Treaty-Making in Canada
The impact of treaty-making in Canada has been wide-ranging and long standing. The treaties the Crown has signed with Aboriginal peoples since the 18th century have permitted the evolution of Canada as we know it. In fact, much of Canada's land mass is covered by treaties.
This treaty-making process, which has evolved over more than 300 years between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Canada, has its origins in the early diplomatic relationship developed between European settlers and Aboriginal people. These diplomatic proceedings were the first steps in a long process that has led to today's comprehensive claims agreements between the Crown and Aboriginal people.
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) is the federal department responsible for negotiating and implementing treaties (including comprehensive claims). INAC also maintains a centre of expertise for understanding Canada's pre-1975 treaties with First Nations Peoples.
Currently, there are approximately 70 recognised treaties that form the basis of the relationship between 364 First Nations, representing over 600,000 First Nations people, and the Crown.
Pre-1975 Treaties and Treaty First Nations in Canada Interactive Infographic
What information is available?
In this section, find information on the history of treaty-making in Canada from the 1700s to the present day. In addition, discover historical material including transcripts of original treaty texts and other resources including selected bibliographies that foster Aboriginal awareness.
Treaties and Aboriginal Government
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