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I am pleased to present the first annual Performance Report of the Northern Affairs Program (NAP), Contaminated Sites Program (CSP). This document reports progress on managing contaminated
sites from former military sites and abandoned mines in Canada's three territories north of 60° latitude for the fiscal year 2001 - 02
CSP is committed to managing contaminated
sites in a cost-effective and consistent manner, to reduce and eliminate, where
possible, risk to human and environmental health and liability associated with
It has achieved a number of results at
priority sites over the last year, including:
assessment work at 13 different sites;
remediation work at 6 sites;
ongoing care and maintenance at 6 sites; and
site monitoring at 5 sites.
Overall, the pace of progress has been
steady: the CPS has fully completed three of the four Sustainable Development
Strategy 2001 commitments directed at contaminated sites management and has
partially achieved the fourth. Major achievements include: consolidating CSP's
inventory database; calculating liabilities and contingencies; drafting a
contaminated sites management policy; and developing a detailed Contaminated
Sites Management Framework to guide the CSP in the future.
That is not to say there have not been
challenges in securing sufficient funding to support the increased level of
responsibilities of the CSP continues to be a major concern. The rapid increase
in liabilities from inherited abandoned mines, as well as ongoing liabilities
from former military sites poses a challenge from both a financial and a human
Nevertheless, staff will continue to work
towards effectively managing CSP's responsibilities. Issues that are priorities
and next steps for the Program include:
seeking approval of the contaminated sites policy;
obtaining approval for the Contaminated Sites Management Framework from the Contaminated Sites Management Steering Committee;
fully integrating the Contaminated Sites Management Framework into operations; and
addressing significant environmental and human health issues at sites designated as priority.
This Performance Report gives readers an in-depth perspective on CSP's achievements over the past year, as well as on its goals for the years to come. To ensure
continued improvement, I invite readers to provide comments and feedback on this report. Thank you for your interest in our Program.
James R. Moore
Assistant Deputy Minister
Northern Affairs Program
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
The Contaminated Sites Program (CSP) has
been working to effectively manage its
environmental and socio-economic
responsibilities. This report details the CSP's achievements, successes and challenges to
date. Its purpose is to apprise senior
management of significant environmental and
human health issues associated with
contaminated sites in the North, to report on
progress and to facilitate management
decisions on issues of importance.
Over the past few years, the CSP has been
making a concerted effort to manage its key
impacts and improve its performance. There
has been a major effort to develop a
Contaminated Sites Policy and a
Management Framework, which both currently
awaiting approval. The basic element of the
framework, has been developed, and over the
next year the CSP will be moving to complete
implementation of the core elements of the
Significant work also went into information
management in the past year, including
developing the detailed CSP inventory
database that includes pertinent information
on each site under the CSP's responsibility, as
well as calculating INAC's liabilities and
contingencies by site. An important element to
build into information management systems in
the coming year is the systematic monitoring
of social and economic benefits derived from
the operations and activities of the CSP in the
Program committees, such as the
Contaminated Sites Management Steering
Committee (CSMSC) and the Contaminated
Sites Management Working Team (CSMWT)
have been established and met five times
during the reporting period. These committees
provide overall direction and are instrumental
to the successful implementation of the CSP.
Information management systems have been established to facilitate the flow of Regional
information into the Performance Report
process. This report represents the first full
cycle of this newly established reporting
The report is divided into four major sections.
The introductory section includes the
executive summary, report coverage and a
profile of the CSP's scale of operations. The
management section describes the vision and
strategy for the future, the importance of
incorporating sustainable development into
decision making processes and operations,
the governance structure and program
development. Then third section of the report
focuses on specific objectives and progress
achieved. Finally, the last section of the report
addresses the future direction of the CSP in
managing its liabilities.
This report presents the results and
outcomes of CSP's management of
contaminated sites in Canada's three
territories for the period ending
March 31, 2002. This is the CSP's first annual
Performance Report and therefore it also
contains historical/contextual information that
will not be included in future reports.
