Treaty Texts - Treaty No. 8

Treaty No. 8 Made June 21, 1899 and Adhesions, Reports, Etc.

LAYOUT IS NOT EXACTLY LIKE ORIGINAL
TRANSCRIBED FROM:

Reprinted from file the 1899 edition by
©
ROGER DUHAMEL, F.R.S.C.
QUEEN'S PRINTER AND CONTROLLER OF STATIONERY
OTTAWA, 1966

Cat. No.: Ci 72-0866

IAND Publication No. QS-0576-000-EE-A-16


Table of Contents


Order In Council Setting Up Commission for Treaty 8

P.C. No. 2749

On a report dated 30th November, 1898, from the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, stating with reference to his report of the 18th June, 1898, upon which was based the Minute of Council approved on the 27th of the same month, authorizing the appointing of Commissioners to negotiate a treaty with the Indians occupying territory to the north of that already ceded and shown in pink on the attached map, that in that report it was set forth that the Commissioner of the North West Mounted Police had pointed out the desirability of steps being taken for the making of a treaty with the Indians occupying the proposed line of route from Edmonton to Pelly River; that he had intimated that these Indians, as well as the Beaver Indians of the Peace and Nelson Rivers, and the Sicamas and Nihames Indians, were inclined to be turbulent and were liable to give trouble to isolated parties of miners or traders who might be regarded by the Indians as interfering with what they considered their vested rights; and that he had stated that the situation was made more difficult by the presence of the numerous travellers who had come into the country and were scattered at various points between Lesser Slave Lake and Peace River.

The Minister further states that the view of the Commissioner of the North West Mounted Police as to the desirability of making a treaty with these Indians being concurred in by the Indian Commissioner, and the Minister being convinced that in the public interest it was necessary to take at the earliest possible date the suggested step, it was recommended that Commissioners be appointed with full power to negotiate a treaty. An Order in Council as above stated, issued accordingly; and the preliminary arrangements are now being made.

The Minister, in this connection, draws attention to the fact that part of the territory marked "A" on the plan attached is within the boundaries of the Province of British Columbia, and that in the past no treaties such as have been made with the Indians of the North West have been made with any of the Indians whose habitat is west of the Mountains. An arrangement was come to in 1876 under which the British Columbia Government agreed to the setting aside by a Commission subject to the approval of that Government, of land which might be considered necessary for Indian reserves in different parts of the Province, and later on the agreement was varied so as to provide that the setting apart should be made by a Commissioner appointed by the Dominion Government whose allotment would be subject to the approval of the Commissioner of Lands and Works of the Province.

As the Indians to the west of the Mountains are quite distinct from those whose habitat is on the eastern side thereof, no difficulty ever arose in consequence of the different methods of dealing with the Indians on either side of the Mountains. But there can be no doubt that had the division line between the Indians been artificial instead of natural, such difference in treatment would have been fraught with grave danger and have been the fruitful source of much trouble to both the Dominion and the Provincial Governments.

The Minister submits that it will neither be politic nor practicable to exclude from the treaty Indians whose habitat is in the territory lying between the height of land and the eastern boundary of British Columbia, as they know nothing of the artificial boundary, and, being allied to the Indians of Athabasca, will look for the same treatment as is given to the Indians whose habitat is in that district.

Although the rule has been laid down by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council that the Province benefitting by a surrender of Indian title should bear the burdens incident to that surrender, he the Minister after careful consideration does not think it desirable that any demand should be made upon the Province of British Columbia for any money payment in connection with the proposed treaty.

That from the information in possession of the Department of Indian Affairs it is not at present clear whether it will be necessary to set apart any land for a reserve or reserves for Indians in that part of the Province of British Columbia which will be covered by the proposed treaty, but if the Commissioners should find it necessary to agree to the setting apart of any reserve or reserves in that territory, the Minister is of opinion that the same may properly be set aside under the agreement of 1876 already referred to.

As it is in the interest of the Province of British Columbia, as well as in that of the Dominion, that the country to be treated for should be thrown open to development and the lives and property of those who may enter therein safeguarded by the making of provision which will remove all hostile feeling from the minds of the Indians and lead them to peacefully acquiesce in the changing conditions, he the Minister would suggest that the Government of British Columbia be apprised of the intention to negotiate the proposed treaty; and as it is of the utmost importance that the Commissioners should have full power to give such guarantees as may be found necessary in regard to the setting apart of land for reserves the Minister further recommends that the Government of British Columbia be asked to formally acquiesce in the action taken by Your Excellency's Government in the matter and to intimate its readiness to confirm any reserves which it may be found necessary to set apart within the portion of the Province already described.

The Minister further recommends that a certified copy of this Minute, if approved, and of the map attached hereto be transmitted to the Lieutenant Governor of the Province of British Columbia for the information of his Government.

The Committee submit the same for Your Excellency's approval.

(sgd.) R. W. SCOTT.



Report of Commissioners for Treaty No. 8

WINNIPEG, MANITOBA, 22nd September, 1899.

The Honourable
CLIFFORD SIFTON,
Superintendent General of Indian Affairs,
Ottawa.

SIR, --- We have the honour to transmit herewith the treaty which, under the Commission issued to us on the 5th day of April last, we have made with the Indians of the provisional district of Athabasca and parts of the country adjacent thereto, as described in the treaty and shown on the map attached.

The date fixed for meeting the Indians at Lesser Slave Lake was the 8th of June, 1899. Owing, however, to unfavourable weather and lack of boatmen, we did not reach the point until the 19th. But one of the Commissioners Mr. Ross --- who went overland from Edmonton to the Lake, was fortunately present when the Indians first gathered. He was thus able to counteract the consequences of the delay and to expedite the work of the Commission by preliminary explanations of its objects.

We met the Indians on the 20th, and on the 21st the treaty was signed.

