ARCHIVED - 2011-12 Main Estimates by Sub-Activity – Total $7,368 million


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The Government

Good governance and co-operative relationships for First Nations, Inuit and Northerners.

Governance and Institutions of Government

The efforts related to this program activity assist in achieving social and economic vibrancy in First Nation and Inuit communities. It supports individual community and aggregate based governments and governance systems by assisting them establish effective governance andassociated capacities, processes and mechanisms (such as by-law making authority, election processes). In particular, support is provided to First Nation and Inuit governments as well as their respective institutions of government. These institutions include but are not limited to those that provide services in the areas of governance, land claim organizations and professional associations. This program activity also provides support to representative organizations with respect to policy legislation development.

First Nation Governments

This sub-activity contributes to basic functions of First Nations Governments. Funds are provided through contributions to facilitate the exercise of core functions of government such as law-making, financial management and administration, and executive leadership. Capable governments attract investment, create opportunities, and effectively support their citizens.

Institutions and ogranizations

This sub-activity supports a wide range of institutions and organizations at the local, regional and national level dedicated to the development and support of aboriginal governments. Funds are provided through contributions to organizations and institutions with demonstrated expertise in service delivery and professional development. Delivery of governance related programs and services and support to First Nations Governments in the exercise of their responsibilities form the basis for these activities. Capacity development of individuals, systems, governments and organizations recognizes and responds to differentiated levels of community/organizational development. Capacity development will target gaps identified through assessments with a view to facilitating movement along a development continuum. Organizational core funding is provided to national, regional and local bodies to participate in a wide range of policy fora and represent their respective constituent groups. Capable, accountable institutions and organizations strengthen the fabric of aboriginal governments across Canada, attract investment, and support Aboriginal participation in the Canadian Economy.

Co-operative Relationships

This program activity addresses constitutional and historic obligations, reduces conflict through negotiation and enables all parties to work together toward reconciliation. Co-operative Relationships are about mutual respect. They establish an atmosphere of trust, accountability and respectful partnerships among governments, First Nations and Inuit. This atmosphere, in turn, supports social, economic and cultural growth in First Nation and Inuit communities and increases their self-reliance. Co-operative Relationships are the basis for mutually reached resolution of claims and other rights issues. Through Co-operative Relationships, funds are provided to First Nations and Inuit in support of the activities within the program activity including negotiation of claims and self-government agreements, certainty is obtained over the ownership, use, and the management of land and resources. First Nations and Inuit are effectively represented in federal policy decisions and the Crown duty to consult is supported. Funds are transferred to Aboriginal recipients through contributions and loans agreements. Funding levels are determined based on proposals submitted by the Aboriginal and are based on program guidelines and terms and conditions.

Negotiations of Claims and Self-Government

The funds associated with this sub-activity cover costs typically associated with negotiations for the federal parties and the Aboriginal parties (e.g., staff, negotiators, travel, consultation, legal fees, research etc), and also assist in providing Aboriginal capacity in order to improve social and economic conditions for First Nation communities and their members. It also assists First Nations to seek certainty and clarity of rights to ownership, management and use of land and resources in those areas of Canada where Aboriginal title has not been dealt with by Treaty or superseded by law. Through the Comprehensive Claims and Inherent Right to Self-Government, the Government of Canada has been negotiating with Aboriginal groups as well as provincial and territorial governments towards reaching practical and workable agreements in an attempt to resolve outstanding issues through negotiations as opposed to litigation or confrontation.

Specific Claims

The government has made the resolution of specific claims a priority due to Justice at Last. Specific Claims relate to the fulfilment of treaties and the government’s obligations towards the First Nations relating to the administration of Indian reserve lands, band funds and other assets. Key activities include the assessment of the historical and legal facts of the claim and the negotiation of a settlement agreement by way of loans funding. Through this process, if it has been determined that there is an outstanding lawful obligation, a transfer of compensation money via grants pursuant to the settlement agreement will be provided.

