Working Guide on Gender-Based Analysis

Table of Contents




Introduction to the Gender-Based Analysis (GBA) Working Guide

A) A more up-to-date Working Guide

This new version of the Guide to conducting gender-based analysis has been produced as a result of several factors, in particular the approval of the Repositioning Strategy of Gender-Based Analysis and the updating of the Gender-Based Analysis Policy (GBA). In addition to changes in terminology (from "gender equality analysis" to "gender-based analysis") the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) is seeking to simplify and disseminate this information so that the Guide may encourage all of the departmental staff to apply GBA, in relation to their respective functions.

In addition, from the perspective of accountability and responsibilities that are incumbent on all federal departments with respect to GBA, it appears that the revision of the Guide has come at a good time. In short, it is our hope that this document will result in an even more effective and extensive implementation of GBA within AANDC.

B) Objectives of the Working Guide

The Gender-Based Analysis Working Guide has the following objectives:

  • Provide general information on GBA:
     
    • the origins of GBA and Canada's commitments to GBA;
    • AANDC's commitments to GBA;
    • the principles of GBA; and
    • its terminology.
       
  • Obtain information on what GBA is in order to facilitate its implementation:
     
    • the seven components of GBA at AANDC; and
    • how to go about it
       
  • Building capacity amongst AANDC staff in relation to GBA:
     
    • integrating GBA into day-to-day practices; and
    • to provide examples and other concrete tools that will promote the application of knowledge about GBA regardless of the duties that are performed or the position that is occupied.
       
  • Identify resources that will be helpful to people that wish to broaden their knowledge:
     
    • resources within AANDC;
    • resources developed by other departments and agencies; and
    • external resources.

The Working Guide is not an exhaustive document, dealing with all of the issues raised by GBA, nor does it deal with the sometimes complex aspects involved in any analysis of a policy, program or department.

However, it is hoped that the people that read it will find that it contains information that will enable them to clarify, provide a framework or stimulate more in-depth research into this method.

C) What the Working Guide Contains and How it is Presented

Part 1 of the Working Guide, "The History of GBA", relates the highlights of the development of this method of analysis, including international agreements, Canada's commitments, and those of AANDC.

Subsequently, Part 2, "GBA Today", describes what GBA is, the challenges and advantages that it involves, and its terminology.

Part 3, "GBA at AANDC", describes the department's commitments to GBA.

Part 4, "GBA in Action: How To Go About It", examines the seven components suggested by AANDC and ways in which to apply them to initiatives, whatever they may be. In addition to examples provided elsewhere in the Guide, two examples are presented for each component of GBA. Annexes V and VI also include these same examples respectively grouped under the seven consecutive components. Part 5 presents the Annexes whose contents relate to the Working Guide.

Guide and add information that you consider useful.

Part 6, "Resources for Exploring the Issue", lists documents and resources that may be useful for those who wish to further explore this subject. Part 7, "Bibliography", identifies the documents and resources used in the development of this Working Guide.




1. The History of GBA

1.1 The Origins of Gender-Based Analysis

In 1995, at the Fourth United Nations World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, nations developed an ambitious political declaration and platform for action outlining objectives and actions required to achieve greater equality between women and men. In adopting the Beijing Platform for Action, governments throughout the world committed themselves to effective integration of a gender perspective throughout their operations, policies, planning, and decision making. Governments also adopted the obligation to carry out gender impact assessments of the effects of government bills or political decisions on women and men before decisions could be taken.

1.2 Canada's International Commitments

Canada is signatory to many international covenants and conventions relating to the well-being of its population. Gender equality is part of the issues that are affected by these agreements. Amongst these documents are:

  • 1.2.1 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted December 10, 1948);
     
  • 1.2.2 The United Nations' Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (adopted December 18, 1979);
     
  • 1.2.3 Canada's Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (ratified September 3, 1981); and
     
  • 1.2.4 The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (December 20, 1993).
     