As the discussions at the different points followed on much the same lines, we shall confine ourselves to a general statement of their import. There was a marked absence of the old Indian style of oratory. Only among the Wood Crees were any formal speeches made, and these were brief. The Beaver Indians are taciturn. The Chipewyans confined themselves to asking questions and making brief arguments. They appeared to be more adept at cross-examination than at speech-making, and the Chief at Fort Chipewyan displayed considerable keenness of intellect and much practical sense in pressing the claims of his band. They all wanted as liberal, if not more liberal terms, than were granted to the Indians of the plains. Some expected to be fed by the Government after the making of treaty, and all asked for assistance in season of distress and urged that the old and indigent who were no longer able to hunt and trap and were consequently often in distress should be cared for by the Government. They requested that medicines be furnished. At Vermilion, Chipewyan and Smith's Landing, an earnest appeal was made for the services of a medical man. There was expressed at every point the fear that the making of the treaty would be followed by the curtailment of the hunting and fishing privileges, and many were impressed with the notion that the treaty would lead to taxation and enforced military service. They seemed desirous of securing educational advantages for their children, but stipulated that in the matter of schools there should be no interference with their religious beliefs.

We pointed out that the Government could not undertake to maintain Indians in idleness; that the same means of earning a livelihood would continue after the treaty as existed before it, and that the Indians would be expected to make use of them. We told them that the Government was always ready to give relief in cases of actual destitution, and that in seasons of distress they would without any special stipulation in the treaty receive such assistance as it was usual to give in order to prevent starvation among Indians in any part of Canada; and we stated that the attention of the Government would be called to the need of some special provision being made for assisting the old and indigent who were unable to work and dependent on charity for the means of sustaining life. We promised that supplies of medicines would be put in the charge of persons selected by the Government at different points, and would be distributed free to those of the Indians who might require them. We explained that it would be practically impossible for the Government to arrange for regular medical attendance upon Indians so widely scattered over such an extensive territory. We assured them, however, that the Government would always be ready to avail itself of any opportunity of affording medical service just as it provided that the physician attached to the Commission should give free attendance to all Indians whom he might find in need of treatment as he passed through the country.

Our chief difficulty was the apprehension that the hunting and fishing privileges were to be curtailed. The provision in the treaty under which ammunition and twine is to be furnished went far in the direction of quieting the fears of the Indians, for they admitted that it would be unreasonable to furnish the means of hunting and fishing if laws were to be enacted which would make hunting and fishing so restricted as to render it impossible to make a livelihood by such pursuits. But over and above the provision, we had to solemnly assure them that only such laws as to hunting and fishing as were in the interest of the Indians and were found necessary in order to protect the fish and fur-bearing animals would be made, and that they would be as free to hunt and fish after the treaty as they would be if they never entered into it.

We assured them that the treaty would not lead to any forced interference with their mode of life, that it did not open the way to the imposition of any tax, and that there was no fear of enforced military service. We showed them that, whether treaty was made or not, they were subject to the law, bound to obey it, and liable to punishment for any infringements of it. We pointed out that the law was designed for the protection of all, and must be respected by all the inhabitants of the country, irrespective of colour or origin; and that, in requiring them to live at peace with white men who came into the country, and not to molest them in person or in property, it only required them to do what white men were required to do as to the Indians.

As to education the Indians were assured that there was no need of any special stipulation, as it was the policy of the Government to provide in every part of the country, as far as circumstances would permit, for the education of Indian children, and that the law, which was as strong as a treaty, provided for non-interference with the religion of the Indians in schools maintained or assisted by the Government.

We should add that the chief of the Chipewyans of Fort Chipewyan asked that the Government should undertake to have a railway built into the country, as the cost of goods which the Indians require would be thereby cheapened and the prosperity of the country enhanced. He was told that the Commissioners had no authority to make any statement in the matter further than to say that his desire would be made known to the Government.

When we conferred, after the first meeting with the Indians at Lesser Slave Lake, we came to the conclusion that it would be best to make one treaty covering the whole of the territory ceded, and to take adhesions thereto from the Indians to be met at the other points rather than to make several separate treaties. The treaty was therefore so drawn as to provide three ways in which assistance is to be given to the Indians, in order to accord with the conditions of the country and to meet the requirements of the Indians in the different parts of the territory.

In addition to the annuity, which we found it necessary to fix at the figures of Treaty Six, which covers adjacent territory, the treaty stipulates that assistance in the form of seed and implements and cattle will be given to those of the Indians who may take to farming, in the way of cattle and mowers to those who may devote themselves to cattle-raising, and that ammunition and twine will be given to those who continue to fish and hunt. The assistance in farming and ranching is only to be given when the Indians actually take to these pursuits, and it is not likely that for many years there will be a call for any considerable expenditure under these heads. The only Indians of the territory ceded who are likely to take to cattle-raising are those about Lesser Slave Lake and along the Peace River, where there is quite an extent of ranching country; and although there are stretches of cultivable land in those parts of the country, it is not probable that the Indians will, while present conditions obtain, engage in farming further than the raising of roots in a small way, as is now done to some extent. In the main the demand will be for ammunition and twine, as the great majority of the Indians will continue to hunt and fish for a livelihood. It does not appear likely that the conditions of the country on either side of the Athabasca and Slave Rivers or about Athabasca Lake will be so changed as to affect hunting or trapping, and it is safe to say that so long as the fur-bearing animals remain, the great bulk of the Indians will continue to hunt and to trap.

The Indians are given the option of taking reserves or land in severalty. As the extent of the country treated for made it impossible to define reserves or holdings, and as the Indians were not prepared to make selections, we confined ourselves to an undertaking to have reserves and holdings set apart in the future, and the Indians were satisfied with the promise that this would be done when required. There is no immediate necessity for the general laying out of reserves or the allotting of land. It will be quite time enough to do this as advancing settlement makes necessary the surveying of the land. Indeed, the Indians were generally averse to being placed on reserves. It would have been impossible to have made a treaty if we had not assured them that there was no intention of confining them to reserves. We had to very clearly explain to them that the provision for reserves and allotments of land were made for their protection, and to secure to them in perpetuity a fair portion of the land ceded, in the event of settlement advancing.

