Yes
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
442 Montana Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
431 O'Chiese First Nation Septic Primary No No Continuous No
431 O'Chiese First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
441 Paul Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
441 Paul Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
436 Piikani Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other Yes
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
444 Samson Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
454 Sawridge MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
430 Siksika Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
430 Siksika Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
430 Siksika Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
430 Siksika Nation Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Other Yes
430 Siksika Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
477 Smith's Landing First Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Trickling Filter Plant Secondary No No Continuous No
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation SBR Tertiary No Yes Continuous Yes
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
456 Sucker Creek Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
434 Sunchild First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
457 Swan River First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
446 Tallcree Faculative lagoon Secondary     Other No
446 Tallcree Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
446 Tallcree MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
459 Whitefish Lake Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No
474 Woodland Cree First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
474 Woodland Cree First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Other No

Appendix D.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Summary (continued)

Table D.2 - 2: First Nation Information and Collection System Information
First Nation Information Collection System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Collection Type Collection Class Pop. Served Homes Piped
438 Alexander 7483 ALEXANDER NO. 134 (6650) Piped Small System 253 55
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 7482 ALEXIS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 133 (6649) Piped, Trucked Level I 603 95
445 Beaver First Nation 7492 BEAVER - BOYER NO. 164 (6661) Piped, Trucked Level I 521 20
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation 7514 BEAVER LAKE NO. 131 (6701) Piped, Trucked Small System 80 19
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7507 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166 (6691) Trucked NA 170 0
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7508 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166A (6692) Piped, Trucked Level I 971 143
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7509 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166B (6693) Trucked Small System 114 0
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7510 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166C (6694) Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Small System 227 26
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7511 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166D (6695) Piped, Trucked Level I 795 51
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7477 BLOOD NO. 148 - LEVERN (6645) Piped Small System 351 65
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7480 BLOOD NO. 148 - MOSES LAKE (6645) Piped MTA 297 55
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7478 BLOOD NO. 148 - OLD AGENCY (6645) Piped Small System 59 11
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7475 BLOOD NO. 148 - ST. MARY (6645) Piped Small System 81 15
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7476 BLOOD NO. 148 - ST. PAUL (6645) Piped Small System 108 20
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7474 BLOOD NO. 148 - STANDOFF (6645) Piped Level I 1571 291
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation 7526 CHIPEWYAN PRAIRIE - JANVIER NO. 194 (6726) Piped, Trucked Small System 458 51
464 Cold Lake First Nations 7518 COLD LAKE NO. 149 (6712) Piped Small System 110 22
464 Cold Lake First Nations 7519 COLD LAKE NO. 149A (6713) Piped Level I 25 5
448 Dene Tha' 7498 DENE THA' - BUSHE RIVER NO. 207 (6670) Trucked NA 511 0
448 Dene Tha' 7499 DENE THA' - HAY LAKE NO. 209 CHATEH (6671) Piped, Trucked Level I 1215 86
448 Dene Tha' 7500 DENE THA' - UPPER HAY RIVER NO. 212 MEANDER (6673) Piped, Trucked Small System 467 120
450 Driftpile First Nation 7502 DRIFTPILE RIVER NO. 150 (6677) Piped, Trucked Level I 566 124
451 Duncan's First Nation 7503 DUNCANS NO. 151A (6678) Piped Small System 140 35
440 Enoch Cree Nation 7485 ENOCH - STONY PLAIN NO. 135 (6652) Piped Level I 567 100
440 Enoch Cree Nation   MILLENIUM (NE SUBDIVISION) WASTEWATER HOLDING TANK Piped, Trucked Small System 52 10
443 Ermineskin Tribe 7489 ERMINESKIN NO. 138 (6657) Piped Level I 833 130
467 Fort McKay First Nation 7523 FORT MCKAY NO. 174 (6718) Piped MTA 700 183
468 Fort McMurray First Nation 7524 FT. MCMURRAY - GREGOIRE LAKE NO. 176 (6722) Trucked NA 339 0
465 Frog Lake 7521 FROG LAKE - UNIPOUHEOS NO. 121(6715) Piped, Trucked Small System 76 4
469 Heart Lake 7525 HEART LAKE NO. 167 (6725) Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Small System 87 6
449 Horse Lake First Nation 7501 HORSE LAKES NO. 152B (6676) Piped, Low Pressure Level I 540 100
452 Kapawe'no First Nation NEW001 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 150B (6680) Piped Small System 115 40
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 7639 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 231 (9092) Piped Small System 1 0
466 Kehewin Cree Nation 7522 KEHEWIN NO. 123 (6717) Piped, Trucked Small System 275 8
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 7496 LRRCN - FOX LAKE NO. 162 (6666) Piped, Trucked Level I 2187 155
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 7528 LRRCN - GARDEN CREEK INDIAN SETTLEMENT (6736) Piped Level I 727 97
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 7497 LRRCN - JOHN D'OR PRAIRIE NO. 215 (6667) Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level I 1545 194
476 Loon River Cree 7239 LOON LAKE NO. 235 (9389) Piped Small System 371 90
439 Louis Bull Tribe 7491 LOUIS BULL - PIGEON LAKE NO. 138A (6660) Piped Small System 95 0