1.3 Canada's Commitments to its own People

In Canada, the federal government has put into place two five-year plans on gender equality: the Federal Plan for Gender Equality (1995-2000) and the Agenda for Gender Equality (2000-2005). GBA is a key component of these two action plans.

In its 1995 action plan for implementing the Beijing Platform for Action, known as the Federal Plan for Gender Equality, the Canadian government adopted a policy requiring federal departments and agencies to conduct GBA of policies and legislation.

Canada's Plan contains eight objectives, namely:

  1. Implement GBA throughout federal departments and agencies.
  2. Improve women's economic autonomy and well-being.
  3. Improve women's physical and psychological well-being.
  4. Reduce violence in society, particularly violence against women and children.
  5. Promote gender equality in all aspects of Canada's cultural life.
  6. Incorporate women's perspectives in governance.
  7. Promote and support global gender equality.
  8. Advance gender equality for employees of federal departments and agencies.



2. GBA Now

2.1 Mythbusters: What GBA is and what it is not

Many people wonder how GBA differs from other concepts or mechanisms that are already in place to ensure equality between women and men. People often believe that we have achieved equality for women and that, as a result, there is no need for GBA. People also tend to think that equal treatment of women and men is sufficient to ensure their well-being and equality. However, it is recognized that equal treatment can result in a negative impact on one gender or the other, by ignoring the differences and obstacles that should be reduced in order to achieve equitable results. GBA is a lens through which certain factors that are less obvious may be brought into focus and dealt with in order to ensure the equality of results for both women and men.

In general, GBA is a lens of analysis that examines existing differences between women's and men's socio-economic realities as well as the differential impacts of proposed and existing policies, programs, legislative options, and agreements on women and men. The aim of GBA is to identify the assumptions, which are sometimes incorrect, on which policies, programs and services are based. GBA will raise relevant questions on gender equality issues. The responses obtained from the collected data, both qualitative and quantitative, will confirm or refute the initial assumptions.

GBA is not, as is so often thought, only used to improve women's circumstances; by going beyond the preconceptions and biases on which initiatives are sometimes based, rather it is used to enhance the efficiency of programs and services for all clients.

Naturally these clients include both women and men. However women and men do not constitute homogeneous groups that benefit equally from the same living conditions or the same opportunities.  Aboriginal women, like Aboriginal men, are of all ages, live in both rural and urban areas, are parents or single, live on-reserve or off-reserve, are employed or in school, and so on.

Accordingly, GBA is useful for both women and men, as well as for groups of women and men, by taking into account their diversity.

However, we cannot deny certain aspects of reality. In particular, "almost every indicator shows that Aboriginal women face severe barriers to equality and inclusion. According to recent government statistics, Aboriginal women's life expectancy is over five years shorter than Canadian women in general and they are more likely to live in poverty - 36.4% compared to 17.7%. Aboriginal women are also over three times more likely to be assaulted by their spouse than Canadian women in general and eight times more likely to be killed by their spouse after a separation. Aboriginal women with status under the Indian Act, and who are between the ages of 25 and 44, are five times more likely to experience a violent death than other Canadian women in the same age category."[Note 1]

One might easily assume that taking into account the realities of the everyday lives of Indian, Inuit and Métis women, GBA will shed light on the special difficulties that these women encounter, if we compare their situation to Canadian women of other origins.

It can be concluded that the living conditions of Aboriginal women are often different from those of other Canadian women and those of Aboriginal men. Particularly in the areas of employment and income, Aboriginal women are at a disadvantage. At the same time Aboriginal women do not all have the same characteristics and there are distinct variations between identity groups and between geographic locations. In addition, the relative positions of different segments of the population change depending on the issue being considered. These findings suggest that those involved in policy and program development need to define both the populations and the issues that they are concerned with as precisely as possible in order to best achieve their policy goals. [Note 2]

Issues to be identified

Several gender equality issues can create confusion about GBA and where it falls in relation to concepts that, at first glance, appear to be similar. The following table illustrates the characteristics of a program based on equal treatment, affirmative action/equal opportunity and gender equality.

