National Assessment of First Nations Water and Wastewater Systems - Quebec Regional Roll-Up Report

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Prepared By: Neegan Burnside Ltd.
Prepared for: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
Date: January 2011
File No: FGY163080.4

PDF Version (3.9 Mb, 96 Pages)

Statement of Qualifications and Limitations for Regional Roll-Up Reports

This regional roll-up report has been prepared by Neegan Burnside Ltd. and a team of subconsultants (Consultant) for the benefit of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (Client). Regional summary reports have been prepared for the 8 regions, to facilitate planning and budgeting on both a regional and national level to address water and wastewater system deficiencies and needs.

The material contained in this Regional Roll-Up report is:

  • preliminary in nature, to allow for high level budgetary and risk planning to be completed by the Client on a national level.
  • based on a compilation of the data and findings from the individual community reports prepared and issued for a specific region.
  • not proposing to identify the preferred solution to address deficiencies for each community. Rather this report will identify possible solution(s) and probable preliminary costs associated with solution(s) presented in greater detail in the community reports. Community specific studies including more detailed evaluation will be required to identify both preferred solutions and final costs.
  • based on existing conditions observed by, or reported to the Consultant. This assessment does not wholly eliminate uncertainty regarding the potential for costs, hazards or losses in connection with a facility. Conditions existing but not recorded were not apparent given the level of study undertaken.
  • to be read in the context of its entirety.
  • not to be used for any purpose other than that agreed to with the Client. Any use which a third party makes of this report, or any reliance on or decisions to be made based on it, are the responsibility of such third parties. Any other user specifically denies any right to claims against the Consultant, Sub-Consultants, their Officers, Agents and Employees.

Risk as it pertains to health and safety issues and building code compliance is based upon hazards readily identifiable during a simple walk through of the water and wastewater facilities, and does not constitute a comprehensive assessment with regard to health and safety regulations and or building code regulations.

The Consultant accepts no responsibility for any decisions made or actions taken as a result of this report.

1.0 Introduction

The Government of Canada is committed to providing safe, clean drinking water in all First Nations communities, and to ensuring that wastewater services in all First Nations communities meet acceptable effluent quality standards. As part of this commitment, the Government announced the First Nations Water and Wastewater Action Plan (FNWWAP). The plan funds the construction and renovation of water and wastewater facilities, operator training, and public health activities related to water and wastewater on reserves. It also provided for a national, independent assessment – The National Assessment of First Nations Water and Wastewater Systems – which will inform the Government's future, long-term investment strategy. This assessment was also recommended by the Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples.

The purpose of the National Assessment is to define current deficiencies and operational needs, as well as long-term infrastructure development strategies and needs for each community on a sustainable basis.

The objectives of the National Assessment are to:

This assessment involved collecting background data and information about each community, undertaking a site visit, and preparing individual community reports for each participating First Nation. The assessment was conducted for each of the eight regions. This report summarizes the findings for the Quebec Region.

1.1 Site Visits

Site visits in the Quebec Region were undertaken by personnel from sub-consultants, Aquatech and Groupe Stavibel Inc. These site visits were undertaken during September and October of 2009 and during May through November of 2010. In addition to the consultant staff, additional participants including the Circuit Rider Trainer (CRT), INAC Representative, Environmental Health Officer (EHO) from Health Canada and Tribal Council Representative were invited to attend the site visits. The additional participants that were able to attend are identified in each community report.

After confirming the various components that the First Nation uses to provide water and wastewater services to the community (i.e. number and types of systems, piping, individual systems, etc.) along with population and future servicing needs (planned development and population growth), an assessment was carried out of the water and wastewater systems, as well as 5% of the individual systems.

1.2 Reporting

Individual Community Reports have been prepared for each First Nation. In cases where the First Nation consisted of more than one community located in geographically distinct areas, a separate report was prepared for each community. In the Quebec Region, there was participation from 37 First Nations, which resulted in the preparation of 39 individual community reports. Note that the report for the Mohawks of Kanesatake First Nation did not undergo the 30 day fact checking review period due to project timelines. Figure 1.1 indicates the location of each First Nation visited as a part of this study.

The reports include an assessment of existing communal systems and existing individual systems, identification of needs to meet Departmental, Federal and Provincial protocols and guidelines, and an assessment of existing servicing of the community along with projections of population and flows for future servicing for the 10 year period. Costing for the recommendations to meet departmental protocol, federal and provincial guidelines, and an evaluation of servicing alternatives along with life cycle costing for each feasible alternative are also included in each report.

An annual water inspection, risk evaluation and ACRS (Asset Condition Reporting System) inspection was completed for each system and are included in the Appendices of each report.

Figure 1.1 - Quebec First Nations Visited
Figure 1.1 - Quebec First Nations Visited
Description of figure 1.1 - Quebec First Nations Visited

This image is a map of the location of each First Nation community that Neegan Burnside Ltd. visited in Quebec as part of the National Assessment of Water and Wastewater in First Nations Communities. Each site visit is marked by a green dot.

2.0 Regional Overview

The Quebec region includes 37 First Nations. There are 39 water systems (31 First Nation systems and 8 Municipal Type Agreements) and 39 wastewater systems (29 First Nation systems and 10 Municipal Type Agreements).

A First Nation water or wastewater system consists of INAC-funded assets, and serves five or more residences or public facilities. A Municipal Type Agreement, on the other hand, is when First Nations are supplied with treated water from or send their wastewater to a nearby municipality or neighbouring First Nation or corporate entity as outlined in a formal agreement between the two parties.

The First Nation community population ranges from 30 to 7,506 people, and household size ranges from 1.8 to 8.3 people per unit (ppu). The total number of homes is 14,535, and the average household size in the Quebec region is 3.8 ppu.

2.1 Water Servicing

There are a total of 39 water systems serving 37 First Nations. For water treatment, the 39 water systems include:

  • 8 systems that receive their water supply through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 19 groundwater systems
  • 1 GUDI (groundwater under the direct influence of surface water) system
  • 11 surface water systems.

For water distribution, the 39 systems include:

  • 1 distribution system maintained through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 38 distribution systems that are maintained by the First Nation.

The following is a summary of the level of service being provided to the homes within the Quebec Region:

  • 91% of the homes (13,207) are piped
  • 8% of the homes (1,222) are serviced by individual wells
  • 1% of the homes (106) are reported to have no water service.

All of the homes without service are within one First Nation community.

The following table provides an overview of the water systems by system classification, source type, treatment type and storage type.

In general, the treatment system classification reflects the complexity of the treatment process and the distribution classification reflects the size (population) of the community being serviced. The classification used for the Quebec region follows the regulations for Quebec.

Table 2.1 - Water Overview
Classification No. % of Total
Small System 1 3%
Level I 12 31%
Level II 12 31%
Level III 6 15%
MTA 8 20%

Source No. % of Total
Groundwater 19 49%
Surface Water 11 28%
Groundwater GUDI 1 3%
MTA 8 20%

Storage No. % of Total
None 5 13%
Elevated 4 10%
Grade level 5 13%
Underground 25 64%

Treatment No. % of Total
None - Direct Use 1 3%
Disinfection Only 8 20%
Greensand Filtration 2 5%
Slow Sand 1 3%
Conventional 16 41%
Membrane Filtration 3 8%
MTA 8 20%

2.2 Wastewater Servicing

There are a total of 39 wastewater systems serving 37 First Nations. The 39 systems include:

  • 10 wastewater systems are provided treatment through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA), which receives and treats the wastewater from the First Nation
  • 29 First Nation wastewater treatment systems consisting of 22 aerated lagoons, 5 mechanical plants, and 2 communal septic systems.

For wastewater collection, the 39 systems include:

  • 1 wastewater collection system maintained through a Municipal Type Agreement (MTA)
  • 38 wastewater collection systems that are maintained by the First Nation.

The following is a summary of the level of service being provided to the homes within the Quebec Region

  • 91% of the homes (13,201) are piped
  • 8% of the homes (1,228) are serviced by individual septics
  • 1% of the homes (106) have no service.

All of the homes without service are within one First Nation community.

The following table provides an overview of the wastewater systems by system classification and treatment type.

Table 2.2 - Wastewater Overview

Classification No. % of Total
Small System 2 5%
Level I 23 59%
Level II 4 10%
MTA 10 26%

Treatment No. % of Total
Aerated Lagoon 22 56%
Mechanical Treatment 5 12%
MTA 10 26%
Septic System 2 6%

3.0 Preliminary Results and Trends

3.1 Per Capita Consumption and Plant Capacity

Historical flow records were not available for the First Nations serviced by an MTA or for approximately 14% of the First Nation communal water systems. For systems with no available flow data an average per capita demand of 325 L/c/d for piped service was used. The per capita demand for all systems ranged from 15 L/c/d to 638 L/c/d, with an average per capita demand of approximately 319 L/c/d Footnote 1.

The range of per capita flow is outlined in Table 3.1. The range includes those systems with an assumed per capita demand of 325 L/c/d for piped services.

Table 3.1 - Range of Per Capita Water Usage Rates
  No. of systems 2009
Less than 250 L/c/d 11
250 L/c/d to 375 L/c/d 15
Greater than 375 L/c/d 13

Historical flow data for wastewater was not available for most of the wastewater systems. Therefore, to evaluate the ability of the existing infrastructure to meet the current and projected needs, an average daily flow has been calculated based on the actual or assumed per capita water consumption plus an infiltration allowance of 90 L/c/d for piped flow.

The following figure provides a summary of the plant capacities for the 37 First Nations:

  • over capacity – the existing system is unable to meet the current needs
  • at capacity – the existing system is able to meet the current needs
  • available capacity – the existing system has sufficient capacity to meet more than the current needs
  • not enough data – insufficient data was available to determine the actual system capacity.
Figure 3.1 - Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities
Figure 3.1 - Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities
Description of figure 3.1 – Water and Wastewater Treatment Capacities

This graph illustrates the treatment capacities of water and wastewater systems for First Nations communities in Quebec. There are four categories: over capacity; at capacity; available capacity; and not enough data.

Water Systems

  • 2 water systems (5.13 percent of the total number of water systems) are operating over their estimated capacities.
  • 1 water system (2.56 percent of the total number of water systems) is operating at its estimated capacity.
  • 36 water systems (92.31 percent of the total number of water systems) have available capacity.

Wastewater Systems

  • 10 wastewater systems (25.64 percent of the total number of wastewater systems) are operating over their estimated capacities.
  • 1 wastewater system (2.56 percent of the total number of wastewater systems) is operating at its capacity.
  • 23 wastewater systems (58.97 percent of the total number of wastewater systems) have available capacity.
  • There is not enough data to assess the capacities of 5 of the wastewater systems have available capacity (12.82 percent of the total number of wastewater systems).

3.2 Distribution and Collection

The household size for the 37 First Nations ranged from 1.8 to 8.3 people per unit (ppu) with an average of 3.8 ppu. The total number of piped connections in the Region has been determined to be 13,207 for water and 13,201 for wastewater. The average length of watermain per connection is approximately 22 m and the average length of sewermain per connection is approximately 20 m.

As the figures below illustrate, there is no real correlation between the size of the community and the length of pipe per connection.

The table below indicates the number of water and wastewater systems that have pipe lengths above and below 30 m/connection. It should be noted that this information was not available for all of the systems.

Table 3.2 - Average water distribution and wastewater collection pipe lengths
  Watermain Sewer
Average m/connection 22 20
No. of systems with pipe lengths above 30 m/connection 10 10
No. of systems with pipe lengths below 30 m/connection 16 17

Figure 3.2 - Water Distribution: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Figure 3.2 - Water Distribution: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Description of figure 3.2 – Water Distribution: Average Pipe Length per Connection

This bar graph shows the proportion of Aboriginal people with different identities, aged 15 and older and residing in Census Metropolitan Areas, with post-secondary certification in 2011.

This scatterplot graph illustrates the relationship between the length per connection of water distribution pipes and the population size of the community that is being serviced for First Nations communities in Quebec.

The average length per connection of sewer pipes is 22 meters per connection. The majority of systems (16) have pipe lengths below 30 meters per connection. Most communities being serviced have a population of less than 2000 people.

Figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection
Description of figure 3.3 - Wastewater Collection: Average Pipe Length per Connection

This scatterplot graph illustrates the relationship between the length per connection of wastewater collection pipes and the population size of the community that is being serviced for First Nations communities in Quebec.

The average length per connection for wastewater collection pipes is 20 meters per connection. The majority of communities (17) have wastewater collection pipes that are below 30 meters per connection. The majority of the communities serviced have a population of less than 2000 people.

3.3 Water Risk Evaluation

A risk assessment has been completed for each water system. As stated in the INAC Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines, each facility is to be ranked in risk according to the following categories: Water Source, Design, Operation, Reporting and Operators. The risk levels of all five categories are then used to determine the overall risk for the system.

Each of the five risk categories, as well as the overall risk level of the entire system is ranked numerically from 1 to 10. A risk ranking of 1.0 to 4.0 represents low risk, a risk ranking of 4.1 to 7.0 represents a medium risk, and a risk of 7.1 to 10.0 represents a high risk. Low, medium and high risks are defined as follows:

  • Low Risk: These are systems that operate with minor deficiencies. Usually, the systems meet the water quality parameters specified by the appropriate Canadian Guidelines (notably the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ)) for drinking water.
  • Medium Risk: These are systems with deficiencies, which individually or combined pose a medium risk to the quality of water and human health. These systems would not generally require immediate action, but the deficiencies could be more easily corrected to avoid future problems.
  • High Risk: These are systems with major deficiencies, which individually or combined pose a high risk to the quality of water and may lead to potential health and safety or environmental concerns. These deficiencies could result in water quality advisories against drinking the water (such as, but not limited to boil water advisories), repetitive non-compliance with guidelines, and inadequate water supplies. Once systems are classified under this category, the region, jointly with the First Nations, are to undertake immediate corrective action to minimize or eliminate deficiencies.

The risk scores were established using INAC's questionnaire and methodology.

Regional Risk Summary:

Of the 39 water systems inspected:

  • 7 are categorized as high overall risk
  • 12 are categorized as medium overall risk
  • 20 are categorized as low overall risk.

The table in Appendix E.1 summarizes the correlation between the component risk and the overall risk.

Figure 3.4 provides a geographical representation of the final risk for the water systems that were inspected.

Figure 3.4 - Quebec Water System Risk
Figure 3.4 - Quebec Water System Risk
Description of figure 4 - Quebec Water System Risk

This image provides a map of the location of high-, medium-, and low-risk water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec. High-risk systems are identified with a red dot, medium-risk systems are identified with a yellow dot, and low-risk systems are identified with a green dot.

There is also a pie chart that illustrates the number and percentage of water systems that are high, medium, and low risk.

There are a total of 39 water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

  • 7 systems are high risk, which represents 18 percent of the total number of systems.
  • 12 water systems are medium risk, which represents 31 percent of the total number of systems.
  • 20 water systems are low risk, which represents 51 percent of the total number of systems.

3.3.1 Overall System Risk by Source

The following table summarizes the overall system risk by water source. 26% of groundwater systems, 9% of surface water systems and 13% of Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) systems are high risk. Typically for MTA's, it is assumed that the municipality is operating their system in accordance with provincial legislation and therefore would have a low risk water supply. For the Quebec Region, however, there are a number of MTA water supplies where the treated water did not meet the GCDWQ, which resulted in a higher risk score. 37% of groundwater systems, 63% of MTA's, and 64% of surface water systems, and the only GUDI system is low risk.

Table 3.3 - Summary of Overall Risk Levels by Water Source
Overall Risk Level Groundwater GUDI Surface Water MTA Total
High 5 0 1 1 7
Medium 7 0 3 2 12
Low 7 1 7 5 20
Total 19 1 11 8 39

3.3.2 Overall System Risk by Treatment Classification

The following table summarizes the overall system risk by classification level of the treatment system. System classification is based on a number of factors. There is no clear pattern between System Classification Level and Overall System Risk. However, it is noted that over half of the Level I and Level II systems are medium and high overall risk while Level III systems are primarily identified as low risk systems.

Table 3.4 - Summary of Overall Risk Levels by Treatment System Classification
Overall Risk Level Small System Level I Level II Level III MTA Total
High 0 5 0 1 1 7
Medium 1 3 6 0 2 12
Low 0 4 6 5 5 20
Total 1 12 12 6 8 39

Figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification
Figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification
Description of figure 3.5 - Risk Profile Based on Water Treatment System Classification

This graph illustrates the risk profile of water treatment systems in First Nations communities in Quebec by the treatment system classification. It illustrates what percentage of each type of system is high, medium and low risk. It also shows the mean overall risk level by treatment classification.

There are five treatment system classifications: Small System; Level I System; Level II System; Level III System; and MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) System.

Small Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Small Systems is 7.0.
  • 100 percent of the Small Systems have a medium overall risk.

Level I Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level I Systems is 5.56.
  • 33 percent of the Level I systems have a low overall risk; 25 percent of the Level I Systems have a medium overall risk; and 42 percent of the Level I Systems have a high overall risk.

Level II Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level II Systems is 3.99.
  • 50 percent of the Level II Systems have a medium overall risk and 50 percent of the Level II Systems have a low overall risk.

Level III Systems

  • The mean overall risk for Level III Systems is 3.75.
  • 83 percent of the Level III Systems have a low overall risk and 17 percent of the Level III Systems have a high overall risk.

MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems

  • The mean overall risk for MTA (Municipal Type Agreements) Systems is 4.26.
  • 63 percent of the Municipal Type Agreement Systems have a low overall risk. 25 percent of the Municipal Type Agreement Systems have a medium overall risk. 12 percent of the Municipal Type Agreement Systems have a high overall risk.

3.3.3 Overall Risk by Number of Connections

For the Quebec Region, approximately 50% of systems serving more than 100 connections are low risk with the remaining systems being fairly evenly split between high and medium risk. For systems serving less than 100 connections, the systems are evenly split between low, medium and high overall risk.

3.3.4 Component Risks: Water

The overall risk is comprised of five component risks: water source, design, operation, reporting and operator. Each of these component risk factors is discussed below.

Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Description of figure 3.6 - Water: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

This graph illustrates the mean risk score associated with each type of risk component for all water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

  • The overall risk level associated with the source component is 5.7.
  • The overall risk level associated with the design component is 3.7.
  • The overall risk level associated with the operation component is 5.8.
  • The overall risk associated with the reporting component is 5.2.
  • The overall risk associated with the operator component is 1.8.
  Source Design Operation Reporting Operator
Risk 5.7 3.7 5.8 5.2 1.8
Minimum 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Maximum 10.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0
Std. Dev. 2.9 2.7 2.5 3.5 2.1

3.3.5 Component Risk - Water: Source

Source Risk has a mean score of 5.7. The mean source risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 5.8
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 7.0
  • surface water at 8.5
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 1.5.

Based upon the data collected, systems which rely on GUDI or surface water typically have a higher component risk score than systems that rely on groundwater. The risk formula automatically assigns a higher base risk to these types of systems.

The following figure identifies drivers contributing to source risk scores.

Figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers
Figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.7 - Source Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to water source risk in First Nations communities in Quebec. There are four key risk drivers: No Source Water Plan; Deterioration of Water Quality Over Time; Risk of Contamination; and Insufficient Capacity to Meet Future Requirements.

  • 61 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have no Source Water Protection Plan.
  • 29 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have experienced the deterioration of water quality over time.
  • There is a risk of contamination for 68 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • 45 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have an insufficient capacity to meet future requirements.

3.3.6 Component Risk - Water: Design

Design Risk has a mean score of 3.7. The mean design risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 3.9
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 3.0
  • surface water at 3.4
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 3.9.

The higher design risk associated with groundwater was due to lack of treatment to ensure that the aesthetic and operational guidelines are being met. As part of the multi-barrier approach to water treatment, chlorination is now required for all water systems. A water system with an increased design risk is typically associated with not providing sufficient contact time to ensure that the chlorination process is adequate. A higher risk for surface water sources and MTA's was typically due to exceedances in the treated water or distribution system for disinfection by-products.

The frequency that the following drivers are having a significant contribution to the design risk score for water systems in the Region is presented in the figure below:

  • failure to meet bacteriological MAC
  • disinfection system not in place or not being used
  • failure to meet GCDWQ
  • appropriate treatment not in place to meet Protocol requirements
  • system reliability
  • systems approaching or exceeding design capacity
  • systems not having appropriate waste management.
Figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers
Figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.8 - Design Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the design risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

The risk drivers are in red and green. The risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores. Failure to Meet Bacteriological MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) due to Design is the only risk driver in red. The rest of the risk drivers are in green.

There are eight key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Bacteriological MAC Due to Design;
  • Disinfection System Not in Place;
  • Failure to Meet GCDWQ (Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality) due to Design;
  • Inappropriate Treatment Processes;
  • Poor System Reliability;
  • No Design Flexibility;
  • Exceeds 75 Percent Capacity; and
  • Inappropriate Waste Management.
  • 10 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec fail to meet the maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of bacteria. As a result, these systems have automatically been given high-risk scores.
  • There is no disinfection system in place for 3 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • 19 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec fail to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality due to design.
  • 3 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have inappropriate treatment processes.
  • 13 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have poor system reliability.
  • 35 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have no design flexibility.
  • 48 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec exceed 75 percent of their estimated capacities.
  • 10 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have inappropriate waste management.

It should be noted that the drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high risk score independent of all of the other component risk scores.

3.3.7 Component Risk - Water: Operation

Operation Risk has a mean score of 5.8. The mean operation risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 6.6
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 3.0
  • surface water at 4.4
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 6.3.

Areas that increased risk included not maintaining records, not having or not using approved O&M manuals and not scheduling and performing maintenance activities. Increased effort focused on these areas would result in lowering both the component and overall risk scores.

The following drivers are identified as significantly contributing to operation risk scores for water systems in the Region:

  • failure to meet bacteriological MAC
  • failure to meet GCDWQ (other than bacteriological)
  • inadequate maintenance logs being maintained
  • lack of general system maintenance
  • no emergency response plan in place
  • no O&M manual or O&M manual not being used.
Figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers
Figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.9 - Operations Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

There are 7 key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Bacteriological MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) Due to Operations;
  • Failure to Meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ) Due to Operations;
  • Inadequate Operation Logs;
  • Inadequate Maintenance Logs; Maintenance Not Adequately Performed;
  • Emergency Response Plan Not Available for Use; and
  • Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Manual Not Available or Not in Use

Risk drivers are in red and green. The risk drivers in red result in the entire water system being given a high-risk score, regardless of all the other component scores. Failure to Meet Bacteriological Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) due to Operations is the only risk driver in red. The rest of the risk drivers are in green.

  • 3 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec fail to meet the maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of bacteria due to the operations. As a result, these systems have automatically been assigned high-risk scores.
  • 32 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec fail to meet the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality due to operations.
  • There are inadequate maintenance logs for 32 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • Maintenance is not being adequately performed for 13 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • An Emergency Response Plan is not available for use for 67 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • For 55 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, an Operation and Maintenance Manual is not available or not in use.
Figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings: Water Systems Operational Practices
Figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings: Water Systems Operational Practices
Description of figure 3.10 - Summary of Findings: Water Systems Operational Practices

This graph identifies which operational practices are currently being performed, and which operational practices are not currently being performed for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

Line Flushing

  • 79 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec practice line flushing.
  • 21 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec do not practice line flushing.

Line Swabbing

  • 18 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec practice line swabbing.
  • 82 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec do not practice line swabbing.

Hydrant Flushing

  • 92 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec flush hydrants.
  • 8 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec do not flush hydrants.

Reservoir Cleaning

  • 89 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec clean reservoirs.
  • 11 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec do not clean reservoirs.

Fire Pump Tests

  • 85 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec conduct fire pump tests.
  • 15 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec do not conduct fire pump tests.

SOPs On site

  • 82 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) on site.
  • 18 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec do not have Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) on site.

Maintenance Scheduled and Performed

  • 79 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec schedule and perform maintenance.
  • 21 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec do not schedule and perform maintenance.

Repair and Upgrade Records

  • 72 percent of the water systems in First Nation communities in Quebec maintain records of upgrades and repairs.
  • 28 percent of the water systems in First Nation communities in Quebec do not maintain records of upgrades and repairs.

Operation & Maintenance Efforts Acceptable

  • Operation and maintenance efforts are acceptable for 95 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • Operation and maintenance efforts are not acceptable for five percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

All Components Working

  • All components are working for 82 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • Not all of the components are working for 18 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

For approximately 18% of the systems, one or more major components are identified as not working. While line and hydrant flushing is practiced for the majority of the systems, most do not regularly swab watermains. The majority of the systems have the reservoirs cleaned and fire pumps regularly tested. Only 28% of the systems are not able to produce records of system maintenance and repairs.

3.3.8 Component Risk - Water: Reporting

Reporting Risk has a mean score of 5.2. The mean reporting risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 5.9
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 3.0
  • surface water at 3.0
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 6.5.

Inconsistent records (35%) and poor record keeping (32%) are the main drivers for reporting risk for all systems. For systems with a SCADA system in place, an additional driver was that the systems are not being calibrated to ensure that the information being recorded was accurate (13%).

An important consideration is that the systems were evaluated based on the requirements for monitoring and reporting as set out in the Protocol. Typically, monitoring and reporting being undertaken by the operators did not meet these requirements. Operator awareness and training could have a significant impact on these risk scores.

Figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.11 - Reporting Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the reporting risks for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec. There are three key risk drivers: Inconsistent Records, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) not Calibrated and Confirmed Accurate; and Poor Records for Key Parameters.

  • 35 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have inconsistent records.
  • 32 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have poor records for key parameters.
  • The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) has not been calibrated and confirmed to be accurate for 13 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

3.3.9 Component Risk - Water: Operator

Operator Risk has a mean score of 1.8. Operator Risk has the lowest overall component risk score for all types of systems. In the Quebec Region, all of the treatment and distribution systems have a primary and back-up operator with the exception of one system. The mean operator risk score by type of source is:

  • groundwater at 1.9
  • groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) at 5.0
  • surface water at 1.1
  • Municipal Type Agreement (MTA) at 2.1.

The extent to which existing systems have fully certified primary and backup operators is presented in Table 3.5. Of the 31 systems that require a certified operator for the water treatment system, 19% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 35% did not have a fully certified backup operator. Of the 35 systems that require a certified operator for the distribution system, 14% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 34% did not have a fully certified backup operator.

Table 3.5 - Water: Operator Status for Quebec Region
  Primary Operator Backup Operator
Treatment Distribution Treatment Distribution
No. of Systems Currently Without an Operator 1 1 1 1
No. of Systems with Operator with No Certification 2 3 5 8
No. of Systems with Operator Certified but not to the Required Level of the System 3 1 5 3
No. of Systems with Operator with Adequate Certification 25 30 20 23
No. of Systems Not Requiring Operators with Certification 8 4 8 4
Total No. of Systems 39 39 39 39

Those factors which frequently contribute to increased operator risk are identified in Figure 3.12. A lack of certification, lack of training and the lack of primary or backup operator are common drivers that increase operator risk.

Figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers
Figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.12 - Operator Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the operator risk for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

There are five key risk drivers:

  • No Primary Operator and/or Primary Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification;
  • Primary Operator Uncertified and/or Insufficient Experience/Training for Distribution System;
  • Primary Operator Not Enrolled in Training;
  • No Backup Operator and/or Backup Operator Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification; and
  • No Access to Fully Trained Operator.
  • For 19 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, there is no primary operator and/or the primary operator is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • For 11 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the primary operator is uncertified and/or has insufficient experience or training for the distribution system.
  • For 74 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the primary operator is not enrolled in training.
  • For 35 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, there is no backup operator and/or the backup operator is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • 16 percent of the water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have no access to a fully trained operator.

3.4 Wastewater Risk Evaluation

A risk assessment was completed for each wastewater system. Similar to the water systems, each facility is ranked in risk according to the following categories; Effluent Receiver, Design, Operation, Reporting and Operators. The risk levels of all five categories are then used to determine the overall risk for the system. The overall risk score reflects a weighted average of risk scores under the individual categories.

Each of the five risk categories, as well as the overall risk level of the entire system is ranked numerically from 1 to 10. A risk ranking of 1.0 to 4.0 represents low risk, a risk ranking of 4.1 to 7.0 represents a medium risk and a risk of 7.1 to 10.0 represents a high risk.

Of the 39 wastewater systems inspected:

  • 7 are categorized as high overall risk
  • 26 are categorized as medium overall risk
  • 6 systems are categorized as low risk.

A table summarizing the correlation between component risk and overall risk is available in Appendix E.2.

Figure 3.13 provides a geographical representation of the final risk for the wastewater systems that were inspected

Figure 3.13 Quebec Wastewater System Risk
Description of Figure 3.13 – Quebec Wastewater System Risk

This image provides a map of the location of high-, medium-, and low-risk wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec. High-risk systems are identified with a red dot, medium-risk systems are identified with a yellow dot, and low-risk systems are identified with a green dot.

The map also includes a pie chart that illustrates the number and percentage of high-, medium-, and low-risk systems in First Nation communities in Quebec.

There are 39 wastewater systems in First Nation communities in Quebec. Of these, 7 wastewater systems are high risk, which represents 18 percent of the total number of wastewater systems. 26 wastewater systems are medium risk, which represents 67 percent of the total number of wastewater systems. 6 wastewater systems are low risk, which represents 15 percent of the total number of systems.

3.4.1 Overall System Risk by Treatment Classification

The following table correlates the overall system risk and the classification level of the treatment system. In the Quebec region, the majority (23) of the systems are Level I. There are 10 Municipal Type Agreement systems, 4 Level II systems, and only 2 Small Systems. For MTA's, it was assumed that the municipality was operating their system in accordance with provincial legislation and therefore resulted in a low risk sewage receiver. Four out of the ten MTA systems are low risk. In general, risk increased with the complexity of the system.

Figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification
Figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification
Description of figure 3.14 - Risk Profile Based on Wastewater Treatment System Classification

This graph illustrates the relationship between the mean overall system risk and the treatment system classification level for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec. It also illustrates the percentage of low, medium, and high overall risk scores by system type.

Small Systems

  • The mean overall risk level for Small Systems is 4.8.
  • 50 percent of the Small Systems have a medium overall risk level, and 50 percent of the Small Systems have a low overall risk level.

Level I Systems

  • The mean overall risk level for Level I Systems is 5.85.
  • 13 percent of the Level I Systems have a high overall risk; 83 percent of the Level I Systems have a medium overall risk; and 4 percent of the Level I Systems have a low overall risk.

Level II Systems

  • The mean overall risk level for Level II Systems is 7.65.
  • 75 percent of Level II Systems have a high overall risk. 25 percent of Level II Systems have a medium overall risk.

MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems

  • The mean overall risk for MTA (Municipal Type Agreement) Systems is 4.52.
  • 10 percent of the Municipal Type Agreement Systems have a high overall risk; 50 percent of the MTA Systems have a medium overall risk; and 40 percent of the MTA Systems have a low overall risk.

3.4.2 Overall System Risk by Number of Connections

For the Quebec region, there is no clear pattern between the overall system risk and the number of connections.

3.4.3 Component Risks: Wastewater

The overall risk is comprised of five component risks: effluent receiver, design, operation, reporting and operators. Each of these component risk factors is discussed below.

Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components
Description of figure 3.15 - Wastewater: Risk Profile Based on Risk Components

This graph illustrates the overall risk level, by risk component, of wastewater systems in First Nation communities in Quebec.

  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the risk associated with the effluent component has a mean score of 6.2.
  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the risk associated with the design component has a mean score of 5.3.
  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the risk associated with the operation component has a mean score of 6.0.
  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the risk associated with the reporting component has a mean score of 6.2.
  • For wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the risk associated with the operator component has a mean score of 2.6.


  Effluent Design Operation Reporting Operator
Risk 6.2 5.3 6.0 6.2 2.6
Minimum 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Maximum 10.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Std. Dev. 3.5 2.8 2.4 3.8 2.9

3.4.4 Component Risk - Wastewater: Effluent Receiver

Effluent receiver has a mean risk score of 6.2. There are two key drivers to this risk score. They are the receiving environment and the extent to which the receiver is required to support other human uses such as fishing, recreational use or as a drinking water source.

Effluent Receiver Risk can be mitigated by ensuring that:

  • there is no nearby human use of the receiving environment
  • this is taken into consideration during the initial evaluation of potential receivers during the planning stages of all projects
  • regular monitoring of the effluent quality is undertaken to ensure minimal impact on the receiver during effluent discharge.
Figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers
Figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.16 - Effluent Risk Drivers

This graph illustrates the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to the effluent risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec. There are four key risk drivers:

  • High-risk Effluent Receiver
  • Possible Species at Risk in the Receiving Environment
  • Nearby Human Use of the Receiving Environment
  • Receiving Environment is a Sensitive Area
  • 46 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have a high-risk effluent receiver.
  • 28 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec possibly have species at risk in the receiving environment.
  • There is human use nearby the receiving environment for 69 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • For 21 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the receiving environment is a sensitive area.

3.4.5 Component Risk - Wastewater: Design

Design Risk has a mean score of 5.3. Design risk has the second lowest mean component score.

The following drivers are identified as significantly contributing to design risk score for wastewater systems in the Region:

  • inappropriate treatment process
  • system reliability
  • system flexibility to meet future growth
  • system has exceeded the design capacity
  • inappropriate waste management.
Figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers
Figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.17 - Design Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main drivers that contribute to design risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

There are eight key drivers that contribute to the design risk:

  • Design-Related Failure to Meet Guidelines;
  • Inappropriate Treatment Processes;
  • Poor System Reliability;
  • No Design Flexibility;
  • Exceeds 75 Percent Capacity;
  • Inappropriate Waste Management;
  • Does Not Meet Applicable Design Standards; and
  • Plant/System (Workplace) Considered Dangerous.
  • 38 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have a design-related failure to meet the guidelines.
  • 15 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have inappropriate treatment processes.
  • 72 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have poor system reliability.
  • 49 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have no design flexibility.
  • 51 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nation communities in Quebec exceed 75 percent of their estimated capacities.
  • 15 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nation communities in Quebec have inappropriate waste management.
  • 10 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec do not meet applicable design standards.
  • For 15 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the workplace/plant is considered to be dangerous.

3.4.6 Component Risk - Wastewater: Operation

Operation Risk has a mean score of 6.0. Most of the wastewater systems have a medium or high risk score. This is identified as an area of opportunity for increased risk mitigation efforts.

The following drivers are identified as significantly contributing to operation risk scores for wastewater systems in the region:

  • failure to meet Federal Effluent Guidelines
  • inadequate maintenance logs
  • general maintenance not adequately being performed
  • Emergency Response Plans not in place or not being used
  • O&M manuals not available or not in use.
Figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers
Figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.18 - Operation Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

There are five key risk drivers:

  • Failure to Meet Federal Effluent Quality Guidelines Due to Operations;
  • Inadequate Maintenance Logs;
  • Maintenance Not Adequately Performed;
  • Emergency Response Plan Not Available or Not in Place; and
  • Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Manual Not Available or Not in Use.
  • 26 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec fail to meet federal effluent quality guidelines due to operations.
  • 49 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have inadequate maintenance logs.
  • Maintenance is not being adequately performed for 33 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • For 82 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, an Emergency Response Plan is not available or not in use.
  • An Operation and Maintenance Manual is not available or not in use for 67 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.

3.4.7 Component Risk - Wastewater: Reporting

Reporting Risk has a mean score 6.2. Reporting risk is associated with the maintenance of records of effluent testing and system monitoring. Poor record keeping is a significant factor in raising the overall risk ranking for many communities in this region. 15 systems have a low risk; 5 systems have a medium risk and 19 systems have a high risk score.

The following drivers are identified as significantly contributing to reporting risk scores for wastewater systems in the Region:

  • inconsistent record keeping
  • inconsistent records for key parameters.
Figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.19 - Reporting Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the reporting risk for wastewater in First Nations communities in Quebec. There are three key reporting risk drivers: Inconsistent Records; Poor Records for Key Parameters; and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System not Calibrated and Confirmed Accurate.

  • 51 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have inconsistent records.
  • There are poor records for key parameters for 49 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • For 3 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec, the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System has not been calibrated and confirmed to be accurate.

3.4.8 Component Risk - Wastewater: Operator

Operator Risk has an overall mean score of 2.6. Operator risk is associated with the certification of operators. There are only four systems with high risk due to operators not having adequate certification and/or not having a backup operator available.

However, as shown below there are several systems without an operator and several operators are not certified to the level of the system that they are responsible for. To ensure that the component risk remains low it is important to ensure that all operators are enrolled in training and become certified to the level of their respective treatment systems.

The extent to which existing wastewater systems have fully certified primary and backup operators is presented in Table 3.6. Of the 29 systems which require a certified operator for the wastewater treatment system, 24% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 24% did not have a fully certified backup operator. Of the 36 systems which require a certified operator for the collection system, 31% did not have a fully certified primary operator and 42% did not have a fully certified backup operator.

Table 3.6 - Wastewater: Operator Status for Quebec Region
  Primary Operator Backup Operator
Treatment Collection Treatment Collection
No. of Systems Currently Without an Operator 2 2 2 4
No. of Systems with Operator with No Certification 4 6 5 8
No. of Systems with Operator Certified but not to the Required Level of the System 1 3 0 3
No. of Systems with Operator with Adequate Certification 22 25 22 21
No. of Systems Not Requiring Operators with Certification 10 3 10 3
Total No. of Systems 39 39 39 39

Those factors which frequently contribute to increased wastewater operator risk are identified in Figure 3.20. A lack of certification, lack of training and the lack of primary or backup operator are common drivers that increase operator risk.

Figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers
Figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers
Description of figure 3.20 - Operators Risk Drivers

This graph identifies the frequency of the main risk drivers that contribute to the operation risk for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec. There are five key risk drivers:

  • Primary Operator Uncertified and/or Insufficient Experience/Training for the Collection System;
  • No Backup Operator and/or Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification;
  • No Primary Operator and/or Not Certified to the Treatment System Classification;
  • Primary Operator Not Enrolled in Training; and
  • No Access to Fully Trained Operator
  • 25 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have a primary operator who is uncertified and/or who has insufficient experience/training for the collection system.
  • 24 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have no backup operator and/or they have a backup operator who is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • 24 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have no primary operator and/or the primary operator is not certified to the treatment system classification.
  • The primary operator is not enrolled in training for 77 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec.
  • 28 percent of the wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec have no access to a fully trained operator.

3.5 Plans

Information was collected regarding the availability of various documents including source water protection plans (SWPP), maintenance management plans (MMP), operation and maintenance manuals and emergency response plans (ERP). The following tables provide a summary of the percentages of First Nations that have plans in place.

Table 3.7 - Plans Summary: Water
Source Number of Water Systems that have...
Source Water Protection Plan Maintenance Management Plan Emergency Response Plan
Groundwater 47% 42% 32%
Groundwater GUDI 100% 100% 0%
MTA N/A 50% 25%
Surface Water 18% 100% 45%
Overall 39% 62% 33%

Table 3.8 - Plans Summary: Wastewater
Number of Wastewater Systems that have…
Maintenance Management Plan Emergency Response Plan
59% 18%

3.5.1 Source Water Protection Plan (SWPP)

Source water protection planning is one component in a multi-barrier approach to providing safe drinking water. Source water protection plans seek to identify threats to the water source, and put in place policies and practices that will prevent contamination of the water source and ensure the water service provider is equipped to take corrective action should a contamination event occur. Source water protection is appropriate for both groundwater and surface water sources.

For the Quebec Region, 39% water systems have SWPP's in place.

3.5.2 Maintenance Management Plans (MMP)

Maintenance Management Plans are intended to improve the effectiveness of maintenance activities and are focused on planning, scheduling and documenting preventative maintenance activities, as well as documenting unscheduled maintenance effort. The plans represent a change from reactive to proactive thinking, and when executed properly they optimize maintenance spending, minimize service disruption and extend asset life.

For the Quebec Region, 42% of groundwater systems; 100% of GUDI systems and 100% of surface water systems have an MMP in place. For wastewater systems, 59% of the systems have an MMP in place. The above does not include the MTA's.

3.5.3 Emergency Response Plans (ERP)

Emergency Response Plans are intended to be a quick reference to assist operators and other stakeholders in managing and responding to emergency situations. ERP's should be in place for both water and wastewater systems. ERP's include key contact information for persons to be notified, and persons that may be of assistance (agencies, contractors, suppliers, etc.) as well as standard communication and response protocols. ERP's will identify recommended corrective actions for "foreseeable" emergencies, as well as methodologies for addressing unforeseen situations. ERP's are essentially the last potential "barrier" in a multi-barrier approach to protecting the drinking water supply or natural environment and provide the last opportunity to mitigate damages.

33% of the water systems and 18% of the wastewater systems had an ERP in place.

4.0 Cost Analysis

4.1 Upgrade to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water

Beginning in 2006 INAC developed a series of Protocol documents for centralised and decentralised water and wastewater systems in First Nations communities. The Protocols contain standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of these systems.

One of the objectives of this study was to review the existing water and wastewater infrastructure and identify the potential upgrade costs to meet INAC Protocols, as well as Federal guidelines and Provincial standards. The estimated total construction costs for water system upgrades to meet INAC Protocols is $14.9 million.

Table 4.1 provides a breakdown of the estimated total capital costs identified. A separate line item is included for engineering and contigency. Figure 4.1 provides a graphical comparison of each of the categories.

Table 4.1 - Estimated Total Construction Costs: Water
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Building $1,121,000 $61,000 $395,000
Distribution $608,500 $560,000 $560,000
Equipment $87,500 $20,500 $15,000
Monitoring Equipment $202,000 $136,000 $115,000
Source $337,500 $107,000 $107,000
Storage & Pumping $2,736,500 $2,605,500 $2,650,500
Treatment $6,593,000 $6,556,000 $6,556,000
Standby Power $255,000 $75,000 $75,000
Engineering & Contingencies $2,989,600 $2,531,600 $2,625,100
Construction Total Estimate $14,930,600 $12,652,600 $13,098,600

There are ten water systems that are identified as having potentially GUDI (groundwater under the direct influence of surface water) water supplies. Protocol costs for these systems are estimated assuming that they will prove to be secure groundwater supplies and recommendations for GUDI studies are identified to confirm this. Should the results of the GUDI studies indicate that these supplies are actually to be considered as surface water supplies, additional upgrade requirements would be required to meet the requirements of the INAC Protocol. An additional $1.0 to $2.5 million is estimated to be required for each system that requires upgrading to surface water treatment depending on system capacity and site indices.

Figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water ($ - M)
Figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water ($ - M)
Description of figure 4.1 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Water ($ - M)

This pie chart provides a breakdown (in millions of dollars) of the estimated construction costs of the upgrades that are required for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocols. The costs are divided into nine categories:

  • Building;
  • Distribution;
  • Engineering & Contingencies;
  • Equipment;
  • Monitoring Equipment;
  • Source;
  • Standby Power;
  • Storage & Pumping; and
  • Treatment.
  • The total estimated building cost for the upgrades that are required for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocols is 1.1 million dollars.
  • The total estimated distribution cost for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocols is 0.6 million dollars.
  • The total estimated engineering and contingencies cost for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocols is 3.0 million dollars.
  • The total estimated equipment cost for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocols is 0.1 million dollars.
  • The total estimated monitoring equipment cost for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocols is 0.2 million dollars.
  • The total estimated source cost for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocols is 0.3 million dollars.
  • The total estimated standby power cost for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocols is 0.3 million dollars.
  • The total estimated storage and pumping cost for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocols is 2.7 million dollars.
  • The total estimated cost of the treatment upgrades that are required for water systems in First Nations communities in Quebec is 6.6 million dollars.

Treatment, Distribution and Source are the construction categories with the highest cumulative costs to meet upgrades.

Treatment costs include:

  • Providing spare chemical feed equipment.
  • Providing spare disinfection equipment.
  • Providing additional filter trains.
  • Providing secondary containment for treatment chemicals.
  • Providing specific treatment equipment (i.e. arsenic, manganese, etc.).
  • Providing contact piping.
  • Providing surge suppression/uninterruptible power supplies for critical electronic equipment.
  • Upgrading the capacity of existing water treatment plant.

Distribution costs include:

  • Installing blow offs on dead ends.
  • Installing isolation valves.
  • Looping distribution systems.
  • Installing additional fire hydrants.
  • Providing additional water trucks.
  • Replacing cisterns.
  • Replacing pipeline.

Source costs include:

  • Abandoning and decommissioning wells.
  • Constructing raw water pipelines.
  • Drilling, testing, developing and equipping new wells.
  • Providing aeration systems for freeze protection.
  • Providing wellhead protection.
  • Providing standby power.
Table 4.2 - Estimated Total Non-Construction Costs: Water
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Training $80,000 $80,000 $80,000
GUDI Studies $140,000 $40,000 $40,000
Plans/Documentation $490,000 $320,000 $235,000
Studies $65,000 $0 $0
Non-Construction Total Estimate $775,000 $440,000 $355,000

Additional annual operations and maintenance costs, shown in Table 4.3, include costs that occur annually for items that are not currently being completed to meet protocols, such as calibrating monitoring equipment, additional sampling, cleaning the reservoir, and backup operator's salary.

Table 4.3 - Estimated Additional Annual Operation & Maintenance Costs: Water
Description Estimated Cost
Sampling $116,000
Operations $29,650
Water O&M Total Estimated Cost $145,650

The total estimated cost, inlcuding construction and non-construction costs, for water system upgrades to meet the INAC Protocol is $15.7 million. This excludes costs associated with potentially GUDI systems, as discussed previously.

4.2 Upgrade to Meet INAC's Protocol: Wastewater

The total construction cost estimate for wastewater system upgrades to meet Protocol is $12.2 million. Specific needs along with the number of systems impacted and the total cost for each is provided below.

Upgrading treatment capacity and pumping stations represents over 72% of the cost associated with upgrades needed to meet Protocol.

Table 4.4 - Estimated Total Construction and Related Costs: Wastewater
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Building $154,500 $0 $90,000
Collection System $135,000 $135,000 $135,000
Equipment $328,100 $17,000 $0
Monitoring Equipment $69,500 $27,000 $27,000
Pumping Stations $3,448,500 $3,413,000 $3,413,000
Treatment $5,396,000 $5,396,000 $5,396,000
Standby Power $226,100 $225,000 $225,000
Engineering & Contingencies $2,447,600 $2,320,500 $2,335,500
Construction Total Estimate $12,205,300 $11,533,500 $11,621,500

Figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)
Figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)
Description of figure 4.2 - Breakdown of the Estimated Construction Costs to Meet INAC's Protocol: Wastewater ($ - M)

This pie chart provides a breakdown of the estimated construction costs (in millions of dollars) of the wastewater system upgrades that are required for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocol.

The construction costs are divided into eight categories:

  • Building;
  • Collection System;
  • Engineering and Contingencies;
  • Equipment;
  • Monitoring Equipment;
  • Pumping Stations;
  • Standby Power; and
  • Treatment.
  • The total estimated building cost for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.2 million dollars.
  • The total estimated collection system cost for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.1 million dollars.
  • The total estimated engineering and contingencies cost for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocol is 2.4 million dollars.
  • The total estimated equipment cost for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.3 million dollars.
  • The total estimated monitoring equipment cost for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.1 million dollars.
  • The total estimated cost for pumping stations for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocol is 3.4 million dollars.
  • The total estimated standby power cost for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocol is 0.2 million dollars.
  • The total estimated treatment cost for wastewater systems in First Nations communities in Quebec to meet INAC's Protocol is 5.4 million dollars.

Treatment, Collection System and Standby Power are the categories with the highest cumulative upgrade costs.

Treatment costs include:

  • Constructing additional lagoon cells.
  • Constructing new mechanical treatment facilities.
  • Providing fences for security.
  • Providing flow meters.
  • Providing new pumping stations.

Collection System costs include:

  • Installing cleanouts.
  • Providing new sewage trucks.
  • Retrofitting sewage pumping stations.

Standby Power costs include:

  • Providing standby power for sewage pumping stations.
Table 4.5 - Estimated Total Non-Construction and Related Costs: Wastewater
Description Protocol - Estimated Cost Federal - Estimated Cost Provincial - Estimated Cost
Training $150,000 $150,000 $150,000
Plans/Documentation $75,000 $55,000 $25,000
Studies $100,000 $0 $0
Non-Construction Total Estimate $325,000 $205,000 $175,000

Additional annual operations and maintenance costs, as shown in Table 4.6, include costs that occur annually, for items that are not currently being completed to meet protocols, such as calibrating monitoring equipment, additional sampling, and backup operator's salary.

Table 4.6 - Estimated Additional Annual Operation & Maintenance Costs: Wastewater
Description Estimated Cost
Sampling $154,500
Operations $44,000
Operator $100,000
Wastewater O&M Total Estimated Cost $298,500

The total estimated cost, including construction and non-construction costs, for wastewater system upgrades is $12.5 million.

4.3 Upgrade Cost Summary

Table 4.7 provides a summary of the upgrade costs for the Protocol, Federal and Provincial Guidelines.

Table 4.7 - Summary and Comparison of Upgrade Costs
  Total Estimated Cost
Water Wastewater
Upgrade to meet Protocol $15,705,600 $12,530,300
Upgrade to meet Federal Guidelines $13,092,600 $11,738,500
Upgrade to meet Provincial Guidelines $13,453,600 $11,796,500

The following tables present a breakdown of the Protocol upgrade costs by risk level.

Table 4.8 - Breakdown of Protocol Estimated Costs by Risk Level: Water
Risk Level Short Term Long Term Total
High $1,727,912 $49,404 $1,777,317
Medium $989,319 $0 $989,319
Low $12,840,156 $98,808 $12,938,964
Total $15,557,387 $148,213 $15,705,600

Table 4.9 - Breakdown of Protocol Estimated Costs by Risk Level: Wastewater
Risk Level Short Term Long Term Total
High $6,223,207 $0 $6,223,207
Medium $5,696,901 $19,884 $5,716,785
Low $590,307 $0 $590,307
Total $12,510,416 $19,884 $12,530,300

4.4 Asset Condition and Reporting System (ACRS) Needs

ACRS inspections were completed for water and wastewater related assets. In Quebec region, not all First Nations complete ACRS, and the ACRS inspection was completed only for those with assets entered in the INAC database. The following table summarizes the ACRS needs identified. For the purposes of this assessment, ACRS needs were limited to required repairs of existing facilities, and did not include any upgrade costs, in order to avoid duplication with the Upgrade to Protocol needs identified. The following two tables (Tables 4.10 and 4.11) provide a summary of the O&M repairs required broken down by asset for both water and wastewater, respectively.

Table 4.10 - ACRS Identified Needs: Water
Asset Code Description Estimated Cost
A5A Buildings $352,825
B1C/B1D Treatment $78,100
B1E Reservoirs $7,100
B1F Community Wells $30,300
B1H High Lift Pumping $358,800
  Water ACRS Total Estimated Cost $827,125

Table 4.11 - ACRS Identified Needs: Wastewater
Asset Code Description Estimated Cost
A5B Buildings $221,225
B2A Sewers $61,500
B2H/B2J Lift Stations & Forcemains $301,700
B2C/B2D Treatment $128,850
B2E/B2I Lagoons $35,000
  Wastewater ACRS Total Estimated Cost $748,275

4.5 Community Servicing

An analysis was completed to evaluate future servicing alternatives for a 10 year design period. Alternatives considered include expanding existing systems, developing new systems, establishing local Municipal Type Agreements (if applicable), and use of individual systems. A theoretical operations and maintenance cost has been developed for each alternative along with a 30 year life cycle cost. The cost for upgrades to meet protocol is included in the new servicing cost, if appropriate, i.e. for new servicing alternatives that included continued use of the existing system. A summary of the capital cost along with the estimated total O&M cost for the recommended servicing alternatives are shown below.

The following table summarizes the capital cost and the total estimated operation & maintenance cost of the recommended servicing alternatives.

Table 4.12 - Future Servicing Costs
  Total Estimated Cost Cost Per Connection
Water Wastewater Water Wastewater
Future Servicing Cost $210,000,000 $170,000,000 $11,100 $9,100
Annual O&M to service future growth $13,800,000 $8,900,000 $700 $500

The evaluation of future servicing included continuing to service the existing population with the same level of service that was currently in place and evaluating the options for providing service to the future 10 year growth for the community.

Predominantly, it was found that the life cycle costs for extending piped water and wastewater servicing for the future growth was the most cost effective solution. This assumes that future homes would be constructed in a compact subdivision setting adjacent to the existing serviced area. This however will need to be confirmed through detailed studies for each community.

5.0 Regional Summary

The 37 First Nations visited during the completion of this project are serviced by 39 water systems (including 8 Municipal Type Agreement systems) and 39 wastewater systems (including 10 Municipal Type Agreement systems).

The types of systems vary from First Nation to First Nation. In the Quebec Region, 91% of the homes are serviced by communal water, 8% are serviced by individual wells and the remaining homes do not have water servicing.

There are 11 surface water systems in the Quebec Region. There is generally no major concern for systems using surface water, except for one community which has a medium risk due to industry and agriculture activities, and another community which has a potential future risk from a mining operation upstream.

There are 19 groundwater systems and 1 groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI) system. In areas where a proven groundwater source has been identified, it is recommended that these communities continue to use groundwater to meet the demands for future growth.

There are eight First Nations water systems serviced by MTA's (municipal type agreement). The services provided through MTA in this Region are satisfactory and should be continued since they are usually the more economical servicing solution. In the few instances where there may be quality issues, communities should negotiate with the MTA service provider to improve the service.

Of the 39 wastewater systems, 22 are lagoons and 10 are MTA. There are only 5 mechanical sewage treatment systems in the Quebec Region. The aerated lagoons used in the Region have a good track record. It is an uncomplicated system that is relatively easy to maintain and has a much lower O&M cost than mechanical systems. While the initial capital cost for a lagoon system may be higher, the savings in O&M cost over the life cycle of the system and the reliability of the system will more than make up for the higher initial capital cost.

There are seven water systems and seven wastewater systems in the Quebec region identified as high-risk systems. While there are multiple factors contributing to risk, design and operational concerns are given the most weight, particularly when the concern is related to the protection of public health or the environment. The high risk systems in the region typically require system upgrades or improved operational procedures to meet the guidelines for treated water quality or sewage effluent quality.

Based on the data collected, operator risk was the lowest of the component risks. However, it is important to provide ongoing training for operators to ensure that all systems are operated and maintained by trained/certified operators and that monitoring and record keeping is completed in accordance with the Protocol.

Wastewater sampling prior to effluent discharge appears to be an area where a significant impact on the overall risk could be addressed. Sampling, testing and recording of effluent quality prior to discharge would result in reducing the reporting risk for these systems.

Appendix A Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

Aeration (see also lagoon): The process of bringing air into contact with a liquid (typically water), usually by bubbling air through the liquid, spraying the liquid into the air, allowing the liquid to cascade down a waterfall, or by mechanical agitation. Aeration serves to (1) strip dissolved gases from solution, and/or (2) oxygenate the liquid. (Gowen Environmental)

Aesthetic Objective (AO): Aesthetic objectives are set for drinking water quality parameters such as colour or odour, where exceeding the objective may make the water less pleasant, but not unsafe. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater)

Ammonia (See also: Potable water; Effluent quality requirements): A pungent colorless gaseous alkaline compound of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3) that is very soluble in water and can easily be condensed to a liquid by cold and pressure (Merriam-Webster). Ammonia is used in several areas of water and wastewater treatment, such as pH control. It is also used in conjunction with chlorine to produce potable water. The existence of ammonia in wastewater is common in industrial sectors as a by-product of cleaning agents. This chemical impacts both human and environmental conditions. Treatment of ammonia can be completed in lagoon systems and mechanical plants. (R.M. Technologies)

Arsenic: A metallic element that forms a number of compounds. It is found in nature at low levels, mostly in compounds with oxygen, chlorine, and sulphur; these are called inorganic arsenic compounds. Organic arsenic in plants and animals combines with carbon and hydrogen. Inorganic arsenic is a human poison. Organic arsenic is less harmful. High levels of inorganic arsenic in food or water can be fatal. (Medicinenet.com)

Aquifer (confined): A layer of soil or rock below the land surface that is saturated with water. There are layers of impermeable material both above and below it, and it is under pressure so that when the aquifer is penetrated by a well, the water will rise above the top of the aquifer. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Aquifer (unconfined): An unconfined aquifer is one whose upper water surface (water table) is at atmospheric pressure, and thus is able to rise and fall. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

As-built/record drawings: Revised set of drawing submitted by a contractor upon completion of a project or a particular job. They reflect all changes made in the specifications and working drawings during the construction process, and show the exact dimensions, geometry, and location of all elements of the work completed under the contract. Also called as-built drawings or just as-builts.

