National Assessment of First Nations Water and Wastewater Systems - Manitoba Regional Roll-Up Report

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Prepared By: Neegan Burnside Ltd.
Prepared for: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
Date: January 2011
File No: FGY163080.4

PDF Version (2.4 Mb, 103 Pages)

Statement of Qualifications and Limitations for Regional Roll-Up Reports

This regional roll-up report has been prepared by Neegan Burnside Ltd. and a team of subconsultants (Consultant) for the benefit of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (Client). Regional summary reports have been prepared for the 8 regions, to facilitate planning and budgeting on both a regional and national level to address water and wastewater system deficiencies and needs.

The material contained in this Regional Roll-Up report is:

  • preliminary in nature, to allow for high level budgetary and risk planning to be completed by the Client on a national level.
  • based on a compilation of the data and findings from the individual community reports prepared and issued for a specific region.
  • not proposing to identify the preferred solution to address deficiencies for each community. Rather this report will identify possible solution(s) and probable preliminary costs associated with solution(s) presented in greater detail in the community reports. Community specific studies including more detailed evaluation will be required to identify both preferred solutions and final costs.
  • based on existing conditions observed by, or reported to the Consultant. This assessment does not wholly eliminate uncertainty regarding the potential for costs, hazards or losses in connection with a facility. Conditions existing but not recorded were not apparent given the level of study undertaken.
  • to be read in the context of its entirety.
  • not to be used for any purpose other than that agreed to with the Client. Any use which a third party makes of this report, or any reliance on or decisions to be made based on it, are the responsibility of such third parties. Any other user specifically denies any right to claims against the Consultant, Sub-Consultants, their Officers, Agents and Employees.

Risk as it pertains to health and safety issues and building code compliance is based upon hazards readily identifiable during a simple walk through of the water and wastewater facilities, and does not constitute a comprehensive assessment with regard to health and safety regulations and or building code regulations.

The Consultant accepts no responsibility for any decisions made or actions taken as a result of this report.

1.0 Introduction

The Government of Canada is committed to providing safe, clean drinking water in all First Nations communities, and to ensuring that wastewater services in all First Nations communities meet acceptable effluent quality standards. As part of this commitment, the Government announced the First Nations Water and Wastewater Action Plan (FNWWAP). The plan funds the construction and renovation of water and wastewater facilities, operator training, and public health activities related to water and wastewater on reserves. It also provided for a national, independent assessment – The National Assessment of First Nations Water and Wastewater Systems – which will inform the Government's future, long-term investment strategy. This assessment was also recommended by the Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples.

The purpose of the National Assessment is to define the current deficiencies and the operational needs of water and wastewater systems, identify the long-term water and wastewater needs of each community and recommend sustainable, long-term infrastructure development strategies.

The objectives of the National Assessment are to:

This assessment involved collecting background data and information about each community, undertaking a site visit, and preparing individual community reports for each participating First Nation. Neegan Burnside Ltd. and its sub-consultants conducted an assessment for each of the eight regions. This report summarizes the findings for the Manitoba region.

1.1 Site Visits

Site visits in the Manitoba region were undertaken by personnel from Neegan Burnside Ltd. and its sub-consultants, KGS Group, during September and October of 2009, and May, June and July of 2010. Each visit included at least two team members. In addition to the consultant staff, additional participants included the Circuit Rider Trainer (CRT) and, in some cases, the Environmental Health Officer (EHO) from Health Canada. Each community report identifies the additional participants who were able to attend.

After confirming the various components that the First Nation uses to provide water and wastewater services to the community (i.e. number and types of systems, piping, individual systems, etc.) along with population and future servicing needs (planned development and population growth), an assessment was carried out of the water and wastewater systems, as well as 5% of the individual systems.

1.2 Reporting

Individual community reports were prepared for each First Nation. In the Manitoba region, there was 100% participation from the 62 First Nations. Figure 1.1 indicates the location of each First Nation visited as a part of this study.

The reports include an assessment of existing communal and individual systems, identification of required upgrades to meet departmental, federal and provincial protocols and guidelines, and an assessment of existing servicing of the community along with projections of population and water and wastewater flows for future servicing for the 10 year period. Each report includes the projected costs for the recommendations to meet departmental protocol, federal and provincial guidelines, and an evaluation of servicing alternatives along with life cycle costing for each feasible alternative.

An annual water inspection, risk evaluation and ACRS inspection was completed for each system and are included in the Appendices of each report.

Figure 1.1 - Manitoba First Nations Visited
Figure 1.1 - Manitoba First Nations Visited
Description of figure 1.1 – Manitoba First Nations Visited

This image is a map of the location of each First Nation community that Neegan Burnside Ltd.visited in Manitoba as part of the National Assessment of Water and Wastewater in First Nations Communities. Each site visit is marked by a green dot.

2.0 Regional Overview

The Manitoba region includes 62 First Nations. There are 74 water systems (69 First Nation systems and 5 Municipal Type Agreements) and 61 wastewater systems (57 First Nation systems and 4 Municipal Type Agreements).

A water or wastewater system considered a First Nation system, consists of INAC-funded assets, and serves five or more residences or community buildings. A Municipal Type Agreement (MTA), on the other hand, is when First Nations are supplied with treated water from or send their wastewater to a nearby municipality or neighbouring First Nation or corporate entity as outlined in a formal agreement between the two parties.

The First Nation community population ranges from 43 to 5,869 people, and household sizes range from 2.0 to 8.8 people per unit (ppu). The total number of homes is 15,661, and the average household size is 5.4 ppu.

2.1 Water Servicing

There are a total of 74 water systems serving 60 First Nations. The remaining 2 First Nations are serviced solely by individual wells. For water treatment, the 74 water systems include:

  • 5 systems that receive their water supply through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 32 groundwater systems
  • 37 surface water systems.

For water distribution, the 74 systems are all maintained by First Nations. The following is a summary of the level of service being provided to the homes within the Manitoba region:

  • 51% of the homes (7,930) are piped
  • 31% of the homes (4,777) are on truck delivery
  • 13% of the homes (2,078) are serviced by individual wells
  • 5% of the homes (876) have no water service.

The homes with no service are mostly located in some communities in the remote, northern part of the province. In general, these houses are not serviced because they do not have internal plumbing. There are some instances where the water distribution pipe runs in front of the house, but the house does not have service because it lacks indoor plumbing.

Table 2.1, below, provides an overview of the water systems by system classification, source type, treatment type and storage type. In general, the treatment system classification reflects the complexity of the treatment process and the distribution classification reflects the population of the community being serviced. Treatment systems labeled as "Small System" typically represent systems with either disinfection only or no treatment. The classification used for the Manitoba region follows the regulations for Manitoba.

Table 2.1 - Water Overview
System Classification No. % of Total
Small System 12 16%
Level I 7 10%
Level II 32 43%
Level III 18 24%
MTA 5 7%

Source Type No. % of Total
Groundwater 32 43%
Surface Water 37 50%
MTA 5 7%

Storage No. % of Total
None 11 15%
Grade level 3 4%
Underground 60 81%

Treatment Type No. % of Total
None - Direct Use 6 8%
Disinfection Only 8 11%
Greensand Filtration 5 7%
Activated Carbon Only 1 1%
Slow Sand 1 1%
Conventional 34 46%
Membrane Filtration 14 19%
MTA 5 7%

2.2 Wastewater Servicing

There are a total of 61 wastewater systems serving 55 First Nations. The remaining 7 First Nations are serviced solely by individual septic systems.

For wastewater treatment, the 61 systems include:

  • 4 wastewater systems are provided treatment through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 57 First Nation wastewater treatment systems consisting of 32 systems that use either facultative or aerated lagoons, 24 systems that use a mechanical plant, and 1 communal septic system.

For wastewater collection, the 61 systems include:

  • 2 wastewater collection systems are operated and maintained through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 59 wastewater collection systems that are maintained by the First Nation.

The following is a summary of the level of service being provided to the homes within the Manitoba region:

  • 45% of the homes (7,075) are piped
  • 28% of the homes (4,403) are on truck haul
  • 22% of the homes (3,337) are serviced by individual septic systems
  • 5% of the homes (846) are reported to have no service.

The following table provides an overview of the wastewater systems by system classification and treatment type.

Table 2.2 - Wastewater Overview
System Classification No. % of Total
Small System 4 7%
Level I 28 45%
Level II 20 33%
Level III 5 8%
MTA 4 7%

Treatment Type No. % of Total
Aerated Lagoon 10 16%
Facultative Lagoon 22 36%
Mechanical Treatment 24 39%
MTA 4 7%
Septic System 1 2%

3.0 Preliminary Results and Trends

3.1 Per Capita Consumption and Plant Capacity

Historical flow records were not available for two of the five First Nations serviced by a Municipal Type Agreement, or for 23 of the First Nations with communal water systems. For the remaining 49 communal water systems, the average per capita demand ranges from 10 L/p/d to 420 L/p/d, with an average per capita demand of approximately 176 L/p/d.

For the systems without flow data, an average per capita flow rate ranging from 225 L/p/d to 275 L/p/d for piped servicing and 90 L/p/d for truck haul was used to evaluate the water systems. The distribution of per capita flow is outlined in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 - Range of Per Capita Water Usage Rates
  No. of systems 2009
Less than 250 L/c/d 38
250 L/c/d to 375 L/c/d 34
Greater than 375 L/c/d 2

Historical flow data for wastewater was not available for most of the wastewater systems. Therefore, to evaluate the ability of the existing infrastructure to meet the current and projected needs, an average daily flow was calculated based on the actual or assumed per capita water consumption, plus an infiltration allowance of 90 L/c/d for piped servicing.

The following figure provides a summary of the plant capacity for the First Nation water and wastewater systems:

  • over capacity: the existing system is unable to meet the current needs
  • at capacity: the existing system is able to meet the current needs
  • available capacity: the existing system has sufficient capacity to meet more than the current needs
  • not enough data: insufficient data was available to determine the actual system capacity.
Figure 3.1 - Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities
Figure 3.1 - Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities
Description of figure 3.1 – Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities

This graph illustrates the treatment capacities of water and wastewater systems for First Nations communities in Manitoba.

Water System Treatment Capacities

  • 10 water systems (13.5 percent of the total number of water systems) are operating over their estimated capacities.
  • 1 water system (1.35 percent of the total number of water systems) is operating at its estimated capacity.
  • 61 water systems (82.43 percent of the total number of water systems) have available capacity.
  • There is not enough data to assess the capacities of 2 of the water systems (2.70 percent of the total number of systems).

Wastewater System Treatment Capacities

  • 11 wastewater systems (18 percent of the total number of wastewater systems) are operating over their estimated capacities.
  • 1 wastewater system (1.6 percent of the total number of wastewater systems) is operating at its estimated capacity.
  • 35 wastewater systems (57 percent of the total number of systems) have available capacity.
  • There is not enough data to asssess the capacities of 14 of the wastewater systems (22.95 percent of the total number of wastewater systems).

The data collected shows that 11 water systems and 12 wastewater systems are operating at or beyond their estimated capacities. For the plants identified as being over capacity, the per capita demand is within typical values for the region, according to available records.

3.2 Distribution and Collection

The household size for the 62 First Nations ranges from 2.0 to 8.8 people per unit (ppu), with an average of 5.4 ppu. The total number of piped connections in the region is 7,930 for water and 7,075 for wastewater. The average length per connection of watermain is 56 m and average length per connection of sewermain in the region is 33 m.

In some cases the data provided for watermains includes dedicated transmission main lengths with no service connections and non-distribution mains (i.e. intake pipes, raw water pipes). As a result, the average length per connection is inflated, particularly for smaller communities where the additional pipe length is spread over a smaller number of connections.

The table below indicates the number of water and wastewater systems that have pipe lengths above and below 30 m/connection. It should be noted that this information was not available for all of the systems.

Table 3.2 - Average Water Distribution and Wastewater Collection Pipe Lengths
  Watermain Sewer
Average m/connection 56 33
No. of systems with pipe lengths above 30 m/connection 50 27
No. of systems with pipe lengths below 30 m/connection 9 24
Figure 3.2 - Water Distribution: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Figure 3.2 - Water Distribution: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Description of figure 3.2 – Water Distribution: Average Pipe Length per Connection

This scatterplot graph illustrates the relationship between the length per connection of water distribution pipes and the population size of the community that is being serviced for First Nations communities in Manitoba.

For the vast majority of water systems, the average length per connection is above 30 meters per connection. The average length per connection is 56 meters. The majority of the communities being serviced have a population of less than 2000 people.

Figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Description of figure 3.3 – Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection

This scatterplot graph illustrates the relationship between the length per connection of wastewater collection pipes and the population size of the community that is being serviced for First Nations communities in Manitoba.

The average length per connection for wastewater collection (sewer) pipes is 33 meters per connection. A small majority of systems (27) have pipe lengths above 30 meters per connection. The population of most of the communities being serviced is less than 2000 people.

3.3 Water Risk Evaluation

A risk assessment has been completed for each water system according to the INAC Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines. Each facility is ranked in risk according to the following categories: Water Source, Design, Operation (and Maintenance), Reporting and Operators. The risk levels of all five categories are then used to determine the overall risk for the system.

Each of the five risk categories, as well as the overall risk level of the entire system, is ranked numerically from 1 to 10. Low, medium and high risks are defined as follows:

  • Low Risk (1.0 to 4.0): These are systems that operate with minor deficiencies. Low-risk systems usually meet the water quality parameters that are specified by the appropriate Canadian Guidelines for drinking water (in particular, the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ)).
  • Medium Risk (4.1 to 7.0): These are systems with deficiencies, which— individually or combined— pose a medium risk to the quality of water and to human health. These systems do not generally require immediate action, but the deficiencies should be corrected to avoid future problems.
  • High Risk (7.1 to 10.0): These are systems with major deficiencies, which— individually or combined—pose a high risk to the quality of water. These deficiencies may lead to potential health and safety or environmental concerns. They could also result in water quality advisories against drinking the water (such as, but not limited to, boil water advisories), repetitive non-compliance with guidelines, and inadequate water supplies. Once systems are classified under this category, regions and First Nations must take immediate corrective action to minimize or eliminate deficiencies.

Regional Risk Summary:

Of the 74 water systems inspected:

  • 21 are categorized as high overall risk
  • 32 are categorized as medium overall risk
  • 21 are categorized as low overall risk.

The table in Appendix E.1 summarizes the correlation between component risk and overall risk.

Figure 3.4 provides a geographical representation of the final risk for the water systems that were inspected.

Figure 3.4 - Manitoba Water System Risk
Figure 3.4 - Manitoba Water System Risk
Description of figure 3.4 – Manitoba Water System Risk

This image provides a map of the location of high-, medium-, and low-risk water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba. High-risk systems are identified with a red dot, medium-risk systems are identified with a yellow dot, and low-risk systems are identified with a green dot.

There is also a pie chart that illustrates the number and percentage of water systems that are high, medium, and low risk.

  • There are 74 water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.
  • 21 water systems are high risk, which represents 28.5 percent of the total number of water systems in the region. 32 systems are medium risk, which represents 43 percent of the total number of water systems in the region. 21 water systems are low risk, which represents 28.5 percent of the total number of water systems in the region.

3.3.1 Overall System Risk by Source

The following table summarizes the overall system risk by water source. In general, Municipal Type Agreement systems have the lowest risk, followed by surface water systems and, finally, groundwater systems.

Table 3.3 - Summary of Overall Risk Levels by Water Source
Overall Risk Level Groundwater Surface Water MTA Total
High 12 9 0 21
Medium 10 21 1 32
Low 10 7 4 21
Total 32 37 5 74

3.3.2 Overall System Risk by Treatment Classification

The following table summarizes the overall system risk by classification level of the treatment system. Although there is no clear pattern between the system classification level and overall system risk, 92% of the Small Systems are classified as high risk and 56% and 50% of the Level II and Level III systems are medium risk, respectively.

Table 3.4 - Summary of Overall Risk Levels by Treatment System Classification
Overall Risk Level Small System Level I Level II Level III MTA Total
High 11 1 6 3 0 21
Medium 1 3 18 9 1 32
Low 0 3 8 6 4 21
Total 12 7 32 18 5 74

Figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification
Figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification
Description of figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification

This graph illustrates the risk profile of water treatment systems in Manitoba by the treatment system classification. It illustrates what percentage of each type of system is high, medium and low risk. It also shows the mean overall risk level by the treatment classification.

There are five treatment system classifications:

  • Small System
  • Level I System
  • Level II System
  • Level III System
  • MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) System

Small Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Small Systems is 8.12.
  • 8 percent of the Small Systems have a medium overall risk. 92 percent of the Small Systems have a high overall risk.

Level I Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level I Systems is 4.76.
  • 43 percent of the Level I Systems have a low overall risk. 43 percent of the Level I Systems have a medium overall risk. 14 percent of the Level I Systems have a high overall risk.

Level II Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level II Systems is 5.24.
  • 25 percent of the Level II Systems have a low overall risk. 56 percent of the Level II Systems have a medium overall risk. 19 percent of the Level II Systems have a high overall risk.

Level III Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level III Systems is 4.87.
  • 33 percent of the Level III Systems have a low overall risk. 50 percent of the Level III Systems have a medium overall risk.17 percent of the Level III Systems have a high overall risk.

MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems

  • The mean overall risk for MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems is 3.94.
  • 20 percent of the Municipal Type Agreement Systems have a medium overall risk. 80 percent of the Municipal Type Agreement Systems have a low overall risk.

3.3.3 Overall Risk by Number of Connections

For the Manitoba region, approximately 81% of systems serving more than 100 connections are medium and low overall risk. For systems serving less than 100 connections, approximately 85% are medium or high risk.

3.3.4 Component Risks: Water

The overall risk is comprised of five component risks: water source, design, operation, reporting and operator. Each of these component risk factors is discussed below.

Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Description of figure 3.6 – Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

This graph illustrates the mean risk score associated with each type of risk component for all water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

  • The risk associated with the source component has a mean score of 7.7.
  • The risk associated with the design component has a mean score of 4.1.
  • The risk associated with the operation component has a mean score of 6.3.
  • The risk associated with the reporting component has a mean score of 6.7.
  • The risk associated with the operator component has a mean score of 3.1.
Data for Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
  Source Design Operation Reporting Operator
Risk 7.7 4.1 6.3 6.7 3.1
Minimum 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Maximum 10.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Std. Dev. 2.1 2.3 2.3 3.4 3.3

3.3.5 Component Risk - Water: Source

The risk associated with the water source has a mean score of 7.7 overall. The mean source risk by type is:

  • groundwater at 7.4
  • surface water at 8.7
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 2.4.

Systems that rely on surface water typically have a higher component risk score than systems that rely on groundwater. Consequently, the risk formula automatically assigns a higher base risk to these types of systems.

The following figure identifies the drivers that contribute to source risk scores.

Figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers
Figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.7 – Source Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to water source risk in First Nations communities in Manitoba. There are four key risk drivers:

  • No Source Water Protection Plan;
  • Deterioration of Water Quality Over Time;
  • Risk of Contamination; and
  • Insufficient Capacity to Meet Future Requirements.
  • 96 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have no Source Water Protection Plan.
  • For 35 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba, water quality has deteriorated over time.
  • There is a risk of contamination for 78 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.
  • 49 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have an insufficient capacity to meet future requirements.

3.3.6 Component Risk - Water: Design

The risk associated with the design has a mean score of 4.1 overall. The mean design risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 4.5
  • surface water at 4.0
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 2.8.

The higher design risk associated with groundwater was due to lack of treatment to ensure that the aesthetic and operational guidelines were being met. As part of the multi-barrier approach to water treatment, chlorination is now required for all water systems. A groundwater system with an increased design risk is typically associated with not having disinfection systems in place or not providing sufficient contact time to ensure that the chlorination process is adequate.

The higher risk for surface water sources and Municipal Type agreements is typically because the treated water system or distribution system exceeds the GCDWQ for disinfection by-products.

There are several key drivers that have a significant impact on the region's design risk scores, including:

  • failure to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ)
  • exceeding the GCDWQ Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for bacteria
  • no disinfection system in place or a disinfection system that is not being used
  • no appropriate treatment in place to meet INAC's Protocol requirements
  • problems with system reliability
  • systems approaching or exceeding design capacity
  • systems not having appropriate waste management.

The frequency of each design risk driver resulting is listed in the figure below.

Figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers
Figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.8 – Design Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the design risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

There are eight key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Bacteriologial MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) due to Design;
  • Disinfection System Not in Place;
  • Failure to Meet GCDWQ (Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality) due to Design;
  • Inappropriate Treatment Processes;
  • Poor System Reliability;
  • No Design Flexibility;
  • Exceeds 75 percent Capacity; and
  • Inappropriate Waste Management.

The risk drivers are in red and green. The risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores. Failure to Meet Bacteriological MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) due to Design is the only risk driver in red. The rest of the risk drivers are in green.

  • 7 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba fail to meet the maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of bacteria due to design. As a result, these systems were given high-risk scores, regardless of all the other component scores.
  • There is no disinfection system in place for 17 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.
  • 16 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba fail to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality due to design.
  • 30 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have inappropriate treatment processes in place.
  • 14 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have poor system reliability.
  • 32 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have no design flexibility.
  • 35 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba exceed 75 percent capacity.
  • 26 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba practice inappropriate waste management.

It should be noted that the design risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high risk score, regardless of all of the other component risk scores.

3.3.7 Component Risk - Water: Operation

The risk associated with operation has a mean score of 6.3 overall. The mean operation risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 6.0
  • surface water at 6.6
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 5.8.

Areas that increased risk include: operators not maintaining records, operators not having or not using approved Operation & Maintenance manuals, and operators not scheduling and performing maintenance activities. An increased effort in these areas would lower both the operation risk component and the overall risk scores.

There are several key drivers that have a significant impact on the region's operation risk scores, including:

  • failure to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ)
  • exceeding the GCDWQ Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for bacteria
  • maintenance logs being inadequately maintained
  • lack of general system maintenance
  • Emergency Response Plan not in place
  • Operations & Maintenance manual not available or not in use.
Figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers
Figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.9 – Operations Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

There are 7 key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Bacteriological MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) Due to Operations;
  • Failure to Meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ) Due to Operations;
  • Inadequate Operation Logs;
  • Inadequate Maintenance Logs;
  • Maintenance Not Adequately Performed;
  • Emergency Response Plan Not Available for Use; and
  • Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Manual Not Available or Not in Use.