Example of Gender Equality Issues a Typical Program Might Address
Awareness program for youth at risk
Equal treatment
(gender neutral)
Affirmative action /equal opportunity
(gender-specific)
Gender equality
(gender integrated)
A program whose aim is to encourage Aboriginal students at risk of dropping out of school or who have left school, and find themselves unemployed, without any qualifications, to stay in school or return to school or to acquire the skills they need to find a job.

The program offers young women and men the opportunity to acquire skills in flexible learning environments, co-op placements and other work experience programs.
In certain Aboriginal communities, GBA has shown that young men are slightly more likely to drop out of school than young women.

In particular, an affirmative action program could include activities (promotion, training, and so on) that more specifically target young men.
In connection with this program, data obtained from GBA would be used to examine the reasons why young women and young men drop out of school. It is possible, for example, young women leave school because they feel that the courses do not reflect their reality.

Furthermore, it is possible that young men drop out under the influence of their peers.

Activities that are geared to each gender could be implemented. For example, activities that promote women's ability to perform high-level professions (for example videos showing successful women or inviting a speaker who has achieved success in upper management) and activities that more actively integrate young men into courses given in class (activities outside school premises or sessions using technological tools).

2.2 The General Principles Underlying GBA

GBA is based on the following principles:

  1. it is an integral part of your work;
  2. it recognizes the importance of understanding the social context in which the policy, program, initiative or legislation will be developed and applied;
  3. it highlights the impacts of the policy, program, initiative or legislation on diverse social groups;
  4. it is based on sound data, research, and information which may require looking beyond conventional sources;
  5. it recognizes the ways in which personal values, experiences, and education may often affect research and evaluation frameworks and approaches;
  6. it requires you to examine and question the assumptions that underlie our policies, programs, initiatives and legislation; and
  7. it is enhanced by collaboration.

2.3 The Advantages and Challenges of GBA and the Conditions that Promote it

Several reasons justify the implementation of GBA. Gender-based analysis is not a mechanism that is added to other analysis dimensions, such as sensitivity to culture. Rather, GBA is a perspective according to which the differences between the reality of women and men, and of groups of women and men, are considered throughout an initiative, whether it be a policy, a program, a service or a draft consultation or negotiations.

The Advantages

The implementation of GBA involves the following advantages:

  1. it ensures that the different realities of women and men are taken into account;
  2. it ensures better policies, programs, initiatives and services by making their benefits accessible to both women and men;
  3. it complies with Canadian legal provisions, which prohibit any discrimination, including on the basis of gender;
  4. GBA guarantees that policies developed and implemented promote equal results for women and men, socially and economically;
  5. the implementation of GBA makes it possible for initiatives to take into account the relational nature of relationships, not only between women and men, but between genders in all their diversity; and
  6. it contributes to the achievement by the federal Government of the objectives that it has established in its Agenda for Gender Equality.

The Challenges

  1. Staff may find it difficult to implement GBA or to pursue training in this field, given their workloads.
  2. Accountability, which is essential to the effectiveness of any initiative, is complicated by the fact that it requires the development of tools that take into account gender equality, as well as vigilance and an ongoing commitment.
  3. GBA is not always considered to be essential, and accordingly human and financial resources are not always adequate.

Conditions that Promote GBA

As you know, departments and agencies have applied GBA in different ways, according to the components that suit them. However, certain factors promote the implementation of GBA. In particular, these include [Note 3]:

  1. the availability of data which allows for a GBA;
  2. incorporating gender equality at all levels and in all types of activities, from policy formulation and dialogue through to program design and project planning, implementation, and assessment;
  3. making room for voluntary and community sector input; (for example the commitment of community groups in the issue that you are examining);
  4. having organizational structures, procedures, and norms that promote gender equality;
  5. commitment of staff at all levels;
  6. the allocation of adequate human and financial resources;
  7. defined indicators and expected results; and
  8. implementation of clear and effective accountability mechanisms in relation to GBA.

2.4 GBA Terminology

GBA is a relatively recent field. Adopted in many countries throughout the world, it has given rise to terminology that, rather than clarifying the concept, sometimes tends to cause confusion. GBA is also called gender equality, gender and development, the gender issue, analysis based on gender, and so on.