After making the treaty at Lesser Slave Lake it was decided that, in order to offset the delay already referred to, it would be necessary for the Commission to divide. Mr. Ross and Mr. McKenna accordingly set out for Fort St. John on the 22nd of June. The date appointed for meeting the Indians there was the 21st. When the decision to divide was come to, a special messenger was despatched to the Fort with a message to the Indians explaining the delay, advising them that Commissioners were travelling to meet them, and requesting them to wait at the Fort. Unfortunately the Indians had dispersed and gone to their hunting grounds before the messenger arrived and weeks before the date originally fixed for the meeting, and when the Commissioners got within some miles of St. John the messenger met them with a letter from the Hudson's Bay Company's officer there advising them that the Indians after consuming all their provisions, set off on the 1st June in four different bands and in as many different directions for the regular hunt; that there was not a man at St. John who knew the country and could carry word of the Commissioners' coming, and even if there were it would take three weeks or a month to get the Indians in. Of course there was nothing to do but return. It may be stated, however, that what happened was not altogether unforeseen. We had grave doubts of being able to get to St. John in time to meet the Indians, but as they were reported to be rather disturbed and ill-disposed on account of the actions of miners passing through their country, it was thought that it would be well to show them that the Commissioners were prepared to go into their country, and that they had put forth every possible effort to keep the engagement made by the Government.

The Commissioners on their return from St. John met the Beaver Indians of Dunvegan on the 21st day of June and secured their adhesion to the treaty. They then proceeded to Fort Chipewyan to Smith's Landing on the Slave River and secured the adhesion of the Cree and Chipewyan Indians at these points on the 13th and 17th days of July respectively.

In the meantime Mr. Laird met the Cree and Beaver Indians at Peace River Landing and Vermilion, and secured their adhesion on the 1st and 8th days of July respectively. He then proceeded to Fond du Lac on Lake Athabasca, and obtained the adhesion of the Chipewyan Indians there on the 25th and 27th days of July.

After treating with the Indians at Smith, Mr. Ross and Mr. McKenna found it necessary to separate in order to make sure of meeting the Indians at Wabiscow on the date fixed. Mr. McKenna accordingly went to Fort McMurray, where he secured the adhesion of the Chipewyan and Cree Indians on the 4th day of August, and Mr. Ross proceeded to Wabiscow, where he obtained the adhesion of the Cree Indians on the 14th day of August.

The Indians with whom we treated differ in may respects from the Indians of the organized territories. They indulge in neither paint nor feathers, and never clothe themselves in blankets. Their dress is of the ordinary style and many of them were well clothed. In the summer they live in teepees, but many of them have log houses in which they live in winter. The Cree language is the chief language of trade, and some of the Beavers and Chipewyans speak it in addition to their own tongues. All the Indians we met were with rare exceptions professing Christians, and showed evidences of the work which missionaries have carried on among them for many years. A few of them have had their children avail themselves of the advantages afforded by boarding schools established at different missions. None of the tribes appear to have any very definite organization. They are held together mainly by the language bond. The chiefs and headmen are simply the most efficient hunters and trappers. They are not law-makers and leaders in the sense that the chiefs and headmen of the plains and of old Canada were. The tribes have no very distinctive characteristics, and as far as we could learn no traditions of any import. The Wood Crees are an off-shoot of the Crees of the South. The Beaver Indians bear some resemblance to the Indians west of the mountains. The Chipewyans are physically the superior tribe. The Beavers have apparently suffered most from scrofula and phthisis, and there are marks of these diseases more or less among all the tribes.

Although in manners and dress the Indians of the North are much further advanced in civilization than other Indians were when treaties were made with them, they stand as much in need of the protection afforded by the law to aborigines as do any other Indians of the country, and are as fit subjects for the paternal care of the Government.

It may be pointed out that hunting in the North differs from hunting as it was on the plains in that the Indians hunt in a wooded country and instead of moving in bands go individually or in family groups.

Our journey from point to point was so hurried that we are not in a position to give any description of the country ceded which would be of value. But we may say that about Lesser Slave Lake there are stretches of country which appear well suited for ranching and mixed farming; that on both sides of the Peace River there are extensive prairies and some well wooded country; that at Vermilion, on the Peace, two settlers have successfully carried on mixed farming on a pretty extensive scale for several years, and that the appearance of the cultivated fields of the Mission there in July showed that cereals and roots were as well advanced as in any portion of the organized territories. The country along the Athabasca River is well wooded and there are miles of tar-saturated banks. But as far as our restricted view of the Lake Athabasca and Slave River country enabled us to judge, its wealth, apart from possible mineral development, consists exclusively in its fisheries and furs.

In going from Peace River Crossing to St. John, the trail which is being constructed under the supervision of the Territorial Government from moneys provided by Parliament was passed over. It was found to be well located. The grading and bridge work is of a permanent character, and the road is sure to be an important factor in the development of the country.

We desire to express our high appreciation of the valuable and most willing service rendered by Inspector Snyder and the corps of police under him, and at the same time to testify to the efficient manner in which the members of our staff performed their several duties. The presence of a medical man was much appreciated by the Indians, and Dr. West, the physician to the Commission, was most assiduous in attending to the great number of Indians who sought his services. We would add that the Very Reverend Father Lacombe, who was attached to the Commission, zealously assisted us in treating with the Crees.

The actual number of Indians paid was:----
7 Chiefs at $32............................................................. $ 224 00
23 Headmen at $22........................................................ 506 00
2,187 Indians at $12............................................................ 26,244 00
Total: $26,974 00

A detailed statement of the Indians treated with and of the money paid is appended.