Risk drivers are in red and green. The risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores. Failure to Meet Bacteriological Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) due to Operations is the only risk driver in red. The rest of the risk drivers are in green.

  • 13 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba fail to meet the maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of bacteria due to operations. As a result, these systems received high-risk scores, regardless of all the other component scores.
  • 26 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba fail to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water due to operations.
  • 22 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have inadequate operation logs.
  • 59 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have inadequate maintenance logs.
  • Maintenance is not being performed adequately for 33 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.
  • An Emergency Response Plan is not available for use in 99 percent of the water systems in First Nationscommunities in Manitoba.
  • An O & M (Operation and Maintenance) Manual is not available or not in use for 70 percent of the water systems in First Nation communities in Manitoba.
Figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings: Water Systems Operational Practices
Figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings: Water Systems Operational Practices
Description of figure 3.10 – Summary of Findings: Water Systems Operational Practices

This graph identifies which operational practices are being performed and which operational practices are not being performed for water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

Line Flushing

  • 74 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba practice line flushing.
  • 26 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba do not currently practice line flushing.

Line Swabbing

  • 2 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba practice line swabbing.
  • 98 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba do not currently practice line swabbing.

Hydrant Flushing

  • 75 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba practice hydrant flushing.
  • 25 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba do not currently practice hydrant flushing.

Reservoir Cleaning

  • 64 percent of the water systems in First Nation communities in Manitoba practice reservoir cleaning. 36 percent of the water systems in First Nation communities in Manitoba do not currently practice reservoir cleaning.

Fire Pump Tests

  • 47 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba practice fire pump tests.
  • 53 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba do not currently practice fire pump tests.

SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures) On site

  • 58 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba practice Standard Operating Procedures on site.
  • 42 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba do not practice Standard Operating Procedures on site.

Maintenance Scheduled and Performed

  • 75 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba schedule and perform maintenance.
  • 25 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba do not currently schedule and perform maintenance.

Repair and Upgrade Records

  • 42 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba maintain records of repairs and upgrades.
  • 58 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba do not currently maintain records of repairs and upgrades.

O & M (Operation and Maintenance) Efforts Acceptable

  • The operation and maintenance efforts of 97 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba are acceptable.
  • The operation and maintenance of 3 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba are not acceptable.

All Components Working

  • All components are working for 31 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.
  • Not all components are working for 69 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

One or more major components are not working for approximately 70% of the systems. Although the operators for approximately 75% of systems practice line and hydrant flushing, most do not regularly swab watermains. Approximately 36% do not clean reservoirs and 53% do not test fire pumps. Records of system maintenance and repairs were available for only 42% of the systems.

3.3.8 Component Risk - Water: Reporting

The risk associated with reporting has a mean score of 6.7 overall. Some of the Municipal Type Agreements include a reservoir and re-chlorination with highlift pumping to the distribution system. These facilities are generally not keeping records of chlorine residual and flow. This is reflected in the risk score of 9.2. The mean reporting risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 7.1
  • surface water at 6.0
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 9.2.

Inconsistent record keeping and reporting are the main drivers for reporting risk for all systems (62%).

Figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.11 – Reporting Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to reporting risks for water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

There are 3 key risk drivers: Inconsistent Records, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) not Calibrated and Confirmed Accurate; and Poor Records for Key Parameters.

  • 62 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have inconsistent records.
  • 52 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have poor records for key parameters.
  • For 6 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba, the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) has not been calibrated and confirmed to be accurate.

3.3.9 Component Risk - Water: Operator

The risk associated with the operator has a mean score of 3.1 overall, which is the lowest overall component risk score for all types of systems. The majority of the systems have a primary operator, with the exception of a few small groundwater pumphouses. Although more complicated systems based on treatment classification require an operator with a higher level of training, the operator risk is highest for groundwater systems. The mean operator risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 4.3
  • surface water at 2.5
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 1.0.

The extent to which existing systems have fully certified primary and backup operators is presented in Table 3.5. Of the 69 systems that require a certified operator for the water treatment system, 49% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 88% did not have a fully certified backup operator. Of the 69 systems that require a certified operator for the distribution system, 38% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 75% did not have a fully certified backup operator.

Table 3.5 - Water: Operator Status for Manitoba Region
  Primary Operator Backup Operator
Treatment Distribution Treatment Distribution
No. of Systems Currently Without an Operator 5 4 15 14
No. of Systems with Operator with No Certification 15 16 36 37
No. of Systems with Operator Certified but not to the Required Level of the System 14 6 10 1
No. of Systems with Operator with Adequate Certification 35 43 8 17
No. of Systems Not Requiring Operators with Certification 5 5 5 5
Total No. of Systems 74 74 74 74

Those factors which frequently contribute to increased operator risk are identified in Figure 3.12. A lack of certification, lack of training and the lack of primary or backup operator are common drivers that increase operator risk.

Figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers
Figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.12 – Operator Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the operator risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

There are 5 key risk drivers:

  • No Primary Operator and/or Primary Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification;
  • Primary Operator Uncertified and/or Insufficient Experience/Training for the Distribution System;
  • Primary Operator Not Enrolled in Training;
  • No Backup Operator or Backup Operator Not Certified; and
  • No Access to Fully Trained Operator.
  • For 49 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba, there is no primary operator and/or the primary operator is not certified to the level required by the treatment system classification.
  • For 42 percent of the water systems systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba, the primary operator is uncertified and/or has insufficient experience/training for the distribution system.
  • For 18 percent of the water systems systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba, the primary operator is not enrolled in training.
  • 74 percent of the water systems systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have no backup operator or they have a backup operator who has no certification.
  • 13 percent of the water systems systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have no access to a fully trained operator.

3.4 Wastewater Risk Evaluation

A risk assessment was completed for each wastewater system according to INAC's Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines. The risk of each wastewater facility is ranked according to the following categories: effluent receiver, design, operation and maintenance, reporting, and operators. The overall risk score is a weighted average of the component risk scores.

Each of the five risk categories, as well as the overall risk level of the entire system, is ranked numerically from 1 to 10. A risk ranking of 1.0 to 4.0 represents low risk, a risk ranking of 4.1 to 7.0 represents a medium risk, and a risk of 7.1 to 10.0 represents a high risk.

Of the 61 wastewater systems inspected:

  • 6 are categorized as high overall risk
  • 38 are categorized as medium overall risk
  • 17 systems are categorized as low risk.

Appendix E.2 provides a table summarizing the correlation between component risk and overall risk.

Figure 3.13 provides a geographical representation of the final risk for the wastewater systems that were inspected.

Figure 3.13 - Manitoba Wastewater System Risk
Figure 3.13 - Manitoba Wastewater System Risk
Description of figure 3.13 – Manitoba Wastewater System Risk

This image provides a map of the location of high-, medium-, and low-risk wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba. High-risk systems are identified with a red dot, medium-risk systems are identified with a yellow dot, and low-risk systems are identified with a green dot.

The map also includes a pie chart that illustrates the number and percentage of high-, medium-, and low-risk systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

  • There are 61 wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba. Of these, 6 wastewater systems are high risk, which represents 10 percent of the total number of wastewater systems in the region. 38 wastewater sytems are medium risk, which represents 62 percent of the wastewater systems in the region. 17 wastewater systems are low risk, which represents 28 percent of the wastewater systems in the region.

3.4.1 Overall System Risk by Treatment Classification

Figure 3.14 demonstrates the correlation between the overall system risk and the classification level of the treatment system. In the Manitoba region, the majority of the systems are Level I or Level II; there are only five Level III systems and four Small Systems. For Municipal Type Agreements, it is assumed that the municipality operates their system in accordance with provincial legislation, which results in a low-risk effluent receiver.

All four of the Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) systems are low risk. For the Manitoba region:

  • all of the Small Systems are low to medium risk
  • all of the Level I systems except one are categorized as low to medium risk
  • 90% of the Level II systems are categorized as medium to high risk
  • all five of the Level III systems are categorized as medium risk.
Figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification
Figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification
Description of figure 3.14 – Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification

This graph illustrates the relationship between the mean overall system risk and the treatment system classification level for watewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba. It also illustrates the percentage of low, medium, and high overall risk scores by system type.

Small Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Small Systems is 4.73.
  • 50 percent of the Small Systems have a low overall risk. 50 percent of the Small Systems have a medium overall risk.

Level I Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level I Systems is 4.64.
  • 32 percent of the Level I Systems have a low overall risk. 64 percent of the Level I Systems have a medium overall risk. 4 percent of the Level I Systems have a high overall risk.

Level II Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level II Systems is 5.97.
  • 10 percent of the Level II Systems have a low overall risk. 65 percent of the Level II Systems have a medium overall risk. 25 percent of the Level II Systems have a high overall risk.

Level III Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level III Systems is 5.86.
  • 100 percent of the Level III Systems have a low overall risk.

MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems

  • The mean overall risk for MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems is 2.33.
  • 100 percent of the MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems have a low overall risk.

3.4.2 Overall System Risk by Number of Connections

For the Manitoba region, the overall system risk generally increased with the number of connections.

3.4.3 Component Risks: Wastewater

The overall risk is comprised of five component risks: effluent receiver, design, operation, reporting and operators. Each of these component risk factors are discussed below.

Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Description of figure 3.15 – Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

This graph illustrates the risk associated with each type of risk component for all wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.The graph shows the mean risk score for wastewater systems by the type of risk component. There are five risk components: effluent; design; operation; reporting; and operator.

  • The risk associated with the effluent has a mean score of 6.0.
  • The risk associated with the design has a mean score of 3.7.
  • The risk associated with the operation has a mean score of 6.7.
  • The risk associated with the reporting has a mean score of 5.6.
  • The risk associated with the operator has a mean score of 2.8.
Data for Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
  Effluent Design Operation Reporting Operator
Risk 6.0 3.7 6.7 5.6 2.8
Minimum 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0
Maximum 10.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Std. Dev. 2.8 2.1 1.9 4.2 2.8

3.4.4 Component Risk - Wastewater: Effluent Receiver

The effluent receiver has a mean risk score of 6.0. There are two key risk drivers of this component:

  • the receiving environment
  • the extent to which the receiver is required for other human uses, such as fishing, recreation or drinking water.

The mean effluent receiver risk scores are:

  • septic at 3.0
  • aerated lagoon at 6.1
  • facultative lagoon at 5.0
  • mechanical sewage treatment plant at 7.7
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 1.8.
Figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers
Figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.16 – Effluent Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the effluent risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba. There are four key risk drivers:

  • High-Risk Effluent Receiver
  • Possible Species at Risk in the Receiving Environment
  • Nearby Human Use of the Receiving Environment
  • Receiving Environment is a Sensitive Area.
  • 62 percent of the wastewater systems have a high-risk effluent receiver.
  • 5 percent of the wastewater systems possibly have species at risk in the receiving environment.
  • 74 percent of the wastewater systems have human use nearby the receiving environment.
  • For 11 percent of the wastewater systems, the receiving environment is a sensitive area.

3.4.5 Component Risk - Wastewater: Design

The risk associated with the design has a mean score of 3.7. The risk associated with the design has the second lowest mean component score; however, excluding Municipal Type Agreements, 18 of the systems have a high or medium component risk score, and 39 have a low risk score. The mean design risk scores are:

  • septic at 3.0
  • aerated lagoon at 2.8
  • facultative lagoon at 3.2
  • mechanical sewage treatment plant at 5.0
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 1.3.

There are several key drivers that have a significant impact on the design risk scores of wastewater systems in the region, including:

  • inappropriate treatment processes
  • poor system reliability
  • system lacks the flexibility to meet future growth
  • system has exceeded the design capacity
  • inappropriate waste management.
Figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers
Figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.17 – Design Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to design risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

There are eight key drivers that contribute to design risk:

  • Design-Related Failure to meet Guidelines;
  • Inappropriate Treatment Processes;
  • Poor System Reliability;
  • No Design Flexibility;
  • Exceeds 75 percent Capacity;
  • Inappropriate Waste Management;
  • Does Not Meet Applicable Design Standards; and
  • Plant/System (Workplace) Considered Dangerous.
  • 5 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba failed to meet guidelines because of a design-related failure.
  • 21 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have inappropriate treatment processes.
  • 67 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have poor system reliability.
  • 36 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have no design flexibility.
  • 41 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba exceed 75 percent of their estimated capacities.
  • 25 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have inappropriate waste management.
  • 11 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba do not meet applicable design standards.
  • For 8 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba, the workplace/plant is considered to be dangerous.

3.4.6 Component Risk - Wastewater: Operation

The risk associated with the operation has a mean score of 6.7. Most of the wastewater systems have a medium- or high-risk score. This is identified as an area of opportunity for increased risk-mitigation efforts.The mean operation risk scores are:

  • septic at 8.0
  • aerated lagoon at 5.5
  • facultative lagoon at 7.1
  • mechanical sewage treatment plant at 7.1
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 4.5.

There are several key drivers that have a significant impact on the operation risk scores of wastewater systems in the Manitoba Region:

  • inadequate maintenance logs
  • general maintenance not being performed adequately
  • Emergency Response Plans not in place or not being used
  • Operations & Maintenance manuals not available or not in use.
Figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers
Figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.18 – Operation Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

There are five key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Federal Effluent Quality Guidelines Due to Operations;
  • Inadequate Maintenance Logs;
  • Maintenance Not Adequately Performed;
  • Emergency Response Plan Not Available or Not in Use; and
  • Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Manual Not Available or Not in Use.
  • 18 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba failed to meet federal effluent quality guidelines due to operations.
  • 64 percent of wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have inadequate maintenance logs.
  • Maintenance is not being performed adequately for 46 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.
  • For 98 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba, an Emergency Response Plan is not available or not in use.
  • An O & M (Operation and Maintenance) Manual is not available or not in use for 80 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba.

3.4.7 Component Risk - Wastewater: Reporting

The risk associated with reporting has a mean score of 5.6. The reporting risk evaluates the maintenance of effluent-testing and system-monitoring records. Little record keeping is required for septic systems and lagoons (other than keeping general maintenance logs of lagoons and septic systems, and sampling before discharge for lagoons). Inconsistent record keeping is a significant factor in raising the overall risk ranking for mechanical treatment plants with constant discharge. The mean reporting risk scores are:

  • septic at 1.0
  • aerated lagoon at 4.8
  • facultative lagoon at 3.6
  • mechanical sewage treatment plant at 8.3
  • Municipal Type Agreements (MTA) at 3.3.
Figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.19 – Reporting Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the reporting risk for wastewater in First Nations communities in Manitoba. There are three key reporting risk drivers: Inconsistent Records; Poor Records for Key Parameters; and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System not Calibrated and Confirmed Accurate.

  • 46 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have inconsistent records.
  • 43 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have poor records for key parameters.
  • For 8 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba, the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System has not been calibrated and confirmed to be accurate.

3.4.8 Component Risk - Wastewater: Operator

The risk associated with the operator has a mean score of 2.8. Operator risk is determined by whether or not the operators have adequate certification. There are only six systems that have a high-risk system because operators do not have adequate certification and/or an available backup operator. Operator risk is categorized as medium for 10 of the systems and low for the remaining 45 systems.

The extent to which existing wastewater systems have fully certified primary and backup operators is presented in Table 3.6. Of the 57 systems which require a certified operator for the wastewater treatment system, 44% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 89% did not have a fully certified backup operator. Of the 58 systems which require a certified operator for the collection system, 41% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 88% did not have a fully certified backup operator.

To ensure that the component risk remains low, it is important to ensure that all operators are enrolled in training and become certified to the level of their respective treatment systems.

Table 3.6 - Wastewater: Operator Status for Manitoba Region
  Primary Operator Backup Operator
Treatment Collection Treatment Collection
No. of Systems Currently Without an Operator 1 2 11 13
No. of Systems with Operator with No Certification 17 16 39 38
No. of Systems with Operator Certified but not to the Required Level of the System 7 6 1 0
No. of Systems with Operator with Adequate Certification 32 34 6 7
No. of Systems Not Requiring Operators with Certification 4 3 4 3
Total No. of Systems 61 61 61 61

Those factors which frequently contribute to increased wastewater operator risk are identified in Figure 3.20. A lack of certification, lack of training and the lack of primary or backup operator are common drivers that increase operator risk.

Figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers
Figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.20 – Operators Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba. There are five key risk drivers:

  • No Primary Operator and/or Primary Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification;
  • Primary Operator Uncertified and/or has Insufficient Experience/Training for the Collection System;
  • Primary Operator Not Enrolled in Training;
  • No Backup Operator and/or Backup Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification; and
  • No Access to Fully Trained Operator.
  • 44 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba either have no primary operator or they have a primary operator who is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • 38 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have a primary operator who is uncertified and/or who has insufficient experience/training for the collection system.
  • The primary operator is not enrolled in training for 26 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba
  • 88 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have no backup operator and/or they have a backup operator who is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • 18 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba have no access to a fully trained operator.

3.5 Plans

Information was collected regarding the availability of various documents, including Source Water Protection Plans (SWPP), Maintenance Management Plans (MMP), and Emergency Response Plans (ERP). The following tables provide a summary of the percentages of First Nations that have plans in place:

Table 3.7 - Plans Summary: Water
Source Percentage of Water Systems that have a (an)...
Source Water Protection Plan Maintenance Management Plan Emergency Response Plan
Groundwater 6% 6% 3%
MTA N/A 20% 0%
Surface Water 3% 5% 0%
Overall 4% 7% 1%

Table 3.8 - Plans Summary: Wastewater
Percentage of Wastewater Systems that have a (an)…
Maintenance Management Plan Emergency Response Plan
5% 2%

3.5.1 Source Water Protection Plan (SWPP)

Source water protection planning is one component of a multi-barrier approach to providing safe drinking water. Source Water Protection Plans seek to identify threats to the water source. They also establish policies and practices to prevent contamination of the water source and to ensure that the water service provider is equipped to take corrective action in the event of a contamination. Source water protection is appropriate for both groundwater and surface water sources.

Only 4% of the systems in the Manitoba region have a Source Water Protection Plan in place.

3.5.2 Maintenance Management Plans (MMP)

Maintenance Management Plans are intended to improve the effectiveness of maintenance activities. They focus on planning, scheduling and documenting preventative maintenance activities, and they document unscheduled maintenance efforts. The plans represent a change from reactive to proactive thinking, and when executed properly, they optimize maintenance spending, minimize service disruption, and extend asset life.

In the Manitoba region, 6% of groundwater systems, 5% of surface water systems and 20% of the Municipal Type Agreement systems have a Maintenance Management Plan in place. For wastewater systems, 5% of the systems have a Maintenance Management Plan in place.

3.5.3 Emergency Response Plans (ERP)

Emergency Response Plans are intended to be a quick reference to assist operators and other stakeholders in managing and responding to emergency situations. Emergency Response Plans should be in place for both water and wastewater systems. They include key contact information for those to be notified, and those who may be of assistance in case of emergency (agencies, contractors, suppliers, etc.), and they provide standard communication and response protocols. Emergency Response Plans identify recommended corrective actions for "foreseeable" emergencies, as well as methodologies for addressing unforeseen situations. They are essentially the last potential "barrier" in a multi-barrier approach to protecting the drinking water supply and the natural environment, and they provide the last opportunity to mitigate damages.

Only 1% of the water systems and 2% of the wastewater systems have an Emergency Response Plan in place.

4.0 Cost Analysis

4.1 Upgrade to Meet INAC's Protocols: Water

In 2006, INAC began to develop a series of Protocol documents for centralised and decentralised water and wastewater systems in First Nations communities. The Protocols contains standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of these systems.

One of the objectives of this study was to review the existing water and wastewater infrastructure and to identify the potential upgrade costs to meet INAC's Protocols, and federal and provincial guidelines, standards and regulations. The total estimated construction cost for water system upgrades to meet the INAC Protocol is $52.5 million.

Table 4.1 provides a breakdown of the estimated total capital costs that we have identified. A separate line item is included for engineering and contigency. Figure 4.1 provides a comparison graph of each of the categories.

Table 4.1 - Estimated Total Construction Costs: Water
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Building $5,286,450 $1,026,950 $1,495,950
Distribution $3,244,000 $1,664,000 $1,664,000
Equipment $1,436,000 $1,344,000 $11,000
Additional Fire Pumps $210,000 $0 $165,000
Monitoring Equipment $1,325,000 $1,220,000 $314,000
Source $1,400,000 $50,000 $50,000
Storage & Pumping $3,047,000 $2,070,000 $2,070,000
Treatment $23,143,000 $7,406,500 $3,312,000
Standby Power $2,865,000 $100,000 $30,000
Engineering & Contingencies $10,511,000 $3,743,400 $2,298,000
Construction Total Estimate $52,467,450 $18,624,850 $11,409,950

There are 21 water systems that may potentially have groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) supplies. The upgrade costs for these systems have been estimated under the assumption that they will prove to be secure groundwater supplies, but further studies are recommended to confirm this assumption.

If the GUDI studies indicate that these supplies should be considered to be surface water rather than groundwater, then additional upgrade requirements will be necessary for these systems to meet INAC's Protocols. It is estimated that, depending on system capacity and site indices, an additional $1.0 to $2.5 million will be required for each system that needs to be upgraded to surface-water treatment.

Figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocols: Water ($ - M)
Figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocols: Water ($ - M)
Description of figure 4.1 – Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC’s Protocols

This pie chart provides a breakdown (in millions of dollars) of the estimated construction costs of the upgrades that are required for water systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols.

The costs are divided into ten categories:

  • Additional Fire Pumps
  • Building
  • Distribution
  • Engineering & Contingencies
  • Equipment
  • Monitoring Equipment
  • Source
  • Standby Power
  • Storage & Pumping
  • Treatment
  • The total estimated cost for the additional fire pumps that are required for First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 0.2 million dollars.
  • The total estimated building cost for the upgrades that are required for First Nationd communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 5.3 million dollars.
  • The total estimated cost of the distribution upgrades that are required for First Nationd communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 3.2 million dollars.
  • The total estimated cost of engineering and contingencies for the upgrades that are required for First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 10.5 million dollars.
  • The total estimated equipment cost for the upgrades that are required for First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 1.4 million dollars.
  • The total estimated monitoring equipment cost for the upgrades that are required for First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 1.3 million dollars.
  • The total estimated cost for the source upgrades that are required for First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 1.4 million dollars.
  • The total estimated cost for the standy power upgrades that are required for First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 2.9 million dollars.
  • The total estimated storage and pumping cost for the upgrades that are required for First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 3.0 million dollars.
  • The total estimated treatment cost for the upgrades that are required for First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocols is 23.1 million dollars.

