Under the terms of the James Bay and Northern
Quebec Agreement and the Northeastern Quebec
Agreement, the Aboriginal communities in the
region have exchanged their claims, rights and
territorial interests for other rights and benefits, as
specified in the agreements. In addition to settling
land claims, the signing of the agreements laid
the foundations for a new kind of relationship with
the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi, who are the
first Aboriginal communities in Canada to have
negotiated agreements with very substantial
The JBNQA and NEQA define the land regime
applicable to the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi
as well as their rights in such areas as resource
management, economic development, police and
administration of justice, health and social
services, and environmental protection.
As compensation, the Cree and Inuit received
$225 million under the JBNQA, and the Naskapi
received $9 million under the NEQA. They are
also entitled to a range of services and programs
to which the federal and provincial governments
contribute annually. Additional lump-sum
payments have also been provided as a result of
treaty implementation agreements and specific
agreements, most of which are connected with a
complementary agreement to the JBNQA.
The Cree have received:
- $50 million under the Chisasibi Agreement
- $25.5 million under the Sakami Lake
- $112 million under the La Grande Agreement
- $18 million under the Mercury Agreement
- $50 million (for the Chisasibi and Wemindji
communities) under the Opimiscow-La
Grande Agreement (1992).
The Inuit have received:
- $48 million under the Kuujjuaq Agreement
- $22.8 million under the JBNQA
Implementation Agreement (1990).
The Naskapi have received:
- $1.7 million under the NEQA Implementation
A land regime divides the territory of the beneficiaries
under the JBNQA and NEQA agreements
into three categories (I, II, III). It also
specifies the total area of land and the rights in
Category I lands are set aside exclusively for the
Aboriginal communities that are signatories to the
two agreements. Cree and Naskapi Category I
lands are further subdivided into categories IA and
IB: "A" for lands under the jurisdiction of Canada,
and "B" for those under that of Quebec. To
distinguish them from Cree lands, Naskapi lands
are classified as IA-N and IB-N. Lands under
federal jurisdiction are governed by Aboriginal
institutions as defined in the Cree-Naskapi (of
Quebec) Act. Lands under Quebec's jurisdiction
are governed by municipalities and corporations
composed exclusively of Aboriginal people.
Category II lands come under provincial jurisdiction,
but the Aboriginal people participate in the
management of hunting, fishing and trapping and
the development of outfitting operations. They
also have exclusive hunting, fishing and trapping
rights on these lands.
Category III lands are Quebec public lands where
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples may hunt
and fish. However, Aboriginal people enjoy certain
privileges on these lands under the agreements.
They have exclusive rights to the harvesting of
certain aquatic species and certain furbearing
animals; they participate in the administration and
development of the territory; and last, they enjoy
a right of first refusal, until the year 2015, in the
event of applications to transfer or set up new
outfitting operations. The Aboriginal people must,
however, relinquish this right for 30 percent of
transfers or new operations proposed by non-
The JBNQA and the NEQA identify more than
14,000 square kilometres of territory as Category
I lands, 150,000 square kilometres as Category II
lands and one million square kilometres as
Category III lands.
Environmental and Social Protection
The JBNQA and the NEQA provide for consultative
bodies to advise the governments on policies
and regulations that may have an impact on the
environment and the social conditions of the
For this purpose, two committees have been set
up under the JBNQA: the James Bay Advisory
Committee on the Environment for the area south
of the 55th parallel, and the Kativik Environmental
Advisory Committee for the area north of that
parallel. Each committee includes representatives
from the Aboriginal communities and from the two
levels of government.
The JBNQA also specifies evaluation procedures
for development proposals. The Cree participate in
the evaluation of projects affecting territory below
the 55th parallel, whereas to the north it is the
Inuit who participate in the evaluation. It is the
responsibility of the federal Minister of the
Environment, or of an administrator appointed by
the Governor in Council, to apply - as federal
administrator - the evaluation process for projects
involving the jurisdiction of the federal government.
Landscape of Nunavik. North and south of the 55th
Aboriginal people participate in environmental
protection of their communities.
For matters under provincial jurisdiction, a provincial
administrator is appointed by the Quebec
government. Projects in Category I Cree lands
come under the authority of the local Cree
The NEQA includes similar provisions assuring
the Naskapi of participation in the environmental
protection of the lands covered by that agreement.
Compensation funds paid under the agreements
by the governments of Quebec and Canada and
by Hydro-Québec are administered by three organizations.
The Cree Board of Compensation,
the Makivik Corporation and the Naskapi
Development Corporation thus handle the funding
of projects for the economic development of the
Aboriginal communities in Northern Quebec.
In addition, under the agreements, the Cree, the
Inuit and the Naskapi continue to benefit, in the
same way as other Aboriginal peoples, from
economic development programs offered by the
The JBNQA provided for the establishment of the
Cree School Board and the Kativik School Board.