The NAP CSP has responsibilities and obligations for managing contaminated sites in Canada's three
territories - the Northwest Territories (NWT), Nunavut and
the Yukon. Most contaminated
sites in the North are located in
remote areas, and result from
former military sites, and abandoned and
insolvent mines. Because most public lands in
the three territories are federal Crown lands
managed and administered by Indian and
Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), land
administration associated with some former
military sites and abandoned mines reverts to
In general, the transfer of administration of former military sites to INAC control occurred
at a time when environmental
regulations were non-existent or
inadequate by current
standards.The sites contained many contaminants unrecognized at that time, such as PCBs, hydrocarbons, lead and mercury. Some sites have contaminants at levels that may pose a risk to human health and safety, and/or the environment.
From 1997 to 2000, economic conditions
caused major mines in Canada's territories to
become insolvent, for example,
Giant and Colomac Mines in the
NWT and the Faro Mine in the
Yukon, reverted to federal
through bankruptcy proceedings
by their parent companies. Most
of the bigger mine sites have
become the responsibility of
INAC as a result of insolvency
INAC is now responsible for 1,818 sites. Of
these, 63 sites are known to contain
contamination accounting for a total liability of $723 million; most of the liability is associated
with 37 sites, which have accordingly been
designated as high priority sites. Figure 1
illustrates the locations of priority sites in
NAP has been managing northern federal
contaminated sites since 1991.
Since 1999, however, when it
inherited a number of large
abandoned mines, that expanded
the scope of the Program's
activities and responsibilities has
expanded considerably. Over
$131 million has been directed to
environmental site assessment,
risk management and remediation over the
last 11 years. As of March 31, 2002:
54 percent of sites have been assessed
and either require no further action or
remediation is complete;
27 percent of sites require assessment
and may require action;
18 percent of sites have been assessed
and require some action.
The CSP operates under one
of INAC's key operating
principles, which emphasizes:
A long-term focus
seeking to preserve and
social and natural capital in order to
improve the quality of people's lives
and to contribute a legacy for the
Consequently, priority is assigned to sites with:
human health and safety concerns;
legal and Aboriginal land claims obligations;
significant impacts on the environment; and
other concerns expressed by First Nations, Inuit, Northerners and other stakeholders.
CSP employs a team of 19 staff members,
located at INAC in Gatineau, Quebec (2) and
in three Regional offices, including NWT
(12.5), Nunavut (1.5) and the Yukon (3).
In addition, the Governor General's 2001
Speech from the Throne committed the
government to strengthening its relationship
with Aboriginal people and to strengthening
Aboriginal entrepreneurial and business
expertise to ensuring a clean, healthy
environment for Canadians; and to building
strong and safe communities.
INAC is the principal federal department
responsible for carrying out the federal
government's vision and meeting its
constitutional, political and legal
responsibilities in the North, including
responsibility for most of the North's natural
resources. Accordingly, NAP is the custodian
and resource manager for an area occupying 40 percentof Canada's land mass and
10 percent of its freshwater supply. INAC's
role in the North is extremely broad and
includes settling and implementing land
claims, negotiating self-government
agreements, advancing political evolution,
managing natural resources, protecting the
environment and fostering leadership in
sustainable development both domestically
and among circumpolar nations.
INAC's approach in managing these
responsibilities is based on partnership and
the principles of sustainable development. In
2001, INAC's second Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS)3 was tabled in
Parliament and included four specific
commitments related to contaminated sites as
to create a prioritization system for all
northern contaminated sites by December
to conduct Phase II/III environmental
assessments for at least five sites by
to initiate containment of PCB-
contaminated soils at Resolution Island by
to develop a contaminated sites
management program by December 31,
The CSP has fully completed three of these
commitments and partially achieved the
fourth. The prioritization system for
contaminated sites was updated within the set
time frame. In both July of 2000 and July of
2001, the CSP submitted comprehensive
proposals to the Federal Contaminated Sites
Assessment Initiative (FCSAI) to conduct
Phase II/III environmental assessments.