The following lists provide a summary of the Protocol items for the two categories with the highest cumulative Protocol costs that are listed above.

Treatment

  • Provide spare chemical feed equipment.
  • Provide spare disinfection equipment.
  • Provide additional filter train.
  • Provide secondary containment for treatment chemicals.
  • Provide specific treatment equipment (i.e. arsenic, manganese, etc.).
  • Upgrade capacity of existing water treatment plant.

Building

  • Expand facility to house redundant treatment equipment and/or provide adequate storage space.
  • Provide proper ventilation.
  • Provide additional building security.
Table 4.2 - Estimated Total Non-Construction Costs: Water
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Training $590,000 $610,000 $610,000
GUDI Studies $440,000 $0 $0
Plans/Documentation $3,357,500 $2,792,500 $1,800,000
Studies $95,000 $40,000 $40,000
Non-Construction Total Estimate $4,482,500 $3,442,500 $2,450,000

Additional annual operations and maintenance costs, shown in Table 4.3, include costs that occur annually for items that are not currently being completed to meet protocols, such as calibrating monitoring equipment, additional sampling, cleaning the reservoir, and backup operator's salary.

Table 4.3 - Estimated Additional Annual Operation & Maintenance Costs: Water
Description Estimated Cost
Sampling $101,000
Operations $131,500
Operator $130,000
Water O&M Total Estimated Cost $362,500

The total estimated cost, including construction and non-construction costs, for water system upgrades to meet the INAC Protocol is $57 million. This excludes costs associated with potentially GUDI systems, which prove to be GUDI systems as discussed previously.

4.2 Upgrades to Meet INAC's Protocols: Wastewater

The total estimated construction cost for wastewater system upgrades to meet INAC Protocol is $24.6 million. A list of the specific needs, the number of systems impacted, and the total cost is provided below. Upgrading treatment capacity and providing standby power represent over 66% of the projected costs of meeting INAC's Protocols. Six systems require upgrading capacity, which is a high-cost upgrade.

Table 4.4 - Estimated Total Construction and Related Costs: Wastewater
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Building $579,950 $278,950 $567,950
Collection System $1,840,000 $1,840,000 $1,840,000
Equipment $558,000 $302,000 $6,000
Monitoring Equipment $304,000 $42,000 $5,000
Pumping Stations $209,500 $198,500 $187,500
Treatment $12,423,000 $11,343,000 $11,343,000
Standby Power $3,755,000 $3,325,000 $3,205,000
Engineering & Contingencies $4,965,500 $4,350,500 $4,317,000
Construction Total Estimate $24,634,950 $21,679,950 $21,471,450
Figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)
Figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)
Description of figure 4.2 – Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet Protocol: Wastewater

This pie chart provides a breakdown of the estimated construction costs (in millions of dollars) of the wastewater system upgrades that are required for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Manitoba to meet INAC’s Protocol.

The costs are divided into eight categories:

  • Building
  • Collection System
  • Engineering & Contingencies
  • Equipment
  • Monitoring Equipment
  • Pumping Stations
  • Standy Power
  • Treatment
  • The estimated building cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC’s Protocol is 0.6 million dollars.
  • The estimated collection system cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC’s Protocol is 1.8 million dollars.
  • The estimated engineering and contingencies cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC’s Protocol is 5.0 million dollars.
  • The estimated equipment cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC’s Protocol is 0.6 million dollars.
  • The estimated monitoring equipment cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC’s Protocol is 0.3 million dollars.
  • The estimated pumping station cost for wastewaster systems to meet INAC’s Protocol is 0.2 million dollars.
  • The estimated standby power cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC’s Protocol is 3.8 million dollars.
  • The estimated treatment cost for wastewater systems to meet INAC’s Protocol is 12.4 million dollars.

Treatment and Standby Power are the two construction-cost categories with the highest cumulative costs to meet INAC Protocols.

Treatment costs include:

  • Constructing additional lagoon cells.
  • Providing fencing for security.
  • Providing flow meters.
  • Providing new pumping stations.

Standby Power costs include:

  • Providing standby power for sewage pumping stations.
Table 4.5 - Estimated Total Non-Construction and Related Costs: Wastewater
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Training $280,000 $280,000 $280,000
Plans/Documentation $447,500 $217,500 $10,000
Non-Construction Total Estimate $727,500 $497,500 $290,000

Additional annual operations and maintenance costs, as shown in Table 4.6, include costs that occur annually, for items that are not currently being completed to meet protocols, such as calibrating monitoring equipment, additional sampling, and backup operator's salary.

Table 4.6 - Estimated Additional Annual Operation & Maintenance Costs: Wastewater
Description Estimated Cost
Sampling $94,800
Operations $3,000
Operator $295,000
Wastewater O&M Total Estimated Cost $392,800

The total estimated cost, including construction and non-construction costs, for wastewater system upgrades is $25.4 million.

4.3 Upgrade Cost Summary

Table 4.7 provides a summary of the upgrade costs to meet INAC's Protocols, and federal and provincial guidelines, standards, and regulations.

Table 4.7 - Summary and Comparison of Upgrade Costs
  Total Estimated Cost
Water Wastewater
Upgrade to meet Protocol $56,949,950 $25,362,450
Upgrade to meet Federal Guidelines $22,067,350 $22,177,450
Upgrade to meet Provincial Guidelines $13,859,950 $21,761,450

The following tables present a breakdown of the Protocol upgrade costs by risk level.

Table 4.8 - Breakdown of Protocol Estimated Costs by Risk Level: Water
Risk Level Short Term Long Term Total
High $14,259,884 $205,412 $14,465,296
Medium $30,075,318 $0 $30,075,318
Low $12,409,336 $0 $12,409,336
Total $56,744,538 $205,412 $56,949,950

Table 4.9 - Breakdown of Protocol Estimated Costs by Risk Level: Wastewater
Risk Level Short Term Long Term Total
High $17,851,431 $1,482,184 $20,273,658
Medium $2,593,201 $2,148,670 $5,088,792
Low $0 $0 $0
Total $20,444,632 $3,630,854 $25,362,450

4.4 Asset Condition and Reporting System Needs

ACRS (Asset Condition and Reporting System) inspections were completed for all water and wastewater related assets. For the purposes of this assessment, ACRS needs were limited to required repairs of existing facilities, and did not include any upgrade costs, in order to avoid duplication with the Upgrade to Protocol needs identified. The following two tables (Tables 4.10 and 4.11) provide a summary of the required operation & maintenance repairs broken down by the type of asset for both water and wastewater systems.

Table 4.10 - ACRS Identified Costs: Water
Asset Code Description Estimated Cost
A5A Buildings $422,150
B1B Watermains $152,100
B1C/B1D Treatment $908,550
B1E Reservoirs $64,800
B1G Standpipe/Truckfill $21,500
B1F Community Wells $21,950
B1I Low Lift Pumping $87,850
B1H High Lift Pumping $161,100
E4A Trucks $120,700
  Water ACRS Total Estimated Cost $1,960,700

Table 4.11 - ACRS Identified Costs: Wastewater
Asset Code Description Estimated Cost
A5B Buildings $330,400
B2A Sewers $14,400
B2H/B2J Lift Stations & Forcemains $670,800
B2C/B2D Treatment $319,350
B2E/B2I Lagoons $482,350
B2F Septic Systems $35,750
E3A Trucks $67,150
  Wastewater ACRS Total Estimated Cost $1,920,200

4.5 Community Servicing

An analysis was completed to evaluate future servicing alternatives for a 10-year design period. The analysis considers a variety of alternatives, including expanding existing systems, developing new systems, establishing local Municipal Type Agreements (if applicable), and using individual systems.

A theoretical operation and maintenance cost was developed for each alternative, along with a 30-year life-cycle cost. The cost of the upgrades that are necessary for systems to meet INAC's Protocol is included in the new servicing cost, if appropriate (i.e. for new servicing alternatives that include continued use of the existing system).

The following table summarizes the capital cost and the total estimated operation & maintenance cost for the recommended servicing alternatives:

Table 4.12 - Future Servicing Costs
  Total Estimated Cost Cost Per Connection
Water Wastewater Water Wastewater
Future Servicing Cost $390,000,000 $300,000,000 $17,200 $13,200
Annual O&M to service future growth $33,900,000 $22,600,000 $1,500 $1,000

The evaluation of future servicing included continuing to service the existing population with the same level of service that was currently in place and then evaluating the options for providing service to the future 10 year growth for the community. Where future servicing results in the ability to provide a higher level of service to some or all of the existing homes, this was also considered in the overall servicing strategy.

In some areas, particularly in the southwest part of the region, high water levels and floodplain conditions adversely impact individual wells and septic systems. Depending on the density of the housing, in some cases it might be possible to replace aging wells and septic systems with facilities constructed specifically for the conditions, or to replace the servicing with truck haul or extended pipe servicing.

It is assumed that houses without service will be retrofitted with indoor plumbing so that servicing can be extended to these houses. The cost for the housing retrofits has not been carried as part of this study.

For new growth, it was found that, for the most part, the life cycle costs for extending piped water and wastewater servicing for the future growth was the most cost effective solution. This assumes that future homes would be constructed in a more compact subdivision type setting adjacent to the existing serviced area. However, detailed studies for each community will be required to confirm this assumption.

In cases where residents may choose to build homes in outlying areas, individual or truck haul servicing may be more appropriate.

5.0 Regional Summary

All 62 First Nations in the Manitoba region were visited during the completion of this project. The 62 First Nations are serviced by 74 water systems (including 5 Municipal Type Agreement systems) and 61 wastewater systems (including 4 Municipal Type Agreement systems).

In the Manitoba region, 82% of the homes are serviced by communal water (51% piped and 31% trucked), 13% are serviced by individual wells, and the remaining 5% have no service.

The northern communities are largely serviced by surface water systems. The distribution is a combination of piped servicing and truck haul. The condition of the roads is a concern in terms of accessibility and wear and tear on the delivery trucks.

In the southern areas, the systems are mainly groundwater, and many of the houses are serviced by individual wells and septics. Six small pumphouses, with direct use of water and no disinfection, serve a small number of houses.

Many of these communities are located in floodplain conditions, and these conditions have a negative impact on the performance of the wells and septic systems. In some cases, these individual systems can be replaced with new wells to provide more secure supplies. In other cases, upgrading to provide piped or truck-haul service may be required.

Of the 61 wastewater systems:

73% of the homes are serviced by communal wastewater (45% piped and 28% trucked), 22% are serviced by individual septic systems and the remaining 5% have no service.

There are 21 high-risk water systems and 6 high-risk wastewater systems in the Manitoba region. While there are multiple factors contributing to risk, operations and reporting were generally the highest component risks.

Based on the data collected, operator risk was the lowest of the component risks. In Manitoba Region, the Circuit Rider Training program appears to be very effective and responsive to community needs. It is important to provide ongoing training for operators to ensure that all systems are operated and maintained by trained/certified operators and that monitoring and record keeping is completed in accordance with INAC Protocols.

Another area that should be addressed is the lack of planning tools, including Source Water Protection Plans, Maintenance Management Plans, and Operations and Maintenance Manuals.

INAC supports the First Nations in doing annual or biannual wastewater sampling prior to effluent discharge, which is appropriate for lagoon systems. Additional onsite sampling and record keeping may be appropriate for the mechanical plants with continuous discharge.

In the Manitoba region, Health Canada is very active within the communities. Health Canada maintains Community Based Water Monitors (CBWM's) in most of the communities who undertake regular water quality sampling of the treated and distributed water.

Appendix A Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

Aeration (see also lagoon): The process of bringing air into contact with a liquid (typically water), usually by bubbling air through the liquid, spraying the liquid into the air, allowing the liquid to cascade down a waterfall, or by mechanical agitation. Aeration serves to (1) strip dissolved gases from solution, and/or (2) oxygenate the liquid. (Gowen Environmental)

Aesthetic Objective (AO): Aesthetic objectives are set for drinking water quality parameters such as colour or odour, where exceeding the objective may make the water less pleasant, but not unsafe. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater)

Ammonia (See also: Potable water; Effluent quality requirements): A pungent colorless gaseous alkaline compound of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3) that is very soluble in water and can easily be condensed to a liquid by cold and pressure (Merriam-Webster). Ammonia is used in several areas of water and wastewater treatment, such as pH control. It is also used in conjunction with chlorine to produce potable water. The existence of ammonia in wastewater is common in industrial sectors as a by-product of cleaning agents. This chemical impacts both human and environmental conditions. Treatment of ammonia can be completed in lagoon systems and mechanical plants. (R.M. Technologies)

Arsenic: A metallic element that forms a number of compounds. It is found in nature at low levels, mostly in compounds with oxygen, chlorine, and sulphur; these are called inorganic arsenic compounds. Organic arsenic in plants and animals combines with carbon and hydrogen. Inorganic arsenic is a human poison. Organic arsenic is less harmful. High levels of inorganic arsenic in food or water can be fatal. (Medicinenet.com)

Aquifer (confined): A layer of soil or rock below the land surface that is saturated with water. There are layers of impermeable material both above and below it, and it is under pressure so that when the aquifer is penetrated by a well, the water will rise above the top of the aquifer. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Aquifer (unconfined): An unconfined aquifer is one whose upper water surface (water table) is at atmospheric pressure, and thus is able to rise and fall. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

As-built/record drawings: Revised set of drawing submitted by a contractor upon completion of a project or a particular job. They reflect all changes made in the specifications and working drawings during the construction process, and show the exact dimensions, geometry, and location of all elements of the work completed under the contract. Also called as-built drawings or just as-builts.

ACRS Inspection (Asset Condition Reporting System Inspection): For centralised water and wastewater systems, an ACRS (asset condition reporting system) inspection of the system is to be performed once every three (3) years by a qualified person (consulting engineer, Tribal Council engineer), who is not from the First Nation involved, to assess the condition of the asset, adequacy of maintenance efforts, and need for additional maintenance work. The ACRS inspection report will be discussed with, and submitted to, the First Nation council and the INAC regional office. Inspections will be conducted in accordance with the ACRS Manual, a copy of which can be obtained from the INAC regional office.

Bacteria (plural) bacterium (singular): Microscopic living organisms usually consisting of a single cell. Bacteria can aid in pollution control by consuming or breaking down organic matter in sewage and/or other water pollutants. Some bacteria may also cause human, animal, and plant health problems. Bacteria are predominantly found in the intestines and feces of humans and animals. The presence of coliform bacteria in water indicates the contamination of water by raw or partially treated sewage. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Baffle (concrete and/or curtain): Vertical/horizontal impermeable barriers in a pond or reservoir. Baffles direct the flow of water into the longest possible path through the reservoir in order to eliminate short-circuiting in the water treatment system. In potable water treatment, short-circuiting can reduce the effectiveness of disinfectants. In effluent treatment, short-circuiting may result in an increase of pollutants at the outlet. Shortcircuiting occurs when water flows directly from the inlet to the outlet across a pond or reservoir. (Layfield)

BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand): The most widely used parameter of organic pollution applied to both wastewater and surface water is the 5-day BOD (BOD5). This determination involves the measurement of the dissolved oxygen used by microorganisms in the biochemical oxidation of organic matter. BOD test results are used to: determine the approximate quantity of oxygen that will be required to biologically stabilize the organic matter present; to determine the size of waste treatment facilities; to measure the efficiency of some treatment processes; and to determine compliance with wastewater discharge permits. (Metcalf & Eddy)

Capacity (actual vs. design): Refers to the capacity of the treatment system, with the "design capacity" being the flow rate proposed by the designer or manufacturer. If the system is not operating to design levels, the "actual capacity" could be limited by failing pumps, clogged filters or not meeting the Protocol (i.e. Protocol requires two filter trains such that one could operate while another is being cleaned/repaired and this was previously not explicitly required; therefore, the actual capacity is half of the design capacity).

Chemical feed equipment: All equipment associated with introducing chemicals to the raw water as part of the treatment process including coagulants, coagulant aids, disinfectants, etc.

Chlorine: A disinfectant used in either gas or liquid from gas that is added to water to protect the consumer from bacteria and other micro-organisms. It is widely used because it is inexpensive and easily injected into water. Because of its concentration, a gallon can treat a large amount of water. However, chlorine use does have drawbacks: when chlorine is used as a disinfectant it combines with naturally occurring decaying organic matter to form Trihalomethanes (THMs). (Vital Life Systems)

Chlorination: The application of chlorine to water, sewage or industrial wastes for disinfection (reduction of pathogens) or to oxidize undesirable compounds. (City of Toronto)

Chlorine Residual: The chlorine level in potable water immediately after it has been treated. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment)

Circuit Rider (see also Circuit Rider Training Program): Under the department's Circuit Rider Trainer Program (CRTP) INAC provides funds to engage circuit riders (third party water and wastewater system experts who provide water and wastewater system operators with on-site, mentoring, training, and emergency assistance). The third-party service providers that provide circuit rider services also provide operators with a 24/7 emergency hotline. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities)

Circuit Rider Training Program: The main vehicle by which most First Nations operators receive the required training to operate their systems. This program provides qualified experts who rotate through a circuit of communities, providing hands-on training for the operators on their own system. Circuit rider trainers also help the First Nations with minor troubles and issues of operation and maintenance of their systems. (INAC Plan of Action)

Cistern: A tank for storing potable water or other liquids, usually placed above the ground. (Bow River Basin Council, cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Class "D" Cost Estimates: A preliminary estimate, for each community visited, based on available site information, which indicates the approximate magnitude (+/- 40%) of the cost of the actions recommended in the report, and which may be used in developing long-term capital plans and for a preliminary discussion of proposed capital projects.

Collection piping: Sanitary sewer collecting wastewater from individual buildings and homes, for treatment and disposal at a public facility.

Component risk / component risk factors: The overall risk is determined by five component risks: water source/effluent, design, operation, reporting, and operator.

Community Health Representatives (CHRs): Health Canada's local health representatives. They undertake bacteriological and chlorine residual sampling of distributed water within most First Nation communities.

Contact piping: Dedicated watermain to provide chlorine contact time before potable water is distributed to the first user.

Containment liners (for on-site fuel storage): A form of secondary containment used for diesel driven generators or fire pumps.

Continuous discharge to a receiving body: The release of treated wastewater effluent to a lake, river, stream, etc. where the rate of release is continuous (i.e. not batch discharge).

Conventional Wastewater Treatment: Consists of preliminary processes, primary settling to remove heavy solids and floatable materials, secondary biological aeration to metabolize and flocculate colloidal and dissolved organics, and secondary settling to remove additional solids. Tertiary treatment such as disinfection or filtration to further treat the wastewater depending on the level of treatment required for discharge. Waste sludge drawn from these operations is thickened and processed for ultimate disposal, usually either land application or landfilling. Preliminary treatment processes include coarse screening, medium screening, shredding of solids, flow measuring, pumping, grit removal, and pre-aeration. Chlorination of raw wastewater sometimes is used for odor control and to improve settling characteristics of the solids.

Conventional Water Treatment: Consists of a combination of coagulation (adding chemicals called coagulants), flocculation (particles binding together with coagulants) and sedimentation (settling of particles) to remove a large amount of organic compounds and suspended particles, filtration (water passing through porous media) to remove bacteria protozoa and viruses (slow sand filtration) or suspended particles (rapid sand filtration), and disinfection to ensure all the bacteria protozoa and viruses are removed, and provide safe drinking water.

Cross connections: A cross connection is a link between a possible source of pollution and a potable water supply. A pollutant may enter the potable water system when a) the pressure of the pollution source exceeds the pressure of the potable water source or b) when a sudden loss of pressure occurs in the water system and "backflow" occurs. The flow through a water treatment plant should have no instances of treated water coming into contact with raw or wastewater. Backflow preventers should be tested regularly and any actual physical links should be removed.

Decentralized System: A group or groups of communal (as opposed to private) on-site water or wastewater systems. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Dedicated transmission main: A length of watermain which has no service connections or hydrants; can refer to the length of raw watermain from a raw water source to the water treatment plant or in the distribution system where there are larger distances between homes.

Discharge Frequency: The frequency in which treated wastewater is discharged; could be continuous, seasonal, annual, etc.

Discharge quality data: Data acquired through the completion of a laboratory analysis of treated wastewater effluent prior to obtaining permission to discharge. Relevant parameters for testing include: 5 day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Solids, Fecal Coliforms, pH, Phenols, Oils & Greases, Phosphorus and Temperature.

Disinfectant: A disinfectant is a chemical (commonly chlorine, chloramines, or ozone) or physical process (e.g., ultraviolet light) that inactivates or kills microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Disinfection: A process that has as its objective destroying or inactivating pathogenic micro-organisms in water. (Government of Alberta, Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Disinfection By-products: Disinfection by-products are chemical, organic and inorganic substances that can form during a reaction of a disinfectant with naturally present organic or anthropogenic matter in the water. (Lenntech)

Distribution Classification > piped / trucked: Refers to the classification of the delivery of potable water leaving the water treatment plant. This can be either piped (via watermain) or trucked (via truck delivery to individual homes/cisterns). The level of classification involves the number of house connections (population served).

Domestic flows: All demands in the water system excluding fire flows.

Drinking Water: Water of sufficiently high quality that can be consumed or used without risk of immediate or long term harm.

Drinking Water Advisory (DWA): Drinking Water Advisories (DWAs) are preventive measures that are regularly issued in municipalities and communities across Canada; they protect public health from waterborne contaminants that can be present in drinking water. A DWA can be issued in any community and may include boil water advisories, do not consume advisories and do not use advisories. (INAC "Fact Sheet")

Effluent: 1. The liquid waste of municipalities/communities, industries, or agricultural operations. Usually the term refers to a treated liquid released from a wastewater treatment process. (Bow River) 2. The discharge from any on-site sewage treatment component. (Alberta Municipal Affairs; cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Effluent quality data: Any test results or monitoring data that describes the condition of treated wastewater effluent.

Effluent Quality Requirements: All effluents from wastewater systems in Canada must comply with all applicable federal legislation including the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 and the Fisheries Act, as well as any other applicable legislation, including provincial, depending on the geographical location of the system. In addition, all discharges from First Nations wastewater systems shall meet the quality requirements found in the Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments - EPS 1-EC-76-1 (1976 Guidelines).