ACRS Inspection (Asset Condition Reporting System Inspection): For centralised water and wastewater systems, an ACRS (asset condition reporting system) inspection of the system is to be performed once every three (3) years by a qualified person (consulting engineer, Tribal Council engineer), who is not from the First Nation involved, to assess the condition of the asset, adequacy of maintenance efforts, and need for additional maintenance work. The ACRS inspection report will be discussed with, and submitted to, the First Nation council and the INAC regional office. Inspections will be conducted in accordance with the ACRS Manual, a copy of which can be obtained from the INAC regional office.

Bacteria (plural) bacterium (singular): Microscopic living organisms usually consisting of a single cell. Bacteria can aid in pollution control by consuming or breaking down organic matter in sewage and/or other water pollutants. Some bacteria may also cause human, animal, and plant health problems. Bacteria are predominantly found in the intestines and feces of humans and animals. The presence of coliform bacteria in water indicates the contamination of water by raw or partially treated sewage. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Baffle (concrete and/or curtain): Vertical/horizontal impermeable barriers in a pond or reservoir. Baffles direct the flow of water into the longest possible path through the reservoir in order to eliminate short-circuiting in the water treatment system. In potable water treatment, short-circuiting can reduce the effectiveness of disinfectants. In effluent treatment, short-circuiting may result in an increase of pollutants at the outlet. Shortcircuiting occurs when water flows directly from the inlet to the outlet across a pond or reservoir. (Layfield)

BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand): The most widely used parameter of organic pollution applied to both wastewater and surface water is the 5-day BOD (BOD5). This determination involves the measurement of the dissolved oxygen used by microorganisms in the biochemical oxidation of organic matter. BOD test results are used to: determine the approximate quantity of oxygen that will be required to biologically stabilize the organic matter present; to determine the size of waste treatment facilities; to measure the efficiency of some treatment processes; and to determine compliance with wastewater discharge permits. (Metcalf & Eddy)

Capacity (actual vs. design): Refers to the capacity of the treatment system, with the "design capacity" being the flow rate proposed by the designer or manufacturer. If the system is not operating to design levels, the "actual capacity" could be limited by failing pumps, clogged filters or not meeting the Protocol (i.e. Protocol requires two filter trains such that one could operate while another is being cleaned/repaired and this was previously not explicitly required; therefore, the actual capacity is half of the design capacity).

Chemical feed equipment: All equipment associated with introducing chemicals to the raw water as part of the treatment process including coagulants, coagulant aids, disinfectants, etc.

Chlorine: A disinfectant used in either gas or liquid from gas that is added to water to protect the consumer from bacteria and other micro-organisms. It is widely used because it is inexpensive and easily injected into water. Because of its concentration, a gallon can treat a large amount of water. However, chlorine use does have drawbacks: when chlorine is used as a disinfectant it combines with naturally occurring decaying organic matter to form Trihalomethanes (THMs). (Vital Life Systems)

Chlorination: The application of chlorine to water, sewage or industrial wastes for disinfection (reduction of pathogens) or to oxidize undesirable compounds. (City of Toronto)

Chlorine Residual: The chlorine level in potable water immediately after it has been treated. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment)

Circuit Rider (see also Circuit Rider Training Program): Under the department's Circuit Rider Trainer Program (CRTP) INAC provides funds to engage circuit riders (third party water and wastewater system experts who provide water and wastewater system operators with on-site, mentoring, training, and emergency assistance). The third-party service providers that provide circuit rider services also provide operators with a 24/7 emergency hotline. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities)

Circuit Rider Training Program: The main vehicle by which most First Nations operators receive the required training to operate their systems. This program provides qualified experts who rotate through a circuit of communities, providing hands-on training for the operators on their own system. Circuit rider trainers also help the First Nations with minor troubles and issues of operation and maintenance of their systems. (INAC Plan of Action)

Cistern: A tank for storing potable water or other liquids, usually placed above the ground. (Bow River Basin Council, cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Class "D" Cost Estimates: A preliminary estimate, for each community visited, based on available site information, which indicates the approximate magnitude (+/- 40%) of the cost of the actions recommended in the report, and which may be used in developing long-term capital plans and for a preliminary discussion of proposed capital projects.

Collection piping: Sanitary sewer collecting wastewater from individual buildings and homes, for treatment and disposal at a public facility.

Component risk / component risk factors: The overall risk is determined by five component risks: water source/effluent, design, operation, reporting, and operator.

Community Health Representatives (CHRs): Health Canada's local health representatives. They undertake bacteriological and chlorine residual sampling of distributed water within most First Nation communities.

Contact piping: Dedicated watermain to provide chlorine contact time before potable water is distributed to the first user.

Containment liners (for on-site fuel storage): A form of secondary containment used for diesel driven generators or fire pumps.

Continuous discharge to a receiving body: The release of treated wastewater effluent to a lake, river, stream, etc. where the rate of release is continuous (i.e. not batch discharge).

Conventional Wastewater Treatment: Consists of preliminary processes, primary settling to remove heavy solids and floatable materials, secondary biological aeration to metabolize and flocculate colloidal and dissolved organics, and secondary settling to remove additional solids. Tertiary treatment such as disinfection or filtration to further treat the wastewater depending on the level of treatment required for discharge. Waste sludge drawn from these operations is thickened and processed for ultimate disposal, usually either land application or landfilling. Preliminary treatment processes include coarse screening, medium screening, shredding of solids, flow measuring, pumping, grit removal, and pre-aeration. Chlorination of raw wastewater sometimes is used for odor control and to improve settling characteristics of the solids.

Conventional Water Treatment: Consists of a combination of coagulation (adding chemicals called coagulants), flocculation (particles binding together with coagulants) and sedimentation (settling of particles) to remove a large amount of organic compounds and suspended particles, filtration (water passing through porous media) to remove bacteria protozoa and viruses (slow sand filtration) or suspended particles (rapid sand filtration), and disinfection to ensure all the bacteria protozoa and viruses are removed, and provide safe drinking water.

Cross connections: A cross connection is a link between a possible source of pollution and a potable water supply. A pollutant may enter the potable water system when a) the pressure of the pollution source exceeds the pressure of the potable water source or b) when a sudden loss of pressure occurs in the water system and "backflow" occurs. The flow through a water treatment plant should have no instances of treated water coming into contact with raw or wastewater. Backflow preventers should be tested regularly and any actual physical links should be removed.

Decentralized System: A group or groups of communal (as opposed to private) on-site water or wastewater systems. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Dedicated transmission main: A length of watermain which has no service connections or hydrants; can refer to the length of raw watermain from a raw water source to the water treatment plant or in the distribution system where there are larger distances between homes.

Discharge Frequency: The frequency in which treated wastewater is discharged; could be continuous, seasonal, annual, etc.

Discharge quality data: Data acquired through the completion of a laboratory analysis of treated wastewater effluent prior to obtaining permission to discharge. Relevant parameters for testing include: 5 day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Solids, Fecal Coliforms, pH, Phenols, Oils & Greases, Phosphorus and Temperature.

Disinfectant: A disinfectant is a chemical (commonly chlorine, chloramines, or ozone) or physical process (e.g., ultraviolet light) that inactivates or kills microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Disinfection: A process that has as its objective destroying or inactivating pathogenic micro-organisms in water. (Government of Alberta, Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Disinfection By-products: Disinfection by-products are chemical, organic and inorganic substances that can form during a reaction of a disinfectant with naturally present organic or anthropogenic matter in the water. (Lenntech)

Distribution Classification > piped / trucked: Refers to the classification of the delivery of potable water leaving the water treatment plant. This can be either piped (via watermain) or trucked (via truck delivery to individual homes/cisterns). The level of classification involves the number of house connections (population served).

Domestic flows: All demands in the water system excluding fire flows.

Drinking Water: Water of sufficiently high quality that can be consumed or used without risk of immediate or long term harm.

Drinking Water Advisory (DWA): Drinking Water Advisories (DWAs) are preventive measures that are regularly issued in municipalities and communities across Canada; they protect public health from waterborne contaminants that can be present in drinking water. A DWA can be issued in any community and may include boil water advisories, do not consume advisories and do not use advisories. (INAC "Fact Sheet")

Effluent: 1. The liquid waste of municipalities/communities, industries, or agricultural operations. Usually the term refers to a treated liquid released from a wastewater treatment process. (Bow River) 2. The discharge from any on-site sewage treatment component. (Alberta Municipal Affairs; cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Effluent quality data: Any test results or monitoring data that describes the condition of treated wastewater effluent.

Effluent Quality Requirements: All effluents from wastewater systems in Canada must comply with all applicable federal legislation including the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 and the Fisheries Act, as well as any other applicable legislation, including provincial, depending on the geographical location of the system. In addition, all discharges from First Nations wastewater systems shall meet the quality requirements found in the Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments - EPS 1-EC-76-1 (1976 Guidelines).

For the purposes of determining effluent quality related to ammonia and chlorine, the Notice Requiring the Preparation and Implementation of Pollution Prevention Plans for Inorganic Chloramines and Chlorinated Wastewater Effluents and the Guideline for the Release of Ammonia Dissolved in Water Found in Wastewater Effluents contain additional and/or updated information to the requirements provided in the 1976 Guidelines.

A copy of the Guideline for the Release of Ammonia Dissolved in Water Found in Wastewater Effluents can be found at Environment Canada's website. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities)

Effluent Receiver (also referred to as the receiving body; the receiving environment; the receiver) (see also Effluent and Component risks): The environment that receives treated wastewater, including lakes, rivers, wetlands, sub-surfaces, title fields, open marines, and enclosed bays. It may also refer to a community's method for dealing with wastewater (e.g. Municipal Type Agreements or evaporation).

Elevated Storage: A water tower, which is a reservoir or storage tank mounted on a tower-like structure at the summit of an area of high ground in a place where the water pressure would otherwise be inadequate for distribution at a uniform pressure. (Collins)

Emergency Response Plan (ERP): Emergency response plans for water and wastewater systems are intended to be a quick reference to assist operators and other stakeholders in managing and responding to emergency situations. They include key contact information for persons to be notified and for persons who may be of assistance (e.g. agencies, contractors, suppliers, etc.), as well as standard communication and response protocols. Emergency response plans identify recommended action for "foreseeable" emergencies, and provide methodologies for unforeseen situations.

Facultative Lagoon: The most common type of wastewater treatment lagoon used by small communities and individual households. Facultative lagoons rely on both aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of waste, can be adapted for use in most climates and require no machinery to treat wastewater.

Filter: A device used to remove solids from a mixture or to separate materials. Materials are frequently separated from water using filters. (Edwards Aquifier)

Filter train equipment: Includes all components that form part of the water filtration process from where the raw water enters the filter process to where the filtered water leaves the treatment unit. This does not refer to the disinfection equipment.

Filtration: The mechanical process which removes particulate matter by separating water from solid material, usually by passing it through sand. (Edwards Aquifier)

Fire pump tests: A monthly test for the basic operation and functionality of the fire pump.

Grade Level Storage: A treated water storage reservoir that is constructed at grade, typically with earth mounded on top to provide some frost protection.

GPS: Global Positioning System (GPS) -A navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by computing the time difference for signals from different satellites to reach the receiver.

Groundwater: Groundwater is any water that is obtained from a subsurface water-bearing soil unit (called an aquifer). 1) Water that flows or seeps downward and saturates soil or rock, supplying springs and wells. The upper surface of the saturate zone is called the water table. 2) Water stored underground in rock crevices and in the pores of geologic materials that make up the Earth's crust. (INAC, Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater, confined: Groundwater that is under pressure significantly greater than atmospheric, with its upper limit the bottom of a bed with hydraulic conductivity distinctly lower than that of the material in which the confined water occurs. (INAC, Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater, unconfined: Water in an aquifer that has a water table that is exposed to the atmosphere. (INAC Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems)

Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI): This term refers to groundwater sources (e.g., wells, springs, infiltration galleries, etc.) where microbial pathogens are able to travel from nearby surface water to the groundwater source. (Government of Nova Scotia)

Guidelines: Guidelines as referred to in this Assessment include all federal and provincial water and wastewater guidelines for domestic potable water and household sanitary waste. These guidelines include the "Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality" and all its recommended health and aesthetic guidelines for water quality.

Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ): Water quality guidelines developed by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water and have been published by Health Canada since 1968.

Canadian drinking water supplies are generally of excellent quality. However, water in nature is never "pure." It picks up traces of everything it comes into contact with, including minerals, silt, vegetation, fertilizers, and agricultural run-off. While most of these substances are harmless, some may pose a health risk. To address this risk, Health Canada works with the provincial and territorial governments to develop guidelines that set out the maximum acceptable concentrations of these substances in drinking water. These drinking water guidelines are designed to protect the health of the most vulnerable members of society, such as children and the elderly. The guidelines set out the basic parameters that every water system should strive to achieve in order to provide the cleanest, safest and most reliable drinking water possible.

The Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality deal with microbiological, chemical and radiological contaminants. They also address concerns with physical and aesthetic characteristics of water, such as taste and odour. (Health Canada)

Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments, April 1976: The purpose of these guidelines is to indicate the degree of treatment and effluent quality that will be applicable to all wastewater discharged from existing and proposed Federal installations. Use of these guidelines is intended to promote a consistent wastewater approach towards the cleanup and prevention of water pollution and ensure that the best practicable control technologies used. (Government of Canada)

Highlift Pumping: Refers to pumps installed that provide treated water into the water distribution system at pressure; either directly or via water tower.

Hydrant Flushing (see line flushing and swabbing)

Influent: Water, wastewater, or other liquid flowing into a reservoir, basin or treatment plant. (Gowen)

Lagoon: A shallow pond where sunlight, bacterial action, and oxygen work to purify wastewater. Lagoons are typically used for the storage of wastewaters, sludges, liquid wastes, or spent nuclear fuel. (Edwards Aquifier)

Lagoon, aerated: See Aeration

Lagoon, facultative: See Facultative Lagoon.

L/c/d: Measurement of daily water usage as Litres per capita, per day.

Level of Service Standards (INAC): The Level of Service Standards (LOSS), determined on a national basis, are the levels of service that the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) is prepared to financially support to assist First Nations in providing community services comparable to the levels of service that would generally be available in non-native communities of similar size and circumstances.

The Level of Service Standards provide a description of criteria which will be used to establish the level of funding for safe, cost-effective, domestic water supply and wastewater disposal systems for on-reserve housing units and administrative, operative, institutional and recreational buildings. (INAC "Water and Sewage Systems")

Lift Station (also Pumping Station): A point in the sewer system where the wastewater needs to be pumped (lifted) to a higher elevation so that gravity can be used to bring the wastewater to the treatment plant. (Hailey City Hall Public Works)

Line flushing and swabbing (also referred to as watermain swabbing and flushing): Watermain swabbing entails inserting a soft material shaped like a bullet into the watermain through a fire hydrant. The diameter is slightly larger than the watermain and the bullet (swab) is pushed along the watermain by water pressure. As it passes through the watermain, the swab executes a scouring action on the sediment inside the watermain.

During watermain flushing, high velocity water flowing from hydrants is used to remove loose sediment from watermains. (City of Guelph)

L/p/d: Measurement of daily water usage as Litres per person, per day.

MAC (Maximum acceptable concentration): In the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ), Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MACs) have been established for certain physical, chemical, radiological and microbiological parameters or substances that are known or suspected to cause adverse effects on health. For some parameters, Interim Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (IMACs) are also recommended in the guidelines.

Drinking water that continually has a substance at a greater concentration than the specified MACs will contribute significantly to consumer exposure to the substance and may, in some instances, produce harmful health effects. However, the short-term presence of substances above the MAC levels does not necessarily mean the water constitutes a risk to health. (INAC, National Assessment Summary Report)

Maintenance Management Plan (MMP): Maintenance management plans apply to both water and wastewater systems. They are intended to improve the effectiveness of maintenance activities and are focused on planning, scheduling, and documenting preventative maintenance activities and on documenting unscheduled maintenance.

Manganese: Manganese is a mineral that naturally occurs in rocks and soil and is a normal constituent of the human diet. In some places, it exists in well water as a naturally occurring groundwater mineral, but may also be present due to underground pollution sources. Manganese may become noticeable in tap water at concentrations greater than 0.05 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of water by imparting a colour, odour, or taste to the water. However, health effects from manganese are not a concern until concentrations are approximately 10 times higher. (Conneticut Dept. of Health)

Mechanical Plant/ Mechanical Treatment: Refers to any type of wastewater treatment plant including treatments systems consisting of rotating biological contactors (RBC), sequencing batch reactors (SBR), extended aeration (EA), etc. It does not include natural forms of wastewater treatment like lagoons or septic systems.

Metals Scan (Full): A full metal scan refers to what laboratories call Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis for the evaluation of trace metals in water samples. This test covers a complete scan of over 20 trace metals in a single analysis.

Municipal Type Agreement (MTA): The situation where First Nations are supplied with treated water from or send their wastewater to a nearby municipality, as outlined in a formal agreement between the two parties. The term is also used in this report to describe a system where the First Nation is supplied with treated water or wastewater treatment services by another First Nation or other independent body such as a corporate entity such as a Casino etc.

Multi-Barrier Approach: Approach used to ensure that drinking water is safe. In the past, the term ‘multi-barrier' referred only to the barriers involved in the actual treatment of raw water to provide quality drinking water. This approach has now been expanded to include a number of key elements that are an integral part of a drinking water program to ensure delivery of safe, secure supplies of drinking water. Barriers may be physical (eg: filter) or administrative (eg: planning) in nature. (Alberta Environment, Glossary & Alberta's Drinking Water Program)

None: Indicates that the treatment and/or distribution/collection system has not been classified.

O & M: Operation and Maintenance.

Operational Plan (OP): An Operational Plan is the primary instrument for communicating the Community's quality management system (QMS) from the public works departments (water and wastewater) to Chief and Council, and from Council to INAC, Health Canada and the community members.

Phosphorus: A non-metallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs widely especially as phosphates (Merriam-Webster). Phosphorus occurs naturally in rocks, soil, animal waste, plant material, and even the atmosphere. In addition to these natural sources, phosphorus comes from human activities such as agriculture, discharge of industrial and municipal waste, and surface water runoff from residential and urban areas. Nutrients held in soil can be dissolved in water and carried off by leaching, tile drainage or surface runoff.

Phosphorus does not pose a direct threat to human health; it is an essential component of all cells and is present in bones and teeth. It does, however, pose an indirect threat to both aesthetics and to human health by affecting source waters used for drinking and recreation. For example, excessive nutrients can promote the growth of algal blooms, which can contribute to a wide range of water quality problems by affecting the potability, taste, odour, and colour of the water. (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment)

Piped Distribution System: A water distribution system which relies on pipes to convey water through pumping or elevated storage to the end user. Different from trucked distribution in that a trucked distribution system delivers water to end users in batch quantities to individual holding tanks (cisterns).