These requests were funded in the amount
just over $2.9 million. Using this money, 16
sites were assessed, (10 in 2000, and 6 in
2001). The PCB-contaminated soils project at
Resolution Island has also been established.
The only SDS commitment that has not been
fully achieved is development of a
Contaminated Sites Management Framework.
However, a framework has been developed
for submission for approval late in the Fall of
Consistent with the longer-term vision of NAP
- to provide a safer and cleaner northern
environment within the principles and
practices of sustainable development is CSP's
vision which states:
The CSP is committed to managing
contaminated sites in a cost-effective
and consistent manner, to reduce and
eliminate, where possible, risk to
human and environmental health and
liability associated with these sites.
The CSP is a decentralized program, with
each Region responsible for implementing
program policy through operational activities in
their respective regions. By comparison,
Headquarters provides policy direction and
communications support, a performance
management framework and standardized
reporting systems. Overall responsibility for
the CSP rests with the Deputy Minister, and
decision making is conducted through a
committee process in three key decisionmaking
bodies. Figure 2 below illustrates the roles and relationships of the
principle governing bodies.
The key corporate governance body in the
CSP is the Northern Management Committee
(NMC). Chaired by the Assistant Deputy
Minister (ADM) of Northern Affairs and
comprising regional and sector Directors
General and Directors, this committee brings
together senior operational and financial
executives. These executives are responsible
for NAP, as well as for establishing and
reviewing CSP policies and standards, and
identifying and approving new policies and
processes where required.
The NMC approves and funds plans which are
then executed under the overall direction of
the NAP Contaminated Sites Management
Steering Committee (CSMSC) and the NAP
Contaminated Sites Management Working Team (CSMWT) by committee members in
their respective regions. During the 2001-02
reporting period, the CSMSC and the CSMWT
met five times.
The CSP is implemented in the Regions, and
primary line responsibility rests there, while
Headquarters provides regional support and
strategic direction. Headquarters is
responsible for the CSP being implemented
and managed in accordance with policy and
program objectives, and for the CSP
supporting departmental goals and horizontal
initiatives where possible. Headquarters will
also provide regular progress reports on
implementation and management, monitor
optimal delivery and management of the CSP
and participate in regular audits and
The CSP has established the following
strategic objectives to guide its activities.
These objectives relate to the broad direction
for contaminated sites management provided
by Treasury Board (see "Policy and
Regulations" sub-section). The CSP's
strategic objectives are:
to meet federal and departmental policy
requirements and legal obligations
regarding the management of
to require that, where a suspected
contaminated site has been identified, the
site be assessed in a timely, consistent
and cost effective manner;
to provide a scientifically valid risk
management framework for setting
priorities, planning, implementing and
reporting on the management of
to remediate, depending on available
resources, all National Classification
System (NCS) Class 1 contaminated sites
in the North by 2027, unless it can be
demonstrated that for a specific site an
alternative form of management is
to promote the social and economic
benefits that may accrue to First Nations,
Inuit and northern communities when
carrying out activities required by this
to promote the federal "polluter pays"
All CSP planning is carried out in conformity
with these strategic objectives and targets,
including the long-term (25-year) management
plan, annual work plans and project level
plans. This performance report assesses the
extent to which these objectives and targets
are being met.
Several factors influence the CSP's progress.
The following factors have the greatest impact
on the CSP in terms of establishing future
direction and initiatives:
Environment, health and safety
The risk to health, safety and the environment
9s a major consideration; for example,
contamination may migrate into the food chain
or a community's water supply.
While there is no comprehensive regulatory
framework for contaminated sites at the
federal level, there are a number of pieces of
legislation that apply.
There is an evolving Treasury Board and
departmental policy framework related to
contaminated sites that requires specific
approaches and deliverables.
Site contamination is not only costly to
address, it has a significant effect on the value
of an asset, from both a land value and
Public awareness and confidence
A significant factor for dealing with
contaminated sites is the concern of affected
individuals and the general public, as well as
the impact on the reputation of the Government of Canada if it does not handle
contaminated sites in an appropriate manner.