For the purposes of determining effluent quality related to ammonia and chlorine, the Notice Requiring the Preparation and Implementation of Pollution Prevention Plans for Inorganic Chloramines and Chlorinated Wastewater Effluents and the Guideline for the Release of Ammonia Dissolved in Water Found in Wastewater Effluents contain additional and/or updated information to the requirements provided in the 1976 Guidelines.

A copy of the Guideline for the Release of Ammonia Dissolved in Water Found in Wastewater Effluents can be found at Environment Canada's website. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities)

Effluent Receiver (also referred to as the receiving body; the receiving environment; the receiver) (see also Effluent and Component risks): The environment that receives treated wastewater, including lakes, rivers, wetlands, sub-surfaces, title fields, open marines, and enclosed bays. It may also refer to a community's method for dealing with wastewater (e.g. Municipal Type Agreements or evaporation).

Elevated Storage: A water tower, which is a reservoir or storage tank mounted on a tower-like structure at the summit of an area of high ground in a place where the water pressure would otherwise be inadequate for distribution at a uniform pressure. (Collins)

Emergency Response Plan (ERP): Emergency response plans for water and wastewater systems are intended to be a quick reference to assist operators and other stakeholders in managing and responding to emergency situations. They include key contact information for persons to be notified and for persons who may be of assistance (e.g. agencies, contractors, suppliers, etc.), as well as standard communication and response protocols. Emergency response plans identify recommended action for "foreseeable" emergencies, and provide methodologies for unforeseen situations.

Facultative Lagoon: The most common type of wastewater treatment lagoon used by small communities and individual households. Facultative lagoons rely on both aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of waste, can be adapted for use in most climates and require no machinery to treat wastewater.

Filter: A device used to remove solids from a mixture or to separate materials. Materials are frequently separated from water using filters. (Edwards Aquifier)

Filter train equipment: Includes all components that form part of the water filtration process from where the raw water enters the filter process to where the filtered water leaves the treatment unit. This does not refer to the disinfection equipment.

Filtration: The mechanical process which removes particulate matter by separating water from solid material, usually by passing it through sand. (Edwards Aquifier)

Fire pump tests: A monthly test for the basic operation and functionality of the fire pump.

Grade Level Storage: A treated water storage reservoir that is constructed at grade, typically with earth mounded on top to provide some frost protection.

GPS: Global Positioning System (GPS) -A navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver.

Groundwater: Groundwater is any water that is obtained from a subsurface water-bearing soil unit (called an aquifer). 1) Water that flows or seeps downward and saturates soil or rock, supplying springs and wells. The upper surface of the saturate zone is called the water table. 2) Water stored underground in rock crevices and in the pores of geologic materials that make up the Earth's crust. (INAC, Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater, confined: Groundwater that is under pressure significantly greater than atmospheric, with its upper limit the bottom of a bed with hydraulic conductivity distinctly lower than that of the material in which the confined water occurs. (INAC, Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater, unconfined: Water in an aquifer that has a water table that is exposed to the atmosphere. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI): This term refers to groundwater sources (e.g., wells, springs, infiltration galleries, etc.) where microbial pathogens are able to travel from nearby surface water to the groundwater source. (Government of Nova Scotia)

Guidelines: Guidelines as referred to in this Assessment include all federal and provincial water and wastewater guidelines for domestic potable water and household sanitary waste. These guidelines include the "Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality" and all its recommended health and aesthetic guidelines for water quality.

Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ): Water quality guidelines developed by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water and have been published by Health Canada since 1968.

Canadian drinking water supplies are generally of excellent quality. However, water in nature is never "pure." It picks up traces of everything it comes into contact with, including minerals, silt, vegetation, fertilizers, and agricultural run-off. While most of these substances are harmless, some may pose a health risk. To address this risk, Health Canada works with the provincial and territorial governments to develop guidelines that set out the maximum acceptable concentrations of these substances in drinking water. These drinking water guidelines are designed to protect the health of the most vulnerable members of society, such as children and the elderly. The guidelines set out the basic parameters that every water system should strive to achieve in order to provide the cleanest, safest and most reliable drinking water possible.

The Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality deal with microbiological, chemical and radiological contaminants. They also address concerns with physical and aesthetic characteristics of water, such as taste and odour. (Health Canada)

Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments, April 1976: The purpose of these guidelines is to indicate the degree of treatment and effluent quality that will be applicable to all wastewater discharged from existing and proposed Federal installations. Use of these guidelines is intended to promote a consistent wastewater approach towards the cleanup and prevention of water pollution and ensure that the best practicable control technologies used. (Government of Canada)

Highlift Pumping: Refers to pumps installed that provide treated water into the water distribution system at pressure; either directly or via water tower.

Hydrant Flushing (see line flushing and swabbing)

Influent: Water, wastewater, or other liquid flowing into a reservoir, basin or treatment plant. (Gowen)

Lagoon: A shallow pond where sunlight, bacterial action, and oxygen work to purify wastewater. Lagoons are typically used for the storage of wastewaters, sludges, liquid wastes, or spent nuclear fuel. (Edwards Aquifier)

Lagoon, aerated: See Aeration

Lagoon, facultative: See Facultative Lagoon.

L/c/d: Measurement of daily water usage as Litres per capita, per day.

Level of Service Standards (INAC): The Level of Service Standards (LOSS), determined on a national basis, are the levels of service that the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) is prepared to financially support to assist First Nations in providing community services comparable to the levels of service that would generally be available in non-native communities of similar size and circumstances.

The Level of Service Standards provide a description of criteria which will be used to establish the level of funding for safe, cost-effective, domestic water supply and wastewater disposal systems for on-reserve housing units and administrative, operative, institutional and recreational buildings. (INAC "Water and Sewage Systems")

Lift Station (also Pumping Station): A point in the sewer system where the wastewater needs to be pumped (lifted) to a higher elevation so that gravity can be used to bring the wastewater to the treatment plant. (Hailey City Hall Public Works)

Line flushing and swabbing (also referred to as watermain swabbing and flushing): Watermain swabbing entails inserting a soft material shaped like a bullet into the watermain through a fire hydrant. The diameter is slightly larger than the watermain and the bullet (swab) is pushed along the watermain by water pressure. As it passes through the watermain, the swab executes a scouring action on the sediment inside the watermain.

During watermain flushing, high velocity water flowing from hydrants is used to remove loose sediment from watermains. (City of Guelph)

L/p/d: Measurement of daily water usage as Litres per person, per day.

MAC (Maximum acceptable concentration): In the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ), Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MACs) have been established for certain physical, chemical, radiological and microbiological parameters or substances that are known or suspected to cause adverse effects on health. For some parameters, Interim Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (IMACs) are also recommended in the guidelines.

Drinking water that continually has a substance at a greater concentration than the specified MACs will contribute significantly to consumer exposure to the substance and may, in some instances, produce harmful health effects. However, the short-term presence of substances above the MAC levels does not necessarily mean the water constitutes a risk to health. (INAC, National Assessment Summary Report)

Maintenance Management Plan (MMP): Maintenance management plans apply to both water and wastewater systems. They are intended to improve the effectiveness of maintenance activities and are focused on planning, scheduling, and documenting preventative maintenance activities and on documenting unscheduled maintenance.

Manganese: Manganese is a mineral that naturally occurs in rocks and soil and is a normal constituent of the human diet. In some places, it exists in well water as a naturally occurring groundwater mineral, but may also be present due to underground pollution sources. Manganese may become noticeable in tap water at concentrations greater than 0.05 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of water by imparting a colour, odour, or taste to the water. However, health effects from manganese are not a concern until concentrations are approximately 10 times higher. (Conneticut Dept. of Health)

Mechanical Plant/ Mechanical Treatment: Refers to any type of wastewater treatment plant including treatments systems consisting of rotating biological contactors (RBC), sequencing batch reactors (SBR), extended aeration (EA), etc. It does not include natural forms of wastewater treatment like lagoons or septic systems.

Metals Scan (Full): A full metal scan refers to what laboratories call Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis for the evaluation of trace metals in water samples. This test covers a complete scan of over 20 trace metals in a single analysis.

Municipal Type Agreement (MTA): The situation where First Nations are supplied with treated water from or send their wastewater to a nearby municipality, as outlined in a formal agreement between the two parties. The term is also used in this report to describe a system where the First Nation is supplied with treated water or wastewater treatment services by another First Nation or other independent body such as a corporate entity such as a Casino etc.

Multi-Barrier Approach: Approach used to ensure that drinking water is safe. In the past, the term ‘multi-barrier' referred only to the barriers involved in the actual treatment of raw water to provide quality drinking water. This approach has now been expanded to include a number of key elements that are an integral part of a drinking water program to ensure delivery of safe, secure supplies of drinking water. Barriers may be physical (eg: filter) or administrative (eg: planning) in nature. (Alberta Environment, Glossary & Alberta's Drinking Water Program)

None: Indicates that the treatment and/or distribution/collection system has not been classified.

O & M: Operation and Maintenance.

Operational Plan (OP): An Operational Plan is the primary instrument for communicating the Community's quality management system (QMS) from the public works departments (water and wastewater) to Chief and Council, and from Council to INAC, Health Canada and the community members.

Phosphorus: A non-metallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs widely especially as phosphates (Merriam-Webster). Phosphorus occurs naturally in rocks, soil, animal waste, plant material, and even the atmosphere. In addition to these natural sources, phosphorus comes from human activities such as agriculture, discharge of industrial and municipal waste, and surface water runoff from residential and urban areas. Nutrients held in soil can be dissolved in water and carried off by leaching, tile drainage or surface runoff.

Phosphorus does not pose a direct threat to human health; it is an essential component of all cells and is present in bones and teeth. It does, however, pose an indirect threat to both aesthetics and to human health by affecting source waters used for drinking and recreation. For example, excessive nutrients can promote the growth of algal blooms, which can contribute to a wide range of water quality problems by affecting the potability, taste, odour, and colour of the water. (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment)

Piped Distribution System: A water distribution system which relies on pipes to convey water through pumping or elevated storage to the end user. Different from trucked distribution in that a trucked distribution system delivers water to end users in batch quantities to individual holding tanks (cisterns).

>Potable water: Potable water is water that is destined for human consumption. For the purposes of the Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities, water destined for human consumption is water that is consumed directly as drinking water, water that is used in cooking, water that is used to wash food, and water that is used for bathing infants (individuals under 1 year in age). (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities)

PPU: People per unit. Measurement to describe housing density.

Primary Operator: The main operator of a water or wastewater system. The primary operator must be certified to the level of the treatment and distribution/collection system.

Primary Wastewater Treatment: Removal of particulate materials from domestic wastewater, usually done by allowing the solid materials to settle as a result of gravity. Typically, the first major stage of treatment encountered by domestic wastewater as it enters a treatment facility. Primary treatment plants generally remove 25 to 35 percent of the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and 45 to 65 percent of the total suspended matter. Also, any process used for the decomposition, stabilization, or disposal of sludges produced by settling. (North American Lake Management Society; cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Protocol for Safe Drinking Water in First Nations Communities: Standards for design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of drinking water systems and is intended for use by First Nations staff responsible for water systems. It is also intended for use by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) staff, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) for INAC staff, and all others involved in providing advice or assistance to First Nations in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of their drinking water systems in their communities, in accordance with established federal or provincial standards, whichever are the most stringent.

Any water system that produces drinking water destined for human consumption, that is funded in whole or in part by INAC, and that serves five or more households or a public facility, must comply with the requirements of this protocol. (INACProtocol)

Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC): A quality management system that focuses on fulfilling quality requirements and providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.

Reporting Risk: The Reporting risk level is the risk inherent with the operational method of recording data and providing the required reports. This would include both manual and automatic methods of record keeping. The reporting risk ranking is based on the adequacy of the operational records and the number of reports submitted during the year compared to the total number of records and reports required according to the appropriate legislation, standards, and operation procedures of the system in question.

Reservoir: A man-made lake that collects and stores water for future use. During periods of low river flow, reservoirs can release additional flow if water is available. (Government of Alberta, Water for Life, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Reservoir Cleaning: This involves the pump-down, clean-out, removal of settled material, disinfection and refill of a water storage reservoir. This activity requires confined space entry equipment and training.

Retrofit: 1. To furnish with new or modified parts or equipment not available or considered necessary at the time of manufacture; 2. To install (new or modified parts or equipment) in something previously manufactured or constructed; 3. To adapt to a new purpose or need: modify. (Merriam-Webster)

Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC): A technology used to treat wastewater classified as mechanical treatment.

Risk (Management Risk Level/Management Risk Score): Risk is defined in INAC's Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities (Revised 2010). These guidelines follow the Multi-Barrier Approach for water management. This approach, developed by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Water Quality Task Group, is intended to prevent the presence of water-borne contaminants in drinking water by ensuring effective safeguards are in place at each stage of a drinking water system.

Following that approach, INAC assesses five main components of a system to determine an overall system management risk score:

Each of these components is assigned a risk score, which are then weighed to determine the overall management risk score of a system. The resulting score will then result in the management of the system as being classified as either high risk, medium risk, or low risk.

-High Risk: Major deficiencies in most of the components. Should a problem arise, the system and management as a whole is unlikely to be able to compensate, thus there is a high probability that any problem could result in unsafe water. Issues should be addressed as soon as possible.

-Medium Risk: Minor deficiencies in several components, or major deficiencies in one or two components. Should a problem arise, the system and management can probably compensate for the problem, but the noted deficiencies makes this uncertain, thus there is a medium probability that any problem could result in unsafe water. Issues need to be addressed.

-Low Risk: Minor or no deficiencies with the system or management. Should a problem occur, it is likely that the system and management as a whole will be able to compensate and continue to provide safe water while the issue is being resolved.

It is important to distinguish between INAC's system management risk level and drinking water quality. The actual quality of the water produced by a system is but one part of determining the overall system management risk level.

Unsafe drinking water is noted through the implementation of Drinking Water Advisories (DWA), not by the management risk level of the system. DWA come in multiple forms, the most common being the boil water advisory.

A system with a high-risk ranking under INAC's management evaluation is, because of its multiple deficiencies, likely to be unable to cope with problems that may occur in the system that result in a DWA. This means that DWA are likely to occur more frequently and to have a longer-term duration on a high-risk system. On the other hand, while problems can and do occur in low-risk systems, because of better overall risk management, these systems are more likely to address the problem in the short term, resulting in the rapid removal of problems and DWA.

This means that a high-risk drinking system can still produce perfectly safe and potable water. Deficiencies should be addressed as quickly as possible, however, before any issues arise with the water quality. (INAC, Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines)

SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system: Refers to a control and/or computer system that can monitor, record and control infrastructure, or facility-based processes.

Screened reservoir vents: Reservoir vents should be screened to allow air movement and to prevent vermin from entering.

Seasonal discharge: Discharge of wastewater at times of maximum or substantial stream flow. This may vary from location to location.

Secondary containment for treatment chemicals: Secondary containment is required for the storage of all regulated hazardous materials. Secondary containment must be constructed using materials capable of containing a spill or leak for at least as long as the period between monitoring inspections. A means of providing overfill protection for any primary container may be required. This may be an overfill prevention device and/or an attention getting high level alarm. Materials that in combination may cause a fire or explosion, the production of a flammable, toxic, poisonous gas, or the deterioration of a primary or secondary container will be separated in both the primary and secondary treatment containment so as to avoid intermixing.

Secondary Treatment: involving the biological process of reducing suspended, colloidal, and dissolved organic/inorganic matter in effluent from primary treatment systems and which generally removes 80 to 95 percent of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and suspended matter. Secondary wastewater treatment may be accomplished by biological or chemical-physical methods. Activated sludge and trickling filters are two of the most common means of secondary treatment. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Septic tank: A tank used to detain domestic wastes to allow the settling of solids prior to distribution to a leach field for soil absorption. Septic tanks are used when a piped wastewater collection system is not available to carry them to a treatment plant. A settling tank in which settled sludge is in immediate contact with sewage flowing through the tank, and wherein solids are decomposed by anaerobic bacterial action. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater)

Septic system: A combination of underground pipe(s) and holding tank(s) which are used to hold, decompose, and clean wastewater for subsurface disposal. (Bow River, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR): A treatment technology used to treat wastewater classified as mechanical treatment.

Sewage treatment plant (STP) (also known as Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) or Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP)): Facility designed to treat wastewater (sewage) by removing materials that may damage water quality and threaten public health. (Ontario Ministry of Environment)

Sewage treatment systems: Facility or system designed to treat wastewater (sewage) by removing materials that may damage water quality and threaten public health. (Ontario Ministry of Environment)

Shoot-out: A septic system consisting of a septic tank with untreated wastewater effluent being discharged to the surface; this poses a health risk.

Sludge: The accumulated wet or dry solids that are separated from wastewater during treatment. This includes precipitates resulting from the chemical or biological treatment of wastewater. (Government of Alberta, Activities, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Source Classification: The determination of the water source classification in this assessment includes the options of: surface water, groundwater, GUDI or MTA. Surface water includes water from lakes or rivers; groundwater includes any well water that is not influenced by surface water infiltration; GUDI is any groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water; MTA as a source refers to the community acquiring the treated water from a municipality.

Source risk: The risk inherent in the quality and quantity of the raw source water prior to treatment.

Source Water Protection: 1. The prevention of pollution of the lakes, reservoirs, rivers, streams, and groundwater that serve as sources of drinking water. Wellhead protection would be an example of a source water protection approach that protects groundwater sources, whereas management of land around a lake or reservoir used for drinking water would be an example for surface water supplies. Source water protection programs typically include: delineating source water protection areas; identifying sources of contamination; implementing measures to manage these changes; and planning for the future. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

2. Action taken to control or minimize the potential for introduction of chemicals or contaminants in source waters, including water used as a source of drinking water (Alberta Environment, Standards and Guidelines, cited in Alberta Glossary).

SPS: An abbreviation of the term sewage pumping station.

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs): An SOP is a written document or instruction detailing all steps and activities of a process or procedure. This would include all procedures used in water/wastewater treatment processes that could affect the quality.

Standpipe Storage: An above-grade storage facility where the storage volume is contained within the entirety of the structure. This type of storage is most feasible for use where there is sufficient change in the topography to allow for maximum usable volume in the standpipe.

Storage Type: Refers to whether the community water storage is via grade-level, below-grade or elevated storage (including standpipes and towers). In some cases there is no storage thus the storage type would be considered "direct pump."

Surface water: Surface water is any water that is obtained from sources, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs that are open to the atmosphere. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Designer: A system designer is a person, such as a professional engineer, who is qualified to design a water or wastewater systems. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Operator: A system operator is a First Nation employee or third party under contract to a First Nation who is tasked with managing a water or wastewater system. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Manager: A system manager is a First Nation employee or third party under contract to a First Nation who is tasked with managing a water or wastewater system. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

Tertiary Treatment: Selected biological, physical, and chemical separation processes to remove organic and inorganic substances that resist conventional treatment practices. Tertiary Treatment processes may consist of flocculation basins, clarifiers, filters, and chlorine basins or ozone or ultraviolet radiation processes. Tertiary techniques may also involve the application of wastewater to land to allow the growth of plants to remove plant nutrients. Can include advanced nutrient removal processes. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Trihalomethanes (THMs): Chemical compounds that can be formed when water is disinfected using chlorine or bromine as the chemical disinfection agent. These chemical compounds are formed when organic material present in the raw source water reacts with chlorine or bromine. Therefore, THMs are classified as disinfection by-products (DBPs). The primary source of organic material comes from decaying vegetation found in lakes, rivers and streams and for this reason, THMs are more commonly observed in water systems that use a surface water source. The four chemical compounds that are measured and used to calculate total THMs are: chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and chlorodibromomethane (CDBM). THMs are a concern in potable water because there is scientific evidence that they may pose a risk in the development of cancer.

Treatment Certification: The treatment level to which an operator is certified for water treatment and distribution and wastewater treatment and collection systems (see Treatment Classification).

Treatment Classification: The size (flow) and complexity of a water or wastewater system is used to determine the Class of a system using a point template. The knowledge and experience it takes to operate a system is closely related to its classification and is reflected in the level of certification of the operator. Systems that are small and relatively simple, are classified as Small Water or Wastewater Systems. Larger or more complex systems are ranked as Class I, II, III, and IV with the highest being Class IV. Systems should be operated under the supervision of an operator certified to at least the same level of the facility.

TSS (Total Suspended Solids): Measure of the amount of non-dissolved solid material present in water or wastewater. Total suspended solids (TSS) can cause: a) interference with light penetration (in UV applications), b) build-up of sediment and c) can carry nutrients and other toxic pollutants that cause algal blooms and potential reduction in aquatic habitat (wastewater).

Underground Storage: A water storage facility (reservoir/clearwell) which is located 100% below-grade. Often located below the water treatment plant.

Waste: Any solid or liquid material, product, or combination of them that is intended to be treated or disposed of or that is intended to be stored and then treated or disposed. This does not include recyclables. (Government of Alberta, Activities Designation Regulation, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Waste management plan: A Waste Management Plan identifies and describes types of waste generated during operations and how they are managed and disposed of.

Wastewater (Industrial Wastewater, Domestic Wastewater): A combination of liquid and water-carried pollutants from homes, businesses, industries, or farms; a mixture of water and dissolved or suspended solids. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Wastewater System: an organized process and associated structures for collecting, treating, and disposing of wastewater. For the purposes of this report, it is a system serving five or more houses. It includes any or all of the following:

  1. Sewers and pumping stations that make up a wastewater collection system.
  2. Sewers and pumping stations that transport untreated wastewater from a wastewater collection system to a wastewater treatment plant.
  3. Wastewater treatment plants.
  4. Facilities that provide storage for treated wastewater.
  5. Wastewater sludge treatment and disposal facilities.
  6. Sewers that transport treated wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant to the place where it is disposed of.
  7. Treated wastewater outfall facilities, including the outfall structures to a watercourse or any structures for disposal of treated wastewater to land or to wetlands. (Government of Alberta, Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Wastewater Treatment: Any of the mechanical, chemical or biological processes used to modify the quality of wastewater (sewage) in order to make it more compatible or acceptable to man and his/her environment. (North American Lake Management System, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Wastewater Treatment Plant: Any structure, thing, or process used for the physical, chemical, biological, or radiological treatment of wastewater before it is returned to the environment. The term also includes any structure, thing, or process used for wastewater storage or disposal, or sludge treatment, storage, or disposal. (Government of Alberta, Activities, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Watermain: A principal pipe in a system of pipes for conveying water, especially one installed underground. (American Heritage Dictionary)

Water quality: The term used to describe the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water, usually with respect to its suitability for a particular purpose. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

Water use: The term water use refers to water that is used for a specific purpose, such as for domestic use, irrigation, or industrial processing. Water use pertains to human interaction with and influence on the hydrolic cycle, and includes elements, such as water withdrawal from surface- and ground-water sources, water delivery to homes and businesses, consumptive use of water, water released from wastewater-treatment plans, water returned to the environment, and in-stream uses, such as using water to produce hydroelectric power. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

Water Well: An opening in the ground, whether drilled or altered from its natural state, that is used for the production of groundwater, obtaining data on groundwater, or recharging an underground formation from which groundwater can be recovered. By definition in the provincial Water Act, a water well also includes any related equipment, buildings, and structures. (Government of Alberta, Water for Life, cited in Alberta, Glossary)

Wellhead Protection Area: A protected surface and subsurface zone surrounding a well or well field supplying a public water system to keep contaminants from reaching the well water. (Edwards Aquifier)

Wellhead Protection Plan: A wellhead protection plan defines the wellhead protection area, identifies potential sources of contamination, manages the potential contaminant sources including properly decommissioning abandoned wells, identifies emergency and contingency plans (i.e. what to do if the well becomes contaminated or requires additional capacity) and provides overall public awareness.