439 Louis Bull Tribe 7484 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) Piped, Low Pressure Level I 1017 142
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7527 MIKISEW CREE - ALLISON BAY NO. 219 (6734) Piped Small System 82 33
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7637 MIKISEW CREE - DOG HEAD NO. 218 (8495) Trucked NA 101 0
442 Montana 7488 MONTANA NO. 139 (6656) Piped Small System 360 73
431 O'Chiese First Nation NEW002 BREMNERVILLE SEPTIC SYSTEM Piped Small System 39 11
431 O'Chiese First Nation 7466 TOWNSITE COMMUNITY LAGOON SYSTEM Piped, Trucked Small System 123 23
441 Paul 7487 PAUL - WABAMUN NO. 133A (6653) Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Small System 95 5
441 Paul   WABAMUN 133A SUBDIVISION LAGOON Piped Small System 121 24
436 Piikani Nation 7481 PIIKANI RESERVE (6647) Piped Level I 1115 167
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 7515 SADDLE LAKE NO. 125 (6702) Piped, Trucked Level I 748 103
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 7516 WHITE FISH LAKE NO. 128 - GOODFISH (6703) Piped Level I 842 117
462 Saddle Lake First Nation NEW002 WHITEFISH WASTEWATER SYSTEM Piped Small System 1 0
444 Samson 7490 SAMSON NO. 137 (6659) Piped Level II 1675 313
454 Sawridge NEW001 SAWRIDGE NO. 150G (6683) Piped Small System 41 16
430 Siksika Nation 7461 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - LITTLE WASHINGTON (6636) Piped Small System 418 103
430 Siksika Nation 7460 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - SHOULDICE (6636) Piped Small System 53 13
430 Siksika Nation 7463 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - STOBART (6636) Piped Small System 154 38
430 Siksika Nation 7457 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - TOWNSITE (6636) Piped Level I 1372 338
430 Siksika Nation 7462 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - WEST END (6636) Piped Small System 402 99
477 Smith's Landing First Nation NEW002 Smith's Landing First Nation MTA Trucked MTA 9 0
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 7468 STONEY - BIG HORN NO. 144A (6640) Piped Small System 25 5
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 7470 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 MORLEY TOWNSITE (6642) Piped Small System 119 25
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation 7504 STURGEON LAKE NO. 154 (6685) Piped, Trucked Level I 1683 109
456 Sucker Creek 7505 SUCKER CREEK NO. 150A (6688) Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Small System 348 52
434 Sunchild First Nation 7473 SUNCHILD NO. 202 (6644) Piped Small System 147 30
457 Swan River First Nation 7506 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) Piped Level I 543 66
446 Tallcree 7494 TALL CREE NO. 173 - SOUTH (6664) Piped Small System 190 37
446 Tallcree 7495 TALL CREE NO. 173A NORTH (6665) Piped Small System 247 40
446 Tallcree 7640 TALLCREE - FORT VERMILION NO. 173B (9142) Piped Small System 113 22
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation NEW001 BUSINESS PARK MTA SEWAGE Piped Small System 207 50
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation 7467 TSUU T'INA NATION NO. 145 (6639) Piped Small System 29 7
459 Whitefish Lake 7512 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 - UTIKOOMAK LAKE NO. 155 (Atikameg) (6696) Piped Level I 512 138
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 7237 WOODLAND CREE NO. 226 - CADOTTE LAKE (9067) Piped, Trucked Level I 754 64
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 7238 WOODLAND CREE NO. 228 - MARTEN LAKE (9069) Trucked Small System 144 0
Table D.2 - 2: Collection System Information and Effluent Quality
First Nation Information Collection System Information Effluent Quality
Band # Band Name Homes Trucked No. of Trucks in Service Pipe Length Pipe Length/ Connection Low Pressure Sewer No. of Pumping Stations Meets Federal Guidelines (1976) Cause of Failure
438 Alexander 2 0 2776 50 No 2 Unknown Unknown
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 9 1 5309 55 No 2 Unknown Unknown
445 Beaver First Nation 57 1 1633 81 No 0 Unknown Unknown
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation 0 1 2095 110 No 1 Unknown Unknown
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 27 1     No   MTA MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 11 2 5399.8 37 No 1 MTA MTA
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 18 2     No   Unknown Unknown
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 10 2 306 11 Yes 0 Unknown Unknown
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 75 2 3665 71 No 1 MTA MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 0 0 2252.6 34 No 2 Unknown Unknown
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 0 0 5915.2 107 No 0 MTA MTA
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 0 0 220 20 No 0 Unknown Unknown
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 0 0 1497 99 No 2 Unknown Unknown
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 0 0 600 30 No 0 Unknown Unknown
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 0 0 7622.8 26 No 1 Unknown Unknown
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation 79 1 2020 39 No 1 Unknown Unknown
464 Cold Lake First Nations 0 0 1802 81 No 2 Unknown Unknown
464 Cold Lake First Nations 0 0     No 1 MTA MTA
448 Dene Tha' 142 2     No   MTA MTA
448 Dene Tha' 206 2 6799 79 No 5 Unknown Unknown
448 Dene Tha' 10 0 4304 35 No 1 High Freq AND High Mag Design
450 Driftpile First Nation 15 2 9151 73 No 3 Unknown Unknown
451 Duncan's First Nation 0 0 3175 90 No 1 Unknown Unknown
440 Enoch Cree Nation 0 1 2573 25 No 1 Unknown Unknown
440 Enoch Cree Nation 0 0 500 50 No 0 Unknown Unknown
443 Ermineskin Tribe 0 1 13285.1 102 No 2 Meets Require- ments Unknown
467 Fort McKay First Nation 0 0 710 3 No 1 MTA MTA
468 Fort McMurray First Nation 80 1     No 2 Unknown Unknown
465 Frog Lake 18 2 2688 672 No 1 Unknown Unknown
469 Heart Lake 10 0 397 66 Yes 1 Unknown Unknown
449 Horse Lake First Nation 0 0 4045 40 Yes 1 Unknown Unknown
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 0 0 1879 46 No 0 MTA MTA
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 0 0     No 0 Unknown Unknown
466 Kehewin Cree Nation 62 0 1977 247 No 1 Unknown Unknown
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 134 2 6769 43 No 1 High Freq OR High Mag sign & Opera
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 0 0 4812 49 No 2 Unknown Unknown
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 86 2 3440 17 Yes 2 Unknown Unknown