Inuit Relations

The Canadian Government has committed to increase the understanding of Inuit interests, to resolve issues of common concern, and to work co-operatively with relevant provincial and territorial governments, and national and regional Inuit organizations to improve the socio-economic and environmental well-being of Inuit.This sub-activity consists in strengthening relations with Inuit by working with Inuit organizations and governments, and with federal government departments and agencies to bring greater coherency, relevance, and effectiveness to federal policies and programs as they affect Inuit. This is done through the Inuit Relations Secretariat which raises awareness of the distinct interests and needs of Canada’s Inuit with federal government departments and agencies, and provincial and territorial governments. It coordinates, partners, and conducts research and serves as a repository for current Inuit research, to build federal knowledge and in-house expertise on Inuit issues, and to provide evidence-based advice on Inuit needs and priorities in federal policy and program development and authorities renewal.

Consultation and Engagement

This sub-activity provides technical, process and financial support to INAC Aboriginal stakeholders to maintain co-operative relationships with the Department. This support could take several forms such as advice on how to engage community members in the development of a community plan, contributions to a representative organization for core operations (administration, elections, finance), contribution for engaging with the Department at the technical level on the development of a specific policy or legislation, or for complying with the Crown's duty to consult.

Treaty Management

By working in partnership, federal, provincial/territorial governments, and Aboriginal parties are able to create and maintain the necessary structures (such as education, child care, etc) to support ongoing and evolving relationships within a historical and modern context. Key activities include: the implementation of land claim, self-government agreements; special claims; comprehensive land claim transfers; Tables and Treaty Commissions. The Treaty Commission provides funds in the way of contributions to recipients. Although all Canadians are expected to benefit from the settlement and implementation of Comprehensive Land Claim Agreements, the primary beneficiaries are expected to be First Nations and Inuit communities, who will be better able to articulate their interests, participate in land and resource development and management (where applicable) as well as demonstrate the importance of treaties and the treaty relationship between the Crown and Aboriginal people. Funds are provided to the beneficiaries in the form of grants as per agreement.

Implementation of Modern-Treaty Obligations

The fulfillment of modern treaty obligations is our priority. The Successful implementation of modern treaties obligations builds on the certainty created by negotiating and settling agreements to enable the implementation of one-time and ongoing obligations including the establishment of land and water management boards, Aboriginal government structures (education, child care, etc.) and implementation committees which are supported by INAC and which play a vital role in managing the treaty relationships by supporting and promoting resource development, supporting the delivery of programs and services essential to the health and well-being of Aboriginal communities and promoting capital infrastructure investments and private/public Aboriginal partnerships. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada has 2 authorities through which it can provide funding for implementation of Comprehensive Land Claim Agreements (CLCAs): a grant authority to cover one-time statutory payments, and a grant authority to support implementation activities required by negotiated final agreements.

Management of Treaty Relationships

The management of treaty relationships focuses on enhancing relationships between Canada and various implementation bodies, treaties commissions and tables, or Aboriginal governments through mutual exploration of historic treaties issues or in the implementation of modern-treaties. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada has contribution authorities to support the various implementation bodies (i.e., surface rights boards, tribunals, etc.), treaties commissions and treaty tables. Grants and contributions are being transferred to representative parties that oversee the settlements.

Management of Other Negotiated Settlements

The management of negotiated settlements focuses on those claims that did not meet the criteria set for comprehensive or specific land claims but were settled on moral grounds as opposed to strictly legal and as such, created new rights, responsibilities or an ongoing relationship. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada uses a specially sought grant authority to manage negotiated settlement payments to the representative group/committee that oversees the settlements through contributions and or grants. INAC is fulfilling the negotiated settlements as per the agreements with the First Nations.

The People

Individual, family and community well-being for First Nations and Inuit.


This program activity provides First Nations and Inuit communities with tools to achieve educational outcomes comparable to those of other Canadians. INAC has primary responsibility under the Indian Act for the elementary and secondary education of status-Indians living on reserve. As a matter of social policy, INAC also supports on-reserve status-Indians and Inuit students in the pursuit of post-secondary education. Support provided through the Education programs includes provisions for instructional services, special education services as well as targeted initiatives which aim to enhance First Nation education management, improve teacher recruitment and retention, and encourage parental and community engagement. New targeted funds have been recently included to improve the provision of elementary and secondary education services through both a partnership and a student success program.