Potable water: Potable water is water that is destined for human consumption. For the purposes of the Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities, water destined for human consumption is water that is consumed directly as drinking water, water that is used in cooking, water that is used to wash food, and water that is used for bathing infants (individuals under 1 year in age). (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities)

PPU: People per unit. Measurement to describe housing density.

Primary Operator: The main operator of a water or wastewater system. The primary operator must be certified to the level of the treatment and distribution/collection system.

Primary Wastewater Treatment: Removal of particulate materials from domestic wastewater, usually done by allowing the solid materials to settle as a result of gravity. Typically, the first major stage of treatment encountered by domestic wastewater as it enters a treatment facility. Primary treatment plants generally remove 25 to 35 percent of the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and 45 to 65 percent of the total suspended matter. Also, any process used for the decomposition, stabilization, or disposal of sludges produced by settling. (North American Lake Management Society; cited in Alberta Environment Glossary)

Protocol for Safe Drinking Water in First Nations Communities: Standards for design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of drinking water systems and is intended for use by First Nations staff responsible for water systems. It is also intended for use by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) staff, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) for INAC staff, and all others involved in providing advice or assistance to First Nations in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and monitoring of their drinking water systems in their communities, in accordance with established federal or provincial standards, whichever are the most stringent.

Any water system that produces drinking water destined for human consumption, that is funded in whole or in part by INAC, and that serves five or more households or a public facility, must comply with the requirements of this protocol. (INACProtocol)

Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC): A quality management system that focuses on fulfilling quality requirements and providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.

Reporting Risk: The Reporting risk level is the risk inherent with the operational method of recording data and providing the required reports. This would include both manual and automatic methods of record keeping. The reporting risk ranking is based on the adequacy of the operational records and the number of reports submitted during the year compared to the total number of records and reports required according to the appropriate legislation, standards, and operation procedures of the system in question.

Reservoir: A man-made lake that collects and stores water for future use. During periods of low river flow, reservoirs can release additional flow if water is available. (Government of Alberta, Water for Life, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Reservoir Cleaning: This involves the pump-down, clean-out, removal of settled material, disinfection and refill of a water storage reservoir. This activity requires confined space entry equipment and training.

Retrofit: 1. To furnish with new or modified parts or equipment not available or considered necessary at the time of manufacture; 2. To install (new or modified parts or equipment) in something previously manufactured or constructed; 3. To adapt to a new purpose or need: modify. (Merriam-Webster)

Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC): A technology used to treat wastewater classified as mechanical treatment.

Risk (Management Risk Level/Management Risk Score): Risk is defined in INAC's Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities (Revised 2010). These guidelines follow the Multi-Barrier Approach for water management. This approach, developed by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Water Quality Task Group, is intended to prevent the presence of water-borne contaminants in drinking water by ensuring effective safeguards are in place at each stage of a drinking water system.

Following that approach, INAC assesses five main components of a system to determine an overall system management risk score:

Each of these components is assigned a risk score, which are then weighed to determine the overall management risk score of a system. The resulting score will then result in the management of the system as being classified as either high risk, medium risk, or low risk.

- High Risk: Major deficiencies in most of the components. Should a problem arise, the system and management as a whole is unlikely to be able to compensate, thus there is a high probability that any problem could result in unsafe water. Issues should be addressed as soon as possible.

- Medium Risk: Minor deficiencies in several components, or major deficiencies in one or two components. Should a problem arise, the system and management can probably compensate for the problem, but the noted deficiencies makes this uncertain, thus there is a medium probability that any problem could result in unsafe water. Issues need to be addressed.

- Low Risk: Minor or no deficiencies with the system or management. Should a problem occur, it is likely that the system and management as a whole will be able to compensate and continue to provide safe water while the issue is being resolved.

It is important to distinguish between INAC's system management risk level and drinking water quality. The actual quality of the water produced by a system is but one part of determining the overall system management risk level.

Unsafe drinking water is noted through the implementation of Drinking Water Advisories (DWA), not by the management risk level of the system. DWA come in multiple forms, the most common being the boil water advisory.

A system with a high-risk ranking under INAC's management evaluation is, because of its multiple deficiencies, likely to be unable to cope with problems that may occur in the system that result in a DWA. This means that DWA are likely to occur more frequently and to have a longer-term duration on a high-risk system. On the other hand, while problems can and do occur in low-risk systems, because of better overall risk management, these systems are more likely to address the problem in the short term, resulting in the rapid removal of problems and DWA.

This means that a high-risk drinking system can still produce perfectly safe and potable water. Deficiencies should be addressed as quickly as possible, however, before any issues arise with the water quality. (INAC, Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines)

SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system: Refers to a control and/or computer system that can monitor, record and control infrastructure, or facility-based processes.

Screened reservoir vents: Reservoir vents should be screened to allow air movement and to prevent vermin from entering.

Seasonal discharge: Discharge of wastewater at times of maximum or substantial stream flow. This may vary from location to location.

Secondary containment for treatment chemicals: Secondary containment is required for the storage of all regulated hazardous materials. Secondary containment must be constructed using materials capable of containing a spill or leak for at least as long as the period between monitoring inspections. A means of providing overfill protection for any primary container may be required. This may be an overfill prevention device and/or an attention getting high level alarm. Materials that in combination may cause a fire or explosion, the production of a flammable, toxic, poisonous gas, or the deterioration of a primary or secondary container will be separated in both the primary and secondary treatment containment so as to avoid intermixing.

Secondary Treatment: involving the biological process of reducing suspended, colloidal, and dissolved organic/inorganic matter in effluent from primary treatment systems and which generally removes 80 to 95 percent of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and suspended matter. Secondary wastewater treatment may be accomplished by biological or chemical-physical methods. Activated sludge and trickling filters are two of the most common means of secondary treatment. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Septic tank: A tank used to detain domestic wastes to allow the settling of solids prior to distribution to a leach field for soil absorption. Septic tanks are used when a piped wastewater collection system is not available to carry them to a treatment plant. A settling tank in which settled sludge is in immediate contact with sewage flowing through the tank, and wherein solids are decomposed by anaerobic bacterial action. (INAC Protocol for Centralised Wastewater)

Septic system: A combination of underground pipe(s) and holding tank(s) which are used to hold, decompose, and clean wastewater for subsurface disposal. (Bow River, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR): A treatment technology used to treat wastewater classified as mechanical treatment.

Sewage treatment plant (STP) (also known as Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) or Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP)): Facility designed to treat wastewater (sewage) by removing materials that may damage water quality and threaten public health. (Ontario Ministry of Environment)

Sewage treatment systems: Facility or system designed to treat wastewater (sewage) by removing materials that may damage water quality and threaten public health. (Ontario Ministry of Environment)

Shoot-out: A septic system consisting of a septic tank with untreated wastewater effluent being discharged to the surface; this poses a health risk.

Sludge: The accumulated wet or dry solids that are separated from wastewater during treatment. This includes precipitates resulting from the chemical or biological treatment of wastewater. (Government of Alberta, Activities, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Source Classification: The determination of the water source classification in this assessment includes the options of: surface water, groundwater, GUDI or MTA. Surface water includes water from lakes or rivers; groundwater includes any well water that is not influenced by surface water infiltration; GUDI is any groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water; MTA as a source refers to the community acquiring the treated water from a municipality.

Source risk: The risk inherent in the quality and quantity of the raw source water prior to treatment.

Source Water Protection: 1. The prevention of pollution of the lakes, reservoirs, rivers, streams, and groundwater that serve as sources of drinking water. Wellhead protection would be an example of a source water protection approach that protects groundwater sources, whereas management of land around a lake or reservoir used for drinking water would be an example for surface water supplies. Source water protection programs typically include: delineating source water protection areas; identifying sources of contamination; implementing measures to manage these changes; and planning for the future. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

2. Action taken to control or minimize the potential for introduction of chemicals or contaminants in source waters, including water used as a source of drinking water (Alberta Environment, Standards and Guidelines, cited in Alberta Glossary).

SPS: An abbreviation of the term sewage pumping station.

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs): An SOP is a written document or instruction detailing all steps and activities of a process or procedure. This would include all procedures used in water/wastewater treatment processes that could affect the quality.

Standpipe Storage: An above-grade storage facility where the storage volume is contained within the entirety of the structure. This type of storage is most feasible for use where there is sufficient change in the topography to allow for maximum usable volume in the standpipe.

Storage Type: Refers to whether the community water storage is via grade-level, below-grade or elevated storage (including standpipes and towers). In some cases there is no storage thus the storage type would be considered "direct pump."

Surface water: Surface water is any water that is obtained from sources, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs that are open to the atmosphere. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Designer: A system designer is a person, such as a professional engineer, who is qualified to design a water or wastewater systems. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Operator: A system operator is a First Nation employee or third party under contract to a First Nation who is tasked with managing a water or wastewater system. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

System Manager: A system manager is a First Nation employee or third party under contract to a First Nation who is tasked with managing a water or wastewater system. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

Tertiary Treatment: Selected biological, physical, and chemical separation processes to remove organic and inorganic substances that resist conventional treatment practices. Tertiary Treatment processes may consist of flocculation basins, clarifiers, filters, and chlorine basins or ozone or ultraviolet radiation processes. Tertiary techniques may also involve the application of wastewater to land to allow the growth of plants to remove plant nutrients. Can include advanced nutrient removal processes. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Trihalomethanes (THMs): Chemical compounds that can be formed when water is disinfected using chlorine or bromine as the chemical disinfection agent. These chemical compounds are formed when organic material present in the raw source water reacts with chlorine or bromine. Therefore, THMs are classified as disinfection by-products (DBPs). The primary source of organic material comes from decaying vegetation found in lakes, rivers and streams and for this reason, THMs are more commonly observed in water systems that use a surface water source. The four chemical compounds that are measured and used to calculate total THMs are: chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and chlorodibromomethane (CDBM). THMs are a concern in potable water because there is scientific evidence that they may pose a risk in the development of cancer.

Treatment Certification: The treatment level to which an operator is certified for water treatment and distribution and wastewater treatment and collection systems (see Treatment Classification).

Treatment Classification: The size (flow) and complexity of a water or wastewater system is used to determine the Class of a system using a point template. The knowledge and experience it takes to operate a system is closely related to its classification and is reflected in the level of certification of the operator. Systems that are small and relatively simple, are classified as Small Water or Wastewater Systems. Larger or more complex systems are ranked as Class I, II, III, and IV with the highest being Class IV. Systems should be operated under the supervision of an operator certified to at least the same level of the facility.

TSS (Total Suspended Solids): Measure of the amount of non-dissolved solid material present in water or wastewater. Total suspended solids (TSS) can cause: a) interference with light penetration (in UV applications), b) build-up of sediment and c) can carry nutrients and other toxic pollutants that cause algal blooms and potential reduction in aquatic habitat (wastewater).

Underground Storage: A water storage facility (reservoir/clearwell) which is located 100% below-grade. Often located below the water treatment plant.

Waste: Any solid or liquid material, product, or combination of them that is intended to be treated or disposed of or that is intended to be stored and then treated or disposed. This does not include recyclables. (Government of Alberta, Activities Designation Regulation, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Waste management plan: A Waste Management Plan identifies and describes types of waste generated during operations and how they are managed and disposed of.

Wastewater (Industrial Wastewater, Domestic Wastewater): A combination of liquid and water-carried pollutants from homes, businesses, industries, or farms; a mixture of water and dissolved or suspended solids. (North American Lake Management Society, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Wastewater System: an organized process and associated structures for collecting, treating, and disposing of wastewater. For the purposes of this report, it is a system serving five or more houses. It includes any or all of the following:

  1. Sewers and pumping stations that make up a wastewater collection system.
  2. Sewers and pumping stations that transport untreated wastewater from a wastewater collection system to a wastewater treatment plant.
  3. Wastewater treatment plants.
  4. Facilities that provide storage for treated wastewater.
  5. Wastewater sludge treatment and disposal facilities.
  6. Sewers that transport treated wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant to the place where it is disposed of.
  7. Treated wastewater outfall facilities, including the outfall structures to a watercourse or any structures for disposal of treated wastewater to land or to wetlands. (Government of Alberta, Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Wastewater Treatment: Any of the mechanical, chemical or biological processes used to modify the quality of wastewater (sewage) in order to make it more compatible or acceptable to man and his/her environment. (North American Lake Management System, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Wastewater Treatment Plant: Any structure, thing, or process used for the physical, chemical, biological, or radiological treatment of wastewater before it is returned to the environment. The term also includes any structure, thing, or process used for wastewater storage or disposal, or sludge treatment, storage, or disposal. (Government of Alberta, Activities, cited in Alberta Glossary)

Watermain: A principal pipe in a system of pipes for conveying water, especially one installed underground. (American Heritage Dictionary)

Water quality: The term used to describe the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water, usually with respect to its suitability for a particular purpose. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

Water use: The term water use refers to water that is used for a specific purpose, such as for domestic use, irrigation, or industrial processing. Water use pertains to human interaction with and influence on the hydrolic cycle, and includes elements, such as water withdrawal from surface- and ground-water sources, water delivery to homes and businesses, consumptive use of water, water released from wastewater-treatment plans, water returned to the environment, and in-stream uses, such as using water to produce hydroelectric power. (INAC, Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water)

Water Well: An opening in the ground, whether drilled or altered from its natural state, that is used for the production of groundwater, obtaining data on groundwater, or recharging an underground formation from which groundwater can be recovered. By definition in the provincial Water Act, a water well also includes any related equipment, buildings, and structures. (Government of Alberta, Water for Life, cited in Alberta, Glossary)

Wellhead Protection Area: A protected surface and subsurface zone surrounding a well or well field supplying a public water system to keep contaminants from reaching the well water. (Edwards Aquifier)

Wellhead Protection Plan: A wellhead protection plan defines the wellhead protection area, identifies potential sources of contamination, manages the potential contaminant sources including properly decommissioning abandoned wells, identifies emergency and contingency plans (i.e. what to do if the well becomes contaminated or requires additional capacity) and provides overall public awareness.

References

Alberta Environment. Alberta's Drinking Water Program: A ‘Source to Tap, Multi-barrier' Approach, 2008. Unpublished

Alberta Environment, Partnerships and Strategies Section. Glossary of Terms Related to Water and Watershed Management in Alberta. 1st Edition. November 2008 (330 Kb)

Alberta Environment. Standards and Guidelines for Municipal Waterworks, Wastewater and Storm Drainage Systems, 2006. http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/library/6979.pdf (3.84 Mb )

Alberta Municipal Affairs. Alberta Private Sewage Systems Standard of Practice Handbook, 2000..

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009.

Bow River Basin Council. Guidebook to Water Management: Background Information on Organizations, Policies, Legislation, Programs, and Projects in the Bow River Basin, 2002

City of Toronto. Biosolids and Residuals Masterplan. (128 Kb)

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition 2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © Harper Collins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009.

Connecticut Department of Health, Drinking Water Section. Fact Sheet: Manganese in Drinking Water (257 Kb)

Edwards Aquifier Website: Glossary of Water Resource Terms

Government of Alberta. Activities Designation Regulation, 2003

Government of Alberta. Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, 2000

Government of Alberta. Water for Life: Alberta's Strategy for Sustainability., 2003

Government of British Columbia, Environmental Protection Division. Glossary of Water Terms

Government of Canada. Guidelines for Effluent Quality and Wastewater Treatment at Federal Establishments, April 1976 (154 Kb)

Government of Nova Scotia. Government of Nova Scotia. "Protocol for Determining Groundwater Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water." (142 Kb)

Gowen Environmental Ltd. "Contaminated and Hazardous Waste Site Management Glossary I."

Hailey City Hall, Public Works.

Health Canada Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines

INAC. "Fact Sheet: Water Quality."

Management Risk Level Evaluation Guidelines for Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities. July 14, 2010.

National Assessment of Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities Summary Report.

Plan of Action for Drinking Water in First Nations Communities - Progress Report January 17, 2008.

Protocol for Centralised Drinking Water Systems in First Nations Communities. April 2010.

Protocol for Centralised Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities. April 2010.

Protocol for Decentralised Water and Wastewater Systems in First Nations Communities. April 2010.

"Water and Sewage Systems."

Layfield Environmental Systems. "AquaGuide Floating and Fixed Baffles."

Lenntech Water Treatment Solutions. "Disinfection By-Products."

Medicinenet.com. "Definition of Arsenic."

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Technical Report: Drinking Water System at the Kashechewan First Nation. November 10, 2005.

R.M. Technologies. "Water Treatment."

