ARCHIVED - Implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement Annual Review 1994-1995
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Author: Minister of Public Works and Government
Date: Ottawa, 1996
(563 Kb, 36 Pages)
Table of Contents
- List of Acronyms
- 1. Summary of Agreement Provisions
- 2. Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures
- 3. Joint Implementing Bodies
- 4. Federal and Territorial Governments
The Inuvialuit Final Agreement was the first comprehensive land claims settlement in Canada's North, and its implementation continues to provide unique opportunities and challenges to the Inuvialuit and the federal and territorial governments.
Information for this annual review was compiled from the Inuvialuit and joint management structures established under the Agreement, and from various sources within the federal and territorial governments.
This annual review of the implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement demonstrates continuing progress in implementing the provisions of the Agreement. Among other accomplishments in 1994-1995:
- Members of the Inuvialuit Game Council, the Joint Secretariat and the Wildlife Management Advisory Council Northwest Territories toured Inuvialuit communities to update beneficiaries on wildlife co-management in the settlement region.
- The Environmental Impact Review Board carried out an environmental review of a proposal to salvage driftwood on the North Slope.
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council Northwest Territories facilitated a workshop on regional land use planning and renewable resources management.
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council North Slope and Environment Canada sponsored a workshop at which a northern Yukon ecosystem monitoring and assessment network was introduced.
- The Fisheries Joint Management Committee, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans and the Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board sponsored a workshop on fishery resources in the settlement region.
These achievements indicate the commitment and co-operation of all parties involved in the implementation of this Agreement, which is now in its second decade.
In future years, I am confident the parties will continue to work toward ensuring the Inuvialuit Final Agreement provides lasting benefits for this generation of Inuvialuit and for those which follow.
The Hon. Ronald A. Irwin, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
List of Acronyms
1. Summary of Agreement Provisions
The Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) was brought into force and effect by the Western Arctic (Inuvialuit) Claims Settlement Act in 1984.
1.1 Land Ownership
The Agreement provides the Inuvialuit with fee simple absolute title to approximately 91,000 square kilometres of land in the Western Arctic, including approximately 13,000 square kilometres on which they have title in surface and subsurface rights. The Inuvialuit Settlement Region includes the northernmost reaches of the Yukon Territory, known as the North Slope, the eastern half of the Beaufort Sea, some of the Arctic Ocean, Banks Island, much of the western part of Victoria Island and some of the Parry Islands (see map of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Appendix 1).
1.2 Eligibility and Enrolment
Under the Agreement, those who are entitled to benefit from the Agreement will be enrolled by an enrolment authority composed of one federal government and two Inuvialuit representatives. The official enrolment list is maintained by the Inuvialuit.
1.3 Financial Compensation and Economic Measures
Under the provisions of the IFA, the Inuvialuit will receive a total of $152 million over 14 years, ending in 1997. As of March 31, 1995, the Inuvialuit had received payments totalling $100 million. The Agreement also provided for one-time payments, made in 1984, of $7.5 million to a fund to assist the Inuvialuit in social development and $10 million to the Economic Enhancement Fund.
Section 16 of the IFA addresses economic development in the settlement region. Its broad objectives are to provide for Inuvialuit participation in the northern Canadian economy and for Inuvialuit integration into Canadian society through economic development. Since 1984, the Economic Enhancement Fund has assisted the Inuvialuit to become more actively involved in the local economy and to make long-term investments that will provide a solid base for future development.
The Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) and the Department of Tourism and Economic Development of the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) have established the Economic Measures Steering Committee to oversee the implementation of section 16. The Committee's purpose is to identify the types of issues and data required during a public review of section 16 scheduled to take place in the year 2000. The Committee is jointly funded by the Inuvialuit, the GNWT and DIAND.
1.4. Wildlife and Environmental Co-management
In the settlement region, the Inuvialuit have extensive and detailed wildlife harvesting rights, as well as a mechanism for adjudicating their claims against developers for harvest losses and for providing compensation or remedial measures as required.
The Agreement established structures to ensure Inuvialuit participation in wildlife management, conservation and environmental protection in the settlement region. These structures include six community-based Inuvialuit hunters and trappers committees (HTC) and the Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC), which has representation from each HTC.
The IFA also established five joint advisory bodies, which have equal government and Inuvialuit representation.
- The Environmental Impact Screening Committee (EISC) assesses whether proposed developments require detailed environmental impact assessment.
- The Environmental Impact Review Board (EIRB) carries out public reviews of development proposals deemed necessary by the EISC.
- The Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC) advises the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans on matters relating to fisheries and marine mammals in the settlement region.
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council Northwest Territories (WMAC-NT) advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation matters in the Northwest Territories portion of the settlement region.
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council North Slope (WMAC-NS) advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation matters in the Yukon North Slope.
1.5 Inuvialuit Corporations
Various Inuvialuit corporations were established under the Agreement to administer and manage settlement funds, lands and other benefits (see Appendix 4, Inuvialuit Corporations). These include:
- six Inuvialuit community corporations corresponding to the six Inuvialuit communities in the settlement region, which together are responsible for directing the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation;
- the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, composed of representatives from each of the six community corporations, responsible for co-ordinating Inuvialuit implementation activities;
- the Inuvialuit Land Corporation, responsible for administering settlement lands; and
- the Inuvialuit Development Corporation and the Inuvialuit Investment Corporation, responsible for carrying on business and investing settlement funds on behalf of the Inuvialuit.