For example, let's look at the words and definitions for "sex" and "gender". In its Gender-Based Analysis Policy, AANDC defines sex as follows:

Sex identifies the biological differences between women and men. Gender is the culturally specific set of characteristics that identifies the social behaviours of women and men, and the relationship between them. Gender, therefore, refers not simply to women and men, but also to the relationship between them and the way it is socially constructed. It is a relational term that, by definition, includes women and men. Like the concepts of class, race, ethnicity, gender is an analytical measure for understanding social processes.

In addition, many countries have adopted the expression "gender" to refer to the greater social dimensions that affect women and men, whereas the word sex, in this context, refers to biological characteristics. "The term gender therefore refers more directly to this set of implicit and explicit rules governing male/female relationships and attributing to them distinct professions, values, responsibilities, and obligations. These rules apply at three levels: cultural (social norms and values), institutions (family, educational system, employment, and so on) and the socialization process, particularly within the family" [Note 4]. In light of the above considerations, we will use the terms "sex" and "gender" throughout the Guide. In order to clarify certain terms used in relation to GBA, Appendix I contains a Gender-Based Analysis Glossary, with the definitions of some of these expressions, including their translation into French.

2.5 Just Think About It: GBA - Flexible and Adaptable

Despite the challenges that it involves, GBA is above all a question of “simple common sense”. It requires that we examine the assumptions underlying our initiatives and that we bring up to date those that are erroneous or that might benefit from closer scrutiny.

Simply put, GBA invites us to:

  1. challenge your assumptions, your speculations and those of your colleagues;
  2. ask relevant questions on gender equality;
  3. answer these questions by conducting research and by gathering reliable information disaggregated by gender; and
  4. work on the basis of the answers obtained, to improve the initiatives advanced.

GBA can be summarized by several fundamental issues, which should be addressed in connection with any initiative:

  1. Does the initiative promote the full participation and equality of women and men? Does it create any obstacles? If so, how can this be rectified?
  2. Does the initiative result in discrimination towards women or men? Taking into women's and men's social and economic circumstances into account, will this initiative have a negative or positive effect on women or men? If yes, what will these effects be? How can we enhance the positive impacts and diminish the negative effects?

As you will note when skimming through section 3.4 "The seven components of GBA: overview" and Part 4 "GBA in Action: How To Go About It", GBA can adapt to and apply to various contexts. The questions that it raises and the attempts to respond to them represent the first components towards implementation of GBA.




3. GBA at AANDC

3.1 Developments in GBA: The Current Situation

Since its creation, GBA has developed to the extent that today it is mandatory, or at the very least has led to the implementation of mechanisms for accountability. Nevertheless, GBA is not implemented in a consistent manner in every department and government agency.

However, it is clear that current directives require not only that GBA be applied, but that the results it generates must also be reviewed. As a result, AANDC has undertaken to apply GBA at all levels and in every area of its operations.

3.2 AANDC's Gender-Equality Analysis Repositioning Strategy

In 1998, in response to the Federal Plan, the Minister of AANDC created the Office of the Senior Advisor on Women's Issues and Gender Equality, which is now called the Women's Issues and Gender Equality Directorate (WIGE). In 1999, AANDC implemented its Gender Equality Analysis Policy (GEA) to ensure that gender-related issues are consistently dealt with in all policies, programs, initiatives, legislation, negotiations, consultations and research conducted by the department. The Policy was updated in 2006, under the title Gender-Based Analysis (GBA) Policy.

In 2003, during the development of GBA, AANDC's Senior Operations Committee approved the Gender-Equality Analysis Repositioning Strategy, thus reaffirming the ministry's commitment towards its GEA Policy (Appendix II contains a short summary of this updated Policy) demonstrating Senior Management's support of its rapid implementation. The GEA Strategy is based on five pillars:

  1. obtaining and maintaining the commitment of Senior Management;
  2. developing tools and resources that will support GBA;
  3. establishing and supporting a network of GBA Representatives (GBAR);
  4. conducting a pilot project with the education authority renewal team at the Aboriginal Employment Development Program (AEDP); and
  5. implementing an environmental scan.