Elementary and Secondary Education

The objective of the Elementary/Secondary Education Program is to ensure that First Nation students have access to provincially comparable education programs and services. Through this sub-activity, INAC fulfils its responsibility for the elementary and secondary education of status-Indians living on reserve. The program supports First Nations, Band Councils, Tribal Councils or Regional First Nation Management Organizations in providing eligible on-reserve students with education services comparable to those of the province in which the reserve is located. It supports schools’ access to resources for learners with identified high cost special needs. Funding is used for teachers’ salaries, instructional services in on-reserve schools (band operated and the seven federal schools), and tuition reimbursement costs reimbursement for on-reserve students attending provincial schools. Also, it provides student support services (e.g. transportation) and helps to enhance education services (e.g. curriculum and language development, teacher recruitment and retention, community and parents’ engagement in education, and ICT capacity). Resources are provided for longer term improvements in education outcomes by focussing on school success planning, student learning and performance assessment and establishing new or advancing existing tripartite education partnerships with First Nations and provinces.

First Nation and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy

The First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy provides opportunities for First Nation and Inuit youth (aged 15 to 30, who ordinarily live on reserve or in recognized communities) to improve their employability skills through the Skills Link and Student Summer Employment Opportunities Program. This program is proposal-driven.

Post-Secondary Education

The objective of the Post-Secondary Education program is to help increase access and enable success in post-secondary education for First Nation and Inuit students. The Post-Secondary Student Support Program provides funding to Band Councils, Tribal Councils or First Nation and Inuit regional management organizations. It assists eligible students with the cost of tuition fees, books, travel, and living expenses (when applicable). The University and College Entrance Preparation Program provides financial support to First Nation and Inuit students for university and college entrance preparation programs, offered in Canadian post-secondary institutions, to enable them to attain the academic level required for entrance to degree and diploma credit programs. The Indian Studies Support Program provides financial support to post-secondary education institutions for the design and development of college and university level courses for First Nation and Inuit students, as well as research and development on First Nation and Inuit education. The program exists to address the need of many First Nation and Inuit students to have access to programs tailored to their unique cultural and educational needs.

Cultural Education Centres

The Cultural Education Centres Program provides funding to Cultural Education Centres to support First Nation and Inuit communities in expressing, preserving, developing and promoting their cultural heritage and languages, in developing culturally relevant curricula for First Nation and Inuit students, in promoting cross-cultural awareness in mainstream education programs and institutions, in developing and increasing access to new and more accurate information about First Nations/Inuit heritage, and in improving opportunities for the public to become knowledgeable about, and sensitive to, the historical and current role of First Nations people/Inuit in Canada. This program also offers funding to the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation (NAAF). It is a national, not-for-profit organization with corporate and government support to deliver programs that promote the professional development and education of Aboriginal peoples, provide tools for achieving brighter futures and promote and acknowledge Aboriginal role model and contributions to Canadian society.

Social Development

Supports the provision of: income assistance to meet basic needs for food, clothing and shelter to ensure the safety and well-being of individuals and families consistent with provincial programs and standards; First Nations child and family services to improve their well-being and security; assisted living for social support services of a non-medical nature such as in-home care, short term respite care, foster care and institutional care to improve their well-being and security; Family Violence Program to improve safety and security, particularly of women and children at-risk; National Child Benefit Re-investment to support low-income families with children to help prevent or reduce the depth of child poverty; and other social services to build self-reliant, sustainable, healthy and stable First Nation communities.

Income Assistance

The objective of the Income Assistance Program is to provide support for basic and special assistance needs of indigent residents of First Nation reserves and their dependants at a standard comparable to the reference province/territory. The program also provides limited funding for pre-employment supports. Funding and management are provided by INAC via the regions, and the programs are administered by the First Nations according to provincial standards, rates and eligibility criteria and the program's terms and conditions. Recipients must meet the eligibility criteria and be ordinarily resident on-reserve.

National Child Benefit Reinvestment

The National Child Benefit Reinvestment (NCBR) is one component of the wider National Child Benefit (NCB) initiative. The NCB initiative is intended to help prevent and reduce the depth of child poverty, promote attachment to the workforce, and simplify the administration of benefits for children. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) is the lead federal department responsible for the NCB; the off-reserve NCBR component is overseen by HRSDC, while INAC manages the NCBR on-reserve. INAC’s NCBR supports fall under one or more of the following five (5) activity areas: childcare; child nutrition; support for parents; home-to-work transition; cultural enrichment.