476 Loon River Cree 0 0 9396 104 No 3 Unknown Unknown
439 Louis Bull Tribe 0 0     No 1 Unknown Unknown
439 Louis Bull Tribe 0 0 5150 36 Yes 0 Meets Require- ments Unknown
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 0 0 1105 33 No 1 Unknown Unknown
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 39 2     No   MTA MTA
442 Montana 0 0 1357 18 No 1 Unknown Unknown
431 O'Chiese First Nation 0 0 540 49 No 0 Unknown Unknown
431 O'Chiese First Nation 12 1 3509 152 No 0 High Freq OR High Mag Operation
441 Paul 14 1 244 48 Yes 0 High Freq OR High Mag Operation
441 Paul 0 0 410 17 No 1 Unknown Unknown
436 Piikani Nation 0 1 10753.8 64 No 2 Unknown Unknown
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 1 1 4685 45 No 2 Unknown Unknown
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 0 0 2376 20 No 1 Unknown Unknown
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 0 0     No 0 Low Freq, Low Mag Operation
444 Samson 0 0 10623 33 No 1 Unknown Unknown
454 Sawridge 0 0 930 58 No 2 MTA MTA
430 Siksika Nation 0 0 8797 85 No 3 Unknown Unknown
430 Siksika Nation 0 0 500 38 No 1 Unknown Unknown
430 Siksika Nation 0 0 2255 59 No 2 Unknown Unknown
430 Siksika Nation 0 0 18738 55 No 6 Unknown Unknown
430 Siksika Nation 0 0 2286 23 No 2 Unknown Unknown
477 Smith's Landing First Nation 3 0     No   MTA MTA
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 0 0 800 160 No 0 Unknown Unknown
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 0 0 5481 219 No 2 Meets Require- ments Unknown
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation 233 2 6677 61 No 2 Unknown Unknown
456 Sucker Creek 42 1 2156 41 Yes 1 Unknown Unknown
434 Sunchild First Nation 0 0 2985 99 No 1 High Freq AND High Mag Operation
457 Swan River First Nation 0 0 4019 60 No 3 Unknown Unknown
446 Tallcree 0 0 4157 112 No 1 Unknown Unknown
446 Tallcree 0 0 1877 46 No 1 Unknown Unknown
446 Tallcree 0 0 1569 71 No 0 MTA MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation 0 0 3836.5 76 No 2 MTA MTA
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation 0 0 2448 349 No 2 Unknown Unknown
459 Whitefish Lake 0 1 9874.6 71 No 4 Unknown Unknown
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 93 0 7755 121 No 2 Unknown Unknown
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 30 0     No 0 Unknown Unknown
Table D.2 - 2: Operator Information
First Nation Information Operator Information
Band # Band Name Primary Operator Exists Primary Operator Treatment Class Primary Operator Collection Class Secondary Operator Exists Secondary Operator Treatment Class Secondary Operator Collection Class
438 Alexander Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation Yes Level I No Certification Yes Small System No Certification
445 Beaver First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
458 Bigstone Cree Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level I Level I
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level I Level I
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Yes Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Small System Small System
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Small System Small System
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Small System Small System
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Small System Small System
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Yes Level I Level I Yes Small System Small System
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
464 Cold Lake First Nations Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
464 Cold Lake First Nations Yes Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
448 Dene Tha' NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
448 Dene Tha' Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
448 Dene Tha' Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
450 Driftpile First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
451 Duncan's First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
440 Enoch Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
440 Enoch Cree Nation Yes No Operator No Certification No No Operator No Operator
443 Ermineskin Tribe Yes Small System Small System Yes Small System Small System
467 Fort McKay First Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
468 Fort McMurray First Nation Yes No Certification No Operator No No Operator No Operator
465 Frog Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
469 Heart Lake No No Operator No Operator No No Operator No Operator
449 Horse Lake First Nation Yes Small System Small System Yes No Certification No Certification
452 Kapawe'no First Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
452 Kapawe'no First Nation Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
466 Kehewin Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Yes Small System Small System Yes No Certification No Certification
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Yes Small System Small System Yes No Certification No Certification
476 Loon River Cree Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
439 Louis Bull Tribe Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
439 Louis Bull Tribe Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
442 Montana Yes Level I Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
431 O'Chiese First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
431 O'Chiese First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
441 Paul Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
441 Paul Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
436 Piikani Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes Small System Small System
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Yes Small System Small System Yes Small System Small System
462 Saddle Lake First Nation NR No Operator No Operator No No Operator No Operator
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Yes Level I Level II Yes Small System Small System
444 Samson Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level II Level II
454 Sawridge Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
430 Siksika Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
430 Siksika Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
430 Siksika Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
430 Siksika Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
430 Siksika Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