The GBAR network consists of people that, in each Branch and Region, can provide assistance in the implementation of GBA. Appendix III contains an overview of their responsibilities.

3.3 Context: GBA and you… [Note 5]

Before proceeding with a GBA, it may be useful to conduct an environmental scan in which you operate. This procedure allows you to put your work and your actions into context on the basis of a few preliminary observations that you will make.

GBA and Your Work...
Questions Reflecting on these issues could help you to…
Your duties
How is gender equality related to your work? Examine more closely the real or suspected impact of GBA on the various aspects of your work.
How does knowledge/awareness of gender equality issues contribute to having a more complete view of the situation? Identify the differences between areas in which gender equality is taken into account and areas in which it should be.
How could this more complete view enhance the effectiveness of your work? Consider data and information obtained during the GBA in order to create a more representative picture of people for and with whom you work.
Your coworkers
What is the makeup of the group of people with whom you work? Observe the diversity of people with whom you work, and identify some points of view to be considered.
Who uses the results of your work? Ensure that the results of your GBA are adapted to the people for whom you are carrying out your duties, whether they are colleagues, community groups, supervisors, and so on.
Your clients
What is the makeup of your client base? Recognize the differences and similarities within your client base, so that you can ensure that your GBA takes into account its diversity.
Other considerations
To what degree are your supervisors sensitive to gender equality issues? Determine the way to advance the implementation of GBA and ensure that you have the continued cooperation of your supervisors.
Where can you find the support you need to improve the integration of gender equality issues in your work? Identify people and resources that can provide you with support as you conduct your analysis to achieve the integration of GBA.

 

In order to integrate GBA into your work, you must rely on...
Knowledge about…
  • the various current emerging trends relating to gender.
  • how to access information on gender diversity.
Raising awareness with respect to the…
  • the fact that gender is practically always a factor to be taken into account in policies, programs or legislation, whatever they may be.
  • the fact that you must challenge your own assumptions and perceptions.
A commitment to…
  • to ask questions.
  • to challenge your speculations.
  • to enhance your knowledge and capabilities in relation to GBA.
Your managers who expect that GBA will be applied so that…
  • they will provide you with the time and resources that you need.
  • they will ensure that GBA is integrated into the options and recommendations that are advanced.
The WIGE Directorate and the network of GBARs can provide support with your effort to integrate GBA at all levels of your work.

3.4 The Seven Components of GBA: Overview

At AANDC, GBA is broken down into seven components, which follow a logical process. Ideally these components should be conducted one after another, right from the beginning of the project on which you are working. However, the components and the issues that they raise can also lead to an improvement in existing projects, no matter what stage you have reached in their completion.

The various contexts in which your work takes place sometimes require more flexibility. The procedure suggests a framework that can be applied as is, following the order of the suggested components. It is important to note that the process can be useful even when implemented in a less linear manner. Where feasible, (particularly with respect to the time and resources available) a complete GBA can be implemented. Furthermore, if the circumstances do not provide such a degree of latitude, it is possible to use some of the questions raised under each of the components in order to ensure that gender equality is an integral part of your daily activities. These questions are used to enhance your awareness or as a checklist, when performing any task. The implementation of a GBA can reveal some gender inequalities which should be examined in order to rectify them. There is nothing to stop you in the performance of your job from "applying the GBA lens" and analyzing the results. Whether your job relates to research, drafting policies, negotiations, consultations, programs, initiatives, or services, GBA can be applied to all of these activities. In short, GBA should become "second nature" for AANDC staff.

As a guide, Appendix IV contains work sheets that have been in use for some time at AANDC to structure our efforts in relation to GBA.

The following pages describe in more detail each of the components involved in GBA. The examples given and each Component are repeated in Appendix V "First Example – Fictional Case" and VI "Second Example - The National Child Benefit Reinvestment (NCBR) Initiative on reserve", so that you may consult them when performing the seven components consecutively.