Assisted Living

The Assisted Living Program provides non-medical social support services that meet the special needs of seniors, and children and adults with disabilities and chronic illness, at standards reasonably comparable to the relevant province or territory for the purpose of maintaining functional independence and greater self-reliance. It delivers in-home care, foster care and institutional care services (up to Type II) to residents on reserve. Funding and management are provided by INAC via the regions, while the province is responsible for licensing and monitoring facilities, providing funding for higher levels of institutional care off reserve and setting program rates and standards.

First Nations Child and Family Services

This sub-activity is made-up of the First Nations Child and Family Services Program (FNCFS) and some elements of the former Family Capacity Initiatives sub-activity still funded by INAC. The FNCFS program provides access to culturally sensitive child and family services for First Nations. Eligible recipients are registered First Nations individuals living on-reserve. Since this is an area of provincial jurisdiction, First Nations agencies receive their mandate and authorities from the provincial or territorial government. Where First Nations Child & Family Services agencies do not exist, INAC funds services which are provided by the province/territory. Through this sub-activity, INAC also funds First Nation communities for initiatives related to families and capacity building activities such as daycares in Ontario and Alberta that promote and nurture healthy child and family development and federal horizontal activities that promote Early Childhood Development (ECD) integration and coordination. This includes contribution agreements to provide access to formal day care programs and related support services that are comparable to off reserve services. It also includes funding for pilot projects under the horizontal interdepartmental Early Childhood Development Strategy, which is designed to enhance programs and services, increase research and knowledge, build capacity, and explore coordination and integration of service delivery to First Nation communities. Finally, it includes proposal-based funding aimed at addressing underlying issues facing Aboriginal communities such as family breakdown and poor living conditions under Gathering Strength.

Family Violence Prevention

The Family Violence Prevention Program strives to mitigate the effects of family violence and create a more secure family environment for children on-reserve, by providing violence prevention and protection services for First Nation women, children and families. INAC provides operational funding to a network of 35 shelters on-reserve serving approximately 265 First Nations. The program also provides community-based projects aimed at preventing family violence for First Nations individuals and their families.

Managing Individual Affairs

The Managing Individual Affairs program activity ensures responsible Federal stewardship of the provisions of the Indian Act that pertain to Estates, Band moneys, registration and Band membership through direct client-services as well as partnerships with First Nations to deliver select services including the administration of Estates and the Indian Registration Program. The Program Activity is also responsible for administering the portions of the First Nations Oil and Gas and Moneys Management Act that pertain to Indian Moneys.

Registration and Membership

Section 5 of the Indian Act mandates Indian and Northern Affairs to maintain the Indian Register which is a listing of all persons registered as Indians within the meaning of the Indian Act as well as band members for Departmentally-controlled band lists. At the First Nation level, Indian Registration Administrators work on behalf of the department to maintain the Indian Registration program and have specific authorities delegated to them through the Indian Registrar. In addition, the Individual Affairs Branch issues the Secure Certificate of Indian Status card, which is used to identify those eligible to receive key programs and services that are available to registered Indians. A current, up-to-date and accurate Indian Register is a fundamental component to the delivery of departmental programs and services as it identifies the entitled demographic.

Management of Moneys

INAC is responsible for the management of Indian moneys provisions of the Indian Act which define the collection, maintenance and accounting of Indian money. The Indian Moneys section of Lands and Trust Services executes the overall administration of Indian moneys held within the Consolidated Revenue Fund (CRF) for the use and benefit of Bands. These revenue moneys are defined as all Indian moneys other than capital moneys (those derived from the sale of surrendered lands or non-renewable resources such as oil and gas) and may include, but are not limited to, the proceeds from the sale of renewable resources, rights-of-way, fines and interest earned on capital and revenue moneys held in the CRF.

Estate Management

The Estates Management Program is comprised of two areas, the decedent and the living estates programs and provides for the management and administration of the estates of deceased, mentally incompetent and minor Indians on-reserve. The Estates program derives its mandate (authority) from the Indian Act and the Indian Estates Regulations. The program is responsible for developing policy, procedures and providing advice on the management and administration of Estates under the Act.