We have the honour to be, sir,

Your obedient servants,

DAVID LAIRD,
J. H. ROSS,
J. A. J. McKENNA

Indian Treaty Commissioners.



Statement of Indians Paid Annuity and Gratuity Moneys in Treaty No. 8, during 1899

Refer to hard copy
Refer to hard copy


Treaty No. 8

ARTICLES OF A TREATY made and concluded at the several dates mentioned therein, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine, between Her most Gracious Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, by Her Commissioners the Honourable David Laird, of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Indian Commissioner for the said Province and the Northwest Territories; James Andrew Joseph McKenna, of Ottawa, Ontario, Esquire, and the Honourable James Hamilton Ross, of Regina, in the Northwest Territories, of the one part; and the Cree, Beaver, Chipewyan and other Indians, inhabitants of the territory within the limits hereinafter defined and described, by their Chiefs and Headmen, hereunto subscribed, of the other part:

WHEREAS, the Indians inhabiting the territory hereinafter defined have, pursuant to notice given by the Honourable Superintendent General of Indian Affairs in the year 1898, been convened to meet a Commission representing Her Majesty's Government of the Dominion of Canada at certain places in the said territory in this present year 1899, to deliberate upon certain matters of interest of Her Most Gracious Majesty, of the one part, and the said Indians of the other.

AND WHEREAS, the said Indians have been notified and informed by Her Majesty's said Commission that it is Her desire to open for settlement, immigration, trade, travel, mining, lumbering and such other purposes as to Her Majesty may seem meet, a tract of country bounded and described as hereinafter mentioned, and to obtain the consent thereto of Her Indian subjects inhabiting the said tract, and to make a treaty, and arrange with them, so that there may be peace and good will between them and Her Majesty's other subjects, and that Her Indian people may know and be assured of what allowances they are to count upon and receive from Her Majesty's bounty and benevolence.

AND WHEREAS, the Indians of the said tract, duly convened in council at the respective points named hereunder, and being requested by Her Majesty's Commissioners to name certain Chiefs and Headmen who should be authorized on their behalf to conduct such negotiations and sign any treaty to be founded thereon, and to become responsible to Her Majesty for the faithful performance by their respective bands of such obligations as shall be assumed by them, the said Indians have therefore acknowledged for that purpose the several Chiefs and Headmen who have subscribed hereto.

AND WHEREAS, the said Commissioners have proceeded to negotiate a treaty with the Cree, Beaver, Chipewyan and other Indians, inhabiting the district hereinafter defined and described, and the same has been agreed upon and concluded by the respective bands at the dates mentioned hereunder, the said Indians DO HEREBY CEDE, RELEASE, SURRENDER AND YIELD UP to the Government of the Dominion of Canada, for Her Majesty the Queen and Her successors for ever, all their rights, titles and privileges whatsoever, to the lands included within the following limits, that is to say:

Commencing at the source of the main branch of the Red Deer River in Alberta, thence due west to the central range of the Rocky Mountains, thence northwesterly along the said range to the point where it intersects the 60th parallel of north latitude, thence east along said parallel to the point where it intersects Hay River, thence northeasterly down said river to the south shore of Great Slave Lake, thence along the said shore northeasterly (and including such rights to the islands in said lakes as the Indians mentioned in the treaty may possess), and thence easterly and northeasterly along the south shores of Christie's Bay and McLeod's Bay to old Fort Reliance near the mouth of Lockhart's River, thence southeasterly in a straight line to and including Black Lake, thence southwesterly up the stream from Cree Lake, thence including said lake southwesterly along the height of land between the Athabasca and Churchill Rivers to where it intersects the northern boundary of Treaty Six, and along the said boundary easterly, northerly and southwesterly, to the place of commencement .

AND ALSO the said Indian rights, titles and privileges whatsoever to all other lands wherever situated in the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, or in any other portion of the Dominion of Canada.

TO HAVE AND TO HOLD the same to Her Majesty the Queen and Her successors for ever.

And Her Majesty the Queen HEREBY AGREES with the said Indians that they shall have right to pursue their usual vocations of hunting, trapping and fishing throughout the tract surrendered as heretofore described, subject to such regulations as may from time to time be made by the Government of the country, acting under the authority of Her Majesty, and saving and excepting such tracts as may be required or taken up from time to time for settlement, mining, lumbering, trading or other purposes.

And Her Majesty the Queen hereby agrees and undertakes to lay aside reserves for such bands as desire reserves, the same not to exceed in all one square mile for each family of five for such number of families as may elect to reside on reserves, or in that proportion for larger or smaller families; and for such families or individual Indians as may prefer to live apart from band reserves, Her Majesty undertakes to provide land in severalty to the extent of 160 acres to each Indian, the land to be conveyed with a proviso as to non-alienation without the consent of the Governor General in Council of Canada, the selection of such reserves, and lands in severalty, to be made in the manner following, namely, the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs shall depute and send a suitable person to determine and set apart such reserves and lands, after consulting with the Indians concerned as to the locality which may be found suitable and open for selection.

Provided, however, that Her Majesty reserves the right to deal with any settlers within the bounds of any lands reserved for any band as She may see fit; and also that the aforesaid reserves of land, or any interest therein, may be sold or otherwise disposed of by Her Majesty's Government for the use and benefit of the said Indians entitled thereto, with their consent first had and obtained.

It is further agreed between Her Majesty and Her said Indian subjects that such portions of the reserves and lands above indicated as may at any time be required for public works, buildings, railways, or roads of whatsoever nature may be appropriated for that purpose by Her Majesty's Government of the Dominion of Canada, due compensation being made to the Indians for the value of any improvements thereon, and an equivalent in land, money or other consideration for the area of the reserve so appropriated.