UNEP (2000) International source book on environmentally sound technologies for wastewater and stormwater management 

Vital Life Systems. "Water Treatment Terminology." (114 Kb)

Waterwiki

Appendix B Water System Summary

Appendix B.1 Water System Summary

Regional Roll-Up Summary: Water

Region: Quebec
Total No. of First Nations: 38
Participating No. of First Nations: 37
Participation Level: 99%
No. of Community Reports Issued: 39

  Groundwater GUDI Surface MTA Totals
Total No. of Systems 19 1 11 8 39
System Age
0-5 years (2006 - 2010) 0 0 4 2 6
6-10 years (2001 - 2005) 3 0 2 1 6
10-15 years (1996 - 2000) 2 1 1 1 5
15 -20 years (1991 - 1995) 3 0 0 0 3
20 years (≤ 1990)--> > 20 years (≤ 1990) 11 0 4 4 19
Treatment
None - Direct Use 1 0 0 1 2
Disinfection only 7 0 1 1 9
Conventional Filtration 11 1 10 3 25
MTA 0 0 0 3 3
Classification - Treatment
Small system 1 0 0 0 1
Level I 11 0 1 0 12
Level II 6 0 6 0 12
Level III 1 1 4 0 6
MTA 0 0 0 8 8
Classification - Distribution
Small system 0 0 0 1 1
Level I 14 1 8 6 29
Level II 2 0 2 0 4
Level III 0 0 1 0 1
MTA 0 0 0 1 1
None 3 0 0 0 3
Distribution
Piped 19 1 11 8 39
Water Quality
Fails Health
Yes, fails health due to: 3 0 3 2 8
Design 1 0 0 0 1
Operation 0 0 1 0 1
Combination 2 0 1 0 3
Unknown 0 0 1 2 3
Fails Aesthetic
Yes, fails aesthetic due to: 2 1 3 0 6
Design 0 0 0 0 0
Operation 1 0 1 0 2
Combination 1 0 0 0 1
Unknown 0 1 2 0 3
Primary Operator - Treatment
Not certified 1 1 0 0 2
No operator 1 0 0 0 1
Not required 0 0 0 8 8
Certified to Level 15 0 10 0 25
Certified 2 0 1 0 3
Back-up Operator - Treatment
Not certified 3 1 1 0 5
No operator 1 0 0 0 1
Not required 0 0 0 8 8
Certified to Level 12 0 8 0 20
Certified 3 0 2 0 5
Primary Operator - Distribution
Not certified 1 1 0 1 3
No operator 0 0 0 1 1
Not required 3 0 0 1 4
Certified to Level 14 0 11 5 30
Certified 1 0 0 0 1
Back-up Operator - Distribution
Not certified 3 1 1 3 8
No operator 0 0 0 1 1
Not required 3 0 0 1 4
Certified to Level 11 0 9 3 23
Certified 2 0 1 0 3

Risk (mean) Groundwater GUDI Surface MTA Mean Mean excluding MTA
Final 5.2 3.8 3.8 4.3 4.6 4.6
Source 5.8 7.0 8.5 1.5 5.7 6.8
Design 3.9 3.0 3.4 3.9 3.7 3.7
Operations 6.6 3.0 4.4 6.3 5.8 5.7
Reporting 5.9 3.0 3.0 6.5 5.2 4.8
Operator 1.9 5.0 1.1 2.1 1.8 1.7

Appendix B.2 Wastewater System Summary

Regional Roll-Up Summary: Wastewater

Region: Quebec
Total No. of First Nations: 38
Participating No. of First Nations: 37
Participation Level: 99%
No. of Community Reports Issued: 39

  Septic Aerated Lagoon Facultative Lagoon Mechanical Other MTA Totals
Total No. of Systems 1 22 0 5 1 10 39
System Age
0-5 years
(2006 -2010)
0 0 0 0 0 2 2
6-10 years
(2001 -2005)
0 4 0 1 0 0 5
10-15 years
(1996 -2000)
0 6 0 1 0 3 10
15-20 years
(1991 -1995)
0 3 0 1 0 1 5
20 years (≤ 1990)--> > 20 years
(≤ 1990)
1 9 0 2 1 4 17
Classification - Treatment
Small System 1 0 0 0 1 0 2
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 10 10
Level I 0 19 0 4 0 0 23
Level II 0 3 0 1 0 0 4
Classification - Collection
Small System 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Level I 0 19 0 4 0 7 30
Level II 0 2 0 1 0 1 4
Level III 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
None 1 0 0 0 1 0 2
Collection
Piped 1 22 0 5 1 9 38
Low Pressure 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Trucked 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Combined 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Effluent Quality
No data 0 5 0 0 0 1 6
Meets 1 6 0 2 1 7 17
Does not meet 0 11 0 3 0 2 16
Primary Operator - Treatment
Not certified 0 4 0 0 0 0 4
No operator 0 0 0 1 1 0 2
Not required 0 0 0 0 0 10 10
Certified to Level 1 17 0 4 0 0 22
Certified 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Back-Up Operator - Treatment
Not certified 0 4 0 1 0 0 5
No operator 0 0 0 1 1 0 2
Not required 0 0 0 0 0 10 10
Certified to Level 1 18 0 3 0 0 22
Certified 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Primary Operator - Collection
Not certified 0 4 0 0 0 2 6
No operator 0 0 0 1 0 1 2
Not required 1 0 0 0 1 1 3
Certified to Level 0 17 0 3 0 5 25
Certified 0 1 0 1 0 1 3
Back-Up Operator - Collection
Not certified 0 4 0 1 0 3 8
No operator 0 0 0 1 0 3 4
Not required 1 0 0 0 1 1 3
Certified to Level 0 17 0 2 0 2 21
Certified 0 1 0 1 0 1 3
Receiver
Large river 0 7 0 1 0 0 8
Creek 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Lake, reservoir 0 6 0 3 0 0 9
River 1 4 0 1 0 0 6
Open marine, enclosed bay 0 3 0 0 0 0 3
Wetland 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Sub-surface / Ground 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
MTA 0 0 0 0 0 10 10

Risk (mean) Septic Aerated Lagoon Facul- tative Lagoon Mecha- nical Other MTA Mean Mean excluding MTA
Final 3.6 5.8 0.0 7.4 6.0 4.5 5.6 6.0
Effluent Receiver 8.0 8.0 0.0 8.0 3.0 1.2 6.2 7.9
Design 2.0 5.8 0.0 7.4 3.0 3.7 5.3 5.8
Operations 5.0 6.3 0.0 6.6 9.0 5.0 6.0 6.4
Reporting 1.0 5.4 0.0 8.2 4.0 7.7 6.2 5.7
Operator 1.0 2.1 0.0 2.6 10.0 3.2 2.6 2.4

Appendix C Site Visit Methodology

Site Visits

Typical Day

Arrive in Community – Lead/Senior Inspector & Technical Support
  • Meet with Circuit Rider and/or DIAND representative and First Nation/Tribal Council Representatives to undergo introductions and provide a brief synopsis of the activities to be undertaken for the day. This is based on the assumption that the First Nation has been fully briefed by DIAND on the purpose, process and benefits for the First Nation to cooperate and collaborate with the project.
  • Confirm the various components that the First Nation uses to provide water to the entire community (i.e. number and types of distribution systems, source types, private wells, etc.) to help build assessment form for the community.
  • Pre-select areas to undertake private system evaluations on community map.
  • Confirm any missing background data that may be available allowing the First Nation time during the day to have Public Works Director/Supervisor/ Secretary/etc to locate such materials.
Lead/Senior – Inspector
  • Meet with Chief/Housing Manager/Band Manager/Finance Manager, to identify:
    • future servicing needs (planned development and population growth)
    • servicing constraints (source availability, soils, groundwater, bedrock, topography, etc.)
    • identify the extent to which non structural solutions or optimization strategies (water conservation, leak reduction, etc) have been previously investigated or implemented
    • confirm current population and housing numbers
    • obtain financial information not previously provided
    • note community concerns related to future servicing.
  • Complete a walk through of the water plant from source to storage.
  • Prepare a flow schematic (internal use).
  • Complete the assessment questionnaire on treatment/storage/operations/operator(s) etc. with Operator/Circuit Rider.
  • Take photographs.
  • Travel to main sewage pumping station and wastewater treatment facility.
  • Complete a walk through of the plant from influent to effluent.
  • Prepare a flow schematic (internal use).
  • Complete assessment questionnaire.
  • Take photographs.
  • Complete ACRS update.
  • Repeat for additional water or wastewater facilities.
  • Review information collected by Technical Support
  • Gather all background/operational data gathered by First Nation.
  • Complete overall notes.
Technical Support
  • Gather any relevant operational data (water and wastewater), if not already provided and arrange with the First Nation to have copied/scanned that day.
  • Obtain GPS coordinates of source(s) and treatment.
  • Complete the source questions on the assessment questionnaire.
  • Undertake sampling of the raw and/or treated water, if necessary.
  • Take photographs.
  • Complete ACRS update.
  • Travel around community with First Nation representative and undertake private system assessments for water and/or septic including GPS coordinates, photographs, assessment forms and sampling.
  • Meet back with Lead/Senior Inspector at wastewater location and assist with sampling, if required.

Sampling Requirements

Water Sampling

The terms of reference state, "The sampling program for public water systems should reflect the requirements of the most stringent regulations applicable in the Province in which the community is located. However, should an adequate sampling program already be in place, then existing data may be used. Bidders should assume sampling and testing will be required for 5% of total wells, septics, and cisterns identified in SW5. Septics and cisterns only require a visual inspection. All bidders are required to carry a $500,000 allowance for this purpose. Any variances should be identified in the Inception Report."

Health Canada data is anticipated to be available for the majority of the water systems. Where data is not available, sampling will be conducted as part of the inspection.

Minimum existing data required will include:

Community systems

  • bacteriological – monthly available for previous year
  • general chemistry – annually (treated)
  • full Volatile Organic Compound analysis – within 5 years

Private wells

  • bacteriological – one sample within past year
  • basic chemistry – one sample within past year

For public systems where data is not available, treated water samples will be obtained and submitted to a laboratory for testing that would include; Basic Chemistry, Full Metals Scan, Bacteria and Volatile Organic Compounds.

For public systems that include a piped distribution system and where distributed water quality data is not available, a sample will be taken from the most remote point in the distribution system and sampled for Disinfection By-Products.

For individual wells, samples will be obtained from a representative number of wells (5% of total wells) in the community. The testing will include; Basic Chemistry, Full Metals Scan and Bacteria.

Wastewater Sampling

For systems lacking existing discharge quality data, and that will be discharging at the time of the site visit, representative samples will be obtained and submitted to a laboratory for testing. This would include seasonal discharges at the time of the site visit and from plants with continuous discharge to a receiving body. Sewage treatment systems providing an equivalent to secondary treatment (lagoons, and mechanical facilities) for which effluent quality data does not include the parameters of BOD5, TSS, and E.Coli, will be sampled in the field, if they are in fact discharging at the time of site visit. Similarly, sewage treatment systems providing an equivalent to tertiary treatment for which effluent quality data does not include BOD5, TSS, Ammonia, Total Phosphorous and E.Coli, will be sampled in the field, if they are in fact discharging at the time of the site visit.

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary

Table D.1 - 1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source Treatment Class Const Year
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak 6493 RÉSERVE DE WÔLINAK NO. 11 MTA MTA 2006
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake 6516 RAPID LAKE Groundwater Level I 2000
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan 6499 OBEDJIWAN NO. 28 Groundwater Level II 1988
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit 6504 BETSIAMITES Surface Water Level II 1996
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik   COMMUNITY WELLS Groundwater Level II 2001
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni 6490 PIKOGAN MTA MTA 2009
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci 6497 COMMUNAUTÉ DE WEMOTACI - station de traitement d'eau Surface Water Level II 1983
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi 6509 CHISASIBI - Station de traitement d'eau Surface Water Level III 2001
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini 6508 MISTASSINI Groundwater Level I 1965
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska 6507 NEMISCAU Groundwater Level I 1978
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji 6511 WEMINDJI Groundwater Level II 1999
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa 6521 EAGLE VILLAGE FIRST NATION - KIPAWA Surface Water Level II 2010
57 Eastmain 6513 EASTMAIN Groundwater GUDI Level III 2000
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 6501 MALIOTENAM NO. 27A Groundwater Level II 1985
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 6500 UASHAT NO. 27 MTA MTA 2002
86 Innue Essipit 6505 COMMUNAUTÉ MONTAGNAISE ESSIPIT MTA MTA 0
70 Kahnawake 6492 KAHNAWAKE NO. 14 Surface Water Level III 1974
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg 6495 KITIGAN ZIBI MTA MTA 0
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 6519 RÉSERVE DU LAC JOHN Surface Water Level I 1975
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 6517 RÉSERVE MATIMEKOSH MTA MTA 1998
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan 6498 COMMUNAUTÉ ATIKAMEKW DE MANAWAN Groundwater Level I 1988
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit 6518 MINGAN Groundwater Level II 2004
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government 6488 LISTUGUJ Groundwater Level II 1991
67 Long Point First Nation 6514 WINNEWAY INDIAN SETTLEMENT Groundwater Level I 1982
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag 9680 GESGAPEGIAG Groundwater Level I 1990
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake 6491 KANESATAKE LANDS Groundwater Small System 1974
83 Montagnais de Natashquan 6502 NATASHQUAN NO. 1 Groundwater Level III 1990
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi 6520 ST. AUGUSTIN INDIAN SETTLEMENT Surface Water Level II 2004
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu 6503 ROMAINE NO. 2 Surface Water Level III 2009
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean 6496 MASHTEUIATSH Surface Water Level II 2006
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach 9678 KAWAWACHIKAMACH - Station de traitement d'eau Surface Water Level II 1982
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon 6515 LAC SIMON Groundwater Level I 1986
50 Nation Huronne Wendat 6487 VILLAGE DES HURONS WENDAKE NO. 7 MTA MTA 0
72 Odanak 6494 ODANAK NO. 12 MTA MTA 1988
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou 7111 OUJÉ-BOUGOUMOU Groundwater Level I 1991
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui 6506 WHAPMAGOOSTUI Groundwater Level I 1984
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation 6510 WASKAGANISH - Station de traitement d'eau Surface Water Level III 2009
64 Timiskaming First Nation 6489 TIMISKAMING Groundwater Level I 1995
56 Waswanipi 6512 WASWANIPI Groundwater Level I 2003

Table D.1 - 1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems (continued)
First Nation Information Water System Information Storage Information
Band # Band Name Design Capacity [m 3/d] Actual Capacity [m 3/d] Max Daily Volume [m 3/d] Disinfection Storage Type Storage Capacity
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak 18300 18300 11741 MTA Elevated MTA
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake   Unknown   Yes Underground  
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan 732 652 504 Yes Underground 580
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit 864 864 680 Yes Underground 820
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik 92 92 11 Yes Underground 1.135
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni 750 750 485 MTA None MTA
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci 792 648 454 Yes Underground 800
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi 2160 2160 1792 Yes Underground 2000
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini 8200 8200 2775 Yes Grade level, Underground 1235
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska 800 800 236 Yes Grade level 620
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji 654 654 1057 Yes Underground 1050
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa 367 367 200 Yes Elevated 600
57 Eastmain 615 615 486 Yes Underground 1000
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 1054 1054 711 Yes Underground 803
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam       MTA Underground MTA
86 Innue Essipit       MTA None MTA
70 Kahnawake 5300 5300 5743 Yes Underground 1385
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg Unknown Unknown 283 MTA None MTA
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 75 75 10.1 Yes Elevated 0.5
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John     3662 MTA Underground MTA
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan 670 670   Yes Underground 430
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit 545 545 152 Yes Underground 567
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government 2880 2880 1059 Yes Underground 565
67 Long Point First Nation 491 491 130 Yes Underground 675
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag 567 341 245 Yes Underground 568
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake n/a n/a n/a Yes    
83 Montagnais de Natashquan 840 428 355 Yes Grade level 586
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi 720 720 112 Yes Elevated 450
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu 720 720 462 Yes Underground 870
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean 4500 4000 1549 Yes Underground 2000
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach 870 870   Yes Underground 517
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon 1050 1050 550 Yes Underground 968
50 Nation Huronne Wendat 0 0 0 MTA None MTA
72 Odanak 3840 3840 2410 MTA Underground MTA
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou 818 818 418 Yes Underground 360
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui 1040 1200 1000 Yes Grade level 270
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation 2400 2400 1200 Yes Underground 967
64 Timiskaming First Nation Unknown   861 Yes Underground 750
56 Waswanipi 1417 1417 772 Yes Grade level, Underground 1135

Table D.1 - 1: Water System Regional Summary of Water Treatment, Storage and Distribution Systems (continued)
First Nation Information Distribution System Information
Band # Band Name Distribution Class Population Served Homes Piped Homes Trucked Number of Trucks in Service Pipe Length Pipe Length / Connection
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak Level I 140 78 0 0 3981 51
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake Level I 0 70 0 0    
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan Level II 2219 327 0 0 11281.6 34
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit Level I 2759 800 0 0 16037.81 20
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik NA 312 7 0 0    
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni MTA 597 147 0 0 3472 23
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci Level I 1300 250 0 0 7706.8 30
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi Level I 3825 800 0 0    
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini Level I 3416 761 0 0    
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska NA 672 211 0 0    
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji Level I 1301 370 0 0    
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa Level I 265 107 0 0 2016 18
57 Eastmain Level I 658 162 0 0    
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam Level I 1624 450 0 0 11091.44 24
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam Level I 1600 428 0 0 9395.38 21
86 Innue Essipit Level I 255 110 0 0 5279 47
70 Kahnawake Level II 6252 1924 0 0 11488.72 5
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg Small System 348 82 0 0 6695 81
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Level I 30 12 0 0 426 35
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Level I 948 166 0 0 8507 51
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan Level I 2298 406 0 0 11316 27
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit Level II 507 157 0 0 3597.5 22
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government Level I 1940 782 0 0 16114 20
67 Long Point First Nation Level I 380 104 0 0 2656 25
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag Level I 468 152 0 0 6377 41
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake NA 75 0 0 0    
83 Montagnais de Natashquan Level I 900 206 0 0 9524.5 46
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi Level I 332 94 0 0 4562 48
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu Level I 1200 298 0 0 5913 19
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean Level II 2359 898 0 0 15477.38 17
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach Level I 849 155 0 0    
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon Level I 1718 316 0 0 9262 29
50 Nation Huronne Wendat Level I 1545 640 0 0 13633.3 21
72 Odanak Level I 381 214 0 0 7316.5 34
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou Level I 813 202 0 0    
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui Level I 838 236 0 0    
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation Level III 2500 450 0 0    
64 Timiskaming First Nation Level I 631 226 0 0 6394 28
56 Waswanipi Level I 1925 409 0 0    

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries (continued)

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary (continued)

Table D.1 - 2: Regional Summary of Water Quality Information
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name System Status Water Source
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak 6493 RÉSERVE DE WÔLINAK NO. 11   MTA
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake 6516 RAPID LAKE   Groundwater
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan 6499 OBEDJIWAN NO. 28   Groundwater
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit 6504 BETSIAMITES   Surface Water
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik   COMMUNITY WELLS   Groundwater
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni 6490 PIKOGAN   MTA
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci 6497 COMMUNAUTÉ DE WEMOTACI -station de traitement d'eau   Surface Water
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi 6509 CHISASIBI -Station de traitement d'eau   Surface Water
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini 6508 MISTASSINI   Groundwater
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska 6507 NEMISCAU   Groundwater
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji 6511 WEMINDJI   Groundwater
65 Eagle Village First Nation -Kipawa 6521 EAGLE VILLAGE FIRST NATION -KIPAWA   Surface Water
57 Eastmain 6513 EASTMAIN   Groundwater GUDI
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 6501 MALIOTENAM NO. 27A   Groundwater
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 6500 UASHAT NO. 27   MTA
86 Innue Essipit 6505 COMMUNAUTÉ MONTAGNAISE ESSIPIT   MTA
70 Kahnawake 6492 KAHNAWAKE NO. 14   Surface Water
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg 6495 KITIGAN ZIBI   MTA
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 6519 RÉSERVE DU LAC JOHN   Surface Water
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 6517 RÉSERVE MATIMEKOSH   MTA
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan 6498 COMMUNAUTÉ ATIKAMEKW DE MANAWAN   Groundwater
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit 6518 MINGAN   Groundwater
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government 6488 LISTUGUJ   Groundwater
67 Long Point First Nation 6514 WINNEWAY INDIAN SETTLEMENT   Groundwater
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag 9680 GESGAPEGIAG   Groundwater
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake 6491 KANESATAKE LANDS   Groundwater
83 Montagnais de Natashquan 6502 NATASHQUAN NO. 1   Groundwater
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi 6520 ST. AUGUSTIN INDIAN SETTLEMENT   Surface Water
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu 6503 ROMAINE NO. 2   Surface Water
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean 6496 MASHTEUIATSH   Surface Water
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach 9678 KAWAWACHIKAMACH -Station de traitement d'eau   Surface Water
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon 6515 LAC SIMON   Groundwater
50 Nation Huronne Wendat 6487 VILLAGE DES HURONS WENDAKE NO. 7   MTA
72 Odanak 6494 ODANAK NO. 12   MTA
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou 7111 OUJÉ-BOUGOUMOU   Groundwater
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui 6506 WHAPMAGOOSTUI   Groundwater
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation 6510 WASKAGANISH -Station de traitement d'eau   Surface Water
64 Timiskaming First Nation 6489 TIMISKAMING   Groundwater
56 Waswanipi 6512 WASWANIPI   Groundwater