Treaty Annuities

The Treaty Annuity Program is responsible for administering payments and benefits according to the various treaties that First Nations signed with the British and later Canadian government. As each treaty is unique; so are the benefits to which each First Nations individual is entitled. Many treaties provide for annual payments, which are paid in cash at Treaty Day events and amount to roughly $1.7 million annually.

Residential Schools Resolution

Indian Residential schools were mostly operated by four religious denominations and funded by the federal government, from before Confederation to 1996. The courts in each jurisdiction approved the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, which was implemented on September 19, 2007, with final deliverables up to 2017. The administration of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA) seeks to further reconciliation with former student residents of Indian Residential Schools, their families and communities by providing financial compensation (through validation of their residency and an independent assessment of more serious harms they may have suffered), a disclosure forum and the provision of healing and commemorative services.

Common Experience Payments

This component of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA) provides compensation to former students in recognition of the impacts of "common experience" at an Indian residential school (IRS). In order to provide an effective and efficient process that was easier for most recipients, the Common Experience Payment (CEP) program was negotiated by parties to the Settlement Agreement to pay all former Indian Residential Schools students who were residents of IRS.

Independent Assessment Process

This component of the IRSSA, a comprehensive Independent Assessment Process (IAP), was created as a mechanism to individually determine appropriate compensation for more serious physical abuse, sexual abuse and other wrongful acts, which are outside of the objectives and parameters of the CEP.


This component of the IRSSA will honour and pay tribute to former students, promote closure, healing and reconciliation, educate Canadians of the legacy of Indian Residential Schools, and signal a new relationship between Aboriginal Peoples and Canada. The initiative will be delivered through contribution agreements with communities, regional, and national Aboriginal organizations submitting detailed proposals for funding. Canada will fund recommended proposals up to $20M.

Support to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission

This program enables the Government of Canada to meet its obligations under the Residential Schools Settlement Agreement to provide the Truth & Reconciliation Commission (TRC) with relevant documents, and to provide gestures of reconciliation. The department has also agreed to provide some in-kind services to TRC.

The Land and Economy

Full participation of First Nations, Inuit and Métis individuals and communities in the economy

Aboriginal Economic Development

This program activity recognizes the synergies between economic development, lands activities, and business development. It recognizes that the federal government has a role to play in creating the conditions that will foster Aboriginal economic development. As INAC does not hold all the economic levers, it must forge strategic partnerships with other levels of government, the private sector, Aboriginal organizations and other stakeholders to succeed in increasing the participation of Aboriginal Canadians in the economy. The sub-activities and sub-sub-activities under this program activity contribute to the expected results: viable Aboriginal businesses and opportunity-ready communities. Strengthening business development capacity tools will encourage Aboriginal Canadians to start and/or expand their own businesses, thereby contributing to viable Aboriginal businesses. Increasing access to and control of Aboriginal lands and natural resources, and building community/institutional capacity, will enable Aboriginal communities to fully utilize their assets for economic development, contributing to opportunity-ready communities. The growing Aboriginal land and resource base will also increase economic opportunities for Aboriginal communities, contributing to an increased number of Aboriginal start-up businesses.

Aboriginal Entrepreneurship

A larger Aboriginal-owned private sector is key to improving income and employment outcomes for Aboriginal Canadians. Improving access to capital and strengthening other business development capacity tools, such as procurement, will encourage Aboriginal Canadians to start and/or expand their own businesses. This will increase and strengthen the Aboriginal private sector and contribute to the expected outcome, viable Aboriginal businesses. A strong private sector will also support the development of opportunity-ready communities.

Activation of Community Assets

In the Aboriginal context, particularly on reserve and in the North, major assets, such as land and surface and sub-surface resources, are frequently community, as opposed to individually, owned. By building the value of their assets, communities can improve the well-being of their residents and generate income, thereby ensuring the maintenance and creation of wealth into the future. The systematic identification of economic opportunities, leveraging of partnerships, sound management of community assets, and modernization of the land management regime on reserve all contribute to enhancing the value of community assets and enable communities to fully utilize them for economic development purposes. This sub-activity (SA) will lead to enhanced value of Aboriginal assets, consistent with the Framework’s Strategic Priorities.