And with a view to show the satisfaction of Her Majesty with the behaviour and good conduct of Her Indians, and in extinguishment of all their past claims, She hereby, through Her Commissioners, agrees to make each Chief a present of thirty-two dollars in cash, to each Headman twenty-two dollars, and to every other Indian of whatever age, of the families represented at the time and place of payment, twelve dollars.

Her Majesty also agrees that next year, and annually afterwards for ever, She will cause to be paid to the said Indians in cash, at suitable places and dates, of which the said Indians shall be duly notified, to each Chief twenty-five dollars, each Headman, not to exceed four to a large Band and two to a small Band, fifteen dollars, and to every other Indian, of whatever age, five dollars, the same, unless there be some exceptional reason, to be paid only to heads of families for those belonging thereto.

FURTHER, Her Majesty agrees that each Chief, after signing the treaty, shall receive a silver medal and a suitable flag, and next year, and every third year thereafter, each Chief and Headman shall receive a suitable suit of clothing.

FURTHER, Her Majesty agrees to pay the salaries of such teachers to instruct the children of said Indians as to Her Majesty's Government of Canada may seem advisable.

FURTHER, Her Majesty agrees to supply each Chief of a Band that selects a reserve, for the use of that Band, ten axes, five hand-saws, five augers, one grindstone, and the necessary files and whetstones.

FURTHER, Her Majesty agrees that each Band that elects to take a reserve and cultivate the soil, shall, as soon as convenient after such reserve is set aside and settled upon, and the Band has signified its choice and is prepared to break up the soil, receive two hoes, one spade, one scythe and two hay forks for every family so settled, and for every three families one plough and one harrow, and to the Chief, for the use of his Band, two horses or a yoke of oxen, and for each Band potatoes, barley, oats and wheat (if such seed be suited to the locality of the reserve), to plant the land actually broken up, and provisions for one month in the spring for several years while planting such seeds; and to every family one cow, and every Chief one bull, and one mowing-machine and one reaper for the use of his Band when it is ready for them; for such families as prefer to raise stock instead of cultivating the soil, every family of five persons, two cows, and every Chief two bulls and two mowing-machines when ready for their use, and a like proportion for smaller or larger families. The aforesaid articles, machines and cattle to be given once for all for the encouragement of agriculture and stock raising; and for such Bands as prefer to continue hunting and fishing, as much ammunition and twine for making nets annually as will amount in value to one dollar per head of the families so engaged in hunting and fishing.

And the undersigned Cree, Beaver, Chipewyan and other Indian Chiefs and Headmen, on their own behalf and on behalf of all the Indians whom they represent, DO HEREBY SOLEMNLY PROMISE and engage to strictly observe this Treaty, and also to conduct and behave themselves as good and loyal subjects of Her Majesty the Queen.

THEY PROMISE AND ENGAGE that they will, in all respects, obey and abide by the law; that they will maintain peace between each other, and between themselves and other tribes of Indians, and between themselves and others of Her Majesty's subjects, whether Indians, half-breeds or whites, this year inhabiting and hereafter to inhabit any part of the said ceded territory; and that they will not molest the person or property of any inhabitant of such ceded tract, or of any other district or country, or interfere with or trouble any person passing or travelling through the said tract or any part thereof, and that they will assist the officers of Her Majesty in bringing to justice and punishment any Indian offending against the stipulations of this Treaty or infringing the law in force in the country so ceded.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF Her Majesty's said Commissioners and the Cree Chief and Headmen of Lesser Slave Lake and the adjacent territory, HAVE HEREUNTO SET THEIR HANDS at Lesser Slave Lake on the twenty-first day of June, in the year herein first above written.

Signed by the parties hereto, in the
presence of the undersigned wit-
nesses, the same having been first
explained to the Indians by
Albert Tate and Samuel Cun-
ningham, Interpreters.

Father A. LACOMBE,
GEO. HOLMES,
E. GROUARD, O.M.I.
W. G. WHITE,
JAMES WALKER,
J. ARTHUR COTÉ,
A. E. SNYDER, Insp. N.W.M.P.,
H. B. ROUND,
HARRISON S. YOUNG,
J. F. PRUD'HOMME,
J. W. MARTIN,
C. MAIR,
H. A. CONROY
PIERRE DESCHAMBEAULT,
J. H. PICARD,
RICHARD SECORD,
M. MCCAULEY.
DAVID LAIRD, Treaty Commissioner,
J.A.J. McKENNA, Treaty Commissioner,
J. H. ROSS, Treaty Commissioner,
his
KEE NOO SHAY OO x Chief,
mark
his
MOOSTOOS x Headman,
mark
his
FELIX GIROUX x Headman,
mark
his
WEE CHEE WAY SIS x Headman,
mark
his
CHARLES NEE SUE TA SIS x Headman,
mark
his
CAPTAIN x Headman, from Sturgeon
mark Lake.

In witness whereof the Chairman of Her Majesty's Commissioners and the Headman of the Indians of Peace River Landing and the adjacent territory, in behalf of himself and the Indians whom he represents, have hereunto set their hands at the said Peace River Landing on the first day of July in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine.

Signed by the parties hereto, in the
presence of the undersigned wit-
nesses, the same having been first
explained to the Indians by
Father A. Lacombe and John
Boucher, Interpreters.

Father A. LACOMBE,
E. GROUARD, O.M.I., Ev. d'Ibora,
GEO. HOLMES,
HENRY MCCORRISTER,
K. F. ANDERSON, SGT., N.W.M.P.
PIERRE DESCHAMBEAULT,
H. A. CONROY
T.A. BRICK,
HARRISON S. YOUNG,
J. W. MARTIN,
DAVID CURRY.
DAVID LAIRD, Chairman of Indian
Treaty Commissioners,

his
DUNCAN x TASTAOOSTS, Headman of
mark Crees

In witness whereof the Chairman of Her Majesty's Commissioners and the Chief and Headmen of the Beaver and Headman of the Crees and other Indians of Vermilion and the adjacent territory, in behalf of themselves and the Indians whom they represent, have hereunto set their hands at Vermilion on the eighth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine.