References

Alberta Environment. Alberta's Drinking Water Program: A ‘Source to Tap, Multi-barrier' Approach, 2008. Unpublished

Alberta Environment, Partnerships and Strategies Section. Glossary of Terms Related to Water and Watershed Management in Alberta. 1st Edition. November 2008. http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/library/8043.pdf (330 Kb  )

Alberta Environment. Standards and Guidelines for Municipal Waterworks, Wastewater and Storm Drainage Systems, 2006. http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/library/6979.pdf (3.84 Mb  )

Alberta Municipal Affairs. Alberta Private Sewage Systems Standard of Practice Handbook, 2000. http://www.municipalaffairs.gov.ab.ca/Handbook_index.cfm

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009.

Bow River Basin Council. Guidebook to Water Management: Background Information on Organizations, Policies, Legislation, Programs, and Projects in the Bow River Basin, 2002. http://www.brbc.ab.ca/pdfs/Guidebook.pdf ( )

City of Toronto. Biosolids and Residuals Masterplan.
http://www.toronto.ca/wes/techservices/involved/wws/biosolids/pdf/meeting_5_nov6_
glossary.pdf
(128 Kb  )

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition 2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009.

Connecticut Department of Health, Drinking Water Section. Fact Sheet: Manganese in Drinking Water. http://www.ct.gov/dph/lib/dph/drinking_water/pdf/manganese.pdf (257 Kb  )

Edwards Aquifier Website: Glossary of Water Resource Terms.
http://www.edwardsaquifer.net/glossary.html

Government of Alberta. Activities Designation Regulation, 2003.
http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/documents/Regs/2003_276.cfm?frm_isbn=0779750616

Government of Alberta. Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, 2000. http://www.qp.gov.ab.ca/documents/Acts/E12.cfm?frm_isbn=0779717287

Government of Alberta. Water for Life: Alberta's Strategy for Sustainability., 2003.
http://www.waterforlife.gov.ab.ca

Government of British Columbia, Environmental Protection Division. Glossary of Water Terms. http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wat/wq/reference/glossary.html

Government of Canada. Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments, April 1976.
http://www.ec.gc.ca/eu-ww/0FB32EFD-73F9-436095EE-CB856FB4D971/1976_Guidelines_En.pdf (154 Kb  )

Government of Nova Scotia. Government of Nova Scotia. "Protocol for Determining Groundwater Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water."
http://www.gov.ns.ca/nse/water/docs/MunWaterGUDI.pdf (142 Kb  )

Gowen Environmental Ltd. "Contaminated and Hazardous Waste Site Management Glossary I.">

Hailey City Hall, Public Works.
http://www.haileycityhall.org/publicworks/wastewater/glossary.asp

Health Canada. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines.
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewhsemt/water-eau/drink-potab/guide/index-eng.php

INAC. "Fact Sheet: Water Quality." http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/enr/wtr/fs_wtr-eng.asp

Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities. July 14, 2010.

National Assessment of Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities Summary Report.
http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/enr/wtr/pubs/watw/watw-eng.asp

Plan of Action for Drinking Water in First Nations Communities - Progress Report January 17, 2008. http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/enr/wtr/pubs/prpf/pad08/pad08-eng.asp

Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities. April 2010. http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/enr/wtr/dwp/dwp-eng.asp

Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities. April 2010.
http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/enr/wtr/wwp/wwp-eng.asp

Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities. April 2010. http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/enr/wtr/dsp/dsp-eng.asp

—"Water and Sewage Systems." http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ih/ci/pubs/wat/wat-eng.asp#chp9

Layfield Environmental Systems. "AquaGuide Floating and Fixed Baffles."
http://www.layfieldenvironmental.com/pages/Products/default.aspx?id=3094

Lenntech Water Treatment Solutions. "Disinfection By-Products."
http://www.lenntech.com/processes/disinfection/byproducts/disinfection-byproducts.htm

Medicinenet.com. "Definition of Arsenic."
http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=14947

Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/

Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Technical Report: Drinking Water System at the Kashechewan First Nation. November 10, 2005.

R.M. Technologies. "Water Treatment." http://www.rmtech.net/Water%20Treatment.htm

UNEP (2000) International source book on environmentally sound technologies for wastewater and stormwater management.
http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/Publications/TechPublications/TechPub-15/2-4/4-2-3.asp 

Vital Life Systems. "Water Treatment Terminology." http://vitallifesystems.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/
watertreatmentterm.pdf
 (114 Kb  )

Waterwiki http://waterwiki.net/index.php/Glossary/Facultative_lagoon

Appendix B Water System Summary

Appendix B.1 Water System Summary

Regional Roll-Up Summary: Water

Region: Manitoba
Total No. of First Nations: 62
Participating No. of First Nations: 62
Participation Level: 100%
No. of Community Reports Issued: 62

 GroundwaterGUDISurfaceMTATotals
Total No. of Systems 32 0 37 5 74
System Age
0-5 years (2006 - 2010) 5 0 2 0 7
6-10 years (2001 - 2005) 3 0 3 0 6
10-15 years (1996 - 2000) 8 0 13 1 22
15 -20 years (1991 - 1995) 6 0 10 1 17
> 20 years (≤ 1990) 10 0 9 3 22
Treatment
None - Direct Use 5 0 1 0 6
Disinfection only 7 0 0 1 8
Conventional Filtration 20 0 36 0 56
MTA 0 0 0 4 4
Classification - Treatment
Small system 11 0 1 0 12
Level I 5 0 2 0 7
Level II 12 0 20 0 32
Level III 4 0 14 0 18
MTA 0 0 0 5 5
Classification - Distribution
Small system 13 0 3 2 18
Level I 13 0 21 2 36
Level II 2 0 13 0 15
None 4 0 0 1 5
Distribution
Piped 17 0 7 3 27
Trucked 4 0 1 1 6
Self Haul 1 0 0 0 1
Combined 10 0 29 1 40
Water Quality
Fails Health
Yes, fails health due to: 0 0 9 0 9
Operation 0 0 5 0 5
Combination 0 0 4 0 4
Fails Aesthetic
Yes, fails aesthetic due to: 5 0 13 0 18
Design 3 0 2 0 5
Operation 1 0 8 0 9
Combination 1 0 3 0 4
Unknown 0 0 0 0 0
Primary Operator - Treatment
Not certified 8 0 7 0 15
No operator 5 0 0 0 5
Not required 0 0 0 5 5
Certified to Level 14 0 21 0 35
Certified 5 0 9 0 14
Back-up Operator - Treatment
Not certified 13 0 23 0 36
No operator 13 0 2 0 15
Not required 0 0 0 5 5
Certified to Level 1 0 7 0 8
Certified 5 0 5 0 10
Primary Operator - Distribution
Not certified 8 0 6 2 16
No operator 4 0 0 0 4
Not required 4 0 0 1 5
Certified to Level 15 0 26 2 43
Certified 1 0 5 0 6
Back-up Operator - Distribution
Not certified 13 0 22 2 37
No operator 11 0 2 1 14
Not required 4 0 0 1 5
Certified to Level 4 0 12 1 17
Certified 0 0 1 0 1

Risk (mean)GroundwaterGUDISurfaceMTAMeanMean excluding MTA
Final 5.7 0.0 5.5 3.9 5.5 5.6
Source 7.4 0.0 8.7 2.4 7.7 8.1
Design 4.5 0.0 4.0 2.8 4.1 4.2
Operations 6.0 0.0 6.6 5.8 6.3 6.3
Reporting 7.1 0.0 6.0 9.2 6.7 6.5
Operator 4.3 0.0 2.5 1.0 3.1 3.3

Appendix B.2 Wastewater System Summary

Regional Roll-Up Summary: Wastewater

Region: Manitoba
Total No. of First Nations: 62
Participating No. of First Nations: 62
Participation Level: 100%
No. of Community Reports Issued: 62

 SepticAerated LagoonFacultative LagoonMechanicalOtherMTATotals
Total No. of Systems 1 10 22 24 0 4 61
System Age
0-5 years
(2006 - 2010)
0 4 1 0 0 0 5
6-10 years
(2001 - 2005)
0 2 2 2 0 0 6
10-15 years
(1996 - 2000)
0 0 3 15 0 0 18
15 -20 years
(1991 - 1995)
0 1 7 6 0 1 15
> 20 years (≤ 1990) 1 3 9 1 0 3 17
Classification - Treatment
Small System 1 0 3 0 0 0 4
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
Level I 0 7 18 3 0 0 28
Level II 0 3 1 16 0 0 20
Level III 0 0 0 5 0 0 5
Classification - Collection
Small System 1 0 4 6 0 2 13
Level I 0 6 14 13 0 0 33
Level II 0 3 4 5 0 0 12
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
None 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Collection
Piped 1 2 5 7 0 1 16
Low Pressure 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Combined 0 7 16 15 0 0 38
Trucked 0 1 1 1 0 3 6
Effluent Quality
No data 1 0 3 5 0 1 10
Meets 0 9 16 10 0 2 37
Does not meet 0 1 3 9 0 1 14
Primary Operator - Treatment
Not certified 0 7 6 4 0 0 17
No operator 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Not required 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
Certified to Level 0 2 16 14 0 0 32
Certified 0 1 0 6 0 0 7
Back-Up Operator - Treatment
Not certified 0 5 15 19 0 0 39
No operator 1 3 6 1 0 0 11
Not required 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
Certified to Level 0 2 1 3 0 0 6
Certified 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Primary Operator - Collection
Not certified 0 6 5 4 0 1 16
No operator 1 0 0 0 0 1 2
Not required 0 1 0 0 0 2 3
Certified to Level 0 1 14 19 0 0 34
Certified 0 2 3 1 0 0 6
Back-Up Operator - Collection
Not certified 0 4 15 19 0 0 38
No operator 1 3 6 1 0 2 13
Not required 0 1 0 0 0 2 3
Certified to Level 0 2 1 4 0 0 7
Certified 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Receiver
Large river 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
River 0 2 9 7 0 0 18
Lake, reservoir 0 2 1 11 0 0 14
Creek 0 1 2 2 0 0 5
Open marine, enclosed bay 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Wetland 0 3 9 2 0 0 14
Sub-surface / Ground 0 1 1 0 0 0 2
Tile field 1 0 0 1 0 0 2
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 4 4

Risk (mean)SepticAerated LagoonFacul- tative LagoonMech- anicalOtherMTAMeanMean excluding MTA
Final 5.4 4.7 4.4 6.2 0.0 2.3 5.0 5.2
Effluent Receiver 3.0 6.1 5.0 7.7 0.0 1.8 6.0 6.3
Design 3.0 2.8 3.2 5.0 0.0 1.3 3.7 3.9
Operations 8.0 5.5 7.1 7.1 0.0 4.5 6.7 6.9
Reporting 1.0 4.8 3.6 8.3 0.0 3.3 5.6 5.7
Operator 10.0 5.0 2.4 2.1 0.0 1.3 2.8 2.9

Appendix C Site Visit Methodology

Site Visits

Typical Day

Arrive in Community – Lead/Senior Inspector & Technical Support
  • Meet with Circuit Rider and/or DIAND representative and First Nation/Tribal Council Representatives to undergo introductions and provide a brief synopsis of the activities to be undertaken for the day. This is based on the assumption that the First Nation has been fully briefed by DIAND on the purpose, process and benefits for the First Nation to cooperate and collaborate with the project.
  • Confirm the various components that the First Nation uses to provide water to the entire community (i.e. number and types of distribution systems, source types, private wells, etc.) to help build assessment form for the community.
  • Pre-select areas to undertake private system evaluations on community map.
  • Confirm any missing background data that may be available allowing the First Nation time during the day to have Public Works Director/Supervisor/ Secretary/etc to locate such materials.
Lead/Senior – Inspector
  • Meet with Chief/Housing Manager/Band Manager/Finance Manager, to identify:
    • future servicing needs (planned development and population growth)
    • servicing constraints (source availability, soils, groundwater, bedrock, topography, etc.)
    • identify the extent to which non structural solutions or optimization strategies (water conservation, leak reduction, etc) have been previously investigated or implemented
    • confirm current population and housing numbers
    • obtain financial information not previously provided
    • note community concerns related to future servicing.
  • Complete a walk through of the water plant from source to storage.
  • Prepare a flow schematic (internal use).
  • Complete the assessment questionnaire on treatment/storage/operations/ operator(s) etc. with Operator/Circuit Rider.
  • Take photographs.
  • Travel to main sewage pumping station and wastewater treatment facility.
  • Complete a walk through of the plant from influent to effluent.
  • Prepare a flow schematic (internal use).
  • Complete assessment questionnaire.
  • Take photographs.
  • Complete ACRS update.
  • Repeat for additional water or wastewater facilities.
  • Review information collected by Technical Support
  • Gather all background/operational data gathered by First Nation.
  • Complete overall notes.
Technical Support
  • Gather any relevant operational data (water and wastewater), if not already provided and arrange with the First Nation to have copied/scanned that day.
  • Obtain GPS coordinates of source(s) and treatment.
  • Complete the source questions on the assessment questionnaire.
  • Undertake sampling of the raw and/or treated water, if necessary.
  • Take photographs.
  • Complete ACRS update.
  • Travel around community with First Nation representative and undertake private system assessments for water and/or septic including GPS coordinates, photographs, assessment forms and sampling.
  • Meet back with Lead/Senior Inspector at wastewater location and assist with sampling, if required.

Sampling Requirements

Water Sampling

The terms of reference state, "The sampling program for public water systems should reflect the requirements of the most stringent regulations applicable in the Province in which the community is located. However, should an adequate sampling program already be in place, then existing data may be used. Bidders should assume sampling and testing will be required for 5% of total wells, septics, and cisterns identified in SW5. Septics and cisterns only require a visual inspection. All bidders are required to carry a $500,000 allowance for this purpose. Any variances should be identified in the Inception Report."

Health Canada data is anticipated to be available for the majority of the water systems. Where data is not available, sampling will be conducted as part of the inspection.

Minimum existing data required will include:

Community systems

  • bacteriological – monthly available for previous year
  • general chemistry – annually (treated)
  • full Volatile Organic Compound analysis – within 5 years

Private wells

  • bacteriological – one sample within past year
  • basic chemistry – one sample within past year

For public systems where data is not available, treated water samples will be obtained and submitted to a laboratory for testing that would include; Basic Chemistry, Full Metals Scan, Bacteria and Volatile Organic Compounds.

For public systems that include a piped distribution system and where distributed water quality data is not available, a sample will be taken from the most remote point in the distribution system and sampled for Disinfection By-Products.

For individual wells, samples will be obtained from a representative number of wells (5% of total wells) in the community. The testing will include; Basic Chemistry, Full Metals Scan and Bacteria.

Wastewater Sampling

For systems lacking existing discharge quality data, and that will be discharging at the time of the site visit, representative samples will be obtained and submitted to a laboratory for testing. This would include seasonal discharges at the time of the site visit and from plants with continuous discharge to a receiving body. Sewage treatment systems providing an equivalent to secondary treatment (lagoons, and mechanical facilities) for which effluent quality data does not include the parameters of BOD5, TSS, and E.Coli, will be sampled in the field, if they are in fact discharging at the time of site visit. Similarly, sewage treatment systems providing an equivalent to tertiary treatment for which effluent quality data does not include BOD5, TSS, Ammonia, Total Phosphorous and E.Coli, will be sampled in the field, if they are in fact discharging at the time of the site visit.

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary

Table D.1 - 1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source Treat- ment Class Const Year Design Capacity [m3/d] Actual Capacity [m3/d] Max Daily Volume [m3/d] Disinf- ection
308 Barren Lands 6599 BROCHET NO. 197 Surface Water Level III 2005 829 829 1301 Yes
266 Berens River 6553 BERENS RIVER WTP Surface Water Level III 1999 1123 820.8 753 Yes
284 Birdtail Sioux 6574 BIRDTAIL CREEK NO. 57 Ground-
water
Level III 2005 856 856 752 Yes
267 Bloodvein 6554 BLOODVEIN WTP Surface Water Level II 1995 545 545 578 Yes
261 Broken- head Ojibway Nation 6547 BROKENHEAD WTP Ground- water Level III 1993 327 327 459 Yes
301 Bunibo- nibee Cree Nation 6595 Bunibonibee WTP Surface Water Level III 2005 1104 1104 1335 Yes
289 Canup- awakpa Dakota First Nation 6582 CANUPAWAKPA DAKOTA FIRST NATION Ground- water Small System 0       No
309 Chema- wawin Cree Nation 6607 CHEMAWAWIN COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 1996 1944 1503.4 527.9 Yes
276 Cross Lake First Nation 6564 CROSS LAKE COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT SAGIHWAK Surface Water Level III 1992 683 683 297 Yes
276 Cross Lake First Nation 6565 CROSS LAKE EDUCATION WATER TREATMENT PLANT NATIMEK Surface Water Level II 1983 821 821 480 Yes
288 Dakota Plains 6581 DAKOTA PLAINS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 6A MTA MTA 1993 1102.2 123.8 123.8 MTA
295 Dakota Tipi 6593 DAKOTA TIPI NO. 1 MTA MTA 1998 953 953 144 MTA
316 Dauphin River 6590 DAUPHIN RIVER NO. 48A Ground- water Small System 1980       No
280 Ebb and Flow 6570 EBB AND FLOW WTP Ground- water Level III 2004 1458 1458 1135.5 Yes
264 Fisher River 6551 FISHER RIVER WTP Ground- water Level II 2009 1624 1624 146 Yes
262 Fort Alexander 6549 FORT ALEXANDER NORTH SHORE WTP Surface Water Level II 1970 504 504 500 Yes
262 Fort Alexander 6548 FORT ALEXANDER SOUTH SHORE WTP Surface Water Level II 1970 1417 1382 1019 Yes
305 Fox Lake 6609 FOX LAKE WTP Surface Water Level III 2006 360 360 225 Yes
294 Gamblers 6575 GAMBLER NO. 63 MTA MTA 0       MTA
297 Garden Hill First Nation 7101 16448 - GARDEN HILL WTP Surface Water Level III 1997 1915 1915 1227 Yes
296 Gods Lake First Nation 6594 MAIN LAND WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1999 1349 1349 1308 Yes
296 Gods Lake First Nation NEW001 NAZZIE POINT Surface Water Small System 1993       No
296 Gods Lake First Nation 15959 WEST SIDE WATER TREATMENT PLANT GOD'S LAKE Surface Water Level II 2007 272.16 272.16   Yes
310 Grand Rapids First Nation 6589 GRAND RAPIDS NO. 33 Ground- water Level I 1996 544 544 432.6 Yes
263 Hollow Water 6550 HOLLOW WATER WTP Surface Water Level III 1992 544 544   Yes
286 Keeseek- oowenin 6579 KEESEEK- OOWENIN COMMUNITY Ground- water Level II 2000 13.6 13.6 7.6 Yes
286 Keeseek- oowenin 6578 KEESEEK- OOWENIN EDUCATION AUTHORITY Ground- water Level II 1993       No
268 Kinonje- oshtegon First Nation 6555 KINONJE- OSHTEGON WATER SYSTEM Ground- water Small System 1989     45 Yes
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation 6559 LAKE MANITOBA School Ground- water Small System 1975       Yes
275 Lake St. Martin 6563 LAKE ST. MARTIN WTP Ground- water Level II 1997 93.6 93.6 121 Yes
260 Little Black River 6546 LITTLE BLACK RIVER WTP Surface Water Level II 1992 544.8 544.8 569 Yes
270 Little Grand Rapids 6557 LITTLE GRAND RAPIDS WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1995 492 492 537 Yes
274 Little Saskat- chewan 6562 LITTLE SASKATCHEWAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 1994 18 18   Yes
287 Long Plain 6580 LONG PLAIN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 1993 2184 2184 1331 Yes
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation 6596 GOD'S RIVER NO. 86A Surface Water Level III 1999 933 933 610 Yes
311 Mathias Colomb 6598 MATHIAS COLOMB WATER TRETAMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1998 2180.4 2180.4 1961.2 Yes
312 Mosak- ahiken Cree Nation NEW001 NEW WATER PLANT Ground- water Level I 2009 1752 1728 778 Yes
313 Nisicha- wayasihk Cree Nation 6597 NISICHA- WAYASIHK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1987 1636 1636   Yes
317 Northlands 6606 NORTHLAND WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level I 1996 818 409 631 Yes
278 Norway House Cree Nation 6567 NORWAY HOUSE COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level III 1987 3504 1752 1737 Yes
279 O-Chi- Chak- Ko-Sipi First Nation 6569 CRANE RIVER NO. 51 Surface Water Level II 1991 655.2 655.2 210 Yes
315 Opask- wayak Cree Nation 6588 OPASKWAYAK CREE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 1991 3090.5 3090.5 2149 Yes
318 O-Pipon- Na-Piwin Cree Nation   Water Treatment/ Distribution Surface Water Level III 0 845 422 209 Yes
327 Pauingassi First Nation 6558 PAUINGASSI WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1995 467 467 295 Yes
269 Peguis NEW002 CORE SITE WELL Ground- water Small System 0       No
269 Peguis NEW001 OLD SCHOOL SYSTEM Ground- water Small System 0       No
269 Peguis 6556 PEGUIS WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level I 1996 1090 1090 199 Yes
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation 15979 PINAYMOOTANG BOTTLING PLANT Ground- water Level II 2005 0.4 0.4   Yes
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation 6560 PINAYMOOTANG SCHOOL PLANT Ground- water Small System 1971 40     Yes
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation NEW002 PUMP HOUSE 1 Ground- water Small System 2008       No
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation NEW003 PUMP HOUSE 2 Ground- water Small System 2008       Yes
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation NEW004 PUMP HOUSE 3 Ground- water Small System 1990       No
282 Pine Creek 6572 PINE CREEK NO. 66A Surface Water Level III 2003 66     Yes
277 Poplar River First Nation 6566 POPLAR RIVER WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1999 1090 1090 636 Yes
300 Red Sucker Lake 6605 RED SUCKER LAKE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1993 1036 1019 61 Yes
291 Rolling River 6584 ROLLING RIVER WTP Ground- water Level III 2007 654 654 84 Yes
273 Roseau River Anish- inabe First Nation G 6561 ROSEAU RIVER WTP MTA MTA 1989     322 MTA
283 Sandy Bay 6573 SANDY BAY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level III 1996 1656 1656 1208 Yes
314 Sapot- aweyak Cree Nation 6591 SAPOTAWEYAK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1996 360 288 390 Yes
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation 6603 Sayisi Dene Water Treatment Plant Surface Water Level II 1996 371.5 261.6 169.6 Yes
307 Shama- ttawa First Nation 6601 SHAMATTAWA WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level III 1999 1200 1200   Yes
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation 6583 SIOUX VALLEY DAKOTA NATION WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 1990 519 327   Yes
281 Skownan First Nation 6571 SKOWNAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level I 1988 561   210.4 Yes
298 St. Theresa Point 7102 26447 - ST THERESA POINT WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1999 1716 1716 1099 Yes
293 Swan Lake NEW001 Administration Area System Ground- water Small System 1975 453.6 453.6   No
293 Swan Lake 6586 SWAN LAKE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level I 1996 324 324   Yes
306 Tatask- weyak Cree Nation 6602 TATASKWEYAK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1987 1814 1248   Yes
292 Tootinao- wazii- beeng Treaty Reserve 6585 TOOTIN- AOWAZII- BEENG WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 1997 454 454 104 Yes
323 War Lake First Nation 6604 06466 - War Lake provincial plant MTA MTA 1990       MTA
299 Wasag- amack First Nation 7104 WASAGAMACK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 1997 1788 890 450 Yes
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 6577 WAYWAY- SEECAPPO Education Authority Ground- water Level I 1991 192.3 192.3 110.3 Yes
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 6576 WAYWAY- SEECAPPO Lizard Point Ground- water Level II 1999 899.3 118.8 81.5 Yes
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation 6592 SWAN LAKE NO. 65C Surface Water Level II 1991   87 76 Yes
304 York Factory First Nation 6600 YORK FACTORY Water treatment plant Surface Water Level III 1986 224 224 347 Yes