477 Smith's Landing First Nation NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Yes Level III Level II Yes Level I Level I
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
456 Sucker Creek Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
434 Sunchild First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
457 Swan River First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
446 Tallcree Yes Small System Small System Yes Level I Level I
446 Tallcree Yes Level I Level I Yes Small System Small System
446 Tallcree Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Yes No Certification Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
459 Whitefish Lake Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
474 Woodland Cree First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
474 Woodland Cree First Nation No No Operator No Operator No No Operator No Operator

Appendix E Risk Summary

Appendix E.1 Individual First Nation Water Risk Summary

Legend for Table E.1
  Risk Level
High Risk 8.0 - 10.0
Medium Risk 5.0 - 7.0
Low Risk 1.0 - 4.0
Individual First Nation Water Risk Summary
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source Treat- ment Class Source Risk Design Risk Oper- ations Risk Report Risk Oper- ator Risk Final Risk Score
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6725 BLOOD NO. 148 -LEVERN (6645) Ground- water Level I 4.0 6.0 5.0 6.0 1.0 4.5
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6726 BLOOD NO. 148 -OLD AGENCY (6645) Ground- water Level I 6.0 8.0 8.0 6.0 1.0 8.0
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6723 BLOOD NO. 148 -ST. MARY (6645) Ground- water Level I 5.0 8.0 5.0 6.0 1.0 5.2
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6724 BLOOD NO. 148 -ST. PAUL (6645) Ground- water Level I 8.0 8.0 5.0 6.0 1.0 5.5
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6722 BLOOD NO. 148 - STANDOFF (UPPER/ LOWER) (6645) Ground- water Level I 10.0 8.0 5.0 6.0 1.0 5.7
448 Dene Tha' 6747 DENE THA' - UPPER HAY RIVER NO. 212 MEANDER (6673) Ground- water Level I 7.0 9.0 6.0 8.0 6.0 7.2
451 Duncan's First Nation 6750 DUNCANS NO. 151A (6678) Ground- water Small System 4.0 2.0 7.0 10.0 2.0 4.5
440 Enoch Cree Nation 6733 ENOCH -STONY PLAIN NO. 135 (6652) Ground- water Level I 10.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 2.0 8.0
443 Ermineskin Tribe 6736 ERMINESKIN NO. 138 (6657) Ground- water Level I 8.0 8.0 8.0 6.0 1.0 6.4
449 Horse Lake First Nation 6748 HORSE LAKES NO. 152B (6676) Ground- water Small System 8.0 8.0 5.0 9.0 1.0 5.8
439 Louis Bull Tribe 6738 LOUIS BULL -PIGEON LAKE NO. 138A (6660) Ground- water Level I 5.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.9
439 Louis Bull Tribe NEW002 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) -Pumphouse #1 Ground- water None 8.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 6.0 6.6
439 Louis Bull Tribe 6732 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) -Pumphouse #2 Ground- water Level I 6.0 5.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 6.4
439 Louis Bull Tribe NEW001 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) -Pumphouse #3 Ground- water None 5.0 8.0 5.0 4.0 6.0 6.0
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 6777 MIKISEW CREE - ALLISON BAY NO. 219 (6734) Ground- water Small System 6.0 5.0 4.0 7.0 7.0 5.4
442 Montana 6735 MONTANA NO. 139 (6656) Ground- water Level II 6.0 8.0 8.0 6.0 1.0 6.2
431 O'Chiese First Nation NEW001 BREMNERVILLE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Small System 4.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 8.6
431 O'Chiese First Nation 6714 TOWNSITE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Small System 4.0 4.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 7.4
441 Paul 6734 PAUL -WABAMUN NO. 133A (6653) Ground- water Level I 6.0 4.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 5.7
444 Samson 6737 SAMSON NO. 137 (6658) Ground- water Level I 6.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 4.0 5.4
430 Siksika Nation 6708 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - SHOULDICE (6636) Ground- water Small System 6.0 5.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 6.0
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6716 STONEY -BIG HORN NO. 144A (6640) Ground- water Level II 6.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 9.0 8.0
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6720 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 NORTH SIDE (6642) Ground- water Level I 4.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 1.0 4.4
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW001 BLUE PUMPHOUSE Ground- water Level I 5.0 10.0 9.0 10.0 7.0 8.6
434 Sunchild First Nation 6721 SUNCHILD NO. 202 (6644) Ground- water Level I 4.0 4.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 7.4
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW003 WEST PUMPHOUSE (Westend Pumphouse) Ground- water Level I 4.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 7.0 8.5
434 Sunchild First Nation NEW002 WEST WATER TREATMENT PLANT (New Subdivision WTP) Ground- water Level I 6.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 8.0
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation 6715 TSUU T'INA NATION NO. 145 (6639) Ground- water Small System 5.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 8.0 8.5
459 Whitefish Lake 6763 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 - UTIKOOMAK LAKE NO. 155A (6697) Ground- water Level I 5.0 2.0 9.0 10.0 2.0 5.2
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6727 BLOOD NO. 148 -WHOOP UP (6645) Ground- water GUDI Level II 9.0 3.0 6.0 6.0 3.0 4.8
436 Piikani Nation 6729 PIIKANI RESERVE (6647) Ground- water GUDI Level II 9.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.4
430 Siksika Nation 6712 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - EAST SIKSIKA (6636) Ground- water GUDI Level II 10.0 5.0 4.0 5.0 1.0 4.4
430 Siksika Nation NEW001 WEST SIKSIKA (ARTHUR AYOUNGMAN) WATER SYSTEM Ground- water GUDI Level II 10.0 4.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 5.3
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6718 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 MORLEY TOWNSITE (6642) Ground- water GUDI Level II 8.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 1.0 4.2
438 Alexander 6731 ALEXANDER NO. 134 (6650) MTA MTA 1.0 3.0 7.0 10.0 9.0 5.9
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6757 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166 (6691) MTA MTA 2.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 2.3