Signed by the parties hereto, in the
presence of the undersigned wit-
nesses, the same having been first
explained to the Indians by
Father A. Lacombe and John
Boucher, Interpreters.

Father A. LACOMBE,
E. GROUARD, O.M.I., Ev. d'Ibora,
MALCOLM SCOTT,
F.D. WILSON, H.B. Co.,
H. A. CONROY
PIERRE DESCHAMBEAULT,
HARRISON S. YOUNG,
J. W. MARTIN,
K. F. ANDERSON, SGT., N.W.M.P.
A.P. CLARKE,
CHAS. H. STUART WADE,
K. F. ANDERSON, SGT., N.W.M.P.
DAVID LAIRD, Chairman of Indian Treaty Coms.,
his
AMBROSE x TETE NOIRE, Chief Beaver
mark Indians.
his
PIERROT x FOURNIER, Headman Beaver
mark Indians.
his Headman
KUIS KUIS KOW CA POOHOO x Cree
mark Indians.

In witness whereof the Chairman of Her Majesty's Treaty Commissioners and the Chief and Headman of the Chipewyan Indians of Fond du Lac (Lake Athabasca) and the adjacent territory, in behalf of themselves and the Indians whom they represent, have hereunto set their hands at the said Fond du Lac on the twenty-fifth and twenty-seventh days of July, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine.

Refer to hardcopy

The Beaver Indians of Dunvegan having met on this sixth day of July, in this present year 1899, Her Majesty's Commissioners, the Honourable James Hamilton Ross and James Andrew Joseph McKenna, Esquire, and having had explained to then the terms of the Treaty unto which the Chief and Headmen of the Indians of Lesser Slave Lake and adjacent country set their hands on the twenty-first day of June, in the year herein first above written, do join in the cession made by the said Treaty, and agree to adhere to the terms thereof in consideration of the undertakings made therein.

In witness whereof Her Majesty's said Commissioners and the Headman of the said Beaver Indians have hereunto set their hands at Dunvegan on this sixth day of July, in the year herein first above written.

Refer to hardcopy

The Chipewyan Indians of Athabasca River, Birch River, Peace River, Slave River and Gull River, and the Cree Indians of Gull River and Deep Lake, having met at Fort Chipewyan on this thirteenth day of July, in this present year 1899, Her Majesty's Commissioners, the Honourable James Hamilton Ross and James Andrew Joseph McKenna, Esquire, and having had explained to them the terms of the Treaty unto which the Chief and Headmen of the Indians of Lesser Slave Lake and adjacent country set their hands on the twenty-first day of June, in the year herein first above written, do join in the cession made by the said Treaty, and agree to adhere to the terms thereof in consideration of the undertakings made therein.

In witness whereof Her Majesty's said Commissioners and the Chiefs and Headmen of the said Chipewyan and Cree Indians have hereunto set their hands at Fort Chipewyan on this thirteenth day of July, in the year herein first above written.

Refer to hardcopy

The Chipewyan Indians of Slave River and the country thereabouts having met at Smith's Landing on this seventeenth day of July, in this present year 1899, Her Majesty's Commissioners, the Honourable James Hamilton Ross and James Andrew Joseph McKenna, Esquire, and having had explained to them the terms of the Treaty unto which the Chief and Headmen of the Indians of Lesser Slave Lake and adjacent country, set their hands on the twenty-first day of June, in the year herein first above written, do join in the cession made by the said Treaty, and agree to adhere to the terms thereof in consideration of the undertakings made therein.

In witness whereof Her Majesty's said Commissioners and the Chief and Headmen of the said Chipewyan Indians have hereunto set their hands at Smith's Landing, on this seventeenth day of July, in the year herein first above written.

Refer to hardcop</>y

The Chipewyan and Cree Indians of Fort McMurray and the country thereabouts, having met at Fort McMurray, on this fourth day of August, in this present year 1899, Her Majesty's Commissioner, James Andrew Joseph McKenna, Esquire, and having had explained to them the terms of the Treaty unto which the Chief and Headmen of the Indians of Lesser Slave Lake and adjacent country set their hands on the twenty-first day of June, in the year herein first above written, do join in the cession made by the said Treaty and agree to adhere to the terms thereof in consideration of the undertakings made therein.

In witness whereof Her Majesty's said Commissioner and the Headmen of the said Chipewyan and Cree Indians have hereunto set their hands at Fort McMurray, on this fourth day of August, in the year herein first above written.

Refer to hardcopy

The Indians of Wapiscow and the country thereabouts having met at Wapiscow Lake on this fourteenth day of August, in this present year 1899, Her Majesty's Commissioner, the Honourable James Hamilton Ross, and having had explained to them the terms of the Treaty unto which the Chief and Headmen of the Indians of Lesser Slave Lake and adjacent country set their hands on the twenty-first day of June in the year herein first above written, do join in the cession made by the said Treaty and agree to adhere to the terms thereof in consideration of the undertakings made therein.

In witness whereof Her Majesty's said Commissioner and the Chief and Headmen of the Indians have hereunto set their hands at Wapiscow Lake, on this fourteenth day of August, in the year herein first above written.

Refer to hardcopy


Order In Council Ratifying Treaty No. 8

EXTRACT from a Report of the Committee of the Honourable the Privy Council, approved by His Excellency on the 20th February, 1900.

On a Memorandum dated 8th February, 1900, from the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, submitting for Your Excellency's consideration the accompanying Treaty made by the Commissioners, the Honourable David Laird, James Andrew Joseph McKenna, Esquire, and the Honourable James Hamilton Ross, who were appointed to negotiate the same, with the Cree, Beaver, Chipewyan and other Indians inhabiting the territory, --- as fully defined in the Treaty --- lying within and adjacent to the Provisional District of Athabasca.