Strategic Federal Investments and Partnerships

This sub-activity (SA) refers to the building of relationships and partnerships that will enable Aboriginal economic development. The Government recognizes that it does not hold all the economic development levers to single-handedly increase the participation of Aboriginal Canadians in the economy and therefore it is necessary to forge partnerships with the provinces and territories, the private sector, and Aboriginal organizations and institutions. This activity will contribute to opportunity-ready communities, viable Aboriginal businesses, and a skilled Aboriginal labour force. This SA will identify all existing programming and services related to Aboriginal economic development and align federal investments under them. It will also identify and address gaps in the current suite of programming by leveraging funds that will enable Aboriginal Canadians to act on a specific and sectoral economic opportunity that currently falls outside the scope of existing federal programs. Key sectors of interest in 2011-12 are: agriculture, energy, fisheries, forestry, and mining. This SA will ensure a partnership-based and whole-of-government approach to federal efforts on Aboriginal economic development by establishing a Federal Coordinating Committee to oversee the implementation of the federal framework for Aboriginal economic development; strengthening the National Aboriginal Economic Development Board; undertaking economic research; and conducting ongoing engagement with stakeholders and Aboriginal Canadians. It will contribute directly to the outcome, strategic federal investments.

Federal Administration of Reserve Land

This program activity encompasses the Crown’s statutory and fiduciary obligations as the administrator of reserve lands held in trust for the use and benefit of Indians. Those obligations are fulfilled through the timely response to requests for land transactions and activation of land and resource assets, additions to reserve, environmental protection performed with due diligence which preserves the principles of communal use and benefit while meeting the aspirations of First Nations in building safe, healthy and successful communities.

Additions to Reserve

This sub-activity (SA) involves adding land to existing reserves and creating new reserves. These activities fall under three broad categories: Legal Obligations, Community Expansion and New Reserves/Other. The bulk of this work contributes to the implementation of Treaty Land Entitlement (TLE) and other specific claim settlement agreements, and thereby to reconciliation between First Nations and the Crown. The land transfer process requires INAC to exercise due diligence through environment assessments, land appraisals, land survey, consultations and resolution of third party interests.

Environmental Management

This sub-activity supports compliance with federal environmental legislation, regulations and policies, the reduction of environmental liabilities, and the development of environmental and sustainable development. As outlined in the Environmental Stewardship Strategy (ESS), it facilitates the implementation of an integrated approach to environmental and natural resource management for reserve lands in order to protect the health and safety of communities, as well as the integrity of the environment while promoting economic and social development opportunities. Working in partnership with First Nations, this SA contributes to sustainable development on reserve.

Community Infrastructure

This program activity supports the provision of funding for the acquisition, construction, operation and maintenance of community facilities such as roads, bridges, water and sewer, and administration offices; education facilities, such as schools and teacherages and on-reserve housing.

Water and Wastewater Infrastructure

This sub-activity supports the provision of funding for the planning, design, construction, acquisition, operation and maintenance of infrastructure facilities, including: community water supply, treatment and distribution systems; and community wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems. It includes the provision of funding for: coordination, training and capacity building for activities related to water and wastewater facilities; identification of on-reserve water and wastewater infrastructure needs; development of water and wastewater infrastructure capital plans; and the design, and ongoing implementation of water and wastewater facilities maintenance management practices. The goal is to support First Nations in meeting health and safety standards and providing their residents with similar levels of service to off reserve communities. First Nations identify their priorities and needs and present project proposals to the department. Grants and contribution funding is provided for projects based on a priority assessment.

Education Facilities

This sub-activity supports the provision of funding for the planning, design, construction/acquisition, renovation, repair, replacement, operation and maintenance of federally- or band-operated elementary/secondary education facilities (including school buildings, teacherages and student residences), and any related facility services. This includes the identification and acquisition of necessary land rights. Supports the provision of funding for the acquisition, replacement, and repair of furniture, equipment and furnishing for federally- and band-operated schools, teacherages and student residences and for the identification of education facility needs and the development of education facility plans and the design and ongoing implementation of maintenance management practices. Also supports the provision of funding for agreements with provincial school boards for the planning, design, construction and acquisition of facilities, for the elementary/secondary education of Indian children.