1.6. Implementation Co-ordinating Committee
The Agreement established the Implementation Co-ordinating Committee composed of designates of the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation and of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The Committee has been inactive since 1989.
2. Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures
2.1 Inuvialuit Game Council
The IGC represents the Inuvialuit interest in wildlife. Council members review wildlife research proposals from the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) and the renewable resource departments of both territorial governments for projects within the settlement region, and set funding priorities for these and other projects related to wildlife and the environment.
In 1994-1995, the Council was involved in several local issues. Council members accompanied the WMAC-NT and the Joint Secretariat on a community tour to hear local concerns regarding wildlife issues and to update community members on wildlife co-management activities. Presentations on the Agreement and wildlife management were made in all schools in settlement region communities.
Council members were involved, along with the WMAC-NT and the HTCs, in the official ceremonies for six community conservation plans, and in negotiations to establish Tuktut Nogait National Park and the master transboundary water agreement. The Council also negotiated supplemental funding for HTCs to allow them to hire a full-time resource person.
As interest in the co-management of wildlife develops around the world, Council members are increasingly called upon to share the experience they have gained through 11 years in wildlife management. The Council sent representatives to several major conferences and negotiations addressing the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species, the Migratory Birds Convention, the North Atlantic Marine Mammals Commission and the Alaska-Inuvialuit Beluga Whaling Committee, among other issues.
2.2 Hunters and Trappers Committees
There is one HTC for each of the six Inuvialuit communities of Inuvik, Aklavik, Tuktoyaktuk, Holman, Paulatuk and Sachs Harbour. Administrative and operational costs of the HTCs are the responsibility of the GNWT. In 1994-1995, the committees were active in several areas.
- The Inuvik HTC took part in a program to deter bears from disturbing camps in the Mackenzie Delta through the introduction of electric bear fences.
- The Aklavik HTC handled three contracts for the summer season, which included two beluga whale monitors, a char harvest monitor and a beluga tagging project. The Committee provided employment to its membership through various research projects and assisted people in repairing their cabins and getting out on the land.
- The Tuktoyaktuk HTC hired members to conduct a caribou hunt to supply meat to the people in Sachs Harbour. Eleven HTC members passed the Guide Level 1 training course held in Tuktoyaktuk.
- The Holman HTC participated in several projects, including seal and char monitoring. The muskox harvest originally planned for 1994-1995 was cancelled. Due to concern over the declining caribou population north of the community and the subsequent establishment of a quota limit of zero for the caribou harvest, the community purchased caribou meat from Coppermine.
- The Paulatuk HTC held nine meetings in 1994-1995, operated sports hunts through a newly incorporated business, and held a Guide Level 2 training course in the community. The Committee was also involved in whale, char and seal studies, and tagging projects.
- The Sachs Harbour HTC and the Park Planning Team completed interim management guidelines for the Aulavik National Park. Committee members harvested 736 muskoxen, and participated in brant, fish, caribou and muskox studies in the area.
3. Joint Implementing Bodies
3.1 Joint Secretariat
The Joint Secretariat was established by the Inuvialuit, the GNWT and the federal government to provide administrative and technical support services to the wildlife and environmental co-management bodies and the IGC.
The Secretariat administers implementation and other funding for these co-management bodies and the IGC; provides administrative and technical support to the bodies and functions as the focus for all information pertaining to their activities; and performs the library and data collection duties of the inactive Research Advisory Council. The Secretariat held one teleconference, two regular meetings and an annual general meeting. During 1994-1995, six issues were addressed.
- It extended the Geographic Information System operator's position for an additional year.
- The Secretariat supported the two-year Renewable Resource Technology Program to be held at Arctic College in Inuvik beginning in September 1995.
- Officers were elected, including the secretariat vice-chairperson.
- Meetings of co-management bodies were attended.
- The Secretariat co-ordinated the Community Conservation Plan workshop in Inuvik in December 1994.
- Members of the Secretariat toured communities with the IGC and the WMAC-NT.
The Secretariat maintained liaisons with governments, industry and other agencies, and was actively involved in providing financial advice and services to each of the hunters and trappers committees. In addition, the executive director made a presentation to a Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated workshop on land claims implementation and traditional knowledge, and members of the Secretariat and the IGC attended a whaling workshop sponsored by the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, and the executive director, the resource person and two IGC members attended a meeting of the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species.
Near the end of March 1995, the Secretariat was advised that costs associated with Inuvialuit participation in the two wildlife management advisory committees, the EISC and the EIRB would not be paid by the GNWT beginning in 1995-1996. The executive director and the IGC chairperson began discussions with officials from the GNWT and DIAND to secure bridge funding and prevent disruption of the operations of these four bodies. These efforts were still in progress at the end of the review period.
3.2 Arbitration Board
The IFA established the 11-member Arbitration Board as a quasi-judicial body to resolve disputes between the Inuvialuit, Canada or industry that may arise out of the interpretation, application or implementation of the IFA. The Board also has jurisdiction to arbitrate enrolment disputes arising from the publication of the official beneficiary enrolment list.