Table D.1 - 1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems (continued)
First Nation Information Storage Information
Band # Band Name Storage Type Storage Capacity
308 Barren Lands Underground 539
266 Berens River Underground 702
284 Birdtail Sioux Underground 367.5
267 Bloodvein Underground 662
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation Underground 415
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation Underground 1000
289 Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation None  
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation Underground 538
276 Cross Lake First Nation Underground 726
276 Cross Lake First Nation Underground 1404
288 Dakota Plains Underground MTA
295 Dakota Tipi Underground MTA
316 Dauphin River None 0
280 Ebb and Flow Underground 596
264 Fisher River Underground 755
262 Fort Alexander Underground 685.5
262 Fort Alexander Underground 790
305 Fox Lake Underground 420
294 Gamblers None MTA
297 Garden Hill First Nation Underground 1300
296 Gods Lake First Nation Underground 844
296 Gods Lake First Nation None  
296 Gods Lake First Nation Underground 225.33
310 Grand Rapids First Nation Underground 313
263 Hollow Water Underground 257
286 Keeseekoowenin None  
286 Keeseekoowenin Underground  
268 Kinonjeoshtegon First Nation Underground 28
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation Underground 0
275 Lake St. Martin Underground 387
260 Little Black River Underground 311
270 Little Grand Rapids Underground 325
274 Little Saskatchewan Underground 450
287 Long Plain Underground 582
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation Underground 620.07
311 Mathias Colomb Underground 1300
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation Underground 777
313 Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation Underground 2200
317 Northlands Underground 350
278 Norway House Cree Nation Underground 1100
279 O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation Underground 200
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation Underground 740
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation Underground 715
327 Pauingassi First Nation Underground 329.0
269 Peguis None  
269 Peguis None  
269 Peguis Underground 520
272 Pinaymootang First Nation   0
272 Pinaymootang First Nation None 0
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Grade level 10
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Grade level 10
272 Pinaymootang First Nation None  
282 Pine Creek Underground 1532
277 Poplar River First Nation Underground 743.8
300 Red Sucker Lake Underground 1013.2
291 Rolling River Underground 370.4
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation G Grade level MTA
283 Sandy Bay Underground 1705
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation Underground 330
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation Underground 132.3
307 Shamattawa First Nation Underground 455
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Underground 285
281 Skownan First Nation Underground 880
298 St. Theresa Point Underground 1429
293 Swan Lake None  
293 Swan Lake Underground 397
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation Underground 992
292 Tootinaowaziibeeng Treaty Reserve Underground 360
323 War Lake First Nation Underground MTA
299 Wasagamack First Nation Underground 820
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Underground 168.6
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Underground 205.2
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation Underground 146
304 York Factory First Nation Underground 736

Table D.1 - 1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems (continued)
First Nation Information Distribution System Information
Band # Band Name Distribution Class Population Served Homes Piped Homes Trucked Number of Trucks in Service Pipe Length Pipe Length/
Connection
308 Barren Lands Level I 535 83 0 0 6460 77
266 Berens River Level II 2125 120 175 2    
284 Birdtail Sioux Level I 377 120 0 0 24979 208
267 Bloodvein Level I 1076 142 52 1 4449 31
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation Level I 513 137 0 0 10698 78
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation Level II 2514 129 278 4 8704 67
289 Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation NA 23 0 7 1    
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation Level I 1242 148 130 2 5641 38
276 Cross Lake First Nation Level II 3318 161 94 0 5314.1 33
276 Cross Lake First Nation Level II 1795 230 290 0 9009 39
288 Dakota Plains Small System 150 38 0 0 8952 235
295 Dakota Tipi Level I 174 52 0 0 3260 62
316 Dauphin River Small System 4 1 0 0 113 113
280 Ebb and Flow Level I 1534 300 75 2 37299 124
264 Fisher River Level II 390 49 12 1 1512 30
262 Fort Alexander Level II 1146 136 108 1 18821 138
262 Fort Alexander Level II 2020 291 121 0 15137 52
305 Fox Lake Level I 277 60 0 0 5878 97
294 Gamblers NA 0 0 21 1    
297 Garden Hill First Nation Level II 3993 151 69 1 10028 66
296 Gods Lake First Nation Level I 1247 202 10 1 8106.9 40
296 Gods Lake First Nation Small System 70 12 0 0    
296 Gods Lake First Nation Level I 240 20 20 1 1892 94
310 Grand Rapids First Nation Level I 767 185 0 0 6670 36
263 Hollow Water Level I 1197 131 37 1 8576 65
286 Keeseekoowenin NA 440 0 150 1    
286 Keeseekoowenin Small System 0 0 0 0    
268 Kinonjeoshtegon First Nation Small System 79 0 0 0    
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation Small System 50 12 0 0 591 49
275 Lake St. Martin Level I 1393 0 120 2    
260 Little Black River Level I 827 200 0 0 6788 33
270 Little Grand Rapids Level I 1213 97 113 2 10465.4 107
274 Little Saskatchewan Level I 650 5 0 0 415 83
287 Long Plain Level I 2039 224 46 2 41822 186
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation Level I 682 128 0 1 5910 46
311 Mathias Colomb Level II 2547 307 18 1 12698 41
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation Level I 1008 134 66 1 3552 26
313 Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation Level II 2600 319 137 4 8710 27
317 Northlands Level I 800 141 0 0 6536 46
278 Norway House Cree Nation Level II 5115 376 766 10 12822 34
279 O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation Level I 647 112 12 2 5427 48
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation Level II 3132 675 16 0 18873 27
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation Level I 1010 35 170 3 1300 37
327 Pauingassi First Nation Level I 617 62 26 1 2410 38
269 Peguis Small System 56 14 0 0    
269 Peguis Small System 0 15 0 0    
269 Peguis Level I 614 26 0 0 1230 47
272 Pinaymootang First Nation NA 1531 0 0 0    
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Small System 0 4 0 0    
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Small System 85 19 0 0 700 36
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Small System 85 15 0 0 700 46
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Small System 85 7 0 0 700 100
282 Pine Creek Level I 1569 60 151 2 4459 74
277 Poplar River First Nation Level I 1459 128 104 2 5124 40
300 Red Sucker Lake Level I 958 0 100 1    
291 Rolling River NA 664 0 130 3    
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation G Level I 1279 164 32 1 7140 43
283 Sandy Bay Level II 3586 435 102 4 9994 22
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation Level I 1137 170 34 1 5662 33
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation Small System 386 90 32 1 6008 66
307 Shamattawa First Nation Level I 1300 160 10 1 4347 27
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Level I 1316 192 92 2 8268.1 43
281 Skownan First Nation Level I 813 0 110 2    
298 St. Theresa Point Level II 3509 161 57 1 11985.4 74
293 Swan Lake Small System 40 10 0 0 470 47
293 Swan Lake Level I 584 51 64 1 3557 69
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation Level II 2567 270 92 1 7493.1 27
292 Tootinao- waziibeeng Treaty Reserve Level I 619 5 109 2 305 61
323 War Lake First Nation Small System 133 23 0 0 400 17
299 Wasagamack First Nation Level I 1662 56 34 1 2833.6 50
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Small System 963 3 209 4 7625 2541
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Small System 50 6 135 2 72 12
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation Small System 63 7 41 1 3634 519
304 York Factory First Nation Level I 420 114 0 0 4179.3 36

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries (continued)

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary (continued)

Table D.1 - 2: Regional Summary of Water Quality Information
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source
308 Barren Lands 6599 BROCHET NO. 197 Surface Water
266 Berens River 6553 BERENS RIVER WTP Surface Water
284 Birdtail Sioux 6574 BIRDTAIL CREEK NO. 57 Groundwater
267 Bloodvein 6554 BLOODVEIN WTP Surface Water
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation 6547 BROKENHEAD WTP Groundwater
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation 6595 Bunibonibee WTP Surface Water
289 Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation 6582 CANUPAWAKPA DAKOTA FIRST NATION Groundwater
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation 6607 CHEMAWAWIN COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
276 Cross Lake First Nation 6564 CROSS LAKE COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT SAGIHWAK Surface Water
276 Cross Lake First Nation 6565 CROSS LAKE EDUCATION WATER TREATMENT PLANT NATIMEK Surface Water
288 Dakota Plains 6581 DAKOTA PLAINS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 6A MTA
295 Dakota Tipi 6593 DAKOTA TIPI NO. 1 MTA
316 Dauphin River 6590 DAUPHIN RIVER NO. 48A Groundwater
280 Ebb and Flow 6570 EBB AND FLOW WTP Groundwater
264 Fisher River 6551 FISHER RIVER WTP Groundwater
262 Fort Alexander 6549 FORT ALEXANDER NORTH SHORE WTP Surface Water
262 Fort Alexander 6548 FORT ALEXANDER SOUTH SHORE WTP Surface Water
305 Fox Lake 6609 FOX LAKE WTP Surface Water
294 Gamblers 6575 GAMBLER NO. 63 MTA
297 Garden Hill First Nation 7101 16448 - GARDEN HILL WTP Surface Water
296 Gods Lake First Nation 6594 MAIN LAND WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
296 Gods Lake First Nation NEW001 NAZZIE POINT Surface Water
296 Gods Lake First Nation 15959 WEST SIDE WATER TREATMENT PLANT GOD'S LAKE Surface Water
310 Grand Rapids First Nation 6589 GRAND RAPIDS NO. 33 Groundwater
263 Hollow Water 6550 HOLLOW WATER WTP Surface Water
286 Keeseekoowenin 6579 KEESEEKOOWENIN COMMUNITY Groundwater
286 Keeseekoowenin 6578 KEESEEKOOWENIN EDUCATION AUTHORITY Groundwater
268 Kinonjeoshtegon First Nation 6555 KINONJEOSHTEGON WATER SYSTEM Groundwater
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation 6559 LAKE MANITOBA School Groundwater
275 Lake St. Martin 6563 LAKE ST. MARTIN WTP Groundwater
260 Little Black River 6546 LITTLE BLACK RIVER WTP Surface Water
270 Little Grand Rapids 6557 LITTLE GRAND RAPIDS WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
274 Little Saskatchewan 6562 LITTLE SASKATCHEWAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
287 Long Plain 6580 LONG PLAIN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation 6596 GOD'S RIVER NO. 86A Surface Water
311 Mathias Colomb 6598 MATHIAS COLOMB WATER TRETAMENT PLANT Surface Water
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation NEW001 NEW WATER PLANT Groundwater
313 Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation 6597 NISICHAWAYASIHK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
317 Northlands 6606 NORTHLAND WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
278 Norway House Cree Nation 6567 NORWAY HOUSE COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
279 O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation 6569 CRANE RIVER NO. 51 Surface Water
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation 6588 OPASKWAYAK CREE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation   Water Treatment/Distribution Surface Water
327 Pauingassi First Nation 6558 PAUINGASSI WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
269 Peguis NEW002 CORE SITE WELL Groundwater
269 Peguis NEW001 OLD SCHOOL SYSTEM Groundwater
269 Peguis 6556 PEGUIS WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation 15979 PINAYMOOTANG BOTTLING PLANT Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation 6560 PINAYMOOTANG SCHOOL PLANT Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation NEW002 PUMP HOUSE 1 Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation NEW003 PUMP HOUSE 2 Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation NEW004 PUMP HOUSE 3 Groundwater
282 Pine Creek 6572 PINE CREEK NO. 66A Surface Water
277 Poplar River First Nation 6566 POPLAR RIVER WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
300 Red Sucker Lake 6605 RED SUCKER LAKE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
291 Rolling River 6584 ROLLING RIVER WTP Groundwater
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Gover 6561 ROSEAU RIVER WTP MTA
283 Sandy Bay 6573 SANDY BAY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation 6591 SAPOTAWEYAK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation 6603 Sayisi Dene Water Treatment Plant Surface Water
307 Shamattawa First Nation 6601 SHAMATTAWA WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation 6583 SIOUX VALLEY DAKOTA NATION WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
281 Skownan First Nation 6571 SKOWNAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
298 St. Theresa Point 7102 26447 - ST THERESA POINT WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
293 Swan Lake NEW001 Administration Area System Groundwater
293 Swan Lake 6586 SWAN LAKE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation 6602 TATASKWEYAK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
292 Tootinaowaziibeeng Treaty Reserve 6585 TOOTINAOWAZIIBEENG WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
323 War Lake First Nation 6604 06466 - War Lake provincial plant MTA
299 Wasagamack First Nation 7104 WASAGAMACK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation 6577 WAYWAYSEECAPPO Education Authority Groundwater
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation 6576 WAYWAYSEECAPPO Lizard Point Groundwater
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation 6592 SWAN LAKE NO. 65C Surface Water
304 York Factory First Nation 6600 YORK FACTORY Water treatment plant Surface Water

Table D.1 - 2: Regional Summary of Water Quality Information (continued)
First Nation Information Water Quality Information
Band # Band Name Meets/
Does Not Meet GCDWQ
Cause of Failure Fails Health Guidelines Fails Aesthetic Guidelines Fails MAC by Design Fails MAC by Oper-
ation
DWA In Effect DWA Count
308 Barren Lands Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
266 Berens River Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No No No 0
284 Birdtail Sioux Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
267 Bloodvein High Freq OR High Mag Operation Yes Yes No Yes Yes 1
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
289 Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
276 Cross Lake First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
276 Cross Lake First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
288 Dakota Plains Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
295 Dakota Tipi Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
316 Dauphin River Low Freq, Low Mag Both N/A Yes No No No 0
280 Ebb and Flow Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
264 Fisher River Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
262 Fort Alexander Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
262 Fort Alexander Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
305 Fox Lake High Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No Yes 1
294 Gamblers Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
297 Garden Hill First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes No No No No 0
296 Gods Lake First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
296 Gods Lake First Nation High Freq OR High Mag Both Yes Yes No No Yes 1
296 Gods Lake First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
310 Grand Rapids First Nation Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
263 Hollow Water Low Freq, Low Mag Both N/A N/A Yes Yes   2
286 Keeseekoowenin Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
286 Keeseekoowenin Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
268 Kinonjeoshtegon First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
275 Lake St. Martin Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
260 Little Black River Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No No Yes 1
270 Little Grand Rapids Low Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes No No No 0
274 Little Saskatchewan Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
287 Long Plain Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
311 Mathias Colomb Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
313 Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation High Freq OR High Mag Operation No N/A No No No 0
317 Northlands Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
278 Norway House Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
279 O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
327 Pauingassi First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
269 Peguis Low Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes Yes No No 0
269 Peguis Low Freq, Low Mag Design No Yes Yes Yes No 0
269 Peguis Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No Yes No 0
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No Yes No 0
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No Yes No 0
282 Pine Creek Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
277 Poplar River First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No No   10
300 Red Sucker Lake Meets Requirements Both Yes No No No No 0
291 Rolling River Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Gover Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
283 Sandy Bay Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No Yes No 0
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
307 Shamattawa First Nation High Freq AND High Mag Both Yes No Yes Yes No 0
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
281 Skownan First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Both No Yes No No No 0
298 St. Theresa Point Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
293 Swan Lake Low Freq, Low Mag Design N/A Yes No No No 0
293 Swan Lake Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
292 Tootinao- waziibeeng Treaty Reserve Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
323 War Lake First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
299 Wasagamack First Nation Low Freq, Low Mag Operation N/A N/A No No No 0
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes Yes Yes No 0
304 York Factory First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries (continued)

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary (continued)

Table D.1 - 3: Regional Summary of Water Operator Information
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source
308 Barren Lands 6599 BROCHET NO. 197 Surface Water
266 Berens River 6553 BERENS RIVER WTP Surface Water
284 Birdtail Sioux 6574 BIRDTAIL CREEK NO. 57 Groundwater
267 Bloodvein 6554 BLOODVEIN WTP Surface Water
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation 6547 BROKENHEAD WTP Groundwater
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation 6595 Bunibonibee WTP Surface Water
289 Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation 6582 CANUPAWAKPA DAKOTA FIRST NATION Groundwater
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation 6607 CHEMAWAWIN COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
276 Cross Lake First Nation 6564 CROSS LAKE COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT SAGIHWAK Surface Water
276 Cross Lake First Nation 6565 CROSS LAKE EDUCATION WATER TREATMENT PLANT NATIMEK Surface Water
288 Dakota Plains 6581 DAKOTA PLAINS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 6A MTA
295 Dakota Tipi 6593 DAKOTA TIPI NO. 1 MTA
316 Dauphin River 6590 DAUPHIN RIVER NO. 48A Groundwater
280 Ebb and Flow 6570 EBB AND FLOW WTP Groundwater
264 Fisher River 6551 FISHER RIVER WTP Groundwater
262 Fort Alexander 6549 FORT ALEXANDER NORTH SHORE WTP Surface Water
262 Fort Alexander 6548 FORT ALEXANDER SOUTH SHORE WTP Surface Water
305 Fox Lake 6609 FOX LAKE WTP Surface Water
294 Gamblers 6575 GAMBLER NO. 63 MTA
297 Garden Hill First Nation 7101 16448 - GARDEN HILL WTP Surface Water
296 Gods Lake First Nation 6594 MAIN LAND WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
296 Gods Lake First Nation NEW001 NAZZIE POINT Surface Water
296 Gods Lake First Nation 15959 WEST SIDE WATER TREATMENT PLANT GOD'S LAKE Surface Water
310 Grand Rapids First Nation 6589 GRAND RAPIDS NO. 33 Groundwater
263 Hollow Water 6550 HOLLOW WATER WTP Surface Water
286 Keeseekoowenin 6579 KEESEEKOOWENIN COMMUNITY Groundwater
286 Keeseekoowenin 6578 KEESEEKOOWENIN EDUCATION AUTHORITY Groundwater
268 Kinonjeoshtegon First Nation 6555 KINONJEOSHTEGON WATER SYSTEM Groundwater
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation 6559 LAKE MANITOBA School Groundwater
275 Lake St. Martin 6563 LAKE ST. MARTIN WTP Groundwater
260 Little Black River 6546 LITTLE BLACK RIVER WTP Surface Water
270 Little Grand Rapids 6557 LITTLE GRAND RAPIDS WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
274 Little Saskatchewan 6562 LITTLE SASKATCHEWAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
287 Long Plain 6580 LONG PLAIN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation 6596 GOD'S RIVER NO. 86A Surface Water
311 Mathias Colomb 6598 MATHIAS COLOMB WATER TRETAMENT PLANT Surface Water
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation NEW001 NEW WATER PLANT Groundwater
313 Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation 6597 NISICHAWAYASIHK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
317 Northlands 6606 NORTHLAND WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
278 Norway House Cree Nation 6567 NORWAY HOUSE COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
279 O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation 6569 CRANE RIVER NO. 51 Surface Water
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation 6588 OPASKWAYAK CREE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation   Water Treatment/Distribution Surface Water
327 Pauingassi First Nation 6558 PAUINGASSI WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
269 Peguis NEW002 CORE SITE WELL Groundwater
269 Peguis NEW001 OLD SCHOOL SYSTEM Groundwater
269 Peguis 6556 PEGUIS WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation 15979 PINAYMOOTANG BOTTLING PLANT Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation 6560 PINAYMOOTANG SCHOOL PLANT Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation NEW002 PUMP HOUSE 1 Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation NEW003 PUMP HOUSE 2 Groundwater
272 Pinaymootang First Nation NEW004 PUMP HOUSE 3 Groundwater
282 Pine Creek 6572 PINE CREEK NO. 66A Surface Water
277 Poplar River First Nation 6566 POPLAR RIVER WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
300 Red Sucker Lake 6605 RED SUCKER LAKE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
291 Rolling River 6584 ROLLING RIVER WTP Groundwater
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Gover 6561 ROSEAU RIVER WTP MTA
283 Sandy Bay 6573 SANDY BAY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation 6591 SAPOTAWEYAK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation 6603 Sayisi Dene Water Treatment Plant Surface Water
307 Shamattawa First Nation 6601 SHAMATTAWA WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation 6583 SIOUX VALLEY DAKOTA NATION WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
281 Skownan First Nation 6571 SKOWNAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
298 St. Theresa Point 7102 26447 - ST THERESA POINT WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
293 Swan Lake NEW001 Administration Area System Groundwater
293 Swan Lake 6586 SWAN LAKE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation 6602 TATASKWEYAK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
292 Tootinaowaziibeeng Treaty Reserve 6585 TOOTINAOWAZIIBEENG WATER TREATMENT PLANT Groundwater
323 War Lake First Nation 6604 06466 - War Lake provincial plant MTA
299 Wasagamack First Nation 7104 WASAGAMACK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation 6577 WAYWAYSEECAPPO Education Authority Groundwater
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation 6576 WAYWAYSEECAPPO Lizard Point Groundwater
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation 6592 SWAN LAKE NO. 65C Surface Water
304 York Factory First Nation 6600 YORK FACTORY Water treatment plant Surface Water