In addition, Appendix VII contains details on how GBA is incorporated into AANDC's various operations. They illustrate how GBA may be incorporated into all tasks and adapted to the situations and projects in which you are working.

The Seven Components of GBA
Component It Involves…
Component A
Consultations
  • Collecting qualitative and quantitative data.
Component B
Defining the issue(s)
  • Identifying the questions, problems, or issues relating to gender equality that are comprised in a project or an initiative.
  • This involves a review of the entire project to identify factors that could harm and/or improve the initiative, as a result of a failure to consider gender issues.
Component C
Defining Desired / Anticipated  Outcomes
  • Identifying the results in as much detail as possible, with respect to the benefits expected from this initiative, for women, men, and various groups of women and men (according to their age, social conditions, and so on).
Component D
Information gathering
  • Gathering information on the basis of the factors identified in Components B and C, by establishing goals for this collection of data and using all relevant sources.
  • The analysis and interpretation of the information gathered.
Component E
Development and Analysis of Options
  • On the basis of Components B, C and D, proceed with various options.
  • The examination of the negative and positive effects of each of the options on women and men, and the different groups of women and men.
Component F
Communications
  • Identifying the target audience.
  • The use of communication methods that are the most likely to reach the intended client base.
Component G
Evaluation
  • Identification of gender indicators.
  • Identifying what will be evaluated and by whom.
  • Follow-up…what should be adjusted or enhanced in accordance with the desired outcomes?

The Seven Components of GBA

Diagram: The Seven Components of GBA

Gender-Based Analysis: the 7 Components

This image is a chart that illustrates Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada’s gender-based analysis components.

The honeycomb shape of the diagram was chosen to emphasize the fact that although these components should be conducted one after another, right from the beginning of the project on which you are working or when evaluating a program, they are also fluid since the issues that they raise can also lead to an improvement in existing projects, no matter what stage of the process you have reached in their completion.

Residing in the middle of the diagram is the Consultations component; because consultations are often necessary throughout the process in order to develop an accurate picture of the needs and challenges identified by your target population, it is literally at the center of the gender-based analysis process (please refer to section 4.1 for more details).

Circling the Consultations component (clockwise from the top), we have: Defining the Issues (section 4.2); Defining Desired/Anticipated Outcomes (see section 4.3); Information Gathering (section 4.4); Development and Analysis of Options (section 4.5); Communications (section 4.6); and Evaluation (section 4.7).




4. GBA in Action: How To Go About It - The Components Involved In GBA

4.1 Component A: Consultations

4.1.1 Description

The entire GBA process can benefit greatly from holding consultations, since they can give rise to a significant impact on the results of an initiative. It involves contacts between AANDC and its partners, stakeholders, client base, and rigorous planning. This is a component that must be conducted demonstrating the utmost respect for the values and culture of the target people and groups. As a necessary part of consultations, make reasonable efforts to ensure that all views within the community are adequately canvassed. The courts have made it clear that the federal government has a duty to respond concretely to the repercussions which ensue from such consultations.

4.1.2 Some considerations [Note 6]

The consultation is a fundamental means of collecting qualitative and quantitative data, which ensures that significant and complete information are examined during the decision-making process. During the consultation process, the voices of women and men must be heard on the issues that affect them. It is not enough to consult the "general public" and then generalize the findings. Situations affect women and men differently and various viewpoints must be heard so that the impacts of the initiative on each of the genders may be analyzed. It is important that the people that are consulted feel that they have been heard, since consultations require a great deal of time and resources on the part of all of the parties involved.

During consultations, it is essential to determine:

  1. When the consultation will take place (if possible, embark upon the consultation with the people and partners concerned right at the beginning of the process).
  2. Who should be consulted (identify the levels of government, individuals, groups, governmental and non-governmental agencies, experts from community groups, and so on).
  3. What information will be collected (the experiences of women and men with respect to the issue, the resources that are available for implementation, and so on).
  4. How should the consultation be prepared and directed (type and number of tools used, range of methods for collecting a diverse body of information, and so on).