In 1994-1995, the Attorney General of Canada continued to seek a judicial review in the Federal Court of Appeal of certain components of decisions made by the Board in 1994 concerning the decommissioning of Distant Early Warning sites in the Northwest Territories and the Yukon.
3.3 Environmental Impact Screening Committee
The EISC screens all development proposals within the settlement region to determine whether they could have a significant negative impact on the environment or on wildlife harvesting and thus require environmental impact assessment. Development proposals so identified are referred by the EISC to the EIRB, or to other appropriate review bodies, for a public environmental impact assessment.
The EISC held eight meetings in 1994-1995. Sixty-two project descriptions were submitted to the Committee and 51, the majority of which were research-oriented, were accepted as information items not requiring screening. Seven project descriptions were screened, and four projects were deferred. Of those project descriptions screened, committee members decided that two projects were deficient and warranted termination of their consideration, four would not have significant negative impacts and one could have significant negative impact. This project was referred to the EIRB for further assessment.
The EISC was involved in discussions regarding mineral staking and permits in the settlement region, Mackenzie Delta community water licences, hunting and fishing cabins on Crown lands in the settlement region and the interface between the Inuvialuit screening process and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.
The EISC received a number of presentations and the chairperson, members and the secretary attended nine additional meetings, workshops and conferences. These included the Yukon North Slope conference, an Aulavik National Park workshop, an Inuvialuit community conservation plan implementation workshop and IGC meetings.
3.4 Environmental Impact Review Board
The EIRB is responsible for carrying out the public environmental review of development projects. The Board makes recommendations to the appropriate government agency about whether development projects should proceed and, if so, under what terms and conditions. The Board also recommends remedial and mitigative measures to minimize negative impacts on wildlife harvesting and, for development projects where wildlife compensation is an issue, recommends limits of liability for the developer.
During 1994-1995, the EIRB met three times and held two teleconferences. The major accomplishment was a review of a proposal to salvage driftwood from beaches along the Yukon North Slope. The project was referred to the Board in August 1994 by the EISC, an environmental impact statement from the proponent was accepted by the Board in September, and a review panel was immediately appointed. The panel held public meetings in Aklavik and Inuvik and a workshop in Aklavik in November 1994. It submitted the recommendation that the project be permitted to proceed, subject to a number of terms and conditions, to the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in January 1995.
In addition to this review, the EIRB also carried out a number of other activities.
- It reviewed board by-laws.
- Guidelines for impact assessment methods to be used before the Board were distributed.
- The draft North Slope wildlife conservation and management plan prepared by the WMAC-NS and the draft management plan for the proposed Tuktut Nogait National Park were reviewed.
- The Board considered the implications of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and sought acknowledgement from the Minister of the Environment that the Board could function as a review panel under this new Act.
- It monitored the development of new environmental assessment procedures by the federal government, the Gwich'in, the Inuit, the Yukon territorial government (YTG) and the Council of Yukon Indians.
- Board members and staff also attended various meetings and workshops including meetings of the IGC and an environmental assessment and communications technical workshop hosted by DIAND.
3.5 Wildlife Management Advisory Council - Northwest Territories
The role of the WMAC-NT is to provide wildlife management advice pertaining to the Western Arctic region of the Northwest Territories to the federal and territorial ministers responsible for wildlife management and to the EISC, the EIRB and other appropriate bodies; to prepare wildlife conservation and management plans for the Western Arctic region; and to recommend appropriate wildlife harvest quotas.
Council meetings and related activities
Five regular council meetings and three teleconferences were held during 1994-1995. Council members and staff also participated in a variety of other activities, including a televised workshop on northern research hosted by the Canadian Polar Commission, an ecosystem monitoring workshop hosted by the WMAC-NS, an IGC-WMAC-Joint Secretariat community tour and regular meetings of the IGC and the Joint Secretariat.
Community conservation plans
The Council facilitated a workshop on regional land use planning and renewable resources management. The workshop focused on recommendations contained in various plans pertaining to the establishment and enhancement of methods of protecting areas and wildlife within the settlement region. The 75 workshop participants represented 22 organizations, including Inuvialuit, co-management, federal and territorial government departments and agencies.
By-law development and quotas for wildlife harvesting
With amendments to the territorial Wildlife Act, the amount of work relating to by-laws has continued to increase. The Council reviewed a HTC wildlife management by-law dealing with the establishment of quotas and areas for Peary caribou on Victoria Island, and amended the Holman, Sachs Harbour and Paulatuk polar bear by-laws to meet provisions of the 1991 Inuvialuit Polar Bear Management Agreements. Consultation was also started on two by-laws dealing with the management of fur-bearer (lynx) harvesting in the settlement region and the adjustment of muskox management zone boundaries to conform with the boundaries of the settlement region. Both by-laws were referred to the IGC for review.
To facilitate the creation of an efficient process for by-law development, the Council produced a handbook for the development of HTC wildlife management by-laws in the settlement region. This handbook outlines the authority for the creation of by-laws, and provides a flow chart identifying responsible agencies and the processes they follow in the creation of by-laws. An increase to the bluenose caribou commercial tag quota was also addressed during 1994-1995. Based on the incomplete use of existing commercial tags, the Council recommended a reallocation between communities of the unused tags rather than an increase in the current quota.