Table D.1 - 2: Regional Summary of Water Quality Information (continued)
First Nation Information Water Quality Information
Band # Band Name Meets/Does Not Meet GCDWQ Cause of Failure Fails Health Guidelines Fails Aesthetic Guidelines Fails MAC by Design Fails MAC by Operation DWA In Effect DWA Count
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake High Freq AND High Mag Design Yes No No No Yes 1
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit Low Freq, Low Mag Operation Yes Yes No No No 0
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No No No No Yes 1
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No No No No No 0
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
65 Eagle Village First Nation -Kipawa Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
57 Eastmain Meets Requirements N/A No Yes No No No 0
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam High Freq, Low Mag Operation No No No No No 0
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam Low Freq, Low Mag Unknown No No No No Yes 1
86 Innue Essipit High Freq, Low Mag Unknown Yes No No No   3
70 Kahnawake Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg Low Freq, Low Mag Unknown Yes No No No Yes 1
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Low Freq, Low Mag Both Yes No Yes Yes No 0
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Meets Requirements Unknown N/A N/A N/A No   8
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan Low Freq, Low Mag Both Yes No No No No 0
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit Low Freq, Low Mag Operation No Yes No No No 0
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
67 Long Point First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake Meets Requirements Both N/A N/A No No No 0
83 Montagnais de Natashquan Low Freq, Low Mag Both Yes Yes Yes No No 0
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi Meets Requirements N/A Yes Yes No No No 0
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu Meets Requirements N/A No N/A No No Yes 1
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean Low Freq, Low Mag Unknown No Yes No No No 0
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawach- ikamach Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
50 Nation Huronne Wendat Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
72 Odanak Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No Yes 1
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui Meets Requirements N/A No No No No No 0
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No No 0
64 Timiskaming First Nation High Freq, Low Mag Unknown No No Yes No No 0
56 Waswanipi Meets Requirements N/A N/A N/A No No   2

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries (continued)

Appendix D.1 Individual First Nation Water Summary (continued)

Table D.1 - 3: Regional Summary of Water Operator Information
First Nation Information Water System Information
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak 6493 RÉSERVE DE WÔLINAK NO. 11 MTA
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake 6516 RAPID LAKE Groundwater
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan 6499 OBEDJIWAN NO. 28 Groundwater
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit 6504 BETSIAMITES Surface Water
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik   COMMUNITY WELLS Groundwater
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni 6490 PIKOGAN MTA
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci 6497 COMMUNAUTÉ DE WEMOTACI -station de traitement d'eau Surface Water
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi 6509 CHISASIBI -Station de traitement d'eau Surface Water
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini 6508 MISTASSINI Groundwater
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska 6507 NEMISCAU Groundwater
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji 6511 WEMINDJI Groundwater
65 Eagle Village First Nation -Kipawa 6521 EAGLE VILLAGE FIRST NATION -KIPAWA Surface Water
57 Eastmain 6513 EASTMAIN Groundwater GUDI
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 6501 MALIOTENAM NO. 27A Groundwater
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 6500 UASHAT NO. 27 MTA
86 Innue Essipit 6505 COMMUNAUTÉ MONTAGNAISE ESSIPIT MTA
70 Kahnawake 6492 KAHNAWAKE NO. 14 Surface Water
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg 6495 KITIGAN ZIBI MTA
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 6519 RÉSERVE DU LAC JOHN Surface Water
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 6517 RÉSERVE MATIMEKOSH MTA
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan 6498 COMMUNAUTÉ ATIKAMEKW DE MANAWAN Groundwater
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit 6518 MINGAN Groundwater
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government 6488 LISTUGUJ Groundwater
67 Long Point First Nation 6514 WINNEWAY INDIAN SETTLEMENT Groundwater
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag 9680 GESGAPEGIAG Groundwater
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake 6491 KANESATAKE LANDS Groundwater
83 Montagnais de Natashquan 6502 NATASHQUAN NO. 1 Groundwater
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi 6520 ST. AUGUSTIN INDIAN SETTLEMENT Surface Water
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu 6503 ROMAINE NO. 2 Surface Water
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean 6496 MASHTEUIATSH Surface Water
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach 9678 KAWAWACHIKAMACH -Station de traitement d'eau Surface Water
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon 6515 LAC SIMON Groundwater
50 Nation Huronne Wendat 6487 VILLAGE DES HURONS WENDAKE NO. 7 MTA
72 Odanak 6494 ODANAK NO. 12 MTA
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou 7111 OUJÉ-BOUGOUMOU Groundwater
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui 6506 WHAPMAGOOSTUI Groundwater
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation 6510 WASKAGANISH -Station de traitement d'eau Surface Water
64 Timiskaming First Nation 6489 TIMISKAMING Groundwater
56 Waswanipi 6512 WASWANIPI Groundwater

Table D.1 - 3: Regional Summary of Water Operator Information (continued)
First Nation Information Operator Information
Band # Band Name Primary Operator Exists Primary Operator Treatment Class Primary Operator Distribution Class Secondary Operator Exists Secondary Operator Treatment Class Secondary Operator Distribution Class
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak Yes No Certification Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Not Required No Operator
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi Yes Level III Level I Yes Level IV Level IV
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji Yes Level II Level I Yes Level IV Level IV
65 Eagle Village First Nation -Kipawa Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
57 Eastmain Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam No Not Required   No Not Required  
86 Innue Essipit Yes No Certification Level I Yes No Certification Level I
70 Kahnawake Yes Level IV Level IV Yes Level I Level I
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Yes Level IV Level IV Yes Level IV Level IV
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Yes Level IV Level IV Yes Level IV Level IV
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
67 Long Point First Nation Yes Level III Level III Yes No Certification No Certification
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake No No Certification No Certification No No Certification No Certification
83 Montagnais de Natashquan Yes Level III Level I Yes Level III Level I
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi Yes Level IV Level IV Yes No Certification No Certification
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu Yes Level IV Level IV Yes Level IV Level IV
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach Yes Level IV Level IV Yes Level IV Level IV
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
50 Nation Huronne Wendat Yes No Certification Level I Yes No Certification Level I
72 Odanak Yes No Certification Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation Yes Level III Level III Yes Level III Level III
64 Timiskaming First Nation Yes Not Required No Operator Yes Not Required No Operator
56 Waswanipi Yes Level II Level I Yes No Certification No Certification

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries (continued)

Appendix D.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Summary

Table D.2 - 1: Regional Summary of Wastewater Treatment
First Nation Information Wastewater System Information
Band # Band Name System # - System Name Const Year Receiver Name Treatment Class Design Capacity [m 3/d] Max Daily Volume [m 3/d]
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak 7264 - RÉSERVE DE WÔLINAK NO. 11 1999 MTA MTA 4546 4923
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake 7287 RAPID LAKE 1995 Wetland Level I 173 134
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan 7270 - OBEDJIWAN NO. 28 1990 Lake, Reservoir Level II 398 615
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit 7275 - BETSIAMITES 1987 Large River Level I 784  
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik   COMMUNITY SEPTIC 0 River Small System 17 129
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni 7261 PIKOGAN 2010 MTA MTA 334 247
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci 7268 COMMUNAUTÉ DE WEMOTACI - station d'épuration des eaux d'égout 1998 Large River Level I 903 866
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi 7280 CHISASIBI - Station d'épuration des eaux d'égout 2000 Large River Level I 2013 942
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini 7279 MISTASSINI 1980 Lake, Reservoir Level I 2436 1417
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska 7278 NEMISCAU 2001 Creek Level I 630 312.2
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji 7282 WEMINDJI 2001 Large River Level I 767 540
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa 7292 EAGLE VILLAGE FIRST NATION - KIPAWA 2000 Lake, Reservoir Level I 125 141
57 Eastmain 7284 EASTMAIN 1994 River Level I 500 500
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 7272 MALIOTENAM NO. 27A 1985 MTA MTA 2408 1148
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 7271 UASHAT NO. 27 0 MTA MTA    
86 Innue Essipit 7276 COMMUNAUTÉ MONTAGNAISE ESSIPIT 0 MTA MTA    
70 Kahnawake 7263 KAHNAWAKE NO. 14 2003 Large River Level II 14800 7065
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg 7266 KITIGAN ZIBI 0 MTA MTA   144
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 7290 RÉSERVE DU LAC JOHN 1975 Lake, Reservoir Level I 40 6.5
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 7288 RÉSERVE MATIMEKOSH 1998 MTA MTA 1400 988
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan 7269 COMMUNAUTÉ ATIKAMEKW DE MANAWAN 1988 Lake, Reservoir Level II 293 452
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit 7289 MINGAN 1990 Enclosed Bay, Estuary Level I 174 156
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government 7257 LISTUGUJ 1997 River Level I 2012 1978
67 Long Point First Nation 7285 7285 - WINNEWAY INDIAN SETTLEMENT 1984 Lake, Reservoir Level I 180 170
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag 9681 GESGAPEGIAG 1996 Enclosed Bay, Estuary Level I 248 173
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake 7262 KANESATAKE LANDS 0 Sub-Surface/ Ground Small System n/a n/a
83 Montagnais de Natashquan 7273 NATASHQUAN NO. 1 1986 Open Marine Level I 210 389
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi 7291 ST. AUGUSTIN INDIAN SETTLEMENT 1986 River Level I 260 74
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu 7274 ROMAINE NO. 2 2000 Large River Level I 549 442
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean 7267 MASHTEUIATSH 1989 Lake, Reservoir Level I 1375 1789
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachi- kamach 9679 KAWAWACH- IKAMACH - Station d'épuration des eaux d'égout 1997 Lake, Reservoir Level I 379 374
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon 7286 LAC SIMON 2003 Large River Level II 620 646
50 Nation Huronne Wendat 7256 VILLAGE DES HURONS WENDAKE NO. 7 2000 MTA MTA    
72 Odanak 7265 ODANAK NO. 12 2003 River Level I 282 285
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou 7651 OUJÉ-BOUGOUMOU - Station de traitement d'eau 1991 Lake, Reservoir Level I 350 337
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui 7277 WHAPMAGOOSTUI 2007 MTA MTA 1040 860
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation 7281 WASKAGANISH - Station d'épuration des eaux d'égout 1995 River Level I 2000 1300
64 Timiskaming First Nation 7258 TIMISKAMING 1995 MTA MTA   632
56 Waswanipi 7283 WASWANIPI 1989 Large River Level I 530 799

Table D.2 - 1: Regional Summary of Wastewater Treatment (continued)
First Nation Information Wastewater System Information
Band # Band Name Wastewater System Type Wastewater Treatment Level Wastewater Disinfection Chlorine Wastewater Disinfection UV Discharge Frequency Wastewater Sludge Treatment
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous Yes
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik Septic Primary No No Continuous No
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa Mechanical Primary No No Continuous No
57 Eastmain RBC Secondary No No Continuous Yes
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
86 Innue Essipit MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
70 Kahnawake Mechanical Tertiary No No Continuous Yes
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John RBC Secondary No No Continuous No
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous Yes
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous Yes
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Other Yes
67 Long Point First Nation RBC Secondary No No Continuous No
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake Other Primary No No Continuous No
83 Montagnais de Natashquan Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous Yes
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Other No
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
50 Nation Huronne Wendat MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
72 Odanak Aerated lagoon Secondary No Yes Continuous Yes
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation Aerated lagoon Primary No No Continuous No
64 Timiskaming First Nation MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA MTA
56 Waswanipi Aerated lagoon Secondary No No Continuous No

Appendix D First Nation Water Summaries (continued)

Appendix D.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Summary (continued)

Table D.2 - 2: Regional Summary of Wastewater Collection Systems, Effluent Quality and Operators
First Nation Information Collection System Information
Band # Band Name System # - System Name Collection Type Collection Class Pop. Served Homes Piped Homes Trucked
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak 7264 RÉSERVE DE WÔLINAK NO. 11 Piped Level I 140 77 0
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake 7287 - RAPID LAKE Piped Level I 584 70 0
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan 7270 - OBEDJIWAN NO. 28 Piped Level II 2219 327 0
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit 7275 - BETSIAMITES Piped, Low Pressure Level I 2759 800 0
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik COMMUNITY SEPTIC Piped NA 312 7 0
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni 7261 - PIKOGAN Piped, Low Pressure MTA 597 147 0
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci 7268 - COMMUNAUTÉ DE WEMOTACI - station d'épuration des eaux d'égout Piped Level I 1300 250 0
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi 7280 - CHISASIBI - Station d'épuration des eaux d'égout Piped Level I 3825 800 0
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini 7279 - MISTASSINI Piped Level I 3416 761 0
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska 7278 - NEMISCAU Piped, Low Pressure Level I 726 211 0
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji 7282 - WEMINDJI Piped Level I 1301 370 0
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa 7292 - EAGLE VILLAGE FIRST NATION - KIPAWA Piped Level I 265 107 0
57 Eastmain 7284 - EASTMAIN Piped, Low Pressure Level I 658 162 0
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 7272 - MALIOTENAM NO. 27A Piped Level I 1624 450 0
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 7271 UASHAT NO. 27 Piped Level I 1347 428 0
86 Innue Essipit 7276 - COMMUNAUTÉ MONTAGNAISE ESSIPIT Piped, Trucked Level I 255 108 0
70 Kahnawake 7263 KAHNAWAKE NO. 14 Piped Level II 6252 1924 0
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg 7266 - KITIGAN ZIBI Piped Small System 348 82 0
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 7290 RÉSERVE DU LAC JOHN Piped Level I 30 12 0
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 7288 - RÉSERVE MATIMEKOSH Piped Level I 948 166 0
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan 7269 - COMMUNAUTÉ ATIKAMEKW DE MANAWAN Piped Level I 2298 406 0
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit 7289 - MINGAN Piped Level I 507 157 0
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government 7257 - LISTUGUJ Piped Level I 3564 1162 0
67 Long Point First Nation 7285 - WINNEWAY INDIAN SETTLEMENT Piped, Low Pressure Level I 380 104 0
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag 9681 - GESGAPEGIAG Piped Level I 468 152 0
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake 7262 - KANESATAKE LANDS Piped NA 75 0 0
83 Montagnais de Natashquan 7273 - NATASHQUAN NO. 1 Piped Level I 900 206 0
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi 7291 - ST. AUGUSTIN INDIAN SETTLEMENT Piped Level I 332 94 0
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu 7274 - ROMAINE NO. 2 Piped Level I 1200 298 0
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean 7267 - MASHTEUIATSH Piped Level I 2359 898 0
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach 9679 - KAWAWACHIKAMACH - Station d'épuration des eaux d'égout Piped Level I 849 155 0
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon 7286 - LAC SIMON Piped, Low Pressure Level II 1718 316 0
50 Nation Huronne Wendat 7256 - VILLAGE DES HURONS WENDAKE NO. 7 Piped Level I 1545 640 0
72 Odanak 7265 - ODANAK NO. 12 Piped Level I 480 214 0
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou 7651 - OUJÉ-BOUGOUMOU - Station de traitement d'eau Piped Level I 813 199 0
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui 7277 - WHAPMAGOOSTUI Piped, Low Pressure Level II 1426 236 0
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation 7281 - WASKAGANISH - Station d'épuration des eaux d'égout Piped, Low Pressure Level III 2500 450 0
64 Timiskaming First Nation 7258 - TIMISKAMING Piped Level I 631 226 0
56 Waswanipi 7283 - WASWANIPI Piped, Low Pressure Level I 1925 409 0
              13581 0

Table D.2 - 2: Regional Summary of Wastewater Collection Systems, Effluent Quality and Operators (continued)
First Nation Information Collection System Information Effluent Quality
Band # Band Name No. of Trucks in Service Pipe Length Pipe Length / Connection Low Pressure Sewer No. of Pumping Stations Meets Federal Guidelines (1976) Cause of Failure
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak 0 6335 82 No 3 MTA MTA
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake 0 3055 43 No 1 Unknown Unknown
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan 0 11800.6 36 No 3 High Freq AND High Mag Design
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit 0 12191.1 15 Yes 4 Low Freq, Low Mag Design
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik 0     No 0 Meets Requirements Unknown
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni 0 2882 19 Yes 1 MTA MTA
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci 0 10080.4 40 No 2 Low Freq, Low Mag Unknown
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi 0     No 7 Unknown Unknown
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini 0     No 3 Unknown Unknown
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska 0     Yes 3 High Freq, Low Mag Operation
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji 0     No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa 0 1920 17 No 1 High Freq, Low Mag Design
57 Eastmain 0     Yes 3 High Freq AND High Mag Design & Operation
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 0 10337.1 22 No 2 MTA MTA
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 0 9316.53 21 No 1 MTA MTA
86 Innue Essipit 0 4191 38 No 1 MTA MTA
70 Kahnawake 0 18077.1 9 No 8 Meets Requirements Unknown
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg 0 5830 71 No 3 MTA MTA
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 0 508 42 No 0 Meets Requirements Unknown
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John 0 7957.29 47 No 5 MTA MTA
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan 0 8653 21 No 1 High Freq AND High Mag Design & Operation
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit 0 4840.5 30 No 1 High Freq OR High Mag Unknown
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government 0 15671.5 13 No 7 Meets Requirements Unknown
67 Long Point First Nation 0 2653 25 Yes 1 High Freq AND High Mag Design
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag 0 5667 37 No 1 Meets Requirements Unknown
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake 0     No 0 Meets Requirements Design & Operation
83 Montagnais de Natashquan 0 5023 24 No 1 High Freq AND High Mag Design & Operation
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi 0 2606.5 27 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Design
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu 0 9698 32 No 1 Low Freq, Low Mag Design & Operation
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean 0 15244.4 16 No 4 Meets Requirements Unknown
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachi- kamach 0     No 2 Low Freq, Low Mag Design
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon 0 6957 22 Yes 3 Meets Requirements Unknown
50 Nation Huronne Wendat 0 12313.6 19 No 1 MTA MTA
72 Odanak 0 6437.9 30 No 2 High Freq AND High Mag Design & Operation
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou 0     No 1 Unknown Unknown
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui 0     Yes 1 MTA MTA
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation       Yes 3 Meets Requirements Unknown
64 Timiskaming First Nation 0 3279.3 14 No 1 MTA MTA
56 Waswanipi 0     Yes 2 Unknown Unknown