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6758 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166A (6692) MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 1.0 5.8
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6759 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166B (6693) MTA MTA 1.0 3.0 5.0 3.0 1.0 3.0
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6761 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166D (6695) MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 5.2
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 6728 BLOOD NO. 148 -MOSES LAKE (6645) MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 2.2
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation 6776 CHIPEWYAN PRAIRIE - JANVIER NO. 194 (6726) MTA MTA 1.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 5.0 2.7
464 Cold Lake First Nations 6768 COLD LAKE NO. 149 (6712) MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 6.1
448 Dene Tha' 6745 DENE THA' - BUSHE RIVER NO. 207 (6670) MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
440 Enoch Cree Nation NEW001 MILLENIUM (NE SUBDIVISION) WATER SYSTEM MTA MTA 1.0 3.0 6.0 10.0 1.0 4.0
467 Fort McKay First Nation 6773 FORT MCKAY NO. 174 (6718) MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
468 Fort McMurray First Nation 6774 FORT MCMURRAY -GREGOIRE LAKE NO. 176 (6722) MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.6
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 6751 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 150B (6680) MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 7.0 1.0 1.0 2.8
476 Loon River Cree 6464 LOON RIVER NO. 235 (9389) MTA MTA 3.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 5.4
453 Lubicon Lake NEW001 LUBICON LAKE COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEM MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 1.0 10.0
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7097 MIKISEW -DOG HEAD NO. 218 (8495) MTA MTA 1.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.9
454 Sawridge 6752 SAWRIDGE NO. 150G (6683) MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 3.7
477 Smith's Landing First Nation NEW001 SMITH'S LANDING FIRST NATION MTA MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 9.0 1.0 1.0 5.5
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation NEW001 NAKODA RESORT (CASINO) WATER SYSTEM MTA MTA 4.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.9
457 Swan River First Nation 6756 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 5.2
457 Swan River First Nation NEW001 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) -Rural Water System MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 5.2
446 Tallcree   Beaver Ranch Truck Haul System MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 5.2
446 Tallcree 7100 TALLCREE - FORT VERMILION NO. 173B (9142) MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 6.0 10.0 1.0 5.5
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation   Business Park MTA Water System MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 4.3
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 6462 WOODLAND CREE NO. 226 - CADOTTE LAKE (9067) MTA MTA 3.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 5.0 6.8
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 6730 ALEXIS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 133 (6649) Surface Water Level II 10.0 8.0 8.0 2.0 1.0 8.0
445 Beaver First Nation 6739 BEAVER - BOYER NO. 164 (6661) Surface Water Level III 10.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 9.0 8.6
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation 6764 BEAVER LAKE NO. 131 (6701) Surface Water Level II 10.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 4.2
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 6760 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166C (6694) Surface Water Level II 10.0 3.0 6.0 4.0 3.0 4.7
448 Dene Tha' 6746 DENE THA' - HAY LAKE NO. 209 CHATEH (6671) Surface Water Level III 9.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 2.0 6.8
450 Driftpile First Nation 6749 DRIFTPILE RIVER NO. 150 (6677) Surface Water Level III 9.0 2.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 2.3
465 Frog Lake 6771 FROG LAKE -UNIPOUHEOS NO. 121 (6715) Surface Water Level II 10.0 8.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 8.0
469 Heart Lake 6775 HEART LAKE NO. 167 (6725) Surface Water Level II 10.0 8.0 6.0 7.0 2.0 6.3
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 7099 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 231 NARROWS (9092) Surface Water Level II 8.0 3.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 5.6
466 Kehewin Cree Nation 6772 KEHEWIN NO. 123 (6717) Surface Water Level II 10.0 3.0 5.0 3.0 5.0 4.7
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6743 LRRCN - FOX LAKE NO. 162 (6666) Surface Water Level III 10.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 5.0 8.1
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6778 LRRCN -GARDEN CREEK INDIAN SETTL. (6736) Surface Water Level III 9.0 5.0 8.0 9.0 5.0 6.7
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 6744 LRRCN -JOHN D'OR PRAIRIE NO. 215 (6667) Surface Water Level III 9.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 6.0 7.9
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 6765 SADDLE LAKE NO. 125 (6702) Surface Water Level III 10.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 8.0
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 6766 WHITEFISH LAKE NO. 128 -GOODFISH (6703) Surface Water Level II 10.0 8.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 4.3
462 Saddle Lake First Nation NEW001 WHITEFISH WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 10.0 8.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 4.5
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6717 STONEY -EDEN VALLEY NO. 216 (6641) Surface Water Level II 9.0 3.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 5.4
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 6719 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 EAST MORLEY (6642) Surface Water Level II 10.0 7.0 6.0 8.0 1.0 5.9
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation 6754 STURGEON LAKE NO. 154 (6685) Surface Water Level III 9.0 8.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 5.5
456 Sucker Creek 6755 SUCKER CREEK NO. 150A (6688) Surface Water Level III 9.0 8.0 5.0 10.0 2.0 6.2