Both these boards, which operate under Quebec's
jurisdiction, possess special powers and ensure
that the educational programs are culturally
relevant to the communities.
Under the terms of the NEQA, educational
services for the Naskapi are provided for by a
school created to fulfil the needs of the Naskapi
community. The Eastern Quebec Regional
School Board is in charge of its general administration.
In addition, the Naskapi Education
Committee was set up to perform the same
advisory functions as those assigned to school
committees under the Education Act at the time,
and now known as the Education Act for the
Cree, Inuit and Naskapi Native Persons.
The JBNQA and the NEQA established that
Canada and Quebec would contribute to the
funding of these institutions on the basis of
annual operational and capital budgets, subject to
their approval. The proportion to be contributed by
Canada was set at 75 percent of the approved
budgets of the Cree School Board and the
Naskapi school, and 25 percent of the approved
budgets of the Kativik School Board.
Hunting, Fishing and Trapping
The Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Coordinating
Committee was created under the JBNQA. Composed
of government and Aboriginal experts, the
Committee reviews hunting, fishing and trapping
management. It also makes recommendations to
the two levels of government. Subcommittees,
also made up of Aboriginal and government
representatives, have been formed to deal with
more specific issues, such as big game, parks,
fishing, outfitting operations, marketing of caribou
meat and land use.
Students playing in the schoolyard in Waswanipi.
Local and Regional Administrations
Since 1984, the Cree communities and the
Naskapi community have been incorporated. They
have local administrations with the power to adopt
by-laws concerning public order, environmental
protection, taxation for local purposes, roads and
transportation, local business and the use of
lands and resources. Two additional bodies - the
Cree Board of Compensation and the Cree
Regional Authority (CRA), which is responsible for
organizing common services for the Cree
communities - were created under Quebec
The Inuit communities of Nunavik (the part of
Quebec north of the 55th parallel) are incorporated
as municipalities under Quebec legislation.
The Kativik Regional Government is their regional
structure, and the Makivik Corporation was set up
to protect the interests of the Inuit with regard to
the implementation of the JBNQA. Both
organizations were established under Quebec
Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act
To implement the agreement provisions regarding
local government for the Indian communities, the
Parliament of Canada passed the Cree-Naskapi
(of Quebec) Act in 1984. This Act supersedes the
Indian Act (except for matters pertaining to Indian
status). It institutes a form of self-government and
establishes the land management system for
Category IA lands (Cree) and IA-N lands
The Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act also brought
about the creation of the Cree-Naskapi
Commission, whose role is to investigate appeals
concerning the Act's application. It must
also produce biennial reports on the application of
the Act, following hearings. These reports are
submitted to the Minister of Indian Affairs and
Northern Development to be tabled in Parliament.
(The Commission's fifth biennial report was
submitted to the Minister in September 1996 and
tabled in the House of Commons on September
20, 1996.) The Cree-Naskapi Commission is
made up of no more than three commissioners
appointed by the Governor in Council, on the
recommendation of the Cree Regional Authority
and the Naskapi community.
Role of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Since the signing of the agreements, the
Department of Indian Affairs and Northern
Development (DIAND) no longer provides direct
delivery of services to the Cree, the Inuit and the
Naskapi. Its role is mainly now to provide funding
to finance communities, capital spending projects
and programs delivered by Aboriginal
administrations. It also participates in several
plans for the management of resources and of
lands covered by the agreements.
Finally, DIAND is responsible for implementing
the agreements with respect to the overall
obligations of the Government of Canada. In so
doing, it must ensure the coordination of the
various activities on the part of other federal
departments and agencies in their dealings with
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, the Department
of Indian Affairs and Northern Development spent
a total of $122,829,350 in activities for Cree, Inuit
and Naskapi communities covered by the JBNQA
and the NEQA.
DIAND allocated a total budget of $49,808,421 to
cover education expenses during the 1995-1996
fiscal year. Most of these funds -$44,701,000-
went toward the cost of education services and
were distributed to the school boards concerned
through the Quebec Department of Education.
The Cree School Board received $32,893,757 and
the Kativik School Board received $9,979,905,
while the Eastern Quebec Regional School Board
was given $1,827,338. Expenditures related to
school infrastructures totaled $4,463,239 for all
Cree, Inuit and Naskapi educational facilities.
During the 1995-1996 school year, 6,220 students
were registered at the pre-school, elementary and
secondary levels on lands covered by the
agreements, including 3,344 students under the
Cree School Board, 2,701 under the Kativik
School Board and 175 students at the Naskapi
DIAND granted $243,219 as direct financing for
the Post-Secondary Education Assistance
Program. The Department also* contributed
$194,376 to the Cree and $196,587 to the Inuit for
the operation of their cultural centres and $10,000
to cover guidance and counseling costs.
