Off-Grid Communities

An off-grid community, as defined by Natural Resources Canada, is a community that is neither connected to the North American electrical grid nor to the piped natural gas network; it is permanent or long-term (5 years or more), and the settlements have at least 10 permanent buildings.

There are approximately 175 Aboriginal and northern off-grid communities across Canada.  They face a number of environmental, social, and economic concerns that relate to energy in these off-grid communities.

  1. Environmental Concerns

    • Burning large amounts of diesel produces substantial greenhouse gas emissions.  This contributes to climate change which negatively affects communities.
    • Fuel must be transported long distances by airplane, truck or barge, leading to a greater risk of fuel spills.
    • The transportation of fuel by trucks on winter roads impacts the environment negatively through high greenhouse gas emissions from the vehicles.
    • Fuel spills may take place while the fuel is being transported and stored, posing environmental risks.  Fuel tank leaks contaminate soil and groundwater.
  2. Social Concerns

    • Generators can be noisy and disruptive, especially in quiet, remote communities.
    • Emissions from diesel generators could contribute to health problems in community members.
    • Black-outs can occur if diesel generators break down or are not properly maintained.  This can be dangerous in cold, remote locations.
  3. Economic Concerns

    • Cold, northern locations have a high demand for diesel and heating fuel which contributes to high energy expenditures.
    • Diesel fuel must be flown in, shipped in, or driven in on winter roads which leads to high transportation costs, contributing to high energy expenditures.
    • Diesel is a non-renewable resource; therefore the price of diesel fuel will likely continue to fluctuate, based on overall supply and demand.
    • The high cost of energy and energy supply issues in off-grid communities can deter new businesses, limiting future economic opportunities in off-grid communities.