4.1.3 Some of the Questions to Ask

Some of the Questions to Ask With Respect to Your Consultation
With respect to your consultation, have you thought about... check mark image
ensuring that the groups and people consulted adequately represent the women and men likely to be affected by the issue and that they are sufficiently representative of the interests relating to this issue?  
consulting relevant local, regional, provincial and national groups? And any other group that might provide useful information (non-governmental organisations, lobbyists, national and regional Aboriginal organizations)?  
consulting appropriate third parties?  
ensuring that the premises are easy to access (particularly for persons with disabilities)?  
using the services of oral and sign language interpreters?  
examining the importance of reducing any obstacles to the participation of women and men in the planned consultations (transportation, babysitting services, and so on)?  
providing advance notice to stakeholders, women, and men, of the issues that will be addressed?  
involving women and men affected by the issue in planning the consultation?  

4.1.4 Implementation

First Example – Fictional Case
Component A: Consultation

You are working on a national initiative to foster job opportunities for Aboriginal and northern communities. The program is implemented in order to facilitate integration into the labour market and capacity development in young people aged 15 to 24 in particular.

Consultation Objective: To define the needs of Aboriginal women and men in relation to employment
Target Client How? When?
Young women aged 15 to 24 Semi-structured discussion groups During the planning phase
During implementation of the initiative
Aboriginal men working at seasonal jobs Discussion groups, according to job types During the planning phase
During implementation of the initiative
Aboriginal women homemakers Informal meetings During the planning phase
During implementation of the initiative
Local government leaders Written survey
Telephone follow-up
During the planning phase
Agencies and partners Written survey
Telephone follow-up
During the planning phase
Second Example – The National Child Benefit Reinvestment (NCBR) Initiative on Reserve [Note 7]
Component A: Consultations

The NCBR Initiative aims to make it easier for families to break the cycle of poverty by ensuring that no family has to choose between a job and benefits for their children. AANDC and First Nations are responsible for coordinating the "reinvestment" component of the Initiative.

The NCBR Initiative is designed to benefit all Canadian children equally, including First Nation children living on reserves.

The financing granted to the Reinvestment Fund relates to five categories: childcare, child nutrition, support for parents, home-work transition and cultural enrichment.

Consultations

GBA consultations may be conducted with all interested parties, under each of the financing categories, since the participants already have common interests in their respective areas, on approaches and tools, taking into account gender equality which could be used or are already used to enhance the impact and effectiveness of their projects.

As indicated in the NCBR National Manual, AANDC and First Nations should work together to improve the initiative. One recommendation would be to convene regular conferences where First Nations participants can share their NCBR experience and knowledge, both with AANDC and each other. First Nations should be encouraged to identify innovative approaches to meeting the needs of children in low income families. During these meetings, GBA could be presented and discussed and it could be included as an item on the agenda for each event of this kind. These kinds of meetings would seem to be good opportunities to ensure that GBA becomes an integral part of projects financed by the NCBR.

4.2 Component B: Defining the Issues

4.2.1 Description

This component consists of reviewing the entire contents of the text, program, or project on which you are working [Note 8]. This involves determining whether this initiative includes issues relating to gender equality and, if this is the case, verifying how these elements are incorporated in the initiative as a whole and taking into account in the overall implementation process.

4.2.2 Some considerations

When you identify the facts, issues, and context of the project or initiative, identify potential gender-equality issues that will need to be explored further and addressed as part of your project. This component also aims at revealing invalid assumptions, or unacknowledged dominant norms or standards.

It is necessary to ensure that this identification takes into account diversity by including, but notlimited to the following dimensions: race, skills, culture, income, education and geography.