Capital, Operations and Maintenance
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, a total of
$55,868,450 was spent by DIAND on capital,
operations and maintenance of Cree and Naskapi
The Cree and Naskapi received capital grants
totaling $13,949,884 during the 1995-1996 fiscal
year. Part of this sum - $4,200,00 - was used for
projects related to health, sanitation and safety in
four Cree communities.
In addition, $7,036,175 in capital contributions
was awarded. Waskaganish received $3,299,875
to relocate the drinking water supply intake and
$2,886,300 to treat wastewater and
Kawawachikamach received $850,000 to install a
DIAND also allocated $34,882,391 in the form of
grants and contributions for operations and
maintenance in Cree and Naskapi communities.
The ten-year agreement governing the opera-ting
grant awarded by DIAND to the Wemindji
community expired in March 1996. An agreement
was concluded between DIAND and
Hydro-Québec in April 1996, for an amount of
$8,250,9561, to supply electricity to the Wemindji
and Eastmain communities, which were not
connected to Hydro-Québec's grid.
Representatives from the community, DIAND and
Hydro-Québec continued talks on the power
supply to Waskaganish during 1996. One of the
options discussed consists in implementing an
energy efficiency program in the community for
the generators currently in use. In November
1996, Hydro-Québec completed a study on the
evaluation of energy conservation potential. The
conclusions should be available early in January
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, these communities
received the following amounts:
- Grant -End of annual grant
- Electricity system
1 This sum was not included in Summary of federal
government expenditures, ($) 1991-1996 Table (page
14) because it was not paid directly to the
The Quebec government provides social assistance
services for most of the communities in the
area covered by the agreements. DIAND
contributed $3,579,415 for the delivery of these
services in the communities of Mistissini,
Waswanipi and Kawawachikamach.
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, these three
communities received the following amounts:
The federal government also finances two
additional programs: the National Strategy for the
Integration of Persons with Disabilities (NSIPD)
and the Federal Initiative on Family Violence
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, the beneficiaries
of the agreements received the following amounts:
DIAND participates in the economic develop-ment
of Aboriginal peoples by contributing funds to
Community Economic Development
Organizations (CEDOs), which were created
under the Canadian Aboriginal Economic
Development Strategy (CAEDS) and provide
technical and financial assistance for projects.
The Department continued to support economic
development in accordance with CAEDS standards,
contributing the following amounts during
the 1995-1996 fiscal year:
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, DIAND provided
$324,150 to the Cree Regional Authority to
continue work on the Environmental Issues
Inventory in Cree communities. Analyses of the
health and environmental risks were conducted at
sites where contamination had been detected.
The lots of the Whapmagoostui municipal garage
and the former Eastmain service station were
cleaned up. The quality of the underground water
was assessed at waste disposal sites and
contaminated sites that have observation wells
and all petroleum storage tanks were tested. The
Wemindji community received $67,081 from the
Department to dispose of petroleum storage
tanks and drums no longer in use, and to
participate in cleaning up the lot of the diesel
All material containing PCBs (Polychlorinated
Biphenyls) stored at the Waskaganish and
Wemindji diesel stations was transferred in
February 1996 to the Long Point Garrison of the
Department of National Defence, Quebec, for
disposal in Swan Hill, Alberta.
Local environmental managers in Cree
communities participated in training sessions on
environmental emergencies, hazardous waste and
materials management and the Canadian
Environmental Assessment Act.
Finally, a pilot project designed to develop and
implement an environmental management system
in Cree communities is under way.
Resource Access Negotiations
The Cree community of Waskaganish received
$38,400 from DIAND during the 1995-1996 fiscal
year, under the Resource Access Negotiations
Program (RAN), to negotiate the most
economical means of meeting the community's
energy requirements with Hydro-Québec. The
Cree community of Eastmain is currently
negotiating the management of the service centre
located at Kilometre 381 with the James Bay
Energy Corporation in order to set up a
multi-purpose tourist centre.
The Department also awarded $31,234 to the
Kativik Regional Development Council to allow the
Inuit communities of Salluit and Kangiqsujuaq to
negotiate economic spin-offs from the Raglan
mining project. In September 1996, the Société
minière Raglan du Québec Ltée awarded an
open-pit mining contract for a nickel mine in
Nunavik to a joint venture which includes
Nuvumiut Development Inc., an Inuit company.
Monitoring groundwater quality in the Whapmagoostui
It is the responsibility of DIAND and the Cree and
Naskapi communities to manage Indian
registration records. The Department contributed
$91,979 to maintain the registry in these
communities during the 1995-1996 fiscal year.
Cree-Naskapi Land Registry
The organization of a registry of rights and interests
granted in Category IA and IA-N lands and in
buildings located on those lands is provided for
under the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act.