Migratory Birds Convention
The Council continued its active role in supporting changes to the Migratory Birds Convention to allow the spring hunting of migratory birds. The Council chairperson and the IGC chairperson joined the Inuit advisory group at negotiations held in the spring of 1995.
Legislation affecting wildlife management
Four pieces of legislation affecting wildlife management in the settlement region were addressed in 1994-1995. These were the territorial Wildlife Act, the federal Migratory Birds Convention Act, the Canada Wildlife Act and the proposed federal Endangered Species Act. The Council and the GNWT began a review of Wildlife Act regulations to identify discrepancies with the amended Act, and met with Environment Canada and received preliminary information on the proposed Endangered Species Act.
The Council also continued to monitor the activities of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species.
Development of species management plans
In response to strong recommendations contained in all six community conservation plans, the Council placed a high priority on the development of species management plans. Two plans were initiated in 1994-1995: a Western Arctic region wolf management plan and a bluenose caribou management plan.
As the area covered by the caribou management plan spans four land claim settlement areas (i.e., those described in the Inuvialuit, Gwich'in, Sahtu and Nunavut land claim agreements), the GNWT Department of Renewable Resources has taken the lead in co-ordinating the development of this plan.
3.6 Wildlife Management Advisory Council - North Slope
The WMAC-NS for the settlement area in the Yukon known as the North Slope is the counterpart of the WMAC-NT. The Council's responsibilities include establishing harvest quotas; advising Inuvialuit and government agencies on all North Slope wildlife and habitat conservation issues; reviewing proposals for IFA-funded research projects related to wildlife management and making recommendations to the IGC; and advising and making recommendations to the appropriate federal and territorial ministers regarding management of parks in the North Slope.
In 1994-1995, three meetings and one teleconference were held.
Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan
Work on the Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan took much of the Council's time and energy during 1994-1995. Following extensive review, the Council revised the plan. Volume one was reworked with the goal of creating a general interest monograph about the people, the environment, and the history of development and conservation on the North Slope. Volume two also underwent substantial changes with the addition of species status reports which address management goals and objectives for individual species. The revised plan, which includes a summary document, was released for further review in mid-1994, and Council members participated in consultations with reviewers in Calgary and Whitehorse.
Fourth Yukon North Slope Conference
The fourth Yukon North Slope Conference was held in Dawson City, Yukon in September 1994. About 150 participants spent two days discussing and setting priorities for the implementation of the Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan. Council members found the comments from the conference extremely valuable in their efforts to complete the plan.
Environmental screening and review: driftwood lumber application
Early in 1994, the Council provided DIAND with comments on an application requesting a land use permit to salvage driftwood from beaches along the North Slope. Council members discussed the environmental impact study extensively, held a teleconference on the issue, sent a detailed written submission to the review panel and attended a public meeting in Aklavik.
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
In March 1994, WMAC-NS passed a resolution endorsing the wilderness designation of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska and supporting efforts to twin the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge with lvvavik and Vuntut national parks. The Council also lobbied the Canadian and American governments to protect the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which is important to the Inuvialuit as a calving site for the porcupine caribou herd.
IFA-funded wildlife research
In 1994-1995, studies recommended by WMAC-NS included:
- a wolverine carcass project for Aklavik;
- continuation of the satellite-assisted vegetation mapping of the north Richardson Mountains;
- continuation of monitoring collared wolf movements; and
- a population census and composition count of muskoxen in the northern Yukon.
The WMAC-NS endorsed a proposal by the Canadian Wildlife Service to initiate an ecosystem monitoring project on the North Slope. The Council, together with Environment Canada, sponsored a workshop at which the Northern Yukon Ecosystem Monitoring and Assessment Network was introduced. Its objective is to create and maintain a system for collaboratively monitoring and assessing the ecological health of the northern Yukon using holistic and longterm perspectives. By the end of March 1995, a prospectus was prepared for communities outlining the proposal and community involvement.
Ivvavik National Park
In 1994, a memorandum of understanding was signed between Parks Canada, the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation and the Aklavik Community Corporation for allocating commercial rafting trips on the Firth River. The memorandum specifies that 50 percent of the 20 commercial departure dates will be allocated to Inuvialuit communities and the remaining 50 percent to all other Ivvavik outfitting companies, with the allocation of dates to other outfitting companies based on their contribution to Inuvialuit economic development.
Herschel Island Territorial Park
The Elderhost program continued in the 1994 field season. This program, sponsored by the park, facilitates visits to the island by elders and makes use of elders' stories in developing the interpretive plan for the park.
Two interpretive programs were completed in 1994: a sealskin umiak, or skin-covered boat, was built, and a travelling display of the park was created for use in schools and at the Inuvik Visitor Reception Centre.
Grizzly bear management
In 1994 and 1995, funding from Parks Canada and the federal Environmental Innovations Fund supported grizzly bear research. The primary purpose of this research is to obtain enough information on bear habitat, seasonal habitat use and movements to manage human activities with minimal disruption to bears. Inuvialuit hunting of grizzly bears within the lvvavik National Park has been deferred until this three-year research program is complete.