Table D.2 - 2: Regional Summary of Wastewater Collection Systems, Effluent Quality and Operators (continued)
First Nation Information Operator Information
Band # Band Name Primary Operator Exists Primary Operator Treatment Class Primary Operator Collection Class Secondary Operator Exists Secondary Operator Treatment Class Secondary Operator Collection Class
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi Yes No Certification No Certification Yes Level IV Level IV
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska Yes Level II Level II Yes Level I Level I
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji Yes Level I Level I Yes No Certification No Certification
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
57 Eastmain No No Certification No Certification No No Certification No Certification
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam Yes Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam Yes Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
86 Innue Essipit Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
70 Kahnawake Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Yes Level IV Level IV Yes Level IV Level IV
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
67 Long Point First Nation Yes Level III Level III Yes No Certification No Certification
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag Yes Level II Level II Yes Level II Level II
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake No No Certification No Certification No No Certification No Certification
83 Montagnais de Natashquan Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi Yes Level IV Level IV Yes Level IV Level IV
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu Yes Level II Level I Yes Level II Level I
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach Yes Level IV Level IV Yes Level IV Level IV
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon Yes Level I Level I Yes Level II Level II
50 Nation Huronne Wendat Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
72 Odanak Yes Level I Level I Yes Level I Level I
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui No Not Required Not Required No Not Required Not Required
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation Yes Level IV Level IV Yes Level II Level II
64 Timiskaming First Nation Yes Not Required Not Required Yes Not Required Not Required
56 Waswanipi Yes No Certification No Certification Yes No Certification No Certification

Appendix E Risk Summary

Appendix E.1 Individual First Nation Water Risk Summary

Legend
  Risk Level
High Risk 8.0 - 10.0
Medium Risk 5.0 - 7.0
Low Risk 1.0 - 4.0

Table E.1: Individual First Nation Water Risk Summary
Band # Band Name System # System Name Water Source Treat- ment Class Source Risk Design Risk Oper- ations Risk Report Risk Ope- rator Risk Final Risk Score
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake 6516 RAPID LAKE Ground- water Level I 5.0 8.0 6.0 10.0 7.0 7.1
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan 6499 OBEDJIWAN NO. 28 Ground- water Level II 10.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 1.0 5.0
62 Commu- nauté anicinape de Kitcisakik   COMMUNITY WELLS Ground- water Level II 5.0 4.0 8.0 6.0 1.0 4.9
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini 6508 MISTASSINI Ground- water Level I 3.0 1.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 4.2
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska 6507 NEMISCAU Ground- water Level I 5.0 2.0 6.0 10.0 1.0 4.1
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji 6511 WEMINDJI Ground- water Level II 7.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 3.6
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 6501 MALIOTENAM NO. 27A Ground- water Level II 7.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.6
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan 6498 COMMUN- AUTÉ ATIKAMEKW DE MANAWAN Ground- water Level I 6.0 8.0 8.0 2.0 1.0 5.8
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit 6518 MINGAN Ground- water Level II 5.0 1.0 8.0 2.0 1.0 3.6
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government 6488 LISTUGUJ Ground- water Level II 4.0 1.0 6.0 1.0 1.0 2.8
67 Long Point First Nation 6514 WINNEWAY INDIAN SETTLEMENT Ground- water Level I 2.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 1.0 2.7
52 Micmacs of Gesga- pegiag 9680 GESGA- PEGIAG Ground- water Level I 7.0 2.0 5.0 7.0 1.0 3.7
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake 6491 KANESATAKE LANDS Ground- water Small System 10.0 1.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 7.0
83 Montagnais de Natashquan 6502 NATASHQUAN NO. 1 Ground- water Level III 7.0 8.0 8.0 6.0 1.0 8.0
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon 6515 LAC SIMON Ground- water Level I 5.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 3.3
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou 7111 OUJÉ- BOUGO- UMOU Ground- water Level I 4.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
95 Première nation de Whapma- goostui 6506 WHAPMA- GOOSTUI Ground- water Level I 4.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 1.0 3.8
64 Timisk- aming First Nation 6489 TIMIS- KAMING Ground- water Level I 8.0 8.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 8.0
56 Waswanipi 6512 WASWANIPI Ground- water Level I 6.0 2.0 8.0 9.0 1.0 8.0
57 Eastmain 6513 EASTMAIN Ground- water GUDI Level III 7.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 3.8
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak 6493 RÉSERVE DE WÔLINAK NO. 11 MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 5.0 10.0 1.0 3.1
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni 6490 PIKOGAN MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 8.0 10.0 1.0 4.0
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam 6500 UASHAT NO. 27 MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 5.2
86 Innue Essipit 6505 COMMUN- AUTÉ MONTAG- NAISE ESSIPIT MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 4.0 3.0 5.9
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg 6495 KITIGAN ZIBI MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 7.5
87 La Nation Innu Matim- ekush- Lac John 6517 RÉSERVE MATIMEKOSH MTA MTA 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.4
50 Nation Huronne Wendat 6487 VILLAGE DES HURONS WENDAKE NO. 7 MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 7.0 8.0 1.0 3.5
72 Odanak 6494 ODANAK NO. 12 MTA MTA 4.0 2.0 5.0 8.0 1.0 3.5
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit 6504 BETSIAMITES Surface Water Level II 9.0 5.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 5.3
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci 6497 COMMUN- AUTÉ DE WEMOTACI - station de traitement d'eau Surface Water Level II 10.0 3.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 4.9
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi 6509 CHISASIBI - Station de traitement d'eau Surface Water Level III 9.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 1.0 3.3
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa 6521 EAGLE VILLAGE FIRST NATION - KIPAWA Surface Water Level II 7.0 2.0 1.0 10.0 2.0 3.0
70 Kahnawake 6492 KAHNAWAKE NO. 14 Surface Water Level III 9.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 2.7
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush- Lac John 6519 RÉSERVE DU LAC JOHN Surface Water Level I 8.0 8.0 8.0 6.0 1.0 8.0
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi 6520 ST. AUGUSTIN INDIAN SETTLEMENT Surface Water Level II 9.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.4
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu 6503 ROMAINE NO. 2 Surface Water Level III 9.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.4
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean 6496 MASHTE- UIATSH Surface Water Level II 9.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 6.0
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawa- chika- mach 9678 KAWAW- ACHIKA- MACH - Station de traitement d'eau Surface Water Level II 6.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.8
61 The Crees of the Waska- ganish First Nation 6510 WASKA- GANISH - Station de traitement d'eau Surface Water Level III 8.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 2.3

Appendix E Risk Summary (continued)

Appendix E.2 Individual First Nation Wastewater Risk Summary

Legend
  Risk Level
High Risk 8.0 - 10.0
Medium Risk 5.0 - 7.0
Low Risk 1.0 - 4.0

Table E.2: Individual First Nation Wastewater Risk Summary
Band # Band Name System # System Name Receiver Type Treat- ment Class Efflu- ent Risk Design Risk Oper- ations Risk Report Risk Ope- rator Risk Final Risk Score
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska 7278 NEMISCAU Creek Level I 8.0 2.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 4.4
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit 7289 MINGAN Enclosed bay Level I 10.0 8.0 8.0 2.0 1.0 6.4
52 Micmacs of Gesga- pegiag 9681 GESGA- PEGIAG Enclosed bay Level I 10.0 3.0 7.0 8.0 1.0 5.5
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan 7270 OBEDJIWAN NO. 28 Lake, reservoir Level II 10.0 8.0 7.0 7.0 1.0 6.6
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini 7279 MISTASSINI Lake, reservoir Level I 10.0 2.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 5.4
65 Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa 7292 EAGLE VILLAGE FIRST NATION - KIPAWA Lake, reservoir Level I 10.0 8.0 5.0 10.0 1.0 6.4
87 La Nation Innu Matim- ekush- Lac John 7290 RÉSERVE DU LAC JOHN Lake, reservoir Level I 10.0 4.0 7.0 10.0 1.0 5.9
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan 7269 COMMU- NAUTÉ ATIKAMEKW DE MANAWAN Lake, reservoir Level II 10.0 8.0 10.0 5.0 4.0 8.0
67 Long Point First Nation 7285 7285 - WINNEWAY INDIAN SETTLEMENT Lake, reservoir Level I 8.0 9.0 9.0 10.0 1.0 8.0
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean 7267 MASHTE- UIATSH Lake, reservoir Level I 10.0 5.0 6.0 1.0 1.0 5.0
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawaw- achik- amach 9679 KAWAW- ACHIK- AMACH - Station d'épuration des eaux d'égout Lake, reservoir Level I 8.0 8.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 4.4
OB1 Ouje Bougo- umou 7651 OUJÉ- BOUGO- UMOU - Station de traitement d'eau Lake, reservoir Level I 10.0 6.0 5.0 10.0 6.0 6.9
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit 7275 BETSI- AMITES Large river Level I 10.0 8.0 5.0 7.0 1.0 6.1
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci 7268 COMMU- NAUTÉ DE WEMOTACI - station d'épuration des eaux d'égout Large river Level I 8.0 8.0 8.0 5.0 1.0 8.0
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi 7280 CHISASIBI - Station d'épuration des eaux d'égout Large river Level I 4.0 3.0 4.0 10.0 4.0 4.3
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji 7282 WEMINDJI Large river Level I 5.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 1.0 4.2
70 Kahnawake 7263 KAHNAWAKE NO. 14 Large river Level II 5.0 8.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 8.0
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu 7274 ROMAINE NO. 2 Large river Level I 8.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 1.0 6.7
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon 7286 LAC SIMON Large river Level II 4.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 1.0 8.0
56 Waswanipi 7283 WASWANIPI Large river Level I 6.0 4.0 4.0 9.0 8.0 5.7
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak 7264 RÉSERVE DE WÔLINAK NO. 11 MTA MTA 1.0 4.0 6.0 10.0 1.0 5.7
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni 7261 PIKOGAN MTA MTA 2.0 1.0 3.0 10.0 1.0 2.6
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani- Utenam 7272 MALIO- TENAM NO. 27A MTA MTA 1.0 2.0 5.0 4.0 2.0 2.7
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani- Utenam 7271 UASHAT NO. 27 MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 1.0 5.2
86 Innue Essipit 7276 COMMU- NAUTÉ MONTAG- NAISE ESSIPIT MTA MTA 2.0 8.0 8.0 4.0 6.0 6.0
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishi- nabeg 7266 KITIGAN ZIBI MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 5.0 10.0 8.0 4.3
87 La Nation Innu Matim- ekush- Lac John 7288 RÉSERVE MATIME- KOSH MTA MTA 1.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 8.0
50 Nation Huronne Wendat 7256 VILLAGE DES HURONS WENDAKE NO. 7 MTA MTA 1.0 2.0 6.0 10.0 1.0 3.4
95 Première nation de Whapma- goostui 7277 WHAPMA- GOOSTUI MTA MTA 1.0 1.0 3.0 10.0 10.0 4.2
64 Timisk- aming First Nation 7258 TIMISK- AMING MTA MTA 1.0 2.0 5.0 10.0 1.0 3.1
83 Montagnais de Natash- quan 7273 NATASH- QUAN NO. 1 Open marine Level I 7.0 8.0 10.0 6.0 1.0 6.7
62 Commu- nauté anicinape de Kitcisakik 0 COMMUNITY SEPTIC River Small System 8.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 3.6
57 Eastmain 7284 EASTMAIN River Level I 7.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 8.7
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government 7257 LISTUGUJ River Level I 10.0 4.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 5.3
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi 7291 ST. AUGUSTIN INDIAN SETTLEMENT River Level I 6.0 8.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 4.2
72 Odanak 7265 ODANAK NO. 12 River Level I 10.0 8.0 9.0 4.0 1.0 6.8
61 The Crees of the Waska- ganish First Nation 7281 WASKA- GANISH - Station d'épuration des eaux d'égout River Level I 8.0 4.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 3.6
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake 7262 KANESATAKE LANDS Sub- surface / Ground Small System 3.0 3.0 9.0 4.0 10.0 6.0
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake 7287 RAPID LAKE Wetland Level I 5.0 3.0 7.0 10.0 7.0 5.9

Appendix F Future Servicing Protocol Costs

Table F: Protocol and Servicing Costs (Water & Wastewater Combined)
Band # Band Name Community Name Population Current Homes Forecast Population Forecast Homes Zone Markup
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak Wôlinak 11 140 78 150 88 1.069
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake Rapid Lake 584 70 729 106 1.239
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan Obedjiwan 2219 327 2641 432 1.480
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit Betsiamites 2759 800 2927 856 1.080
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik Grand Lac Victoria Indian Settlement 312 113 566 240 1.239
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni Pikogan 597 147 825 204 1.134
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci Communauté De Wemotaci 1300 250 1679 344 1.180
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi Chisasibi 3825 800 4810 1046 1.596
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini Mistassini 3416 761 4498 1031 1.281
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska Nemiscau 726 211 956 287 1.596
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji Wemindji 1301 370 1426 411 1.596
65 Eagle Village First Nation -Kipawa Eagle Village First Nation -Kipawa 265 107 420 184 1.239
57 Eastmain Eastmain 658 162 866 214 1.596
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam Maliotenam 1624 450 1710 478 1.221
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam Uashat 1600 428 1756 480 1.221
86 Innue Essipit Innue Essipit 255 110 400 182 1.080
70 Kahnawake Kahnawake 14 7506 2290 8649 2671 1.069
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg Kitigan Zibi 1549 389 2074 564 1.102
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Lac John 30 12 30 12 2.562
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John Matimekosh 3 777 166 923 202 2.562
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan COMMUNAUT‰ ATIKAMEKW DE MANAWAN 2298 406 2981 576 1.168
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit MINGAN 507 158 548 171 1.330
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government Listuguj 1940 782 2665 1144 1.080
67 Long Point First Nation Winneway Indian Settlement 380 104 513 148 1.239
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag Gesgapegiag 468 178 597 242 1.080
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake Kanesatake Lands 1628 447 2078 597 1.069
83 Montagnais de Natashquan Natashquan 900 206 1130 263 1.657
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi St. Augustin Indian Settlement 332 94 425 125 2.562
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu Romaine 2 1200 298 1370 340 2.376
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean Mashteuiatsh 2359 973 2891 1239 1.080
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach Kawawachikamach 849 155 1233 251 2.888
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon Lac Simon 1718 316 2248 448 1.134
50 Nation Huronne Wendat Village Des Hurons Wendake 7 1545 640 2041 888 1.080
72 Odanak Odanak 12 381 214 605 438 1.069
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou Ouje Bougoumou 813 202 1048 260 1.000
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui Whapmagoostui 850 236 1070 309 2.782
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation Waskaganish 2500 450 3029 582 2.100
64 Timiskaming First Nation Timiskaming 631 226 848 334 1.134
56 Waswanipi Waswanipi 1925 409 2470 545 1.239

Table F: Protocol and Servicing Costs (Water & Wastewater Combined) (continued)
Band # Band Name Upgrade To Protocol Per Lot Upgrades to Protocol (Current Homes) Recomm- ended Servicing Per Lot Reccomended Servicing (Forecast Homes) Recomm- ended O&M Per Lot O&M (Forecast Homes)
71 Abénakis de Wôlinak $99,600 $1,300 $2,410,000 $27,400 $270,000 $3,100
74 Algonquins of Barriere Lake $267,000 $3,800 $6,520,000 $61,500 $400,000 $3,800
79 Atikamekw dOpitciwan $690,000 $2,100 $19,720,000 $45,600 $710,000 $1,600
85 Bande des Innus de Pessamit $400,000 $500 $6,750,000 $7,900 $730,000 $900
62 Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik $311,000 $2,800 $14,800,000 $61,700 $290,000 $1,200
55 Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni $416,000 $2,800 $4,210,000 $20,600 $300,000 $1,500
77 Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci $324,000 $1,300 $11,900,000 $34,600 $510,000 $1,500
58 Cree Nation of Chisasibi $420,000 $500 $18,960,000 $18,100 $790,000 $800
75 Cree Nation of Mistissini $128,100 $200 $8,350,000 $8,100 $570,000 $600
59 Cree Nation of Nemaska $399,500 $1,900 $9,370,000 $32,600 $370,000 $1,300
60 Cree Nation of Wemindji $475,000 $1,300 $12,010,000 $29,200 $500,000 $1,200
65 Eagle Village First Nation -Kipawa $20,000 $200 $6,460,000 $35,100 $430,000 $2,300
57 Eastmain $510,000 $3,100 $18,980,000 $88,700 $370,000 $1,700
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam $236,500 $500 $5,230,000 $10,900 $470,000 $1,000
80 Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam $115,000 $300 $1,520,000 $3,200 $155,000 $300
86 Innue Essipit $125,000 $1,100 $990,000 $5,400 $230,000 $1,300
70 Kahnawake $- $- $5,420,000 $2,000 $4,020,000 $1,500
73 Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg $387,000 $1,000 $16,230,000 $28,800 $940,000 $1,700
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John $691,500 $57,600 $700,000 $58,300 $250,000 $20,800
87 La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John $- $- $4,950,000 $24,500 $500,000 $2,500
78 Les Atikamekw de Manawan $3,177,000 $7,800 $11,530,000 $20,000 $310,000 $500
82 Les Innus de Ekuanitshit $173,100 $1,100 $2,520,000 $14,700 $410,000 $2,400
51 Listuguj Migmaq Government $615,500 $800 $4,680,000 $4,100 $740,000 $600
67 Long Point First Nation $508,000 $4,900 $7,950,000 $53,700 $390,000 $2,600
52 Micmacs of Gesgapegiag $137,000 $800 $2,790,000 $11,500 $430,000 $1,800
69 Mohawks of Kanesatake $- $- $35,720,000 $59,800 $580,000 $1,000
83 Montagnais de Natashquan $487,000 $2,400 $12,340,000 $46,900 $640,000 $2,400
88 Montagnais de Pakua Shipi $240,000 $2,600 $4,230,000 $33,800 $440,000 $3,500
84 Montagnais de Unamen Shipu $1,130,000 $3,800 $14,250,000 $41,900 $520,000 $1,500
76 Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean $31,500 $- $17,520,000 $14,100 $1,050,000 $800
81 Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach $124,000 $800 $13,540,000 $53,900 $570,000 $2,300
63 Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon $3,264,600 $10,300 $13,780,000 $30,800 $660,000 $1,500
50 Nation Huronne Wendat $179,000 $300 $1,610,000 $1,800 $430,000 $500
72 Odanak $200,000 $900 $2,600,000 $5,900 $260,000 $600
OB1 Ouje Bougoumou $1,056,000 $5,200 $11,270,000 $43,300 $330,000 $1,300
95 Première nation de Whapmagoostui $10,050,000 $42,600 $13,440,000 $43,500 $400,000 $1,300
61 The Crees of the Waskaganish First Nation $259,000 $600 $7,320,000 $12,600 $840,000 $1,400
64 Timiskaming First Nation $290,000 $1,300 $4,160,000 $12,500 $360,000 $1,100
56 Waswanipi $299,000 $700 $20,090,000 $36,900 $530,000 $1,000

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