446 Tallcree 6741 TALL CREE NO. 173 -SOUTH (6664) Surface Water Level III 9.0 8.0 9.0 5.0 4.0 8.0
446 Tallcree 6742 TALL CREE NO. 173A NORTH (6665) Surface Water Level III 9.0 3.0 8.0 7.0 1.0 5.1
459 Whitefish Lake 6762 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 -UTIKOOMAK LAKE NO. 155 (Atikameg) (6696) Surface Water Level II 10.0 2.0 8.0 7.0 4.0 5.5

Appendix E.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Risk Summary

Legend for Table E.2
  Risk Level
High Risk 8.0 - 10.0
Medium Risk 5.0 - 7.0
Low Risk 1.0 - 4.0
Table E.2: Individual First Nation Wastewater Risk Summary
Band # Band Name System # System Name Receiver Type Treat- ment Class Efflu-
ent Risk
Design Risk Oper- ations Risk Report Risk Oper- ator Risk Final Risk Score
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 7482 ALEXIS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 133 (6649) Creek Level I 7.0 4.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 5.3
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7475 BLOOD NO. 148 -ST. MARY (6645) Creek Level I 9.0 3.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 5.5
448 Dene Tha' 7499 DENE THA' - HAY LAKE NO. 209 CHATEH (6671) Creek Level I 7.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 5.8
450 Driftpile First Nation 7502 DRIFTPILE RIVER NO. 150 (6677) Creek Level I 7.0 5.0 5.0 1.0 6.0 5.2
469 Heart Lake 7525 HEART LAKE NO. 167 (6725) Creek Level I 6.0 7.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.4
476 Loon River Cree 7239 LOON LAKE NO. 235 (9389) Creek Level I 6.0 5.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.7
439 Louis Bull Tribe 7484 LOUIS BULL NO. 138B (6651) Creek Level I 7.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 6.0 4.4
441 Paul 7487 PAUL -WABAMUN NO. 133A (6653) Creek Level I 8.0 6.0 10.0 10.0 5.0 7.6
430 Siksika Nation 7463 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - STOBART (6636) Creek Level I 6.0 6.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 6.1
430 Siksika Nation 7457 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - TOWNSITE (6636) Creek Level I 6.0 7.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 6.4
434 Sunchild First Nation 7473 SUNCHILD NO. 202 (6644) Creek Level I 6.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 7.7
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation 7467 TSUU T'INA NATION NO. 145 (6639) Creek Level I 8.0 6.0 9.0 10.0 8.0 7.9
439 Louis Bull Tribe 7491 LOUIS BULL -PIGEON LAKE NO. 138A (6660) Evapour- ation Level I 2.0 4.0 9.0 4.0 10.0 6.0
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7527 MIKISEW CREE - ALLISON BAY NO. 219 (6734) Evapour- ation Small System 2.0 4.0 8.0 5.0 7.0 5.3
462 Saddle Lake First Nation NEW002 WHITEFISH WASTEWATER SYSTEM Evapour- ation Level I 2.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 3.7
430 Siksika Nation 7460 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - SHOULDICE (6636) Evapour- ation Level I 2.0 6.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 5.3
440 Enoch Cree Nation 7485 ENOCH -STONY PLAIN NO. 135 (6652) Lake, reservoir Level I 8.0 9.0 7.0 10.0 6.0 7.8
430 Siksika Nation 7462 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - WEST END (6636) Lake, reservoir Level I 9.0 7.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 7.0
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation 7504 STURGEON LAKE NO. 154 (6685) Lake, reservoir Level I 10.0 6.0 9.0 1.0 5.0 6.8
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 7470 STONEY NO. 142-143-144 MORLEY TOWNSITE (6642) Large river Level III 7.0 2.0 6.0 5.0 1.0 4.1
446 Tallcree 7494 TALL CREE NO. 173 -SOUTH (6664) Large river Level I 5.0 7.0 7.0 4.0 1.0 5.1
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7507 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166 (6691) MTA MTA 1.0 3.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 2.2
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7508 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166A (6692) MTA MTA 1.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 2.2
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7511 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166D (6695) MTA MTA 5.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.3
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7480 BLOOD NO. 148 -MOSES LAKE (6645) MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
464 Cold Lake First Nations 7519 COLD LAKE NO. 149A (6713) MTA MTA 1.0 2.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 3.6
448 Dene Tha' 7498 DENE THA' - BUSHE RIVER NO. 207 (6670) MTA MTA 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.5
467 Fort McKay First Nation 7523 FORT MCKAY NO. 174 (6718) MTA MTA 3.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.9
452 Kapawe'no First Nation NEW001 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 150B (6680) MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.5
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation 7637 MIKISEW CREE - DOG HEAD NO. 218 (8495) MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.5
454 Sawridge NEW001 SAWRIDGE NO. 150G (6683) MTA MTA 1.0 4.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 4.1
477 Smith's Landing First Nation NEW002 Smith's Landing First Nation MTA MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 6.0 1.0 1.0 2.2
446 Tallcree 7640 TALLCREE - FORT VERMILION NO. 173B (9142) MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 6.0 1.0 1.0 2.2
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation NEW001 BUSINESS PARK MTA SEWAGE MTA MTA 1.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 4.6
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7477 BLOOD NO. 148 -LEVERN (6645) Other Level I 10.0 5.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 6.2
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7478 BLOOD NO. 148 -OLD AGENCY (6645) Other Level I 10.0 5.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 6.2
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7476 BLOOD NO. 148 -ST. PAUL (6645) Other Level I 10.0 4.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 5.9
440 Enoch Cree Nation 0 MILLENIUM (NE SUB- DIVISION) WASTEWATER HOLDING TANK Other None 8.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 4.4
438 Alexander 7483 ALEXANDER NO. 134 (6650) River Level I 6.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 6.0 6.6
445 Beaver First Nation 7492 BEAVER - BOYER NO. 164 (6661) River Level I 5.0 5.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 7.5