In December 1994, WMAC-NS passed a resolution recommending the continuation of existing harvestable grizzly bear quotas within the northern Yukon for the 1995-1996 hunting season. Existing quota arrangements were temporary, and many outstanding regulatory and enforcement issues remained unresolved, WMAC-NS worked with Parks Canada and the Yukon territorial government to develop regulations to manage the grizzly bear harvest across the North Slope.
3.7 Fisheries Joint Management Committee
The FJMC assists the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans in the management of fisheries, and gives advice on matters relating to settlement region fisheries.
The FJMC works closely with government agencies, renewable resource user groups in the Inuvialuit communities and other renewable resource boards which oversee fish and marine mammal stocks which occupy the settlement region during their life cycles. In keeping with the co-management philosophy of the Agreement, consultations with local HTCs, the IGC, DFO and other government agencies were an important part of the Committee's activities and programs in 1994-1995.
In particular, many of the Committee's activities included local contracts through HTCs for field and technical assistance, and administration of the beluga harvest monitoring program was also transferred to the HTCs, which reported their results to the FJMC at the end of the harvest season. Sport and Inuvialuit fishing and hunting activities in the settlement region were also monitored in co-operation with HTCs.
Committee meetings and related activities
The FJMC held five meetings and three teleconferences during 1994-1995. One regular meeting, which took place during the annual tour of communities, was co-ordinated with hunters and trappers committee meetings in each community. Another meeting was held in Winnipeg so the Committee could meet with senior DFO Central and Arctic region managers and scientists at the Freshwater Institute. The Committee also met with the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans to discuss several issues including national and international whale management, environmental contaminants and the implications of DFO restructuring.
Monitoring and research activities
The Committee was active in numerous monitoring and research activities.
- There was continued monitoring of char stocks in the settlement region. One program involved locating and assessing all 42 previously collected data sets for North Slope Dolly Varden char stocks at Firth River, Rat River, Big Fish River and Babbage River; processing unanalyzed samples; and standardizing and computerizing all sample information. This data set can now be used in making management decisions and deciding research priorities.
- Monitoring programs of the Hornaday and Kuujjau river stocks were ongoing.
- A community knowledge study in Paulatuk was completed.
- Five lakes near Sachs Harbour were examined to assess the population structure and characteristics of the major fish species present and to determine whether a sport fishery was feasible.
- Ringed seal monitoring took place.
- Community-based studies in Aklavik, Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk were undertaken to record elders' information on basic whale behaviour and on harvesting and processing methods. A report was subsequently prepared.
Inuvik exploratory fishery study
Analysis of results from the Inuvik exploratory fishery, conducted from 1988 to 1993 to determine the potential for a commercial harvest of broad whitefish, continued. Much of the aging analysis carried out in 1994-1995 was completed by the Inuvik Aging Lab, which was developed under the auspices of the FJMC to train local people in basic scientific techniques. The lab is now run as an independent company and is prospering.
Cooperative fishery workshop
The FJMC, DFO and the Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board sponsored a workshop to examine stock status and conservation and fishery practice relative to the primary fishery resources in the settlement region. This workshop was held in Inuvik and was attended by 40 representatives from local HTCs, DFO, the Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board and the FJMC, as well as members of private agencies. At the workshop, traditional knowledge and scientific information were exchanged between fishers, managers and researchers in an atmosphere of mutual co-operation.
Three contaminants programs were conducted during 1994-1995.
- The analysis of samples of beluga blood, tissue, organs and meat collected in 1994 began and will continue in 1995-1996, along with aging analysis of the whales sampled for contaminants.
- A total of 45 turbot gills, collected from locations near Aklavik, were examined for scarring which is indicative of exposure to ammonia, such as occurs in sewage effluent (The results of this study are not yet available).
- Ringed seal tissues were examined for antibodies to the Phocine Distemper Virus which caused a Europea
- seal epidemic in 1988. (The results of this program indicate that no epidemic is likely in the settlement region.)
Several beluga programs were conducted. A continuing study involved the use of microsatellite nuclear DNA markers to determine the genetic relationships between Beaufort Sea and Alaskan stocks, all of which overwinter in the Bering Sea. Concern for the occasional ice-trapping of beluga in Husky Lakes prompted continued monitoring of that area. A video illustrating beluga harvesting and processing methods was made for distribution to local schools.
One beluga program was abandoned and one was inactive during 1994-1995. The beluga genetic study, involving mitochondrial DNA analysis of beluga harvested from Norton Sound and Point Lay, Alaska and the settlement region was abandoned due to limitations with the method; and poor weather and difficulties with the hoop and seine netting methods meant that no satellite tags were deployed in 1994-1995.
4. Federal and Territorial Governments
4.1 Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Claims Planning and Implementation Directorate
On behalf of DIAND, the Claims Planning and Implementation Directorate performs a prominent liaison role for the Inuvialuit, territorial governments and other federal government departments with respect to IFA implementation issues.
The responsibilities of the Directorate include negotiating funding authorities for ongoing IFA implementation; managing funding instruments among the federal government, the territorial governments and the IFA Arbitration Board; tracking federal implementation activities under the IFA and seeking the compliance of federal government departments with respect to outstanding implementation issues; processing the appointments of Canada members to the IFA Arbitration Board; leading federal negotiations on any proposed amendments to the IFA; and preparing the annual review.
