On-line Resources

This guide to on-line resources contains descriptions and links to web sites relating to the historical context and contemporary interpretation of historic treaties in Canada. The sites were reviewed and chosen for their authority and clarity. They include archival resources, statutes, primary material, historical material, and images.

Contemporary Information Sites


Statutes and Regulations Relating to Indian and Aboriginal Affairs

Author Government of Canada. Department of Justice   
URL http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/index.html

Summary   Statutes and regulations relating to Indian and Aboriginal Affairs including the Indian Act, the Nunavut Act and the Nisga'a Final Agreement Act are grouped on this section of the Department of Justice site. The site notes that on-line versions of statutes should be used for reference only and do not constitute the official versions. The official versions, published in the Canada Gazette, are available in most public libraries.

First Nations Profiles

Author Government of Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada  



Summary Profiles containing information about First Nations government, Tribal Council and reserves. Information is extracted from current Indian and Northern Affairs databases including the Band Classification Manual, Band Governance Management System, the Indian Lands Registry System, the Indian Government Support System and the Indian Register System. Profiles can be found by Reserve or by First Nation.

Specific Claims Status

Author Government of Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
Summary Maps (pdf only) showing the status of specific claims in a particular province or territory. Specific claims arise when there is an outstanding historical grievance between a First Nation and the Crown that relates to an unfulfilled obligation of a treaty or another agreement.

Canadian Legal Information Institute

Author Canadian Legal Information Institute  
URL http://www.canlii.org/index_en.html

Summary Statutes, legal decisions, and regulations from federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions. The site supports full-text and titles-only searches within each jurisdiction or in the entire collection.

Directory of Federal Real Property - Treaty Areas Government of Canada

Author Treasury Board Secretariat  
URL http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rpm-gbi/doc/dfrpmf-rbiffc/dfrp-rbif-mf-fc-000-eng.aspx

Summary Current real property holdings of the Canadian government including information about Reserves and federal buildings on Reserves. This section of the site shows the geographical area of the numbered treaties and other pre-Confederation treaties, including those on Vancouver Island.


Historical Information


Aboriginal Peoples - Guide to the Records of the Government of Canada

Author Government of Canada. National Archives of Canada  
URL http://www.collectionscanada.ca/02/0201200109_e.html

Summary   Background information about records created by the Department of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. The site includes an overview of Aboriginal history, Metis scrip records, and an index of bands and agencies and hyperlinks to ArchviaNet, the National Archives' database. This site is an excellent starting point for research into Indian Affairs records.

Images Canada: Picturing Canadian Culture

Author Government of Canada. National Library of Canada  
URL http://www.imagescanada.ca/index-e.html

Summary Online photo collection containing 20,000 images of the people, heritage and culture of the Northwest Territories. Low-resolution images can be displayed, as well as information about them. Prints and digital files may be ordered online. Treaty images originate mostly from the 1920s and the 1950s.

Canadian Archival Information Network

Author Canadian Archival Information Network  
URL http://www.archivescanada.ca/index2.html

Summary Online version of the Canadian Encyclopaedia containing scholarly articles about indian treaties, convenant chain treaties, numbered treaties, historical context, and excluded groups. Suggested reading and links to other sites are also provided.

Indian Affairs Annual Reports

Author Government of Canada. National Library of Canada
URL http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/aboriginal-heritage/first-nations/indian-affairs-annual-reports/Pages/introduction.aspx
Summary Digital versions (both html and jpeg) of the Indian Affairs Annual Reports (1864-1990) produced by the various federal departments responsible for Indian affairs in Canada. The Schedules of Indian Bands, Reserves and Settlements 1902-1992 have also been digitized and are included in the site. The site supports full-text searching.

National Atlas of Canada. Historical Indian Treaties - Virtual Time Line

Author Government of Canada. Natural Resources Canada  
URL http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/reference/

Summary A menu of 68 treaties between pre- and post-Confederation governments and Aboriginal Peoples between 1725 and 1930. A new map appears for each treaty listed in the menu showing the approximate geographical area of the treaty and describes the historical background.

Photographs Database

Author Glenbow Archives  
URL http://www.glenbow.org/collections/search/

Summary Database with thumbnails and screen-size images of over 75,000 historical photographs documenting the people, landscape and development of the Canadian West. The images include good coverage of Treaties 7 and 8.

The Canadian Encyclopedia

Author The Canadian Encyclopaedia  
URL http://www.canadianencyclopedia.ca/index.cfm?

Summary Online version of the Canadian Encyclopaedia containing scholarly articles about indian treaties, convenant chain treaties, numbered treaties, historical context, and excluded groups. Suggested reading and links to other sites are also provided.

National Atlas of Canada. Historical Indian Treaties

Author Government of Canada. Natural Resources Canada  
URL http://www.atlas.gc.ca/site/english/maps/historical/

Summary Maps of the historical Indian treaties from 1725 to 1923. Developed with research conducted by Indian and Northern Affairs.



Office of Treaty Commissioner

Author Federation and Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN)  
URL http://www.otc.ca/

Summary Established in 1989, the Office of the Treaty Commissioner facilitates exploratory treaty discussions between the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN) and the Government of Canada. Its website provides information on treaties 4,5,6,8 and 10, including a photo gallery, facsimile texts, maps and resources for teachers.

First Nations Bands of Saskatchewan

Author First Nations Bands of Saskatchewan  
URL http://www.sicc.sk.ca/bands/

Summary   Information about Saskatchewan First Nations Bands. Information can be access by Name, Treaty Area or Tribal Council.

Indian Treaties

Author Government of Canada. SchoolNet Digital Collections.  
URL http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treaties/code

Summary Reproductions of 13 documents contained in the Indian Treaties and Surrenders section of this site were chosen by the National Archives of Canada to represent the various arrangements between the federal government of Canada and Aboriginal Peoples. A chronology outlining the historical development of the administration of Indian Affairs from 1755 to 1993 is also included at the site.

Virtual Journey: The Signing of Treaty Nine.

Author Virtual Journey: The Signing of Treaty Nine  
URL http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treatynine/

Summary A record of Duncan Campbell Scott's journies in 1905 and 1906 to offer Treaty Nine to the Ojibway and Cree people in northern Ontario. Audio versions of Scott's writings are available.

The Making of Treaty 8

Author Government of Canada. Virtual Museum of Canada  
URL http://www.albertasource.ca/treaty8/eng/

Summary An on-line exhibit about the making of Treaty 8. The web site includes portions of Charles Mair's, Through the Mackenzie Basin: An Account of the Signing of Treaty No. 8 and the Scrip Commission, 1899. Mair was the English Secretary to the Scrip Commission.