Table D.1 - 3: Regional Summary of Water Operator Information (continued)
First Nation Information Operator Information
Band # Band Name Primary Operator Exists Primary Operator Treatment Class Primary Operator Distribution Class Secondary Operator Exists Secondary Operator Treatment Class Secondary Operator Distribution Class
308 Barren Lands Yes No Certification Level II Yes No Certification Level II
266 Berens River Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
284 Birdtail Sioux Yes Level III Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
267 Bloodvein Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation Yes Level III Level I Yes Level I Level I
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification Level I
289 Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation No Not Required No Operator No Not Required No Operator
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
276 Cross Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
276 Cross Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
288 Dakota Plains Yes Not Required No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
295 Dakota Tipi Yes Not Required Level I Yes Not Required No Certification
316 Dauphin River No No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
280 Ebb and Flow Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I
264 Fisher River Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
262 Fort Alexander Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
262 Fort Alexander Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
305 Fox Lake Yes Level III Level I Yes Level III Level I
294 Gamblers Yes Not Required No Certification No Not Required No Certification
297 Garden Hill First Nation Yes Level III Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
296 Gods Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level II
296 Gods Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level II
296 Gods Lake First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
310 Grand Rapids First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
263 Hollow Water Yes Level III Level I Yes Level II Level I
286 Keeseekoowenin Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level I
286 Keeseekoowenin Yes Level III Level I No Not Required No Operator
268 Kinonjeoshtegon First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation Yes Level I Level I No Not Required No Operator
275 Lake St. Martin Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I No Certification
260 Little Black River Yes Level III Level I Yes Level II Level I
270 Little Grand Rapids Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
274 Little Saskatchewan Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
287 Long Plain Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
311 Mathias Colomb Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
313 Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation Yes Level I No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
317 Northlands Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
278 Norway House Cree Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II No Certification
279 O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
327 Pauingassi First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
269 Peguis NR Not Required No Operator No Not Required No Operator
269 Peguis NR Not Required No Operator No Not Required No Operator
269 Peguis Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Yes Level II No Operator Yes No Certification No Operator
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
282 Pine Creek Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level I
277 Poplar River First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
300 Red Sucker Lake Yes No Certification Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
291 Rolling River Yes Level II Level I No Not Required No Operator
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Gover Yes Not Required Level I No Not Required  
283 Sandy Bay Yes Level III Level II Yes Level III Level II
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
307 Shamattawa First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No Not Required No Operator
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
281 Skownan First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
298 St. Theresa Point Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
293 Swan Lake No Not Required No Operator No Not Required No Operator
293 Swan Lake Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
292 Tootinaowaziibeeng Treaty Reserve Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I
323 War Lake First Nation Yes Not Required No Certification Yes Not Required  
299 Wasagamack First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
304 York Factory First Nation Yes Level III Level III Yes No Certification No Certification

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries (continued)

Appendix D.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Summary

Table D.2 - 1: Regional Summary of Wastewater Treatment
First Nation Information Wastewater System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Const Year Receiver Name Treatment Class Design Capacity [m3/d] Max Daily Volume [m3/d]
308 Barren Lands 12439 BROCHET NO. 197 -sewage lagoon 2005 Lake, Reservoir Level I    
266 Berens River 7305 BERENS RIVER NO. 13 1997 River Level II 420 429
267 Bloodvein 7306 BLOODVEIN NO. 12 1992 River Level I 159 314
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation 7299 BROKENHEAD NO. 4 2000 River Level I 803 239
265 Buffalo Point First Nation 7304 BUFFALO POINT NO. 36 1970 Sub-Surface/ Ground Small System    
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation 7346 OXFORD HOUSE NO. 24 1998 River Level II 2744 546
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation 9756 COMMUNITY LAGOON CHEMAWAWIN 2002 Creek Level I 514.6 301
276 Cross Lake First Nation 7316 COMMUNITY AREATED LAGOON SAGIHWAK 1996 River Level II    
276 Cross Lake First Nation 7317 EDUCATION AREATED LAGOON NATIMEK 2002 Wetland Level I 550 550
288 Dakota Plains 7332 DAKOTA PLAIN SBR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1998 Creek Level II 62.2 54.8
295 Dakota Tipi 7344 DAKOTA TIPI NO. 1 0 MTA MTA   47.9
316 Dauphin River 7341 DAUPHIN RIVER NO. 48A 1980 Tile Field Small System    
264 Fisher River NEW001 NEW LAGOON 2009 Sub-Surface/ Ground Level II 618 88
262 Fort Alexander 7300 FORT ALEXANDER SOUTH SHORE LAGOON 1993 River Level I 863 556
262 Fort Alexander 7301 NORTH SHORE LAGOON 1994 River Level I 330 277
305 Fox Lake 7361 FOX LAKE NO. 1 1995 Creek Level II   115
294 Gamblers 7327 GAMBLER NO. 63 0 MTA MTA    
297 Garden Hill First Nation 8116 Garden Hill First Nation Sewage Treatment Plant 2001 Lake, Reservoir Level II 1600 300
296 Gods Lake First Nation 7345 MAIN LAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1996 Lake, Reservoir Level III 292 690
296 Gods Lake First Nation 15960 WEST SIDE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 2005 Lake, Reservoir Level III 128  
310 Grand Rapids First Nation 7340 GRAND RAPIDS NO. 33 1996 Creek Level I 205 288
263 Hollow Water 7302 HOLE OR HOLLOW WATER NO. 10 1992 Wetland Level I 176 437
286 Keeseekoowenin   LAGOON 2006 River Level II 251 25
268 Kinonjeoshtegon First Nation 7307 JACKHEAD NO. 43 1981 River Small System    
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation 7311 DOG CREEK NO. 46 1975 Wetland Small System 53 22
275 Lake St. Martin 7315 LAKE ST. MARTIN WWT 1978 Wetland Level I    
260 Little Black River   LBR LAGOON 1992 River Level I 164 302
270 Little Grand Rapids 7309 LITTLE GRAND RAPIDS WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1994 Lake, Reservoir Level II 492 263
274 Little Saskatchewan 7314 LITTLE SASKATCHEWAN LAGOON 1994 Wetland Level I    
287 Long Plain 7331 LONG PLAIN SBR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1993 River Level II   450
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation 7347 GOD'S RIVER NO. 86A 1995 Wetland Level II 186 320
311 Mathias Colomb 7349 MATHIAS COLOMB WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1997 River Level II   1013.7
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation NEW002 NEW LAGOON 2009 Wetland Level I 486 311
313 Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation 7348 NISICHAWAYASIHK LAGOON 1987 Wetland Level I 1079 825
317 Northlands NEW001 COMMUNITY SBR 0 Lake, Reservoir Level II 220 335
278 Norway House Cree Nation 7319 NORWAY HOUSE COMMUNITY LAGOON 1988 Creek Level I 2971 995
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation 7339 OPASKWAYAK CREE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1996 Large River Level II 1665.6 1166.8
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation   LAGOON 0 Wetland Level I 627 132
327 Pauingassi First Nation 7310 PAUINGASSI WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1994 Lake, Reservoir Level II 134 164
269 Peguis 7308 PEGUIS NO. 1B 1980 River Level I 478 215
272 Pinaymootang First Nation NEW001 NEW LAGOON 2009 Wetland Level I 467  
282 Pine Creek 7324 PINE CREEK LAGOON 2003 Wetland Level I 71  
277 Poplar River First Nation 7318 POPLAR RIVER NO. 16 1999 River Level I 964 353
300 Red Sucker Lake 7357 RED SUCKER LAKE SCHOOL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1994 Lake, Reservoir Level I 24 8
300 Red Sucker Lake 7356 RED SUCKER LAKE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 2000 Lake, Reservoir Level III 185 48
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Gover 7313 ROSEAU RIVER NO. 2 1988 River Level I 331  
283 Sandy Bay 7325 SANDY BAY LAGOON 1988 Wetland Level I 2242 1599
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation 7342 SAPOTAWEYAK WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1997 Lake, Reservoir Level III 500 380
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation 7354 Sayisi Dene Wastewater Treatment Plant 1998 Wetland Level II 157 113
307 Shamattawa First Nation 7352 SHAMATTAWA WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1996 River Level III 363 520
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation 7334 SIOUX VALLEY DAKOTA NATION LAGOON 2007 River Level I 540 283
281 Skownan First Nation 7323 SKOWNAN 0 MTA MTA    
298 St. Theresa Point 7643 ST. THERESA POINT 1996 SBR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1996 Lake, Reservoir Level II 410 72
298 St. Theresa Point 7642 ST. THERESA POINT SBR 1999 WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1999 Lake, Reservoir Level II 1570 378
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation 7353 TATASKWEYAK LAGOON 1988 Enclosed Bay, Estuary Level I 218 688
323 War Lake First Nation 7355 War Lake SBR Manitoba provincial 1994 MTA MTA    
299 Wasagamack First Nation 7645 WASAGAMACK WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1996 Lake, Reservoir Level II 205 165
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation 7329 WAYWAYSEECAPPO Education Authority 1992 Lake, Reservoir Level I 28.9 4.0
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation 7328 WAYWAYSEECAPPO Lizard Point 1999 Tile Field Level I 90.8 33.4
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation 7343 WUSKWI SIPIHK WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 1992 River Level II 45 24
304 York Factory First Nation 7351 York Factory Lagoon 1987 Wetland Level I 364 153

Table D.2 - 1: Regional Summary of Wastewater Treatment (continued)
First Nation Information Wastewater System Information
Band # Band Name Wastewater System Type Wastewater Treatment Level Wastewater Disinfection Chlorine Wastewater Disinfection UV Discharge Frequency Wastewater Sludge Treatment
308 Barren Lands Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Other No
266 Berens River Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
267 Bloodvein Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation Trickling Filter Plant Tertiary No Yes Spring, fall No
265 Buffalo Point First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation SBR Tertiary No Yes Continuous No
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
276 Cross Lake First Nation Mechanical Tertiary Yes No Continuous Yes
276 Cross Lake First Nation Aerated lagoon Secondary Yes No Continuous No
288 Dakota Plains SBR Secondary No Yes Continuous No
295 Dakota Tipi MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
316 Dauphin River Septic Primary No No Continuous No
264 Fisher River Aerated lagoon Tertiary No Yes Continuous No
262 Fort Alexander Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
262 Fort Alexander Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Fall No
305 Fox Lake Mechanical Secondary No Yes Continuous Yes
294 Gamblers MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
297 Garden Hill First Nation SBR Secondary No Yes Continuous Yes
296 Gods Lake First Nation SBR Tertiary     Continuous Yes
296 Gods Lake First Nation Mechanical Secondary No No Continuous Yes
310 Grand Rapids First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
263 Hollow Water Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall Yes
286 Keeseekoowenin Aerated lagoon Tertiary   Yes Continuous No
268 Kinonjeoshtegon First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary     Spring, fall Yes
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
275 Lake St. Martin Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
260 Little Black River Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
270 Little Grand Rapids Aerated lagoon Secondary Yes No Continuous No
274 Little Saskatchewan Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
287 Long Plain SBR Secondary No Yes Continuous Yes
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation SBR Secondary No Yes Continuous Yes
311 Mathias Colomb SBR Secondary No Yes Continuous Yes
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation Aerated lagoon Secondary   Yes Other No
313 Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation Aerated lagoon Secondary     Spring, fall No
317 Northlands SBR Tertiary Yes No Continuous No
278 Norway House Cree Nation Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Seasonal No
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation SBR Tertiary Yes No Continuous Yes
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
327 Pauingassi First Nation SBR Secondary Yes No Other Yes
269 Peguis Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary     Spring No
282 Pine Creek Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring No
277 Poplar River First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
300 Red Sucker Lake SBR Secondary Yes No Continuous No
300 Red Sucker Lake SBR Secondary No Yes Continuous Yes
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Gover Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No
283 Sandy Bay Faculative lagoon Secondary     Spring, fall No
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation SBR Tertiary No Yes Continuous No
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation Mechanical Secondary No Yes Continuous Yes
307 Shamattawa First Nation SBR Tertiary   Yes Continuous Yes
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Aerated lagoon Tertiary Yes   Continuous No
281 Skownan First Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
298 St. Theresa Point SBR Tertiary No Yes Continuous Yes
298 St. Theresa Point SBR Tertiary No Yes Continuous Yes
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Other No
323 War Lake First Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
299 Wasagamack First Nation SBR Secondary No Yes Continuous Yes
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary     Fall No
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation SBR Tertiary     Continuous Yes
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation Mechanical Primary No Yes Continuous Yes
304 York Factory First Nation Faculative lagoon Secondary No No Spring, fall No

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries (continued)

Appendix D.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Summary (continued)

Table D.2 - 2: Regional Summary of Wastewater Collection Systems, Effluent Quality and Operators
First Nation Information Collection System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Collection Type Collection Class Pop. Served Homes Piped Homes Trucked
308 Barren Lands 12439 BROCHET NO. 197 - sewage lagoon Piped Level I 535 83 0
266 Berens River 7305 BERENS RIVER NO. 13 Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level II 2125 120 175
267 Bloodvein 7306 BLOODVEIN NO. 12 Piped, Trucked Level I 972 142 52
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation 7299 BROKENHEAD NO. 4 Piped Level I 513 137 0
265 Buffalo Point First Nation 7304 BUFFALO POINT NO. 36 Piped, Trucked Small System 40 2 5
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation 7346 OXFORD HOUSE NO. 24 Piped, Trucked Level II 2514 129 278
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation 9756 COMMUNITY LAGOON CHEMAWAWIN Piped, Trucked Level I 1305 149 143
276 Cross Lake First Nation 7316 COMMUNITY AREATED LAGOON SAGIHWAK Piped, Trucked Level II 3318 161 94
276 Cross Lake First Nation 7317 EDUCATION AREATED LAGOON NATIMEK Piped Level I 1795 230 290
288 Dakota Plains 7332 DAKOTA PLAIN SBR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Low Pressure Small System 150 38 0
295 Dakota Tipi 7344 DAKOTA TIPI NO. 1 Trucked MTA 174 0 52
316 Dauphin River 7341 DAUPHIN RIVER NO. 48A Piped Small System 4 1 0
264 Fisher River NEW001 NEW LAGOON Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level I 390 49 30
262 Fort Alexander 7300 FORT ALEXANDER SOUTH SHORE LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level II 2020 136 108
262 Fort Alexander 7301 NORTH SHORE LAGOON Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level II 1146 291 121
305 Fox Lake 7361 FOX LAKE NO. 1 Piped Level I 277 60 0
294 Gamblers 7327 GAMBLER NO. 63 Trucked MTA 0 0 30
297 Garden Hill First Nation 8116 Garden Hill First Nation Sewage Treatment Plant Piped, Trucked Level II 3993 152 68
296 Gods Lake First Nation 7345 MAIN LAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Trucked Level I 1317 140 84
296 Gods Lake First Nation 15960 WEST SIDE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Trucked Level I 240 20 20
310 Grand Rapids First Nation 7340 GRAND RAPIDS NO. 33 Piped, Trucked Level I 853 184 1
263 Hollow Water 7302 HOLE OR HOLLOW WATER NO. 10 Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level I 1197 131 37
286 Keeseek- oowenin   LAGOON Trucked NA 490 0 148
268 Kinonje- oshtegon First Nation 7307 JACKHEAD NO. 43 Piped, Trucked Small System 0 0 36
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation 7311 DOG CREEK NO. 46 Piped Small System 60 12 0
275 Lake St. Martin 7315 LAKE ST. MARTIN WWT Trucked Level I 1393 0 125
260 Little Black River   LBR LAGOON Piped Level I 827 200 0
270 Little Grand Rapids 7309 LITTLE GRAND RAPIDS WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Trucked Level I 1213 97 113
274 Little Saskatchewan 7314 LITTLE SASKATCHEWAN LAGOON Piped Level I 650 5 0
287 Long Plain 7331 LONG PLAIN SBR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Low Pressure Level I 1378 163 0
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation 7347 GOD'S RIVER NO. 86A Piped, Trucked Level I 682 127 1
311 Mathias Colomb 7349 MATHIAS COLOMB WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level II 2547 303 22
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation NEW002 NEW LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level I 1008 134 68
313 Nisicha- wayasihk Cree Nation 7348 NISICHAWAYASIHK LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level II 2600 319 137
317 Northlands NEW001 COMMUNITY SBR Piped Level I 918 141 0
278 Norway House Cree Nation 7319 NORWAY HOUSE COMMUNITY LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level II 5300 376 766
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation 7339 OPASKWAYAK CREE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Trucked Level II 3233 679 12
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation   LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level I 1010 35 170
327 Pauingassi First Nation 7310 PAUINGASSI WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Trucked Level I 617 62 26
269 Peguis 7308 PEGUIS NO. 1B Piped, Trucked Level I 465 55 59
272 Pinaymootang First Nation NEW001 NEW LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level I 1345 38 200
282 Pine Creek 7324 PINE CREEK LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level I 1569 60 47
277 Poplar River First Nation 7318 POPLAR RIVER NO. 16 Piped, Trucked Level I 1459 128 104
300 Red Sucker Lake 7357 RED SUCKER LAKE SCHOOL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped Small System 22 0 0
300 Red Sucker Lake 7356 RED SUCKER LAKE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Trucked Level I 936 3 100
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Governmen 7313 ROSEAU RIVER NO. 2 Piped, Low Pressure, Trucked Level I 1279 164 33
283 Sandy Bay 7325 SANDY BAY LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level II 3586 395 82
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation 7342 SAPOTAWEYAK WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Low Pressure, Trucked Level I 1137 170 34
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation 7354 Sayisi Dene Wastewater Treatment Plant Piped, Trucked Small System 386 90 32
307 Shamattawa First Nation 7352 SHAMATTAWA WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Trucked Level I 1493 160 10
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation 7334 SIOUX VALLEY DAKOTA NATION LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level I 1316 192 92
281 Skownan First Nation 7323 SKOWNAN Trucked Small System 0 0 100
298 St. Theresa Point 7643 ST. THERESA POINT 1996 SBR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLAN Piped, Trucked Small System 186 30 0
298 St. Theresa Point 7642 ST. THERESA POINT SBR 1999 WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLAN Piped, Trucked Small System 186 138 77
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation 7353 TATASKWEYAK LAGOON Piped, Trucked Level II 2567 258 104
323 War Lake First Nation 7355 War Lake SBR Manitoba provincial Piped, Low Pressure Small System 133 23 0
299 Wasagamack First Nation 7645 WASAGAMACK WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Piped, Trucked Level I 1662 14 76
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 7329 WAYWAYSEECAPPO Education Authority Piped Small System 963 3 0
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 7328 WAYWAYSEECAPPO Lizard Point Piped Small System 92 25 0
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation 7343 WUSKWI SIPIHK WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Low Pressure Level I 191 7 41
304 York Factory First Nation 7351 York Factory Lagoon Piped Level I 420 114 0

Table D.2 - 2: Regional Summary of Wastewater Collection Systems, Effluent Quality and Operators (continued)
First Nation Information Collection System Information Effluent Quality
Band # Band Name No. of Trucks in Service Pipe Length Pipe Length / Connection Low Pressure Sewer No. of Pumping Stations Meets Federal Guidelines (1976) Cause of Failure
308 Barren Lands 0 3258 39 No 5 Meets Requirements Unknown
266 Berens River 2 2073 17 Yes 3 Unknown Unknown
267 Bloodvein 1 3672 25 No 3 Low Freq, Low Mag sign & Opera
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation 0 6980 50 No 4 Meets Requirements Unknown
265 Buffalo Point First Nation 1 250 125 No 3 Meets Requirements Unknown
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation 3 6381 49 No 3 Meets Requirements Unknown
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation 1 6250 41 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
276 Cross Lake First Nation 0 3089 19 No 2 High Freq AND High Mag Operation
276 Cross Lake First Nation 0 7355 31 No 7 Meets Requirements Unknown
288 Dakota Plains 0 9461 248 Yes 0 Unknown Unknown
295 Dakota Tipi 0     No   MTA MTA
316 Dauphin River 0 113 113 No 0 Unknown Unknown
264 Fisher River 2 2326 47 Yes 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
262 Fort Alexander 0 6378 46 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
262 Fort Alexander 1 9361 32 Yes 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
305 Fox Lake 0 1180 19 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
294 Gamblers 0     No   MTA MTA
297 Garden Hill First Nation 3 9033 59 No 6 Meets Requirements Unknown
296 Gods Lake First Nation 3 4689 33 No 3 Unknown Unknown
296 Gods Lake First Nation 1     No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
310 Grand Rapids First Nation 0 6112 33 No 4 Meets Requirements Unknown
263 Hollow Water 1 3349 25 Yes 3 Meets Requirements Unknown
286 Keeseek- oowenin 1     No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
268 Kinonje- oshtegon First Nation 1     No 2 High Freq OR High Mag Unknown
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation 0 778 64 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
275 Lake St. Martin 1     No   High Freq AND High Mag Operation
260 Little Black River 0 4804 24 No 4 Meets Requirements Unknown
270 Little Grand Rapids 2 5146.4 53 No 7 Low Freq, Low Mag sign & Opera
274 Little Saskatchewan 0 810 162 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
287 Long Plain 0 30436 186 Yes 1 High Freq OR High Mag Operation
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation 1 3866 30 No 3 Meets Requirements Unknown
311 Mathias Colomb 2 7428.8 24 Yes 7 High Freq AND High Mag Design
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation 2 2947 21 No 4 Meets Requirements Unknown
313 Nisicha- wayasihk Cree Nation 3 8266.5 25 No 5 Meets Requirements Unknown
317 Northlands 0 974 6 No 3 Unknown Unknown
278 Norway House Cree Nation 12 7777 20 No 5 Meets Requirements Unknown
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation 1 16539 24 No 4 Meets Requirements Unknown
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation 2 4600 131 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
327 Pauingassi First Nation 1 2162 34 No 1 High Freq, Low Mag Operation
269 Peguis 1 3869 70 No 3 Meets Requirements Unknown
272 Pinaymootang First Nation 4 1584 41 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
282 Pine Creek 1 1130 18 No 1 Unknown Unknown
277 Poplar River First Nation 2 1417 11 No 2 Unknown Unknown
300 Red Sucker Lake 0     No 1 Unknown Unknown
300 Red Sucker Lake 1 295 98 No 0 Meets Requirements Unknown
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Governmen 0 5977 36 Yes 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
283 Sandy Bay 3 2515 6 No 2 Meets Requirements Unknown
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation 1 5144 30 Yes 0 Low Freq, Low Mag Operation
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation 2 3241 36 No 2 High Freq OR High Mag Operation
307 Shamattawa First Nation 1 4463 27 No 4 Meets Requirements Unknown
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation 1 5305 27 No 3 Meets Requirements Unknown
281 Skownan First Nation 1     No   MTA MTA
298 St. Theresa Point 2 588.5 19 No 3 High Freq, Low Mag Operation
298 St. Theresa Point 0 2055 14 No 4 High Freq OR High Mag Operation
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation 1 3753 14 No 4 Meets Requirements Unknown
323 War Lake First Nation 0 540 23 Yes 0 MTA MTA
299 Wasagamack First Nation 1 886.9 63 No 3 High Freq AND High Mag Operation
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 0     No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 0     No 1 Unknown Unknown
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation 0 2741 391 Yes 0 Meets Requirements Unknown
304 York Factory First Nation 0 2313.3 20 No 4 Meets Requirements Unknown