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7510 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166C (6694) River Small System 5.0 4.0 10.0 4.0 3.0 5.5
464 Cold Lake First Nations 7518 COLD LAKE NO. 149 (6712) River Level I 5.0 5.0 9.0 10.0 6.0 6.7
448 Dene Tha' 7500 DENE THA' - UPPER HAY RIVER NO. 212 MEANDER (6673) River Level II 7.0 8.0 5.0 8.0 6.0 10.0
449 Horse Lake First Nation 7501 HORSE LAKES NO. 152B (6676) River Level I 5.0 4.0 9.0 4.0 3.0 5.2
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 7496 LRRCN -FOX LAKE NO. 162 (6666) River Level I 5.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 3.0 7.1
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 7528 LRRCN -GARDEN CREEK INDIAN SETTLEMENT (6736) River Level I 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 3.0 7.2
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 7515 SADDLE LAKE NO. 125 (6702) River Level I 5.0 5.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.5
444 Samson 7490 SAMSON NO. 137 (6659) River Level I 6.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 4.0 8.0
430 Siksika Nation 7461 SIKSIKA INDIAN RESERVE NO. 146 - LITTLE WASHINGTON (6636) River Level I 5.0 6.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 5.9
457 Swan River First Nation 7506 SWAN RIVER NO. 150E (6690) River Level I 5.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 6.0 6.9
459 Whitefish Lake 7512 WHITEFISH LAKE #459 -UTIKOOMAK LAKE NO. 155 (Atikameg) (6696) River Level I 7.0 5.0 10.0 1.0 10.0 7.2
443 Ermineskin Tribe 7489 ERMINESKIN NO. 138 (6657) Sub- surface / Ground Level I 2.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 2.0 2.4
468 Fort McMurray First Nation 7524 FT. MCMURRAY -GREGOIRE LAKE NO. 176 (6722) Sub- surface / Ground Small System 1.0 4.0 9.0 1.0 9.0 5.3
452 Kapawe'no First Nation 7639 KAPAWE'NO FIRST NATION NO. 231 (9092) Sub- surface / Ground Level I 1.0 3.0 9.0 1.0 1.0 3.5
447 Little Red River Cree Nation 7497 LRRCN -JOHN D'OR PRAIRIE NO. 215 (6667) Sub- surface / Ground Level I 3.0 4.0 7.0 10.0 5.0 5.3
436 Piikani Nation 7481 PIIKANI RESERVE (6647) Sub- surface / Ground Level I 5.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 2.8
456 Sucker Creek 7505 SUCKER CREEK NO. 150A (6688) Sub- surface / Ground Level I 1.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 3.5
431 O'Chiese First Nation NEW002 BREMNER- VILLE SEPTIC SYSTEM Tile field Small System 3.0 7.0 10.0 10.0 8.0 7.4
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation 7468 STONEY -BIG HORN NO. 144A (6640) Tile field Level I 3.0 3.0 6.0 10.0 10.0 5.8
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation 7514 BEAVER LAKE NO. 131 (6701) Wetland Level I 2.0 7.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 5.6
458 Bigstone Cree Nation 7509 BIGSTONE - WABASCA NO. 166B (6693) Wetland Level I 2.0 5.0 8.0 1.0 3.0 4.3
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) 7474 BLOOD NO. 148 -STANDOFF (6645) Wetland Level I 6.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 5.6
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation 7526 CHIPEWYAN PRAIRIE - JANVIER NO. 194 (6726) Wetland Level I 2.0 7.0 6.0 1.0 9.0 5.5
451 Duncan's First Nation 7503 DUNCANS NO. 151A (6678) Wetland Small System 2.0 5.0 7.0 10.0 8.0 6.0
465 Frog Lake 7521 FROG LAKE -UNIPOUHEOS NO. 121(6715) Wetland Level I 2.0 4.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 4.8
466 Kehewin Cree Nation 7522 KEHEWIN NO. 123 (6717) Wetland Level I 2.0 4.0 9.0 10.0 6.0 5.8
442 Montana 7488 MONTANA NO. 139 (6656) Wetland Level I 3.0 4.0 5.0 10.0 1.0 4.0
431 O'Chiese First Nation 7466 TOWNSITE COMMUNITY LAGOON SYSTEM Wetland Level I 3.0 3.0 10.0 10.0 7.0 6.2
441 Paul 0 WABAMUN 133A SUBDIVISION LAGOON Wetland Level I 3.0 5.0 9.0 10.0 5.0 6.1
462 Saddle Lake First Nation 7516 WHITE FISH LAKE NO. 128 -GOODFISH (6703) Wetland Level I 2.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 2.2
446 Tallcree 7495 TALL CREE NO. 173A NORTH (6665) Wetland Level I 2.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 5.3
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 7237 WOODLAND CREE NO. 226 - CADOTTE LAKE (9067) Wetland Level I 2.0 6.0 9.0 1.0 7.0 5.6
474 Woodland Cree First Nation 7238 WOODLAND CREE NO. 228 - MARTEN LAKE (9069) Wetland Small System 2.0 3.0 9.0 1.0 10.0 5.5

Appendix F Protocol and Servicing Costs

Table F: Protocol and Servicing Costs (Water & Wastewater Combined)
Band # Band Name Community Name Current Population Current Homes Forecast Population Forecast Homes Zone Markup
438 Alexander Alexander 1186 259 1563 353 0.997
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation 1143 197 1533 294 1.086
445 Beaver First Nation Beaver First Nation 521 132 716 197 1.287
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation Beaver Lake No. 131 430 103 556 134 0.997
458 Bigstone Cree Nation Bigstone Cree Nation 3924 622 5411 993 1.157
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) Blood Tribe (Kainai) 8840 1637 11436 2286 1.074
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation Janvier No. 194 458 130 675 202 1.326
464 Cold Lake First Nations Cold Lake First Nations No. 149 1191 238 1898 414 0.997
448 Dene Tha' Bushe River No. 207 511 142 638 184 1.287
448 Dene Tha' Hay Lake No. 209 1224 294 1530 370 1.287
448 Dene Tha' Upper Hay River No. 212 467 130 583 168 1.287
450 Driftpile First Nation Driftpile First Nation No. 150 1037 255 1430 353 1.157
451 Duncan's First Nation Duncan's No. 151A 195 49 308 86 1.157
440 Enoch Cree Nation Stony Plain No. 135 1494 291 1987 414 0.997
443 Ermineskin Tribe Ermineskin No. 138 3411 502 4489 771 0.997
467 Fort McKay First Nation Fort McKay No. 174 546 183 689 254 1.326
468 Fort McMurray First Nation Gregoire Lake No. 176 339 80 495 119 1.326
465 Frog Lake Frog Lake First Nation 900 261 1202 361 1.086
469 Heart Lake Heart Lake No. 167 255 47 353 71 1.157
449 Horse Lake First Nation Horse Lake No. 152B 600 111 835 169 1.157
452 Kapawe'no First Nation Kapawe'no First Nation 127 44 191 76 1.068
466 Kehewin Cree Nation Kehewin Cree Nation 1189 302 1476 397 0.997
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Fox Lake No. 162 2272 289 3194 519 1.723
447 Little Red River Cree Nation Garden River 727 97 1022 170 1.723
447 Little Red River Cree Nation John D'or Prairie No. 215 1545 282 2172 438 1.723
476 Loon River Cree Loon Lake No. 235 573 139 984 241 1.157
439 Louis Bull Tribe Louis Bull Tribe No. 138B 1793 254 2365 397 0.997
439 Louis Bull Tribe Pigeon Lake No. 138A 425 123 561 168 0.997