During 1996, the Eastmain and Waskaganish
communities opened their local land registry
offices. These offices are in addition to the six
offices already open in Whapmagoostui,
Wemindji, Chisasibi, Mistissini, Nemaska and
In 1996, DIAND's central land registrar provided
training sessions on the practical aspects of
operating the registration system to
Kawawachikamach and Waskaganish registrars
and also undertook, in co-operation with
Geomatics Canada, the task of drafting an information
pamphlet on this particular registration
system in lands covered by the agreement.
At the same time, the central land registrar recorded
the rights and interests submitted for
registration and assisted Cree and Naskapi
beneficiaries and third parties in the preparation of
land descriptions and in the preparation and
registration, or deposit, of any documents to be
registered, or deposited, in accordance with the
The Cree-Naskapi Land Registry Regulations
were discussed by the legal representatives of the
Cree and Naskapi, DIAND, and the Standing Joint
Committee for the Scrutiny of Regulations, to
clarify certain provisions.
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, the Cree
Regional Authority received $55,000 in financial
aid from to cover part of the cost of a
study on tourism. A Cree community received
$25,000 to cover the costs of organizing a
conference on housing. The Department also
provided financial aid for the organization of a
training session on forest fire prevention in nine
Cree communities in June 1996.
The Makivik Corporation obtained a $265,000
grant to assist with the operational costs of
agencies established to implement the JBNQA,
as well as with the costs of overall implementation
activities. DIAND also allotted $648,801 for
the resettlement of Inuit people originally from
Inukjuak who were relocated in the High Arctic
during the 1950s. The grant is paid to the Makivik
Corporation, which acts on behalf of the Inuit
The Naskapi received $60,000 to cover part of the
cost of negotiations for the Job Creation Strategy,
the operations and maintenance budget and the
capital budget. They received an additional
amount of $15,000, which was used to collect the
testimonies of the Elders in order to eventually
publish a book on the history of the Naskapi at
Fort McKenzie. Moreover, $101,013 was
allocated to cover expenses related to the power
outage in Kawawachikamach in January 1996.
Under the agreement signed in 1992 by DIAND
and the Cree of Ouje-Bougoumou, the
Department awarded an operations and maintenance
grant of $1,971,347 during the 1995-1996
Canada Mortgage and Housing
In March 1996, the Government of Canada gave
the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
(CMHC) a new mandate, to improve its effectiveness
and deliver services tailored to meet the
significant challenges it will be facing in future in
the area of housing.
For CMHC, one component of this mandate
involved helping on-reserve Aboriginal communities
achieve increased autonomy in the production
and maintenance of their housing stock.
Several months later, in July 1996, the government
announced a new approach to housing for
Aboriginal people. CMHC was thus called upon to
support the First Nations in their efforts, providing
them with tools such as training and financial
products to increase their autonomy and save
In so doing, the Government of Canada asked
CMHC to design and implement a new, better
focused and more flexible version of its onreserve
social housing program. National consultations
with the First Nations were held in the
fall of 1996, in order to take their concerns into
account in the implementation of this program,
scheduled to come into effect in 1997.
During 1995, close to $10 million in CMHC subsidies
went to Cree and Naskapi communities for
the operation of existing housing. In 1996, some
fifty units are scheduled to be built in these
In addition to this program, under various mechanisms
and in conjunction with the Société d'habitation du Québec (SHQ), CMHC also
subsidizes some 1,700 units for the Inuit; in 1995,
this represented over $33 million in subsidies.
In 1996, CMHC also renewed a very successful
initiative from 1994, the Remote Housing
Program. This program offers one-time capital
grants for housing construction but requires an
investment by the community. Because of their
geographic location, the Inuit and, since 1996, the
Cree and Naskapi are the main beneficiaries of
this program. In the case of the Inuit, the cost of
the program is shared with the SHQ, which, for a
period of 15 years, pays the recipients a subsidy
to cover part of their operating costs. These
initiatives will help build approximately forty
additional units in 1996.
In 1995, subsidies provided by CMHC for housing
in the Aboriginal communities covered by the
agreements amounted to $43,713,641.
Single-family units in Kawawachikamach.
CMHC, Program Expenditures in Northern Quebec1, 1995
|Number of subsidized units
|Number of subsidized Units
1 For the Cree and the Naskapi, programs and criteria for subsidies are different from those applicable to the Inuit.
Human Resources Development Canada
Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC)
continues to work toward its goal of promoting
greater autonomy for Aboriginal communities. It
supports them in their efforts to take control over
development tools for improving their workers'
employability and upgrading their workers' skills
to meet labour market requirements.
An agreement between HRDC and the Kativik
Regional Government (KRG) gives the Inuit
responsibility for the delivery of employment and
training programs and services for all
communities in Nunavik. In force since April 1992
and renewed in April 1995, this agreement is
currently being renegotiated for April 1, 1997. The
KRG received $5,383,231 during the 1995-1996
HRDC and the Grand Council of the Crees (of
Quebec) pursued their negotiations to reach
overall agreement on the devolution of the
employment and training programs and services
currently provided by the Department on Cree
territory. An agreement in principle came into
effect April 1, 1996, and devolution is to begin
early in 1997. The Cree received $4,405,585 for
training and employment development during the
1995-1996 fiscal year.
The Naskapi participated in the "Pathways to
Success" national strategy until March 31, 1996.
Since April 1996, HRDC has had a new
relationship with all the First Nations. As
members of the Assembly of the First Nations of
Quebec and Labrador, the Naskapi now belong to
the Commission on Human Resources
Development for the First Nations of Quebec. The
Naskapi Local Aboriginal Management Board
received $315,000 for training and employment
development activities in 1995-1996.
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, Health Canada's
Medical Services Branch provided $5,526,116 for
various health programs in the Cree, Inuit and
Naskapi communities covered by the
agreements. The Department primarily funded
projects in the areas of mental health, drug and
solvent abuse, family violence and prenatal
Health Canada also encourages students from
these communities to work in the health care
sector, through the Indian and Inuit Health
Careers Program. In addition, the Department
covered the cost of Non-Insured Health Benefits
for beneficiaries living away from their home
Health Canada, Program Expenditures in 1995-1996
|Non-Insured Health Benefits
|National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program
|Canada's Drug Strategy
|Building Healthy Communities Strategy
|Tobacco Demand Reduction Strategy
|Indian and Inuit Health Careers
Solicitor General Canada
In 1996, the Department of the Solicitor General
followed up on the three tripartite policing agreements
reached with the Government of Quebec
and, respectively, the Kativik Regional
Government, the Cree and the Naskapi.
The Department continued its talks with representatives
of the Cree concerning certain unresolved
issues relating to policing services in the
James Bay Cree communities.
In the fall of 1996, in conjunction with the
Government of Quebec, the Department began
negotiations with the Cree and with the Naskapi
for the renewal of their respective agreement,
which expire April 1, 1997.
It also took an active part in the work of the implementation
committee for the agreement signed
with the Kativik Regional Government. On April 1,
1996, the Kativik Regional Police Force assumed
full and complete responsibility for all policing
services in the 14 communities in Nunavik.
As its contribution to the tripartite agreements
during the 1995-1996 fiscal year, the Department paid $2,243,022 to the Cree,
$245,427 to the Naskapi and $2,104,440 to the
Kativik Regional Government.
Correctional Service Canada (CSC) pursued its
strategy of developing programs specially tailored
to Aboriginal culture and realities. It continued to
offer Aboriginal liaison officer ser-vices in each
institution, and it paid $32,000 to Native
Parajudicial Services of Quebec, which is
responsible for counseling Aboriginal offenders in
federal penitentiaries, including the Cree, Inuit and
Naskapi, to facilitate correctional planning and
follow-up until their release. A further $27,000 was
allocated for various treatment programs designed
to deal with substance abuse, sexual offences
and family violence and to promote literacy
training and Aboriginal spirituality. These amounts
do not include the direct costs of incarceration.
CSC also invested $99,000 in accommodation,
supervision and treatment in halfway houses
during conditional release.
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, the Department
of the Solicitor General spent a total of
$4,750,889 on its activities in Northern Quebec.
Canadian Heritage, acting through the Native
Citizens' Directorate, supports a wide range of
activities in Northern Quebec. Its main areas of
intervention are in the operation of Aboriginal communication
networks and friendship centres, the
protection of Aboriginal languages and cultures, support for Aboriginal organizations and
for the improvement of the situation of Aboriginal
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, Canadian
Heritage provided support, through its programs,
to Aboriginal communities in Northern Quebec,
amounting to $2,135,492.
Canadian Heritage, Program Expenditures in 1995-1996
|Northern Native Broadcast Access Program
|James Bay Cree Communications Society
|Taqramiut Nipingat Incorporated (TNI)
|Aboriginal Representative Organizations Program
|Native Friendship Centre Program
|Senneterre Native Friendship Centre Inc.*
|Val-d'or Native Friendship Centre Inc.*
|Cree Indian Friendship Centre of Chibougamou Inc.
|Aboriginal Women's Program
|Cree Women Council
|Grand Council of Naskapi
*The services provided by Native friendship centres are not offered exclusively to the agreements' beneficiaries.
Young Inuit listening to music on the Puvirnituk
community radio station.
Part of the Canadian Forces of the Department of
National Defence, Land Force Quebec Area
(LFQA) manages all Land Force activities in
Quebec. On the territory under agreement, LFQA
is responsible for three types of activity, in
connection with the Canadian Ranger, Junior
Ranger and Cadet programs.
The Canadian Rangers are volunteers aged 18 to
60; they receive basic training so that, when
necessary, they can support members of the
Canadian Forces in remote Northern and coastal
areas where there are no regular troops.
Junior Rangers are young people 12 to 17 from
Northern communities that have Ranger patrols.