The Minister recommends that the Treaty referred to be approved, and that the duplicate thereof, which is also submitted herewith, be kept of record in the Privy Council and the original returned to the Department of Indian Affairs.

The Committee submit the same for Your Excellency's approval.


JOHN J. McGEE,

Clerk of the Privy Council.

The Honourable
The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs.



Report of Commissioner for Treaty No. 8

DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS,

OTTAWA, December 11, 1900.

The Honourable
The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs,
Ottawa.

SIR, --- I beg to report having, in pursuance of the commissions entrusted to me by you, visited the territory covered by Treaty No. 8, and all the posts from Fort St. John, on the Upper Peace River in the west, to Fort Resolution on Great Slave lake in the north. During that visit, acting as your commissioner for the purpose, formal adhesions to treaty were taken from certain Indian inhabitants of the ceded territory belonging to eight bands who were not treated with last year, annuities were paid to all treaty Indians, and business of a general character was transacted with and for them; acting as a commissioner to receive and hear half-breed claims, over three hundred and fifty cases were dealt with; and acting magisterially as a commissioner of Dominion police and a justice of the peace for the Territories, nineteen cases of crime and misdemeanour were disposed of. Separate reports touching upon half-breed claims, public order and minor Indian matters are being submitted.

My commission to take adhesions to Treaty Eight was designed to enable me to treat with the Indians of Fort St. John in the Upper Peace river, and the various bands on Great Slave lake that trade at Fort Resolution, to the end of bringing them into treaty relations with Her Majesty's government.

There came to meet me, however, in addition to these, two bands of Indians, undoubted inhabitants of the tract covered by Treaty No. 8, with whom I was not empowered to deal, one of Crees from Sturgeon lake and one of Slaves from the Upper Hay river. Both of these desired to enter into treaty, and it became necessary to decide whether they, after having come from distant points to meet one whom they looked upon as a representative of the government, were to be dismissed non-plussed and dissatisfied, or to be allowed to give in their adhesions. It being impossible to communicate with the department, and as the title of these people to the benefits of the treaty was beyond question, the conclusion was unhesitatingly adopted that it was my duty to assume responsibility and concede those benefits to them. The instruments embodying their adhesions are submitted herewith together with those I was empowered to take, which contain the adhesions of certain of the Indians of Fort St. John and the whole of those of Fort Resolution on Great Slave lake, whose hunting grounds lie within treaty limits. It is hoped that you will approve this assumption of responsibility, and that the sanction of His Excellency in Council will be extended to all the adhesions.

Last year 2,217 Indians were paid. This year 3,323 claimed the annuity, an increase of 1,106, or almost fifty per cent. Of this increased number 248 belong to or have now joined, bands treated with in 1899, and 858 to the following bands which remained undealt with in that year, namely, Crees of Sturgeon lake; Beavers of Fort St. John; Slaves of Upper Hay river, who trade at Vermilion; and the Dogribs, Yellowknives, Chipewyans and Slaves of Lower Hay river, who trade at Fort Resolution. Some Caribooeaters, belonging to the country east of Smith's Landing on Great Slave river, also came into treaty, but they were incorporated with the Chipewyan band of Smith's Landing, being allied thereto. Six new chiefs were recognized.

As was reported by your commissioners last year, there is little disposition on the part of most of the northern Indians to settle down upon land or to ask to have reserves set apart. Dealing, under your instructions, with demands for land, two small provisional reserves were laid out at Lesser Slave Lake for Kinosayo's band, and fifteen or sixteen applications were registered for land in severalty by Indians who have already, to some extent, taken to agriculture.

It appears that this disinclination to adopt agriculture as a means of livelihood is not unwisely entertained, for the more congenial occupations of hunting and fishing are still open, and agriculture is not only arduous to those untrained to it, but in many districts it as yet remains untried. A consequence of this preference of old pursuits is that the government will not be called upon for years to make those expenditures which are entailed by the treaty when the Indians take to the soil for subsistence.

The health of the Indians in the district seems to vary with the times. When game is plentiful it is good; when scarce, it is bad. The want of rabbits along the Peace and Hay rivers caused suffering to the Beavers and Slaves in part of the western portion of the territory last winter; but, in the eastern portion, the Chipewyans were unusually well off, cariboo being plentiful. At Fond du Lac, it was said, there was less disease than for many years. No such loss of life from starvation as has often characterized northern winters was reported, and the measures for relieving sick and destitute Indians planned by the commissioners last year, operated well and alleviated distress in many deserving cases. Dr. Edwards, who accompanied me, gave advice and dispensed medicine to a large number of Indians and vaccinated many. Great appreciation of his services was manifested.

At nearly all the important points the chiefs and more intelligent men who were present at the making of treaty last year, asked for extended explanations of its terms, in order that those of their bands who had failed to grasp its true meaning might be enlightened, and that those who were coming into treaty for the first time might fully understand what they were doing. In the course of the councils held for this purpose, it was possible to eradicate any little misunderstanding that had arisen in the minds of the more intelligent, and great pains were taken to give such explanations as seemed most likely to prevent any possibility of misunderstandings in future.

Each of the many appointments made was punctually kept, a fact which appeared to give great satisfaction to both the traders and the Indians.

Appended is a summary of the bands paid, showing the admissions to treaty permitted this year.

There yet remains a number of persons leading an Indian life in the country north of Lesser Slave lake, who have not accepted treaty as Indians, or scrip as half-breeds, but this is not so much through indisposition to do so as because they live at points distant from those visited, and are not pressed by want. The Indians of all parts of the territory who have not yet been paid annuity probably number about 500 exclusive of those in the extreme northwestern portion, but as most, if not all, of this number belong to bands that have already joined in the treaty, the Indian title to the tract it covers may be fairly regarded as being extinguished.