Aboriginal and Northern Off-Grid Communities

Province/Territory Community Name Electrification Source
Newfoundland and Labrador Black Tickle diesel generators
Cartwright diesel generators
Charlottetown diesel generators
Hopedale diesel generators
Makkovik diesel generators
Mary's Harbour diesel generators
Mud Lake diesel generators
Mushuau Innu First Nation (Natuashish) diesel generators
Nain diesel generators
Norman Bay diesel generators
Paradise River diesel generators
Port Hope Simpson diesel generators
Postville diesel generators
Rigolet diesel generators
St. Lewis diesel generators
Williams Harbour diesel generators
Quebec Akulivik diesel generators
Algonquins of Barriere Lake (Rapid Lake) diesel generators
Atikamekw d'Opiticiwan (Obedjiwan) diesel generators
Aupaluk diesel generators
Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik (Grand Lac Victoria) diesel generators
Inukjuak diesel generators
Ivujivik diesel generators
Kangiqsualujjuaq diesel generators
Kangiqsujuaq diesel generators
Kangirsuk diesel generators
Kuujjuaq diesel generators
Kuujjuaraapik diesel generators
Montagnais de Unamen Shipu (Romaine) diesel generators
Première nation de Whapmagoostui diesel generators
Puvirnituq diesel generators
Quaqtaq diesel generators
Salluit diesel generators
Tasiujaq diesel generators
Umiujaq diesel generators
Ontario Bearskin Lake diesel generators
Deer Lake mini hydro with back-up generators
Eabametoong (Fort Hope) diesel generators
Fort Severn diesel generators
Gull Bay diesel generators
Kasabonika Lake wind with back-up generators
Kee-Way-Win (Niska) diesel generators
Kingfisher diesel generators
Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug (Big Trout Lake) diesel generators
Marten Falls diesel generators
Muskrat Dam Lake diesel generators
Neskantaga First Nation (Lansdowne House) diesel generators
Nibinamik (Summer Beaver) diesel generators
North Caribou Lake (Weagamow Lake) diesel generators
North Spirit Lake diesel generators
Pikangikum diesel generators
Poplar Hill diesel generators
Sachigo Lake diesel generators
Sandy Lake diesel generators
Wapekeka diesel generators
Wawakapewin (Long Dog Lake) diesel generators
Webequie diesel generators
Weenusk (Peawanuck) diesel generators
Whitesand diesel generators
Wunnumin diesel generators
Manitoba Barren Lands (Brochet) diesel generators
Northlands (Lac Brochet) diesel generators
Sayisi Dene First Nation (Churchill) diesel generators
Shamattawa First Nation diesel generators
Saskatchewan Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation (Kinoosao Thomas Clark) diesel generators
British Columbia Da'naxda'xw First Nation (Dead Point) diesel generators
Dease River (Good Hope Lake) diesel generators
Ehattesaht (Chenahkint) diesel generators
Gwawaenuk Tribe / Kwa–wa–aineuk (Hopetown) diesel generators
Haida Nation (Old Masset) diesel generators
Haida Nation (Skidegate) diesel generators
Hartley Bay (Kulkayu) diesel generators
Heiltsuk Nation diesel generators
Hesquiaht (Refuge Cove) diesel generators
Iskut (Eddontenajon) diesel generators
Kitasoo small hydro with back-up diesel generators
Kluskus (Sundayman's Meadow) diesel generators
Kwadacha (Fort Ware) diesel generators
Kwicksutaineuk-ah-kwaw-ah-mish (Gwayasdums) diesel generators
Liard First Nation (Lower Post / Liard River) diesel generators
Nuxalk Nation diesel generators
Oweekeno / Wuikinuxv Nation (Katit) diesel generators
Tahltan First Nation (Telegraph Creek) diesel generators
Taku River Tlingit (Atlin) micro hydro with back-up diesel generators
Tlatlasikwala (Hope Island) diesel generators
Tsawataineuk (Quaee) diesel generators
Tsay Keh Dene (Finlay River) diesel generators
Uchucklesaht (Elhlateese) diesel generators
Ulkatcho First Nation diesel generators
Xeni Gwet'in First Nation (Chilco Lake, Lezbye & Lohbiee) diesel generators
Yukon Beaver Creek diesel generators
Burwash Landing diesel generators (tied to Destruction Bay)
Carcross Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Carmacks Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Champagne Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Dawson City Mayo hydro grid with diesel back-up
Destruction Bay diesel generators (tied to Burwash landing)
Faro Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Haines Junction Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Johnson's Crossing Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Keno Mayo hydro grid with diesel back-up
Marsh Lake Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Mayo Mayo hydro grid with diesel back-up
Old Crow Settlement diesel generators
Pelly Crossing Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydro grid with diesel back-up
Ross River Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Stewart Crossing Mayo hydro grid with diesel back-up
Tagish Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Teslin Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Watson Lake diesel generators
Whitehorse Whitehorse-Aishihik-Faro hydroelectric grid with diesel back-up
Northwest Territories Aklavik diesel generators
Behchokö / Rae-Edzo (Dog Rib Rae) Snare hydro grid with diesel back-up
Colville Lake (Behdzi Ahda) diesel generators
Déline (Fort Franklin Settlement) diesel generators
Dettah Snare hydro grid with diesel back-up
Enterprise Taltson hydro grid with diesel back-up
Fort Good Hope (K'asho Got'ine) diesel generators
Fort Liard (Acho Dene Koe) diesel generators
Fort McPherson (Tetlit Gwich'in) diesel generators
Fort Providence (Deh Gah Gotie Dene Council) diesel generators
Fort Resolution (Deninu K'ue) Taltson hydro grid with diesel back-up
Fort Simpson (Liidlii Kue) diesel generators
Fort Smith (Salt River) Taltson hydro grid with diesel back-up
Gamèti (Rae Lakes) diesel generators
Hay River (West Point) Taltson hydro grid with diesel back-up
Hay River Reserve (K'atlodeeche) Taltson hydro grid with diesel back-up
Inuvik natural gas
Jean Marie River diesel generators
Kakisa (Ka'a'gee Tu) diesel generators
Lutsel K'e Dene Band (Snowdrift Settlement) diesel generators
Nahanni Butte (Nahanni Butte Dene / Deh Cho) diesel generators
Norman Wells natural gas
Paulatuk diesel generators
Sachs Harbour diesel generators
Trout Lake (Sambaa K'e Dene) diesel generators
Tsiigehtchic (Arctic Red River / Gwichya Gwich'in) diesel generators
Tuktoyaktuk diesel generators
Tulita (Tulita Dene / Fort Norman) diesel generators
Ulakhaktok (Holman) diesel generators
Wekweèti (Dechi Laot'l / Snare Lake) diesel generators
Whatì (Tlicho / Lac La Martre) diesel generators
Wrigley (Pehdzeh Ki) diesel generators
Yellowknife (City of Yellowknife and N'dilo) Snare hydro grid with diesel back-up
Nunavut Arctic Bay (Ikpiarjuk) diesel generators
Arviat diesel generators
Baker Lake (Qamanittuaq) diesel generators
Bathurst Inlet (Kingoak) diesel generators
Cambridge Bay (Ikaluktutiak) diesel generators
Cape Dorset (Kinngait) diesel generators
Chesterfield Inlet (Igluligaarjuk) diesel generators
Clyde River (Kangiqtugaapik) diesel generators
Coral Harbour (Sallit) diesel generators
Gjoa Haven (Uqsuqtuuq) diesel generators
Grise Fiord (Aujuittut) diesel generators
Hall Beach (Sanirajak) diesel generators
Igloolik (Iglulik) diesel generators
Iqaluit diesel generators
Kimmirut diesel generators
Kugaaruk (formerly Pelle Bay) diesel generators
Kugluktuk (Qurluqtuq) diesel generators
Pangnirtung (Pangniqtuuq) diesel generators
Pond Inlet (Mittimatalik) diesel generators
Qikiqtarjuaq (formerly Broughton Island) diesel generators
Rankin Inlet (Kangiqiniq) diesel generators
Repulse Bay (Naujaat) diesel generators
Resolute / Resolute Bay (Qausiuttuq) diesel generators
Sanikiluaq diesel generators
Taloyoak (Talujuaq) diesel generators
Whale Cove (Tikirarjuaq) diesel generators

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