This sub-activity supports the provision of funding for the planning, design, construction and acquisition of new housing units and renovation of existing housing units. Housing units include single units, multi-units, mobile homes, as well as "special needs" housing such as homes for the elderly, group homes, and homes for people who require assisted living but not medical care. Also supports the provision of funding for housing related activities such as operation and maintenance, inspection, and management of housing programs.

Community Infrastructure Assets and Facilities

This sub-activity supports the provision of funding for the planning, design, construction, acquisition, operation and maintenance of community infrastructure assets and facilities. It also supports the provision of funding for coordination, training and capacity building for activities related to community infrastructure assets and facilities. The goal is to support First Nations in meeting health and safety standards and providing their residents with similar levels of service to off reserve communities. Delivery of the program is devolved to First Nations, in support of INAC’s policy of devolution of responsibilities to First Nations. First Nations identify their priorities and needs and present project proposals to the department. Grants and contributions funding is provided for projects based on a priority assessment.

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

This sub-activity will address greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant emissions from energy production and use in Aboriginal and northern communities, including off-grid communities, by providing incentives to catalyze renewable energy and energy efficiency projects, such as investments in small and micro hydro, wind turbines, improved diesel generation efficiency, district heating and home and building heating systems. The program will assist Aboriginal and northern communities through all stages of project development, including project identification and inception, feasibility and planning studies, financial and project completion. It is expected that this initiative will assist in the overall increase in installed electrical generation capacity, resulting in the accompanying displacement of natural gas, coal and diesel-electric generation. As a result of the increased electrical generation, greenhouse gas and associated criteria air contaminants emissions will be reduced.

The North

Self-reliance, prosperity and well-being for the people and communities of the North.

Northern Governance and People

This program activity strengthens the North’s communities and people by devolving to the people of the North province-like responsibilities for land and natural resources; reducing the costs of transporting nutritious perishable foods and other essential items to isolated Northern communities; providing grants to Territorial Governments for hospital and physician services; working with Northern communities to identify the risks and challenges posed by climate change and advancing interests of Canadians and Northerners through circumpolar forums.

Political Development and intergovernmental Relations

This sub-activity facilitates the growth of strong, effective and efficient government structures in the North. The devolution of province-like responsibilities for land and resource management will strengthen northern governance. Support for legislation and policy initiatives, the advancement of intergovernmental processes, the appointment of Territorial Commissioners and general federal-territorial relationships are also supported by this sub-activity. Additionally, the interests of Canadians are reflected in circumpolar cooperation activities. Also, grants are provided to Territorial Governments for hospital and physician services.

Nutrition North

This program activity benefits all Northerners by reducing the costs of transporting nutritious, perishable foods and other essential items to isolated northern communities and by researching the sources and effects of contaminants on the Arctic food chain. Through grants for hospital and physician services, the program activity also supports improvements to the health and well-being of members of First Nations communities and Inuit who live in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.

Northern Science and Technology

This program activity supports scientific research and technology in the North. Research and monitoring of long-range contaminants and their impacts on the ecosystem and the traditional/country food chain is carried out through the Northern Contaminants Program. It also supports the work carried out under the International Polar Year initiative including the efforts to facilitate scientific research licensing and approvals as well as the establishment and management of scientific data. The establishment of the Canadian Arctic Research Station will position Canada as an international leader in Arctic science and technology.

Northern Contaminants

This sub-activity engages Northerners and world-class Canadian scientists in research and monitoring of long-range contaminants in the Canadian Arctic. The health and well-being of all Northerners is augmented as northern people consume traditional/country foods based in part on information and advice made possible by this program. The program has international influence as a leader in the Arctic Council – Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), and is a key contributor of scientific data to international agreements, such as the UNEP Stockholm Convention, and helps to position Canada as an international leader in Arctic science. NCP generated data is used to assess ecosystem and human health, and the results of these assessments are used to influence policy that results in action to eliminate contaminants from long-range sources. This action ensures the safety and security of traditional country foods that are important to the health of Northerners and Northern communities.

Science Initiatives

This sub-activity works to position Canada as a leader in Arctic science. These initiatives work to: increase the capacity of Northerners and Canadians to engage in, direct, undertake and use Arctic science and technology; provide improved research facilities for the North, including a High Arctic Research Station; and the conclusion of Canada’s prominent role in International Polar Year.