Most respectfully submitting this report,
I have, &c.,
J. A. MACRAE,
Commissioner.

Documents accompanying this report:
No. 1. Adhesion of Sturgeon Lake band.
No. 2. Adhesion of part of the Beavers of Fort St. John.
No. 3. Adhesion of Slaves of Upper Hay River.
No. 4. Adhesion of Dogribs of Great Slave Lake.
Chipewyans of Great Slave Lake.
Yellowknives of Great Slave Lake.
Slaves of Lower Hay River or Great Slave Lake.

No.5. Statement of the number of Indians admitted to treaty this year (1900) .
No. 6. Map showing the distribution of Indians in the territory covered by Treaty No. 8, and the extent of that territory.

The Cree Indians, of Sturgeon Lake, and the country thereabouts, having met at Lesser Slave Lake, on this eight day of June, in the present year 1900, James Ansdell Macrae, Esquire, and having had explained to them the terms of the treaty unto which the Chief and Headmen of the Indians of Lesser Slave Lake and adjacent country set their hands on the twenty-first day of June, in the year 1899, do join in the cession made by the said treaty, and agree to the terms thereof in consideration of the undertakings made therein.

In witness whereof, the said James Ansdell Macrae, Esquire, and the Headmen of the said Cree Indians, have hereunto set their hands at Lesser Slave Lake, on this the eighth day of June in the year first above written.

Refer to Hardcopy

The Beaver Indians of the Upper Peace River and the country thereabouts, having met at Fort St. John, on this thirtieth day of May, in this present year 1900, Her Majesty's Commissioner, James Ansdell Macrae, Esquire, and having had explained to them the terms of the treaty unto which the Chief and Headmen of the Indians of Lesser Slave Lake and adjacent country set their hands on the twenty-first day of June, in the year 1899, do join in the cession made by the said treaty, and agree to adhere to the terms thereof, in consideration of the undertakings made therein.

In witness whereof, Her Majesty's said Commissioner, and the following of the said Beaver Indians, have hereunto set their hands, at Fort St. John, on this the thirtieth day of May, in the year herein first above written.

Refer to Hardcopy

The Slave Indians of Hay river and the country thereabouts, having met at Vermilion, on this twenty-third day of June, in this present year 1900, Her Majesty's Commissioner, James Ansdell Macrae, Esquire, and having explained to them the terms of the treaty unto which the Chief and Headmen of the Indians of Lesser Slave Lake and adjacent country set their hands on the twenty-first day of June, in year 1899, do join in the cessions made by the said treaty, and agree to adhere to the terms thereof in consideration of the undertakings made therein.

In witness whereof, Her Majesty's said Commissioner and the Chief and principal men of the said Slave Indians, have hereunto set their hands, at Vermilion, on this twenty-third day of June, in the year 1900.

Refer to Hardcopy

The Indians inhabiting the south shore of Great Slave Lake, between the mouth of Hay river and old Fort Reliance, near the mouth of Lockheart's river, and territory adjacent thereto, on the mainland or on the islands of the said lake, having met at Fort Resolution, on this twenty-fifth day of July, in the present year 1900, Her Majesty's Commissioner, James Ansdell Macrae, Esquire, and having had explained to them the terms of the treaty unto which the Chief and Headmen of the Indians of Lesser Slave Lake and adjacent country set their hands on the twenty-first day of June, 1899, do join in the cession made by the said treaty, and agree to adhere to the terms thereof, in consideration of the undertakings made therein.

In witness whereof, Her Majesty's said Commissioner and the Chief and Headmen of the said Indians have hereunto set their hands, at Fort Resolution, on the twenty-fifth day of July, in the year herein first above written.

Refer to Hardcopy

STATEMENT showing the number of Indians who joined Treaty No. 8 in A.D. 1900 and received annuity and gratuity --- the bands treated with for the first time being denoted by italics (annuities paid to those dealt with in 1899 not shown).

Refer to Hardcopy

Certified correct,
J.A. MACRAE,
Commissioner.



Order In Council Ratifying Adhesions to Treaty No. 8

EXTRACT from a Report of the Committee of the Honourable the Privy Council approved His Excellency on January 3, 1901.

On a report dated December 22, 1900, from the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs referring to the Order in Council of February 20, 1900, approving of the Treaty known as Treaty No. 8, made in 1899, with the Cree, Beaver, Chipewyan and other Indians inhabiting the territory lying within and adjacent to the Provisional District of Athabaska, and stating that as the Commissioners who negotiated the treaty above mentioned, were unable last year to meet the Indians of Fort St. John and Fort Resolution, it was necessary to appoint a Commissioner during the season of 1900 to take the adhesion of the Indians in those localities and on March 2, 1900, James Ansdell Macrae, Esquire, was commissioned by Order in Council to obtain such adhesions.

The Minister submits herewith the report of Mr. Commissioner Macrae, accompanied by the following documents:

No. 1. Adhesion of Sturgeon Lake Band.
No. 2. Adhesion of part of the Beavers of Fort St. John.
No. 3. Adhesion of Slaves of Upper Hay River.
No. 4. Adhesion of Dogribs of Great Slave Lake.
Adhesion of Chipewyans of Great Slave Lake.
Adhesion of Yellowknives of Great Slave Lake.
Adhesion of Slaves of Lower Hay River or Great Slave Lake.
No.5. Statement of the number of Indians admitted to Treaty this year. (1900).

The Minister recommends that for the reasons stated in Mr. Macrae's report, all the adhesions taken by him be approved by Your Excellency in Council and that the original adhesions be returned to the Department of Indian Affairs and the duplicates thereof kept on record in the Privy Council Office.

The Committee submit the same for Your Excellency's approval.

JOHN J. McGEE,
Clerk of the Privy Council.

The Honourable
The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs.