Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada has a statutory authority and responsibilities with regard to mines and minerals as defined in legislation. Historically and geographically the mining regimes are separated as South of 60 and North of 60 as provincial, territorial and federal regulatory frameworks and mineral rights vary across the country.
The Indian Act and the Indian Mining Regulations provide for disposition of reserve minerals. Some Federal-Provincial mineral agreements may affect the administration of minerals on First Nations reserve lands and the benefits from their disposition. In carrying out its fiduciary obligations AANDC is generally providing a climate that enables First nations to develop and manage their own mineral resources by assisting them to maximize the benefits, ensuring prudent and safe mining management and promoting good environmental stewardship.
AANDC and its regional offices assist the First Nations with developing the instruments used for mineral disposition in the form of permits and leases specifying the terms, conditions and legal contractual obligations for all parties. Regional summaries of the 1990 Mineral Resource Potential of Indian Reserve Lands report, as well as the national summary, explain the mineral potential on reserve lands in each province and territory.
For more information, please contact AANDC's Public Inquiries Contact Centre.
Crown lands in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are managed pursuant to the Territorial Lands Act and its related Regulations. In the northern territories sub-surface lands include hard-rock minerals, precious gems and coal. The rights to these materials are administered through the Northwest Territories and Nunavut Mining Regulations (formerly known as the Canada Mining Regulations) and the Territorial Coal Regulations . There is a distinction between sub-surface minerals and surface mineral substances that have specific purposes such as carving stone and building materials. These special use surface minerals are administered through the Territorial Quarry Regulations .
For more information, visit Mining and Minerals in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.