The Junior Ranger program stresses traditional
Aboriginal culture and discipline and promotes
community involvement by these young people.
Cadets are between 12 and 18 years of age and
are part of a civilian organization sponsored by
the Cadet Leagues. The Canadian Forces are
responsible for ensuring supervision, delivering
training and providing the necessary resources to
achieve the goals of the Cadet movement, which
are to develop leadership and good citizenship,
promote physical fitness and stimulate and
challenge these young people.
Akulivik Junior Rangers patrols officially created in
In Nunavik, LFQA has 14 Ranger patrols with a
total complement of 311 and seven Junior Ranger
patrols with some 200 members, most of whom
are Inuit. In addition, through the Eastern Region
Cadets, LFQA is responsible for management
and supervision of a cadet corps in Schefferville.
This cadet corps has 35 members, 15 of whom
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, the Department
of National Defence allocated a total of
$1,023,000 for its activities in Northern Quebec.
Part of this amount - $580,000 - went toward
The Department completed Phase 2 of the
environmental project to restore 24 sites in
Kuujjuaq, and the remaining $443,000 was used
to cover these works.
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, Transport
Canada spent a total of $224,700 on the
Eastmain, Kuujjuaq and Schefferville airports.
In February 1996, all the material containing
PCBs stored at the Kuujjuaq airport was moved to
Longue Pointe, Quebec, for subsequent disposal
in Swan Hills, Alberta. With Public Works and
Government Services Canada as prime
contractor, this initiative had been organized by a
group of departments, including Transport
Canada. An environmental assessment for the
airport was completed in November 1996. The
purpose of the assessment was to identify areas
in which the airport did not meet environmental
standards. Based on the findings, a remedial
action plan will be developed.
Transport Canada provides financial assistance
for capital projects involving airport security, asset
protection and reduction of operating costs,
through the Airport Capital Assistance Program
(ACAP). The Chisasibi Cree Nation opened
discussions with Transport Canada with a view to
possibly submitting an application under this
program for assistance in improving facilities at
the Chisasibi airport.
The Schefferville airport operations and maintenance
contract was awarded to the Naskapi in
1995, for a three-year period: during the 1995-
1996 fiscal year, the Naskapi received $246,100.
The operations and maintenance contracts for the
Eastmain, Waskaganish and Wemindji airports
were renewed for three-year terms in 1995 with
the band councils of each of these communities;
during the 1995-1996 fiscal year, the Department
granted a total of $515,926 for these airports. In
addition, Transport Canada and the Kativik
Regional Government reached an agreement in
1996 concerning transfer of the management of
the Kuujjuaq airport.
Finally, under the Marine Infrastructure Program,
activities for 1996 involved reviewing and
summarizing the financial parameters for the
The Working Group worked all year long to reach
an agreement among the parties as to the
content of the program, so that infrastructure can
be put into place in the 14 Nunavik communities.
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
In addition to administering several research and
development programs in Northern Quebec,
Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) is responsible
for numerous services including protection,
vessel escort services, assistance to navigation
and maritime telecommunications. DFO also
manages marine fisheries and the fish habitat in
co-operation with the Cree and the Inuit and is
pursuing its scientific studies in the Hudson basin.
DFO is not active on the Naskapi territory, as
the Naskapi fish exclusively freshwater species,
for which Quebec has delegated management
authority. However, the Department has
established contacts through the Hunting, Fishing
and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee.
DFO is also a member of the environmental
advisory committees and is involved in the
Working Group evaluating marine infrastructure.
Northern Quebec Area and Native
Affairs - Fisheries Management
In 1996, DFO oversaw implementation of the
Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy (AFS) as well as
the development and application of a five-year
(1996-2000) Northern Quebec beluga management
plan in conjunction with the 14 Nunavik Municipal
Corporations, the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping
Association of Nunavik, the Makivik Corporation
and the Kativik Regional Government. Fishing
Agreements were signed with 13 of these
corporations, allowing them to hire 13 Community
Agents to monitor beluga and walrus hunting.
Still under the AFS, DFO continued the Inuit
Fishery Guardian training program which began
the previous year. The eight candidates who had
already completed the first phase of the course
successfully completed the second phase and
were designated Fishery Guardians under the
Fisheries Act. Five of them were hired as Fishery
Guardians under an Agreement concluded with
KRG, while two are working for DFO in Inukjuak.
The Department oversaw, for the last year, the
implementation of the Fisheries and Aquaculture
Testing and Experimentation Program, a special
maritime fisheries development program that
should generate socio-economic spinoffs in
Northern Quebec. DFO continued to provide
financial assistance and advisory support for
projects carried out by the Makivi k Corporation
and Seaku Fisheries Inc.
Regional Science Branch
The Department's Science Branch, through the
Maurice Lamontagne Institute, continued its
activities in connection with the multidisciplinary
study of the marine environment of the Hudson
basin program, which began in 1993 and is slated
to end in 1998. Its main objective is to acquire
information necessary to assess the specific
cumulative impact of changes in the flows of fresh
water on the marine environment of the Hudson
basin. The various projects associated with this
program are almost complete, and a number of
scientific reports and manuscripts will be
published shortly. In general, the work has
demonstrated the important influence of fresh
water river flows on coastal processes,
particularly in the southeastern portion of Hudson
Bay. Other work under way at the Maurice
Lamontagne Institute concerns marine mammals
in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait.
Finally, fish habitat management activities
continued in connection with the restoration of
Arctic char habitats near Inukjuak (Hudson Bay)
and the development of local expertise in this
area in Kangiqsualujjuaq. In all, five habitats have
been restored near Inukjuak in cooperation with
the local youth committee.
Coast Guard continues to administer several
programs in order to provide a number of services
such as protecting the public right of navigation,
escorting vessels, maintaining assistance to
navigation and telecommunications.
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, Fisheries and
Oceans Canada, Laurentian Region, allocated a
total of $847,169 to its various projects and
Inuit Fishery Guardians contribute to beluga management
conducting numerous air patrols with DFO Fishery Officers.
Federal Office of Regional Development-Quebec
The mandate of the Federal Office of Regional
Development - Quebec (FORD - Q) is to promote
economic development in the regions of Quebec.
It also emphasizes long-term growth, job creation
and sustainable revenues. It focuses its efforts on
small and medium-sized businesses (SME) and
on promoting entrepreneurship.
The approach taken by FORD - Q recognizes that
the dynamism and development of SME are a
driving force in the development of the regions'
economic potential. It further recognizes the need
for concerted and coherent action with a series of
partners in order to help realize regional
development opportunities. FORD - Q focuses its
efforts on two priority areas: providing a series of
services geared to clients' needs and coordinating
federal economic activity in Quebec.
Domestication of the caribou, following the techniques
with reindeer in the Finnmark region of Norway,
provide a regular supply for the meat-packing
Under the terms of the Enterprise Development
Program, Tourism Component, which terminated
on March 31, 1995, a total of $24,882 in contributions
was granted to Cree communities. Inuit
communities received overall contributions of
Under the IDEA-SME Program, FORD - Q
granted Cree communities a total of $15,375 in
contributions, while the Inuit communities
received a total of $16,750. One of the projects
that benefited from federal support was the
lpushin Intercontinental Trading Company Ltd.
project to process and export caribou meat,
primarily to Asian countries.
Under the terms of the Community Futures
Program, FORD - Q contributed $229,254 to Cree
communities. The objective of this program is to
give SME access to commercial funding and
management consulting services.
During the 1995-1996 fiscal year, the Department
allocated a total of $486,261 to its various
Natural Resources Canada
The Department is active in the territories covered
by the agreements through the Canadian Forest
Service and Geomatics Canada.
Canadian Forest Service
In 1996, the Canadian Forest Service continued
the implementation of the Forest Management
Program for Indian Lands (FMPIL) in cooperation
with the Cree communities. This program enables
Aboriginal peoples to manage their forest
resources on the basis of a code of ethics which
respects traditional customs.
During 1995-1996, a total of $453,200 was
allocated to the Cree of Mistissini and Waswanipi
for activities and projects in tune with the
The Eenatuk Forestry Corporation in Mistissini
received $139,800 for pre-commercial thinning of
14 hectares and planting 300,000 trees. The
Department's contribution helped support the
technical team financially.
The A-Pit-See-Win Co-operative in Waswanipi
received $313,400 for clear-cutting in a
checkerboard pattern with forest protection on
345 hectares, preparation of 164 hectares of land,
planting 500.000 trees and maintaining five
kilometres of forest roads. This contribution also
helped support the technical team financially.
Some 500,000 trees were planted in Waswanipi in 1996.
Under the terms of the Canadian Environmental
Assessment Act, the projects proposed by Cree
communities under the FMPIL are all evaluated
by the Canadian Forest Service.
The year 1996 also marked the end of the FMPIL
and the advent of a new program: the First Nation
Forestry Program (FMPIL). The objective of this
program is to increase the development
capabilities of Aboriginal communities. In addition
to a forestry component, it offers three other
components focused on the economic
development of Aboriginal forestry: the
development of Aboriginal businesses, cooperation
between communities and partnerships with
non-Aboriginal industries, and the creation of a
development fund for the Aboriginal forest.
Geomatics Canada is active in the territories
covered by the agreements through its Legal
Surveys Division (LSD). Its activities in the
Aboriginal communities consist mainly of producing
cartographic information and providing
consulting services. The LSD also supervises
certain projects relating to land surveying and
During 1996, the regional office of the LSD
prepared parcel plans and confirmed the Crina
numbers at the request of DIAND's central land
registrar for all rights granted on Cree and/or
The LSD also advised the central land registrar on
title searches to justify the rights of non-
Aboriginal third parties in various communities.