During 1994-1995, the Directorate was directly involved in extensive negotiations on the issue of Inuvialuit participation costs and preliminary discussions on the re-establishment of the Implementation Co-ordinating Committee.
Northern Affairs Program
DIAND's Northern Affairs Program (NAP) is responsible for the administration of legislation for the disposition and use of Crown lands, inland waters, offshore and non-renewable resources and overall environmental protection in the Yukon and Northwest Territories. In addition, NAP supports the activities of the EISC and the EIRB by administering the funding and monitoring the implementation of the screening and review processes to ensure that issues are dealt with in a timely manner. Through its regulatory authorities, NAP plays a role in the implementation of mitigative measures to counter the impacts of industrial development. NAP is the main recipient of decisions and recommendations from the EISC and the EIRB. NAP also administers implementation funding provided for conducting granular (sand and gravel) inventories.
In 1994-1995, work was completed on a contract to compile the existing information on historical consumption of granular resources in the settlement region and prepare a granular usage database and demand forecast. A new contract was also initiated to provide a resource management model for the Western Arctic that will assist Inuvialuit and government in managing granular resources. The first phase of this project involved the preparation, installation and demonstration of a preliminary model using a variety of base map and database information on granular resources and other related parameters. This project will continue in 1995-1996.
4.2 Department of Fisheries and Oceans
The DFO is responsible for making policy and regulatory changes to accommodate Inuvialuit rights concerning the harvest, trade, transport and co-management of fish and marine mammal resources in the settlement region, and for supporting the FJMC established by the IFA. Implementation funding has been provided to augment DFO wildlife study programs in the settlement region.
In 1994-1995, DFO continued to promote the co-management of fishery resources in the settlement region with full co-operation from the Inuvialuit. A total of 19 projects were carried out jointly by the Department and the FJMC.
In the areas of fish and marine mammal studies, projects co-ordinated and conducted by the Department on behalf of the FJMC included the following.
- Hornaday, Holman and Kuujjua char were assessed and the domestic char harvest in Aklavik was monitored.
- Studies of the broad whitefish community structure continued and data collected to date was synthesized.
- Monitoring continued of marine mammal and fish tissues within the settlement region for contaminants.
Additional marine mammal work by the Department included the study of diseases in seals and harvest monitoring, and beluga whale hunt monitoring and tissue sampling for genetic analysis. In addition, a monitoring program for the harvest of a bowhead whale by the community of Aklavik was organized but not delivered as no bowhead whales were harvested in 1994. Fish habitat work, including water level monitoring on the Tuktoyaktuk peninsula and the examination of habitat-limiting factors on the Big Fish River system continued.
4.3 Environment Canada
Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada, through CWS, is represented on the wildlife management advisory councils which deal with all significant wildlife issues in the settlement region.
In 1994-1995 CWS carried out the following projects, in addition to providing technical input to the Inuvialuit Harvest Study.
- A study of populations and habitats of Pacific brant on Banks Island involved collecting basic information on the distribution and abundance of brant in the settlement region, their productivity and mortality rates, and migration and wintering areas. Banks Island is thought to contain a large proportion of the Canadian population of Pacific brant. A sample of Pacific brant was marked in co-ordination with a study being carried out by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
- The traditional knowledge about eiders and other waterfowl near Holman and Sachs Harbour was studied to acquire information needed for waterfowl management programs by recording the knowledge of Inuvialuit hunters in the two communities.
- Although the settlement region is known to be an important breeding ground for white-fronted geese, the numbers, distribution, important habitats and productivity of the geese are poorly understood. This critical information gap was addressed through aerial surveys during the nesting and moulting-brood rearing periods. Surveys of tundra swans and Canada geese were conducted in conjunction with this project.
- The fall-winter distribution and annual survival rates of white-fronted geese are poorly understood, and information was obtained by banding and neck-collaring white-fronted geese on the breeding grounds. Canada geese of the short-grass prairie population were also banded and neck-collared as part of this study.
4.4 Canadian Heritage
The primary responsibility of Parks Canada is to protect the wilderness of national parks in the settlement region, including protecting and managing the wildlife population and habitat within national parks. There are two national parks in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region: Ivvavik National Park, in the western portion of the North Slope; and Aulavik National Park, on Banks Island. Negotiations are also progressing to establish Tuktut Nogait National Park east of Paulatuk.
Visitor use and scientific research activity in lvvavik and Aulavik national parks are monitored and controlled through a Parks Canada permit process to ensure minimum negative impact on natural and cultural resources. All developments are assessed for environmental impact and are submitted to the EISC.
Activities in lwavik Notional Park
In 1994-1995, Parks Canada was active in a number of projects in lvvavik National Park.
- The 1994-1995 year was the third and final year of the Firth River grizzly bear habitat study in lvvavik National Park. Two progress reports (1993 and 1994) were made available to the WMAC-NS and other interested parties.
- In a joint effort between Parks Canada and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, a series of research projects on Dolly Varden char were developed to assist in understanding their population dynamics and genetic structuring. Similar work is planned in Aulavik National Park.
- As part of the basic resource inventory for lvvavik National Park, planning work began in 1994-1995 on a land bird survey.
- A major archaeological inventory of the Firth River valley identified over 80 previously undocumented sites, including one over 10,000 years old.