Table D.2 - 2: Regional Summary of Wastewater Collection Systems, Effluent Quality and Operators (continued)
First Nation Information Operator Information
Band # Band Name Primary Operator Exists Primary Operator Treatment Class Primary Operator Collection Class Secondary Operator Exists Secondary Operator Treatment Class Secondary Operator Collection Class
308 Barren Lands Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level I Level I
266 Berens River Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
267 Bloodvein Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
265 Buffalo Point First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
301 Bunibonibee Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
309 Chemawawin Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
276 Cross Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
276 Cross Lake First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
288 Dakota Plains Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
295 Dakota Tipi No Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
316 Dauphin River No No Operator No Operator No No Operator No Operator
264 Fisher River Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
262 Fort Alexander Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
262 Fort Alexander Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
305 Fox Lake Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
294 Gamblers NR Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
297 Garden Hill First Nation Yes Level II Level II No No Operator No Operator
296 Gods Lake First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
296 Gods Lake First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
310 Grand Rapids First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
263 Hollow Water Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
286 Keeseekoowenin Yes No Certification No Operator Yes No Certification No Operator
268 Kinonjeoshtegon First Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
275 Lake St. Martin Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
260 Little Black River Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
270 Little Grand Rapids Yes Level I Small System Yes No Certification No Certification
274 Little Saskatchewan Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
287 Long Plain Yes Level II Level I Yes Level I Level I
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
311 Mathias Colomb Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
312 Mosakahiken Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
313 Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
317 Northlands Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
278 Norway House Cree Nation Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
315 Opaskwayak Cree Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
327 Pauingassi First Nation Yes Level II Level II Yes No Certification No Certification
269 Peguis Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
272 Pinaymootang First Nation Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
282 Pine Creek Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
277 Poplar River First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
300 Red Sucker Lake Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
300 Red Sucker Lake Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Governmen Yes Level I Level I No No Operator No Operator
283 Sandy Bay Yes No Certification Level I No No Operator No Operator
314 Sapotaweyak Cree Nation Yes Level III Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
307 Shamattawa First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
281 Skownan First Nation No Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
298 St. Theresa Point Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
298 St. Theresa Point Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
306 Tataskweyak Cree Nation Yes No Certification No Certification No No Operator No Operator
323 War Lake First Nation Yes Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
299 Wasagamack First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
285 Waywayseecappo First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
304 York Factory First Nation Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification

Appendix E Risk Summary

Appendix E.1 Individual First Nation Water Risk Summary

Legend
  Risk Level
High Risk 8.0 - 10.0
Medium Risk 5.0 - 7.0
Low Risk 1.0 - 4.0

Table E.1: Individual First Nation Water Risk Summary
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source Treat- ment Class Source Risk Design Risk Oper- ations Risk Report Risk Oper- ator Risk Final Risk Score
284 Birdtail Sioux 6574 BIRDTAIL CREEK NO. 57 Ground- water Level III 6.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 2.7
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation 6547 BROKENHEAD WTP Ground- water Level III 8.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.3
289 Canup- awakpa Dakota First Nation 6582 CANUPA- WAKPA DAKOTA FIRST NATION Ground- water Small System 10.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 8.8
309 Chema- wawin Cree Nation 6607 CHEMAWAWIN COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 7.0 4.0 5.0 8.0 3.0 4.8
316 Dauphin River 6590 DAUPHIN RIVER NO. 48A Ground- water Small System 10.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 8.8
280 Ebb and Flow 6570 EBB AND FLOW WTP Ground- water Level III 8.0 3.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 5.0
264 Fisher River 6551 FISHER RIVER WTP Ground- water Level II 5.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 6.0 3.0
310 Grand Rapids First Nation 6589 GRAND RAPIDS NO. 33 Ground- water Level I 6.0 4.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 3.1
286 Keeseek- oowenin 6579 KEESEEK- OOWENIN COMMUNITY Ground- water Level II 6.0 1.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 8.0
286 Keeseek- oowenin 6578 KEESEEK- OOWENIN EDUCATION AUTHORITY Ground- water Level II 9.0 2.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 8.0
268 Kinonjeo- shtegon First Nation 6555 KINONJE- OSHTEGON WATER SYSTEM Ground- water Small System 6.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 7.0 8.0
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation 6559 LAKE MANITOBA School Ground- water Small System 7.0 3.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 4.9
275 Lake St. Martin 6563 LAKE ST. MARTIN WTP Ground- water Level II 9.0 3.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 5.1
274 Little Saskat- chewan 6562 LITTLE SASKAT- CHEWAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 10.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 2.0 6.3
287 Long Plain 6580 LONG PLAIN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 9.0 2.0 4.0 10.0 1.0 3.9
312 Mosak- ahiken Cree Nation NEW001 NEW WATER PLANT Ground- water Level I 5.0 4.0 3.0 1.0 4.0 3.5
315 Opask- wayak Cree Nation 6588 OPASKWAYAK CREE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 7.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 2.9
269 Peguis NEW002 CORE SITE WELL Ground- water Small System 9.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 9.0 8.5
269 Peguis NEW001 OLD SCHOOL SYSTEM Ground- water Small System 9.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 9.0 8.5
269 Peguis 6556 PEGUIS WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level I 5.0 2.0 5.0 4.0 10.0 5.0
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation 15979 PINAY- MOOTANG BOTTLING PLANT Ground- water Level II 9.0 4.0 5.0 10.0 1.0 4.8
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation 6560 PINAY- MOOTANG SCHOOL PLANT Ground- water Small System 7.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 9.0 8.0
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation NEW002 PUMP HOUSE 1 Ground- water Small System 6.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 9.0 8.2
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation NEW003 PUMP HOUSE 2 Ground- water Small System 6.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 8.4
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation NEW004 PUMP HOUSE 3 Ground- water Small System 5.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 8.6
291 Rolling River 6584 ROLLING RIVER WTP Ground- water Level III 7.0 2.0 3.0 10.0 2.0 3.6
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation 6583 SIOUX VALLEY DAKOTA NATION WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 9.0 6.0 6.0 3.0 1.0 5.0
293 Swan Lake NEW001 Administration Area System Ground- water Small System 6.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 8.7
293 Swan Lake 6586 SWAN LAKE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level I 6.0 8.0 3.0 5.0 1.0 4.6
292 Tootin- aowazii- beeng Treaty Reserve 6585 TOOTIN- AOWAZII- BEENG WATER TREATMENT PLANT Ground- water Level II 8.0 1.0 7.0 6.0 1.0 4.0
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 6577 WAYWAY- SEECAPPO Education Authority Ground- water Level I 7.0 2.0 5.0 8.0 1.0 3.8
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 6576 WAYWAY- SEECAPPO Lizard Point Ground- water Level II 9.0 4.0 7.0 5.0 1.0 4.9
288 Dakota Plains 6581 DAKOTA PLAINS INDIAN RESERVE NO. 6A MTA MTA 5.0 3.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 5.0
295 Dakota Tipi 6593 DAKOTA TIPI NO. 1 MTA MTA 1.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 1.0 3.7
294 Gamblers 6575 GAMBLER NO. 63 MTA MTA 1.0 2.0 6.0 10.0 1.0 3.7
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Governm 6561 ROSEAU RIVER WTP MTA MTA 4.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 1.0 3.3
323 War Lake First Nation 6604 06466 -War Lake provincial plant MTA MTA 1.0 3.0 6.0 10.0 1.0 4.0
308 Barren Lands 6599 BROCHET NO. 197 Surface Water Level III 7.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 3.0 3.2
266 Berens River 6553 BERENS RIVER WTP Surface Water Level III 8.0 4.0 8.0 10.0 4.0 6.2
267 Bloodvein 6554 BLOODVEIN WTP Surface Water Level II 8.0 4.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
301 Bunibo- nibee Cree Nation 6595 Bunibonibee WTP Surface Water Level III 8.0 2.0 4.0 1.0 3.0 3.3
276 Cross Lake First Nation 6564 CROSS LAKE COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT SAGIHWAK Surface Water Level III 10.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.9
276 Cross Lake First Nation 6565 CROSS LAKE EDUCATION WATER TREATMENT PLANT NATIMEK Surface Water Level II 8.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 3.2
262 Fort Alexander 6549 FORT ALEXANDER NORTH SHORE WTP Surface Water Level II 8.0 5.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 5.4
262 Fort Alexander 6548 FORT ALEXANDER SOUTH SHORE WTP Surface Water Level II 8.0 3.0 6.0 10.0 1.0 4.7
305 Fox Lake 6609 FOX LAKE WTP Surface Water Level III 9.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 4.8
297 Garden Hill First Nation 7101 16448 -GARDEN HILL WTP Surface Water Level III 8.0 2.0 8.0 7.0 1.0 4.7
296 Gods Lake First Nation 6594 MAIN LAND WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 10.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 1.0 5.0
296 Gods Lake First Nation NEW001 NAZZIE POINT Surface Water Small System 10.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
296 Gods Lake First Nation 15959 WEST SIDE WATER TREATMENT PLANT GOD'S LAKE Surface Water Level II 6.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 9.0 5.0
263 Hollow Water 6550 HOLLOW WATER WTP Surface Water Level III 8.0 8.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 8.0
260 Little Black River 6546 LITTLE BLACK RIVER WTP Surface Water Level II 10.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 6.1
270 Little Grand Rapids 6557 LITTLE GRAND RAPIDS WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 7.0 8.0 7.0 5.0 1.0 5.9
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation 6596 GOD'S RIVER NO. 86A Surface Water Level III 9.0 3.0 5.0 3.0 3.0 4.2
311 Mathias Colomb 6598 MATHIAS COLOMB WATER TRETAMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 8.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 3.3
313 Nisicha- wayasihk Cree Nation 6597 NISICHA- WAYASIHK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 9.0 5.0 9.0 10.0 6.0 7.3
317 Northlands 6606 NORTHLAND WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level I 8.0 2.0 5.0 10.0 9.0 5.7
278 Norway House Cree Nation 6567 NORWAY HOUSE COMMUNITY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level III 10.0 2.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 4.2
279 O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation 6569 CRANE RIVER NO. 51 Surface Water Level II 10.0 4.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 8.0
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation   Water Treatment/ Distribution Surface Water Level III 9.0 3.0 6.0 5.0 1.0 4.3
327 Pauingassi First Nation 6558 PAUINGASSI WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 8.0 3.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 5.9
282 Pine Creek 6572 PINE CREEK NO. 66A Surface Water Level III 10.0 2.0 3.0 8.0 2.0 3.7
277 Poplar River First Nation 6566 POPLAR RIVER WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 8.0 3.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 4.6
300 Red Sucker Lake 6605 RED SUCKER LAKE WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 7.0 2.0 7.0 8.0 4.0 5.0
283 Sandy Bay 6573 SANDY BAY WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level III 8.0 4.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 8.0
314 Sapota- weyak Cree Nation 6591 SAPOTAWEYAK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 10.0 2.0 4.0 3.0 1.0 3.3
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation 6603 Sayisi Dene Water Treatment Plant Surface Water Level II 8.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 8.0 4.4
307 Sham- attawa First Nation 6601 SHAMATTAWA WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level III 10.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 9.2
281 Skownan First Nation 6571 SKOWNAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level I 10.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 7.6
298 St. Theresa Point 7102 26447 - ST THERESA POINT WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 9.0 2.0 4.0 5.0 1.0 3.4
306 Tatask- weyak Cree Nation 6602 TATASKWEYAK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 9.0 3.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 5.2
299 Wasaga- mack First Nation 7104 WASAGAMACK WATER TREATMENT PLANT Surface Water Level II 8.0 3.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 5.3
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation 6592 SWAN LAKE NO. 65C Surface Water Level II 10.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 8.0
304 York Factory First Nation 6600 YORK FACTORY Water treatment plant Surface Water Level III 10.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 5.3

Appendix E Risk Summary (continued)

Appendix E.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Risk Summary

Legend
  Risk Level
High Risk 8.0 - 10.0
Medium Risk 5.0 - 7.0
Low Risk 1.0 - 4.0

Table E.2: Individual First Nation Wastewater Risk Summary
Band # Band Name System # System Name Receiver Type Treat- ment Class Efflu-
ent Risk
Design Risk Oper- ations Risk Report Risk Oper- ator Risk Final Risk Score
309 Chema- wawin Cree Nation 9756 COMMUNITY LAGOON CHEMA- WAWIN Creek Level I 7.0 2.0 6.0 1.0 1.0 3.7
288 Dakota Plains 7332 DAKOTA PLAIN SBR WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Creek Level II 8.0 4.0 9.0 10.0 5.0 6.8
305 Fox Lake 7361 FOX LAKE NO. 1 Creek Level II 6.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 1.0 4.8
310 Grand Rapids First Nation 7340 GRAND RAPIDS NO. 33 Creek Level I 7.0 4.0 3.0 10.0 1.0 4.3
278 Norway House Cree Nation 7319 NORWAY HOUSE COMMUNITY LAGOON Creek Level I 8.0 3.0 6.0 4.0 1.0 4.4
306 Tatask- weyak Cree Nation 7353 TATASK- WEYAK LAGOON Enclosed bay Level I 8.0 3.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 6.9
308 Barren Lands 12439 BROCHET NO. 197 - sewage lagoon Lake, reservoir Level I 9.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 6.0 4.1
297 Garden Hill First Nation 8116 Garden Hill First Nation Sewage Treatment Plant Lake, reservoir Level II 10.0 2.0 4.0 10.0 1.0 4.7
296 Gods Lake First Nation 7345 MAIN LAND WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Lake, reservoir Level III 10.0 5.0 6.0 10.0 2.0 6.1
296 Gods Lake First Nation 15960 WEST SIDE WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Lake, reservoir Level III 9.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 6.5
270 Little Grand Rapids 7309 LITTLE GRAND RAPIDS WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Lake, reservoir Level II 10.0 8.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 6.6
317 Northlands NEW001 COMMUNITY SBR Lake, reservoir Level II 9.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 8.3
327 Pauingassi First Nation 7310 PAUINGASSI WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Lake, reservoir Level II 9.0 4.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 6.2
300 Red Sucker Lake 7357 RED SUCKER LAKE SCHOOL WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Lake, reservoir Level I 10.0 3.0 8.0 10.0 6.0 6.9
300 Red Sucker Lake 7356 RED SUCKER LAKE WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Lake, reservoir Level III 10.0 3.0 7.0 10.0 6.0 6.7
314 Sapota- weyak Cree Nation 7342 SAPOTA- WEYAK WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Lake, reservoir Level III 10.0 3.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 5.3
298 St. Theresa Point 7643 ST. THERESA POINT 1996 SBR WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLAN Lake, reservoir Level II 9.0 2.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 6.0
298 St. Theresa Point 7642 ST. THERESA POINT SBR 1999 WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLAN Lake, reservoir Level II 9.0 3.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 6.2
299 Wasag- amack First Nation 7645 WASAG- AMACK WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Lake, reservoir Level II 10.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 7329 WAYWAY- SEECAPPO Education Authority Lake, reservoir Level I 8.0 2.0 7.0 1.0 2.0 4.3
315 Opask- wayak Cree Nation 7339 OPASK- WAYAK CREE WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT Large river Level II 8.0 8.0 3.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
295 Dakota Tipi 7344 DAKOTA TIPI NO. 1 MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 1.7
294 Gamblers 7327 GAMBLER NO. 63 MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 6.0 1.0 1.0 2.2
281 Skownan First Nation 7323 SKOWNAN MTA MTA 4.0 2.0 3.0 10.0 2.0 3.4
323 War Lake First Nation 7355 War Lake SBR Manitoba provincial MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 2.0
266 Berens River 7305 BERENS RIVER NO. 13 River Level II 6.0 5.0 8.0 1.0 5.0 5.5
267 Bloodvein 7306 BLOODVEIN NO. 12 River Level I 6.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 5.5
261 Brokenhead Ojibway Nation 7299 BROKENHEAD NO. 4 River Level I 8.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 8.0
301

Bunibo- nibee Cree Nation

7346 OXFORD HOUSE NO. 24 River Level II 5.0 8.0 5.0 10.0 2.0 8.0
276 Cross Lake First Nation 7316 COMMUNITY AREATED LAGOON SAGIHWAK River Level II 7.0 8.0 9.0 1.0 1.0 8.0
262 Fort Alexander 7300 FORT ALEXANDER SOUTH SHORE LAGOON River Level I 6.0 2.0 7.0 1.0 1.0 3.7
262 Fort Alexander 7301 NORTH SHORE LAGOON River Level I 6.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.5
286 Keeseek- oowenin 0 LAGOON River Level II 6.0 1.0 5.0 5.0 7.0 4.6
268 Kinonje- oshtegon First Nation 7307 JACKHEAD NO. 43 River Small System 7.0 6.0 7.0 10.0 6.0 6.8
260 Little Black River 0 LBR LAGOON River Level I 6.0 3.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.2
287 Long Plain 7331 LONG PLAIN SBR WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT River Level II 7.0 5.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 5.8
311 Mathias Colomb 7349 MATHIAS COLOMB WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT River Level II 6.0 8.0 5.0 4.0 1.0 5.0
269 Peguis 7308 PEGUIS NO. 1B River Level I 7.0 2.0 7.0 1.0 9.0 5.0
277 Poplar River First Nation 7318 POPLAR RIVER NO. 16 River Level I 8.0 3.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 4.9
273 Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation Govern- ment 7313 ROSEAU RIVER NO. 2 River Level I 7.0 2.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 5.1
307 Sham- attawa First Nation 7352 SHAM- ATTAWA WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT River Level III 8.0 2.0 5.0 10.0 2.0 4.7
290 Sioux Valley Dakota Nation 7334 SIOUX VALLEY DAKOTA NATION LAGOON River Level I 6.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 6.0 5.4
324 Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation 7343 WUSKWI SIPIHK WASTE- WATER TREATMENT PLANT River Level II 9.0 3.0 6.0 10.0 1.0 5.2
265 Buffalo Point First Nation 7304 BUFFALO POINT NO. 36 Sub- surface/ Ground Small System 2.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 6.0 3.4
264 Fisher River NEW001 NEW LAGOON Sub- surface/ Ground Level II 2.0 1.0 6.0 1.0 8.0 3.3
316 Dauphin River 7341 DAUPHIN RIVER NO. 48A Tile field Small System 3.0 3.0 8.0 1.0 10.0 5.4
285 Wayway- seecappo First Nation 7328 WAYWAY- SEECAPPO Lizard Point Tile field Level I 1.0 6.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 5.1
276 Cross Lake First Nation 7317 EDUCATION AREATED LAGOON NATIMEK Wetland Level I 4.0 3.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 2.8
263 Hollow Water 7302 HOLE OR HOLLOW WATER NO. 10 Wetland Level I 3.0 5.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.1
271 Lake Manitoba Treaty 2 First Nation 7311 DOG CREEK NO. 46 Wetland Small System 4.0 2.0 7.0 1.0 1.0 3.3
275 Lake St. Martin 7315 LAKE ST. MARTIN WWT Wetland Level I 2.0 3.0 10.0 10.0 1.0 4.8
274 Little Saskat- chewan 7314 LITTLE SASKAT- CHEWAN LAGOON Wetland Level I 4.0 3.0 7.0 1.0 1.0 3.6
302 Manto Sipi Cree Nation 7347 GOD'S RIVER NO. 86A Wetland Level II 2.0 5.0 5.0 7.0 1.0 3.8
312 Mosak- ahiken Cree Nation NEW002 NEW LAGOON Wetland Level I 5.0 1.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 3.2
313 Nisicha- wayasihk Cree Nation 7348 NISICHA- WAYASIHK LAGOON Wetland Level I 3.0 4.0 6.0 10.0 8.0 5.7
318 O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree Nation 0 LAGOON Wetland Level I 2.0 3.0 8.0 1.0 3.0 3.8
272 Pinay- mootang First Nation NEW001 NEW LAGOON Wetland Level I 3.0 2.0 7.0 1.0 1.0 3.1
282 Pine Creek 7324 PINE CREEK LAGOON Wetland Level I 4.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 1.0 4.0
283 Sandy Bay 7325 SANDY BAY LAGOON Wetland Level I 3.0 2.0 8.0 10.0 7.0 5.5
303 Sayisi Dene First Nation 7354 Sayisi Dene Wastewater Treatment Plant Wetland Level II 4.0 4.0 8.0 4.0 2.0 4.6
304 York Factory First Nation 7351 York Factory Lagoon Wetland Level I 3.0 3.0 7.0 1.0 1.0 3.4
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