The land surveyor in charge of the regional office
of the LSD and DIAND's central land registrar are
preparing a brochure explaining the operation of
the registry system in Cree and Naskapi
communities. The brochure, which should be
available in 1997, is designed primarily for local
Cree and Naskapi registrars, professionals
involved with land issues (land surveyors,
notaries, lawyers) working in these communities,
as well for those wishing to better understand the
operation of this particular system for registering
rights and interests.
Survey of an access road in Category 1A lands in
Industry Canada invested a total of $279,042
during fiscal year 1995-1996 to support a total of
eight business and economic development
projects for the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi of the
Funding was provided for the establishment,
acquisition or expansion of two businesses. One
other business received financial assistance for a
marketing assistance. Funding was allocated for
two economic development research projects
under Research and Advocacy component of
Aboriginal Business Canada. In addition, Industry
Canada's Community Access Program invested
funding into three remote Northern communities
to assist in bringing new economic development
opportunities through access to the Internet and
the information highway.
This funding was invested in a diverse range of
industrial sectors in the region, with a significant
investment being made in the area of telecommunications
research and infrastructure development.
The drop in funded activity noted during the year
is the result of a national moratorium on new
proposals which was in place for most of 1995-
1996. Demand simply exceeded resources
available and funds were fully committed early in
the year. Aboriginal Business Canada resumed
accepting proposals on April 1, 1996, introducing
specific strategic priorities at the same time.
Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental
Environment Canada and the Canadian
Environmental Assessment Agency share the
federal obligations relating to the implementation
of measures for the protection of the environment
and the social conditions, as provided in sections
22, 23 and 24 of the JBNQA.
Environment Canada, Quebec region, contributed
to the implementation of the measures for the
protection of the environment and social
conditions provided for in the Agreement by
making appointments or providing representatives
to various multipartite committees. The
Department was represented on the James Bay
Advisory Committee on the Environment, the
Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee and
the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating
Environment Canada's involvement in the conservation
of the Northern populations of the
Canada goose intensified. Following a departmental
tour of Cree communities in the winter of
1996, the communities undertook to document
the harvest of geese in the spring and fall of 1996.
The communities were provided with funds to
conduct this study and to ensure their
participation, and that of the Inuit, on the Atlantic
Flyway Council. This standing international
committee on the management of game birds is
concerned with protecting the goose population,
which is subject to subsistence hunting.
In the 1995-1996 fiscal year, Environment Canada
spent $70,000 in relation to the implementation of
the JBNQA, including $55,000 in connection with
the conservation of the Canada goose.
Environment Canada takes annually inventory of the
breeding grounds of the Northern geese in co-operation
with representatives of the Cree and the Inuit communities.
The Canadian Environmental Assessment
With regard to sections 22 and 23, the Agency
assisted the federal administrator, the local
administrators and the various committees
established under the JBNQA.
For the 1995-1996 fiscal year, expenditures by
the Agency amounted to $118,898. This includes
a federal contribution to the Government of
Quebec for the joint financing of the secretariats
of the James Bay Advisory Committee on the
Environment and the Kativik Environmental
Advisory Committee. It also includes spending
related to the activities of the Environmental and
Social Impact Review Panel (COFEX-South), the
Evaluating Committee (COMEV) and the
administration of the JBNQA.
The Aboriginal Justice Initiative of the federal
Department of Justice ended its mandate March
31, 1996. Since that time, the government has
approved a more focused implementation strategy
for improvements to the administration of
Justice for Aboriginal people. It covers the period
April 1, 1996 to March 31, 2001.
Under the previous initiative, the Department
granted $40,000 to the Grand Council of the
Crees (of Quebec) during the 1995-1996 fiscal
year. The funds were provided to the Grand
Council to undertake research on crime, community
consultations to validate the research
findings, and to define and plan communitybased
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAC) is active
among the Aboriginal communities of Northern
Quebec in connection with the federal certification
required by any establishment that wishes to
export its production, in whole or in part, outside
Since November 1996, a veterinarian from the
Department's Food Production and Inspection
Branch has been posted to Nunavik to supervise
the operations of a slaughterhouse and
caribou-meat processing plant. The Ipushin
Intercontinental Trading Company Ltd. in Inukjuak
operates a processing plant under federal
inspection. Departmental certification gives it
access to Canadian and international markets.
The AAC is studying the possibility of certifying
the slaughter and caribou meat processing
facilities of another company, Nunavik Arctic
Foods Inc. That company, with the active support
of the Makivik Corporation, has applied for
certification for four establishments located
around Ungava Bay. Their operations could begin
in January 1997.
At Inukjuak, the plant of the Ipushin intercontinental
Company Ltd., a former weather station
transformed into a
caribou cutting room meeting
federal inspection standards.