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The management of oil and gas resources North of 60º latitude in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and northern offshore is a federal responsibility. This responsibility is carried out by the Northern Oil and Gas Branch of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Prior to devolution in 1998, management of Yukon oil and gas was also a federal responsibility.

Petroleum resource management on Crown lands north of 60º latitude is exercised under two federal statutes: the Canada Petroleum Resources Act (CPRA) and the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act (COGOA). The CPRA governs the allocation of Crown lands to the private sector, tenure to the allocated rights, and the setting and collection of royalties. It is administered by the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The COGOA regulates the industrial activities with respect to resource conservation, environmental protection and safety of workers. It is administered by the National Energy Board.