Land use and claim obligations
The regime for determining the degree to
which a site is "contaminated" is related to its
land use; as a result, this factor often
determines the approach taken, i.e., the
standards of clean-up levels. Land claim
agreements also contain specific
commitments to remediate contaminated
sites; if these commitments are not met,
Aboriginal organizations may seek arbitration
or court action.
This is the Contaminated Sites Program's first annual Performance Report. It provides an overview of the CSP's evolution,
as well as the progress the CSP has made in managing contaminated sites responsibilities. Approving and integrating the Contaminated Sites Management
Framework into the existing structure of the CSP will be a significant challenge in the next year. It is also imperative that appropriate resources
are allocated to ensure that the CSP responsibilities are met.
The CSP will be concentrating its future efforts in the following areas:
seeking approval of the contaminated sites policy;
addressing the uncompleted action from SDS 2001 by obtaining approval of the Contaminated Sites Management Framework;
fully integrating the Contaminated Sites Management Framework into operations;
continued care and maintenance at high-priority contaminated sites;
addressing any issues identified from the OAG audits;
delivering training to increase the consistent use of the inventory database; and
continuing to make progress at priority sites through the ten-step process established by CSMWG.
The CSP has developed a strong Management Framework that will provide the systems to minimize the environmental and health effects from the contaminated sites that are the INAC's responsibility. However, to continually improve performance and maintain effective management, the CSP will need to ensure the efficient and effective use of resources to adequately address the issues identified in this report.
If you have any questions about this report or require further information, please contact Joanna Ankersmit, Manager, Contaminated Sites Program at
(819) 997-7247 or firstname.lastname@example.org
Colomac Mine is an abandoned gold mine located
northwest of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories.
INAC has been operating the mine in care and
maintenance mode since 1999 when Royal Oak Mines
became insolvent. The most significant issues at the
mine are related to the tailings containment area
(TCA). Since the mine shut down in 1997, the TCA,
which was designed not to discharge to the
environment, has been filling up with natural run-off
and precipitation. Activities over the past two years
have focused on avoiding an overflow of tailings water
contaminated with cyanide, ammonia and metals. Care
and maintenance costs over the last two years have
been approximately $3 million per year.
Accomplishments achieved at Colomac during the
reporting period cover a range of work, such as:
conducting baseline studies;
developing (with PWGSC) a detailed cost estimate
for care and maintenance and remediation
holding public hearings (February and May 2001)
regarding the Colomac Water Licence; as well as
regular consultation meetings with the Dogrib First
evaluating long-term water management options,
e.g., capital and operating cost estimates have
been developed for five water treatment
facilitating a technical workshop in December
2001 to examine all of the alternatives for water
management at the Colomac Mine. (The
workshop led to detailed work plans for the
investigations needed to arrive at a defensible
selection of water management measures);
conducting investigations to support selection of
water management measures;
conducting investigations to support selection of
water management measures;
Water Licence approval received November 2001;
construction of three ditches to divert clean water
away from the tailings area;
general clean-up of reagents (lime, acid, etc.) and
construction of berms around pits;
decontamination of 24 ATCO trailers and removal
of Wayco buildings;
landfill cleaned and sorted;
established Surveillance Network Program (as
part of the Water Licence) to take water quality
samples from 38 stations, analyse and report
results to the Water Board in an Annual Report;
INAC has developed a strong partnership with the
Dogrib community, who have been heavily
involved in developing a remediation plan for the
As of March 31, 2002, there were a total of
1,818 sites in Northern Canada under
Program management. Of these 1,818 sites:
976 have been assessed and either no
further action is required or remediation is
498 sites require assessment, and may
328 assessed and require some action;
37 of these sites are known to have
human and environmental hazards and
Port Radium Mine
The abandoned Port Radium mine site is
located on a peninsula on the eastern shore
of Great Bear Lake in the Northwest
Territories. Mining operations took place at
Port Radium almost continuously between
1932 and 1982. Radium, uranium and silver
ores were mined and milled at various times
at this site. Past mining operations have
raised community concerns about potential
contamination of the environment and about
Déline residents' exposure to radiation, both
as traditional land users in the area and as
labourers who handled the ore and
concentrate bags at the site and at a portage
along the Bear River. A three-year Action
Plan was developed to describe the scope of
activities and recommend studies that, when
completed, will provide the information
necessary to enable the Canada/Déline
Uranium Table (CDUT) to make informed
decisions about the long-term management
of the Port Radium mine site. For example, a
screening-level human health and ecological
risk assessment was undertaken in 2001-02,
along with ongoing community consultations
to ensure community concerns are being
addressed in an appropriate manner. The
cost of the assessment and consultations
amounted to over $1.7 million in the 2001-02
The CSP has identified 63 sites as being
contaminated. The 37 highest priority sites
include abandoned mines (14), former military
installations (22) and one other. The 63
priority sites are classified in Figure 4 below according to the CCME classification
Class 1: Action Required;
Class 2: Action Likely Required;
Class 3: Action May be Required;
Class N: Action Not Likely Required; and
Class I: Insufficient Information.