- Parks Canada, in co-operation with the Geological Survey of Canada, has put into place an erosion monitoring system to increase understanding of coastal geomorphological processes, and provide a means to assist in the protection of the coastal cultural resources of lvvavik National Park. With the assistance of the communities of Aklavik and Inuvik, Parks Canada interviewed Inuvialuit elders regarding traditional knowledge of the coastal zone and the Firth River Valley.
Activities in Aulavik National Park
Parks Canada was also involved in the following projects in Aulavik National Park.
- The second year of archaeological inventory was completed on the Thomson River. Many important new sites were recorded, several relating to the earliest occupation of Banks Island some 3,000 years ago. Parks Canada has contracted to conduct elder interviews as part of the second phase of the Aulavik oral history project.
- Natural resource inventories carried out during 1994-1995 included surveys of birds and plant life. Plant specimens were also collected for a park herbarium. Parks Canada will co-ordinate vegetation mapping with the GNWT using satellite imagery.
- Negotiations continued with the Department of National Defence on clean-up standards for the Bar-1 Distant Early Warning Line Station at Komakuk Beach. Work was also initiated on an lvvavik National Park coastal clean-up project which will be completed as funding is available. In 1994-1995, a major clean-up project was accomplished in the Shoran Lake area.
Parks Canada is committed to establishing a community-based operation in the Western Arctic. Educational, hiring and training programs are being developed to include both formal course work and on-the-job training. The goal of these programs is to increase the number of Inuvialuit beneficiaries employed by Parks Canada in the Western Arctic. In addition, where the management regime of the park provides opportunities for economic activity, Parks Canada has an obligation to offer those opportunities to Inuvialuit individuals or businesses on a preferred basis.
4.5 Public Works and Government Services Canada
The Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) western regional office created an Aboriginal issues program advisor position, and conducted internal seminars and workshops regarding PWGSC's obligations under the IFA and other land claim agreements.
The Inuvialuit continue to express great interest in the development of PWGSC policy initiatives, and met with departmental representatives in Ottawa several times during 1994-1995. One initiative, the Strategic Procurement Initiative, was discussed at length with an Inuvialuit representative. Some concerns were raised regarding the impact this initiative will have on the federal government's ability to implement its obligations under the Agreement.
In 1994-1995, the DIAND Technical Services unit was involved in the decommission and clean-up of the Horton River Distant Early Warning Line Site. This work, valued at $2.6 million, was undertaken by Inuvialuit Projects Incorporated, a private company.
4.6 Department of National Defence
The Department of National Defence has a co-operation agreement with the Inuvialuit containing opportunities and specific commitments for training, employment and business related to the operation and maintenance of the North Warning System chain of radar installations in the Western Arctic.
Under this agreement, Inuvialuit businesses participated in contracts worth several million dollars in 1994-1995. These included a contract with Avati, a joint Inuvialuit and Inuit company, worth approximately $166,000; and a contract with Gruebens Limited, an Inuvialuit company, worth approximately $ 1.1 million.
4.7 Government of the Northwest Territories
The GNWT is responsible for appointing the chairperson and GNWT members and providing a secretariat for the WMAC-NT; looking after the administrative and operational costs of the Inuvialuit Game Council and the six community hunters and trappers committees; designating a member to each of the EISC, the EIRB, the Arbitration Board and the Research Advisory Council; and managing the budget for the operation and maintenance of the staff of the Research Advisory Council. Research Advisory Council funding is provided to the Joint Secretariat for the provision of library services. The GNWT provides funding to the Joint Secretariat, and is provided with funding for its members' participation on the EISC and the EIRB, and for wildlife research in support of its obligations under the Agreement for species within territorial jurisdiction.
Economic Development and Tourism
To support the development of a traditional economy and to provide employment opportunities for residents of the Inuvialuit settlement region, regional Economic Development and Tourism staff assisted in the preparation of proposals for funding under economic development agreements. Proposals were approved and implemented in the areas of business skills and environmental industries.
Intergovernmental and Aboriginal Affairs
The Ministry of Intergovernmental and Aboriginal Affairs participated extensively in discussions and negotiations in an attempt to resolve the long-standing issue of Inuvialuit participation costs. The Ministry was also involved in a review of proposed IFA amendments, the financial administration of GNWT implementation funding and the preparation of this annual review. Finally, the Ministry participated in preliminary discussions related to the re-establishment of an implementation co-ordinating committee and the potential for drafting an implementation plan.
The Department of Justice continued to contribute to ongoing implementation by providing legal advice to a number of GNWT departments. The Legislation Division provided drafting assistance with regulations under the Wildlife Act, and the Land Titles Office initiated amendments to the Land Titles Act to assist in addressing problems which have delayed the initial issuance of title to Inuvialuit-owned lands.
Wildlife studies were a significant part of the operations of the Department of Renewable Resources in 1994-1995, with work conducted in several areas.
- Summary tables from the Inuvialuit harvest study were prepared for 1994 and presented at meetings of the IGC and the wildlife management advisory councils. Work verifying and assessing the accuracy of data collected by the harvest study continued. Data on polar bears, grizzly bears and beluga whales were cross-referenced with data obtained during similar harvest monitoring programs conducted by the FJMC and the Department of Renewable Resources.