453 Lubicon Lake Little Buffalo Indian Settlement 309 63 444 96 1.157
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation Mikisew Cree First Nation 183 72 405 183 1.989
442 Montana Montana No. 139 856 174 1169 252 0.997
431 O'Chiese First Nation O'Chiese First Nation 799 227 1081 321 1.086
441 Paul Wabamun No. 133A 1100 219 1423 299 1.086
436 Piikani Nation Piikani No. 147 2811 421 3574 611 0.983
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Saddle Lake No. 125 4968 691 6342 1034 0.997
462 Saddle Lake First Nation Whitefish (Goodfish) Lake No. 128 2227 310 2843 464 0.997
444 Samson Samson 6628 1239 8705 1758 0.997
454 Sawridge Sawridge 150G 51 20 74 31 1.068
430 Siksika Nation Siksika No. 146 4077 1004 5030 1242 1.019
477 Smith's Landing First Nation Smith's Landing First Nation 50 17 85 34 1.688
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Big Horn No. 144A 205 41 226 46 1.019
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Eden Valley No. 216 504 105 556 118 1.019
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation Stoney No. 142-143-144 3996 837 4414 941 1.019
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation Sturgeon Lake No. 154 1767 359 2619 572 1.068
456 Sucker Creek Sucker Creek No. 150A 845 229 1160 334 1.068
434 Sunchild First Nation Sunchild First Nation 1037 212 1551 340 1.086
457 Swan River First Nation Swan River 451 92 648 141 1.157
446 Tallcree Fort Vermilion & Beaver Ranch 144 28 166 33 1.287
446 Tallcree North Tallcree No. 173A 247 41 338 63 1.287
446 Tallcree South Tallcree No. 173 257 50 351 73 1.287
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation Tsuu T'ina Nation No. 145 1647 397 2233 543 1.019
459 Whitefish Lake Whitefish (Atikameg) Lake No. 155 897 242 1692 507 1.157
459 Whitefish Lake Whitefish River (Utikoomak Lake No. 155A) 119 30 224 65 1.157
474 Woodland Cree First Nation Woodland Cree First Nation 913 190 1232 269 1.157
Table F: Protocol and Servicing Costs (Water & Wastewater Combined) (continued)
Band # Band Name Upgrade To Protocol Per Lot Upgrades to Protocol (Current Homes) Recommended Servicing Per Lot Recommended Servicing (Forecast Homes) Recommended O&M Per Lot O&M (Forecast Homes)
438 Alexander $807,000 $3,100 $20,460,000 $58,000 $1,350,000 $3,800
437 Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation $3,809,500 $19,300 $10,470,000 $35,600 $960,000 $3,300
445 Beaver First Nation $1,106,800 $8,400 $13,400,000 $68,000 $1,050,000 $5,300
460 Beaver Lake Cree Nation $2,170,000 $21,100 $5,290,000 $39,500 $1,000,000 $7,500
458 Bigstone Cree Nation $4,549,000 $7,300 $47,390,000 $47,700 $4,730,000 $4,800
435 Blood Tribe (Kainai) $11,649,000 $7,100 $44,090,000 $19,300 $7,575,000 $3,300
470 Chipewyan Prairie First Nation $195,000 $1,500 $9,730,000 $48,200 $780,000 $3,900
464 Cold Lake First Nations $710,000 $3,000 $15,550,000 $37,600 $2,020,000 $4,900
448 Dene Tha' $1,310,000 $9,200 $27,680,000 $150,400 $1,040,000 $5,700
448 Dene Tha' $2,263,000 $7,700 $13,720,000 $37,100 $2,040,000 $5,500
448 Dene Tha' $9,629,400 $74,100 $11,720,000 $69,800 $600,000 $3,600
450 Driftpile First Nation $1,240,500 $4,900 $15,290,000 $43,300 $1,340,000 $3,800
451 Duncan's First Nation $662,200 $13,500 $3,480,000 $40,500 $380,000 $4,400
440 Enoch Cree Nation $8,279,500 $28,500 $18,440,000 $44,500 $1,780,000 $4,300
443 Ermineskin Tribe $1,363,000 $2,700 $27,550,000 $35,700 $2,440,000 $3,200
467 Fort McKay First Nation $491,500 $2,700 $2,470,000 $9,700 $36,000 $100
468 Fort McMurray First Nation $525,000 $6,600 $2,140,000 $18,000 $760,000 $6,400
465 Frog Lake $4,203,000 $16,100 $11,110,000 $30,800 $2,270,000 $6,300
469 Heart Lake $956,500 $20,400 $7,790,000 $109,700 $580,000 $8,200
449 Horse Lake First Nation $1,321,000 $11,900 $4,410,000 $26,100 $610,000 $3,600
452 Kapawe'no First Nation $278,500 $6,300 $1,850,000 $24,300 $370,000 $4,900
466 Kehewin Cree Nation $4,741,500 $15,700 $9,470,000 $23,900 $1,780,000 $4,500
447 Little Red River Cree Nation $13,685,000 $47,400 $47,850,000 $92,200 $1,500,000 $2,900
447 Little Red River Cree Nation $6,006,500 $61,900 $34,200,000 $201,200 $540,000 $3,200
447 Little Red River Cree Nation $9,510,000 $33,700 $35,530,000 $81,100 $1,100,000 $2,500
476 Loon River Cree $2,173,500 $15,600 $16,320,000 $67,700 $820,000 $3,400
439 Louis Bull Tribe $1,727,000 $6,800 $13,680,000 $34,500 $1,420,000 $3,600
439 Louis Bull Tribe $1,176,300 $9,600 $4,840,000 $28,800 $890,000 $5,300
453 Lubicon Lake $615,000 $9,800 $14,240,000 $148,300 $270,000 $2,800
461 Mikisew Cree First Nation $1,690,000 $23,500 $10,490,000 $57,300 $855,000 $4,700
442 Montana $1,001,000 $5,800 $5,770,000 $22,900 $920,000 $3,700
431 O'Chiese First Nation $1,371,200 $6,000 $9,920,000 $30,900 $1,210,000 $3,800
441 Paul $1,488,500 $6,800 $9,240,000 $30,900 $1,170,000 $3,900
436 Piikani Nation $310,000 $700 $8,930,000 $14,600 $2,290,000 $3,700
462 Saddle Lake First Nation $9,643,000 $14,000 $30,450,000 $29,400 $3,610,000 $3,500
462 Saddle Lake First Nation $4,765,000 $15,400 $18,810,000 $40,500 $2,200,000 $4,700
444 Samson $17,227,300 $13,900 $57,360,000 $32,600 $4,150,000 $2,400
454 Sawridge $231,000 $11,600 $1,330,000 $42,900 $340,000 $11,000
430 Siksika Nation $4,183,000 $4,200 $41,060,000 $33,100 $3,360,000 $2,700
477 Smith's Landing First Nation $15,000 $900 $670,000 $19,700 $225,000 $6,600
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation $690,000 $16,800 $790,000 $17,200 $365,000 $7,900
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation $280,000 $2,700 $2,660,000 $22,500 $760,000 $6,400
433 Stoney Nakoda Tribal Nation $2,705,000 $3,200 $2,660,000 $2,800 $760,000 $800
455 Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation $5,528,000 $15,400 $16,150,000 $28,200 $2,300,000 $4,000
456 Sucker Creek $868,100 $3,800 $5,970,000 $17,900 $1,700,000 $5,100
434 Sunchild First Nation $1,395,400 $6,600 $11,400,000 $33,500 $1,090,000 $3,200
457 Swan River First Nation $684,500 $7,400 $4,110,000 $29,100 $520,000 $3,700
446 Tallcree $129,000 $4,600 $785,000 $23,800 $280,000 $8,500
446 Tallcree $978,500 $23,900 $5,660,000 $89,800 $410,000 $6,500
446 Tallcree $1,530,000 $30,600 $16,900,000 $231,500 $500,000 $6,800
432 Tsuu T'ina Nation $5,591,800 $14,100 $13,200,000 $24,300 $1,880,000 $3,500
459 Whitefish Lake $2,018,500 $8,300 $18,340,000 $36,200 $1,540,000 $3,000
459 Whitefish Lake $350,000 $11,700 $3,910,000 $60,200 $410,000 $6,300
474 Woodland Cree First Nation $217,000 $1,100 $10,500,000 $39,000 $1,760,000 $6,500
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