Figure 4: CCME Classification of Sites
Military Non-DEW Line
In setting priorities under the CCME system, the CSP's Management Framework employs the Northern Environmental Risk Assessment Strategy (NERAS), an internal NAP tool used to prioritize sites.
Based on the NERAS assessment of each site, plans, in the form of project planning and approval documents (PP&As), are developed and updated annually. These plans allows INAC to develop and approve options for each site, allocate and track resource expenditures per site on an annual and ongoing basis, and maintain a current inventory of funding requirements.
However, a number of factors distinguish NAP's CSP from most other contaminated sites management programs in the federal government. Two of the most notable are: the need to have an ongoing presence at these sites to operate critical systems and monitor conditions and controls; and the need to obtain regulatory approvals with major environmental impact assessment and public consultation requirements to proceed with proposed remediation activities. To reflect these differences, NAP's PP&A for contaminated sites has integrated these additional activities into the ten-step process and requires program managers to describe completed and planned activities for all NCS 1 sites according to the following six components:
Care and Maintenance/Urgent Works - required at sites, primarily abandoned mines, where continual water treatment and maintenance work is essential to prevent migration of pollutants offsite, or to prevent structural failure, to protect human health and the environment, and to keep the liability from exponentially increasing. At times urgent work is required to immediately address an environmental risk.
Investigation and Assessment (CSMWG Steps 1 to 7) - necessary to determine and quantify risk, develop management options and produce cost estimates for management options.
Regulatory Approvals - obtaining permits and licences required to implement care and maintenance and longer-term management options, including remediation or risk management, at sites where it is known that action is needed. Public communication is a requirement of most regulatory activity.
Consultation - informing Northerners about site remediation options and integrating their views and concerns into options.
Remediation (CSMWG Step 8 and 9) - clean-up activities that contribute to the reduction of both liability and risk.
Monitoring (CSMWG11 Step 10) - monitoring activities to verify that contaminants are not migrating off site and that management options, whether temporary or longer term, are working.
Project Management - those activities employed to ensure the efficient and effective management of personnel and resources at the project level in support of overall Program objectives
Figure 6 below illustrates the status of priority - NCS Class 1 - contaminated sites according to the CSMWG ten-step process.
Tundra - Taurcanis
Silver Bear Mines (4)
Contact Lake Mine
Roberts Bay Mine
: In Progress
Risk Mgt. Strategy
Sampling & Final Report
Tundra - Taurcanis
Silver Bear Mines (4)
Contact Lake Mine
Roberts Bay Mine
: In Progress
Current activities vary slightly depending on regional and site-specific conditions. In the Yukon, the focus is on addressing the major mining properties that pose an imminent risk to human health and the environment. In Nunavut, the focus is on addressing military sites, particularly DEW Line sites. In the NWT, the major activities address both mines and military sites.