Northern Land, Resources and Environmental Management

This program activity supports the management, sustainable development and regulatory oversight of the land, water, environment and natural resources of the North. Mineral and petroleum resource development, including offshore projects, are managed and coordinated; environmental management and stewardship is promoted through initiatives like the Protected Areas Strategy, Cumulative Impacts Monitoring Program and the continued development and improvement of the northern regulatory regime; resource management is effected through development of legislation, regulations and related policies as well as collaboration with and support of Northern Boards; contaminated sites are identified and cleaned-up; and northern land and resources are managed for the current and future benefit and prosperity of all Northerners.

Oil and Gas

This program manages the oil and gas resource interests of Northerners, Aboriginals and Canadians generally on federal lands in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and in the northern offshore. This is accomplished through the issuance of Calls for Nominations and Calls for Bids for new exploration rights and the establishment and administration of the terms and conditions of exploration, significant discovery and production licences. Additionally the program reviews and approves benefits plans, collects royalties, and maintains a rights registry that is open to the public.

Mines and Minerals

This sub-activity manages the mines and mineral resource interests of Northerners, Aboriginals and Canadians generally on federal lands in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and in the northern offshore. This is accomplished through the administration of a mineral tenure system, the assessment and collection of Crown royalties, participation in environmental assessment of northern mining projects, mineral resource assessment and land use planning, and the promotion of Aboriginal participation in mining.

Contaminated Sites

This sub-activity ensures that contaminated sites are managed to ensure the protection of human health and safety as well as the environment for all Northerners by assessing and remediating contaminated sites and supporting the employment and training of Northerners, particularly Aboriginals.

Land and Water Management

This sub-activity manages the land and water interests of Northerners, Aboriginal peoples and Canadians in the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. This is achieved through the administration of land rights; inspection and investigation services for land use permits and water licence, and the management of their securities.

Environmental Management

This sub-activity manages environmental interests of Northerners, Aboriginal Peoples and Canadians in the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Protected areas, land use planning, environmental assessments and environmental monitoring are important and complementary pieces of INAC’s environmental management responsibilities as required by policy, legislation, and comprehensive land claims agreement obligations.

Office of the Federal Interlocutor

Socio-economic well-being of Métis, non-Status Indians and urban Aboriginal people.

Urban Aboriginal Strategy

This program activity helps respond to the needs of Aboriginal people living in urban centres. It promotes the self-reliance and economic participation of urban Aboriginal people and expands their life choices. Through the Urban Aboriginal Strategy, the federal government partners with other governments, community organizations and Aboriginal people to support (financially and through other means) projects that respond to local priorities. The Strategy enhances the federal government’s ability to align expenditures directed toward urban Aboriginal people in key centres with provincial and municipal programming in a way that both advances federal objectives and responds effectively to local challenges and opportunities.

Métis and non-status Indian Organizational Capacity Development

This program activity is carried out by the Office of the Federal Interlocutor, the Government of Canada’s principal point of contact for Métis and Non-Status Indian organizations, and an advocate within government on their key issues. The main mandate of the Office is to support (financially and through other means) the work of these organizations, and help find practical ways to reduce dependency and improve the self-reliance, and social and economic conditions of Métis, Non-Status Indians and off-reserve Aboriginal people. The Office fulfills this mandate by helping Métis and Non-Status Indian organizations develop their organizational and professional capacity, so that they can build effective partnerships with federal and provincial governments, and the private sector.

Métis Rights Management

This program activity is the federal response to the 2003 Supreme Court of Canada’s Powley decision, which affirmed that Métis hold section 35 Aboriginal rights under the Canadian Constitution. The program works with (through financial support and other means) nonprofit, representative Aboriginal organizations that have substantial Métis memberships to develop objectively verifiable membership systems for Métis members and harvesters in accordance with the Supreme Court’s direction.

Internal Services

The Internal Services Program Activity supports all strategic outcomes and is common across government. Internal Services are groups of related activities and resources that are administered to support the needs of programs and other corporate obligations of an organization. These groups are: Management and Oversight Services; Communications Services; Legal Services; Human Resources Management Services; Financial Management Services; Information Management Services; Information Technology Services; Real Property Services; Materiel Services; Acquisition Services; and Travel and Other Administrative Services. Internal Services include only those activities and resources that apply across an organization and not to those provided specifically to a program.

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