- Composition surveys of Banks Island caribou and muskoxen were conducted in June and July 1994 to determine age/sex composition and annual mortality rates of muskoxen on the southern third of Banks Island. During this second year of the program, the monitoring of summer and winter range use and body condition of caribou and muskoxen was completed, and the entire island was surveyed to determine population numbers for Peary caribou and muskoxen. In addition, samples were collected from hunter-harvested caribou to determine the body condition of adult male caribou. A review was conducted of survey data obtained during 1982, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991 and 1992 and presented at a caribou conference held in Prince George, British Columbia. An analysis of the data to assess changes in distribution of caribou and muskoxen for the above-noted years was also initiated.
- Fifty bluenose caribou were radio-collared to prepare for a photocensus of the herd in
June and July 1995. This work was conducted in the Inuvik, Sahtu and Kitikmeot regions
to ensure that animals were collared throughout the winter range of the herd. Funding for
this field program was provided by the Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board.
Work continued on summarizing available information on the bluenose herd in order to prepare a herd status report. Maps were prepared showing the seasonal ranges used by the herd. Meetings were held with the hunters and trappers committees from the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, the renewable resources councils from the Gwich'in Settlement Area, and the hunters and trappers associations from the Nunavut Settlement Area to present information on the herd and solicit community comments and concerns about the management of the herd.
- Radio-collared female grizzly bears in the Anderson-Horton area were located during the spring of 1994 to determine their reproductive status. Grizzly bear skulls were purchased from hunters to monitor the sex and age of harvest. Preliminary analyses of satellite data to assess habitat quality in the area were completed.
- A draft project completion report was prepared for the mark-recapture study of grizzly bears in the Richardson Mountains area which was completed during 1993-1994. Radio-collared female grizzly bears were located during the spring of 1994 to determine their reproductive status. Grizzly bear skulls were purchased from hunters to monitor the sex and age of the harvest.
- A draft project completion report was prepared for the mark-recapture study of grizzly bears in the Brock-Hornaday River area which was completed during 1993-1994. Preliminary analysis of satellite data to assess habitat quality in the area was completed.
- Harvest and movement data were analysed and project completion reports were prepared on the mainland wolf.
- Arctic Island wolf carcasses were purchased from hunters and trappers on Banks Island to determine the age sex, incidence of disease, diet and general body condition of harvested wolves.
4.8 Government of the Yukon
The YTG is responsible for appointing the chairperson and a Yukon member to the WMAC-NS; designating a member to each of the EISC, the EIRB, the Arbitration Board and the Research Advisory Council, operating Herschel Island Territorial Park and co-ordinating the Yukon North Slope Conference. The YTG also allocates implementation funding to the EISC, the EIRB and ongoing wildlife research on the North Slope.
Habitat research in the Richardson Mountains and on the Yukon North Slope continued in 1994-1995. Wildlife habitat mapping produced a landcover classification using satellite imagery. A week was spent during July 1994 flying over the study area checking the accuracy of the classification. Some reclassification was necessary and an attempt was made to improve the classification procedures. The reclassified image is awaiting another accuracy assessment in the fall of 1995.
The North Slope wolf study also continued. Seven of eight satellite collars were retrieved, and satellite information for one wolf was used as a science project to learn about wolves and satellite technology. This project was carried out in conjunction with the Chief Zzeh Gittlit School in Old Crow.
Eight wolverine carcasses were purchased from Aklavik hunters and trappers. Autopsies will be performed on these carcasses to determine the general health of harvested animals.
In June 1994, the Aklavik HTC requested the establishment of a quota for muskoxen in the Yukon. YTG Renewable Resources, Ivvavik National Park and WMAC-NS developed a co-operative action plan to learn about the status of muskoxen, and to develop a muskox management plan for the Yukon. All Yukon muskox studies are co-operative efforts among YTG Renewable Resources, Parks Canada-Ivvavik National Park and the Aklavik HTC. A muskox population survey was conducted in March 1995, a composition count was completed, and historical information on the status of the Yukon muskox population was gathered and summarized.
Herschel Island Territorial Park received approximately 500 visitors during the 1994 operation season, up 20 percent from the previous year. About half of these visitors arrived via cruise ships. A portable interpretive display was used at the Inuvik Visitor Reception Centre and in schools in the northern region.
YTG hosted the fourth Yukon North Slope Conference in September 1994 in Dawson City. Its theme was "Co-management on the North Slope - Implementing Our Plans." Workshops and discussions focused on the Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan. A summary report was completed in March 1995 and is available from the Yukon Secretariat.
Appendix 1: Map of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Appendix 2: Ongoing Reporting Relations : Government and Joint Implementation Bodies
Appendix 3: Wildlife and Environmental Structures: Appointing Agencies and Linkages
Appendix 4: Inuvialuit Corporation
Appendix 5: Financial Compensation Schedule of Capital Transfer Payments
Annex N of the IFA provides that capital transfer payments shall be made to the Inuvialuit on the last business day prior to December 31 of each of the following years and in the following amounts:
Appendix 6: Cumulative Costs of Implementation: 1984-1985 to 1994-1995
These funds represent funds allocated for implementation purposes, as actual expenditure figures are not available.
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