Care and maintenance projects are ongoing at three Class 1 sites in the Yukon and three sites in the NWT. Urgent works projects were necessary at one site in the Yukon and three in the NWT. Regulatory approvals have successfully been obtained for necessary work at Faro Mine and Mount Nansen (Yukon), as well as the Giant Mine and Port Radium (NWT). To date consultations have taken place at four Class 1 sites - Faro Mine, Giant Mine, Port Radium and Resolution Island. At present there is no standard approach to regulatory approvals and consultations between or within Regions. NAP initiated action at a number of the major mines on an emergency basis under the authority of the respective Water Acts. The status of the INAC from a regulatory perspective under these situations is complex, and CSP staff have sought legal advice to establish guidelines for moving sites from this status to one more suited to ongoing management.
The Faro Mine consists of waste rock dumps, ore processing facilities,
water treatment plants, tailings disposal facilities, and offices, shops
and miscellaneous buildings. The Faro Mine began operations in 1969 and
was one of the largest open-pit lead and zinc mines of its day. It was
later mined underground. Mining continued, with interruptions, until
1998 when the operator, Anvil Range Mining Corporation, declared bankruptcy.
Currently a receiver, Deloitte and Touche Inc., is managing the site
with funding from INAC. Legal challenges by creditors are preventing
the receiver from selling off remaining assets and declaring the site
Significant care and maintenance activities took place in the last year
at Faro to prevent the discharge of contaminated water. These activities
include pumping and treating water from the pit mines, environmental
monitoring programs (physical stability, biological activity, water quality),
site management and reporting, maintenance to physical structures, and
all related activities. Performance of these activities provides environmental
protection to the surrounding environment and follows the terms of the
water licences. Over $3.2 million was spent during the reporting period
on care and maintenance activities. Site remediation activities also
took place, including a Phase 1 assessment of the site and a number of
projects that gathered and contributed information related to final closure
/ abandonment plans as well as a risk-based priority list for future
activities. The cost of these activities amounted to $1.6 million.
The Giant Mine is situated five kilometres north of Yellowknife, within city limits, adjacent to Great Slave Lake along the western shore of Yellowknife Bay. The mine has operated nearly continuously since 1948 and included underground, as well as open pit mining operations. Miramar Giant Mine Ltd (MGML) is currently operating at the site, however, due to historical issues, the federal government retains responsibility for pre-existing environmental liabilities on the property prior to MGML operations.
Previous ore processing at the site resulted in the production of over two million tonnes of tailings. Tailings from the first years of operations were discharged in an uncontrolled area and/or into Yellowknife Bay, where they remain. Subsequently, most of the tailings were stored on the surface in four ponds covering approximately 150 hectares. Arsenic trioxide dust was another by-product of the ore processing and approximately 237,000 tonnes of the dust is stored underground.
Screening level risk assessments evaluating the human health risks associated with the underground arsenic trioxide dust and the contaminated soils have taken
place at the Giant Mine site. A number of consultations have also taken place, including: three major arsenic management technical sessions (1997, 1999, 2001);
a number of open houses and public sessions (with special attention to the aboriginal community in the Yellowknife area); as well as the publication of a number
of both technical and public information packages. During the 2001-2002 fiscal year a variety of work has been conducted at the Giant Mine site, including:
Care and maintenance - $1.2 million spent;
Regulatory approvals - $100,000 spent;
Public consultations - $100,000 spent;
Site investigation and assessment - $1.7 million spent;
Site remediation - $600,000 spent; and
Monitoring - $50,000 spent.
Since 1991, INAC has been systematically identifying, assessing and managing contaminated sites north of 60° latitude. From 1991-96, the majority of funds were obtained from the Arctic Environmental Strategy and devoted to developing an inventory of contaminated and waste sites across the North, as well as to addressing a large number of the unsightly waste sites near communities. A number of environmental site assessments were carried out, primarily at former military installations, such as the DEW Line sites.
Initially, INAC's concerns related mainly to DEW Line sites. However, INAC was only able to fund assessments and two site remediations for DEW Line sites. The focus has, therefore, continued to be on maintenance activities.
In fiscal year 1996-97 the focus began to shift from assessment to remediation of the most contaminated military sites. External circumstances also caused a shift in the focus from DEW Line sites to mine sites. Figure 7 below illustrates how, over time, expenditures have shifted significantly to mines, which have become the highest proportion of CSP expenditures. The shift in resource allocations to mine sites has meant that the DEW Line sites are deteriorating further.
Since fiscal year 1991-92, over $130 million has been spent on contaminated sites; almost $70 million of this amount has been spent since 1998-99 when responsibility for large insolvent mines began to revert to INAC. The major mines, including Giant, Colomac and Faro, have more than tripled the resource requirements of the CSP over the past three years. The insolvency of the mine owners precludes further action to recover costs of remediation. In addition to the significant costs of final remediation, each of these sites requires ongoing expenditures for maintenance activities. Figures on the following pages illustrate expenditures by Region (see Figure 8), as well as by the proportion of expenditures for large mines (see Figure 9), and a breakdown of expenditures by site (see Figure 10).
INAC has never received resources sufficient to deal with all remediation costs related to its full portfolio of contaminated sites. The current liability of the department for maintenance and remediation of all known contaminated sites stands at approximately $723 million; for contingent liability estimates stand at approximately $79 million (March 2002). Figure 11 illustrates liability and contingency costs by Region. For all 63 known contaminated sites for which INAC is responsible, most of the total liability of $723 million is associated with 37 high-priority sites: five sites in particular - Faro Mine (Yukon); Giant, Colomac, Port Radium (NWT), and Resolution Island (Nunavut) - account for over 70 percent of the total liability.
Of necessity, the majority of CSP funds are spent on maintenance, even as new liabilities occur from
new site assessments, and new mine sites are also added to the inventory. Figure 12 illustrates the budget forecast for the 2002-03 fiscal year,
which shows that maintenance absorbs a higher percentage of the budget than remediation.
Sources of funds for CSP activities between 1999 and 2002 are shown in Figure 13 below. A-Base funding was not provided after the end of the Artic Environmental Strategy, therefore, INAC has had to reallocate much of the CSP's funding from its Indian and Inuit Affairs Program to deal with the environmental and human health risks posed by contaminated sites. TBS's Federal Contaminated Sites Assessment Initiative (FCSAI) did provide an injection of funds over the 2000-02 fiscal years. However, in fiscal year 2002-03, it is estimated that the majority of funding will have to come from internal allocations. Yearly internal negotiations and concerns about the impact on other programs limit INAC's ability to fully fund the CSP. The funding that is available leads to minimal efforts that address only the highest priorities and most urgent situations. Developing an effective risk-based approach to program delivery requires a predictable and programmed level of funding.
Historically, funding has been allocated to the CSP based on need, either by annual funding requests to TBS or internal reallocations within INAC. Annual negotiations and the uncertain access to funding have created concerns about the cost-effectiveness of program delivery.
Resolution Island is located at the southeastern tip of Baffin Island, approximately 310 kilometres southeast of Iqaluit, in Nunavut. It was originally part of the Pole Vault Line, used to transmit intercepted northern signals to southern military stations. The site was operated from 1953 to 1972, when the U.S. Air Force vacated the site. Over 20 buildings, eight dump sites, 4,000 barrels and large amounts of visible debris were left on site. A series of environmental assessments conducted from 1985 to 1997 identified and delineated significant contamination on the site. Included in the types of contamination were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos, hydrocarbons, lead, cobalt, mercury and copper.
The Contaminated Sites Program has initiated an extensive remediation project at Resolution Island. Working with its partners, the various types of remediation activities being undertaken
excavation, containerization and temporary storage of soil contaminated by heavy metals and excavat
construction and monitoring of barriers to prevent PCB migration;
demolition of buildings that are unsafe, contain asbestos or are contaminated with PCBs; and demolition
collection and removal off-site of PCB liquids and other contaminated materials.
Community consultations have been an important part of the project and will continue to be an important forum for informing the communities closest to
Resolution Island of INAC's progress and developments at the island.