4.2.3 Some of the Questions to Ask

Some of the Questions to Ask in Order to Properly Identify the Issues
In order to properly identify the issues, have you thought about... check mark image
who states that it is an issue?  
how to properly define the issue?  
the way in which the experiences of women and men are taken into account?  
the way in which women and men have participated in this initiative?  
why it has become an issue?  
identifying the roots of this issue (the conditions associated with the position within the community, the unequal distribution of resources, health, physical abilities, and so on)?  
whether the information gathered to define the issues guarantees that all of the requirements for studying the differential impacts on the genders are taken into consideration in the process?  
drawing attention to the makeup of the groups and stakeholders that state that it is an issue (these groups are frequently led by non-Aboriginal persons and their opinions, while they may not be erroneous, could reflect a certain bias)?  
the accuracy that must be demonstrated in defining an issue (you may then be able to avoid debating the definition and proceed more quickly to solutions)?  
taking into account the experiences of women and men, and of different groups of women and men?  
identifying the assumptions and norms that prevail on the issue (for example, the assumption that violence mainly directed towards women and perpetrated by men, whereas this situation is evolving and many representatives have noted growing violence against men)?  
compiling as much information as possible, from different sources in order to properly define the issue and ensure that it is representative of the reality of women and men?  
proceeding to Component D "Information Gathering" at this point, if the information is not sufficient to identify the desired outcomes?  

By responding to these questions you will have defined the gender-equality dimensions of your initiative.

4.2.4 Implementation

First example – Fictional case
Component B: Defining the Issues

You are working on a national initiative to foster job opportunities for Aboriginal and northern communities. The program was established to facilitate the integration into the labour market and capacity development particularly in youth aged 15 to 24.

In what way are the realities of women and men similar and different and consequently, must be taken into account in connection with the initiative [Note 9]?

Differences and Similarities to be Taken into Account
Similarities:
women and men
Differences -
Which women?
Differences -
Which men?
The Aboriginal population continues to be much younger than the non-Aboriginal population. Even though the fertility rate is gradually declining among Aboriginal women, it is still almost double the rate of Canadian women generally. The largest group of women is involved in four areas of study:
  1. Commerce, Management and Business Administration (27%);
  2. Health Professions (17%);
  3. Social Sciences (16%); and
  4. Education (15%).
75% of Aboriginal men work in three fields.
  1. Technologies and Trades (53%),
  2. Social Sciences (12%); and
  3. Commerce (10%).
There is little difference between Aboriginal women and men in the time devoted to seniors' care. Aboriginal women tend to be found in semi-skilled occupations, and especially sales and service occupations. Aboriginal women are also frequently employed in clerical and professional occupations. Aboriginal men are frequently found in crafts, trades, manual labour and management occupations.
  For all identity groups, women's average incomes are very low among youth aged 15-24. While 69% of Aboriginal women's income was from employment, 81% of the income of Aboriginal men was from employment.
  Larger proportions of Aboriginal women are engaged in housework and child care, for greater amounts of time, compared to Aboriginal men.  

As a result, what would be the principal gender-equality dimensions of this initiative?

  1. Income and job opportunities are lower for Aboriginal women than for Aboriginal men.
     
  2. The time devoted to the elderly is similar for women and men, but women spend more time on childcare and housework.
     
  3. Young Aboriginal women experience unstable economic conditions.
     
  4. It remains to be seen whether the type of job held by women and men are related to a lack of training and support allowing women to access technical trades and allowing men to hold administrative posts (check whether the programs are based on erroneous assumptions in relation to the interests of women and men in "non-traditional" trades and professions).
     
Second example - The NCBR Initiative On Reserve
Component B: Identifying the Issue

The NCBR Initiative aims to make it easier for families to break the cycle of poverty by ensuring that no family has to choose between a job and benefits for their children. AANDC and First Nations are responsible for coordinating the "reinvestment" component of the Initiative.

The NCBR Initiative is designed to benefit all Canadian children equally, including First Nation children living on reserves. The Reinvestment Fund finances five categories:

Child care - Financial assistance allowing the development and improvement of daycare facilities to allow more families with low incomes to gain access to daycare spaces, or to have their share of child care costs reduced.

Child nutrition - Financial assistance to improve to the health and well being of children by providing nutritious snack or meal programs for children, as well as education to parents on family nutrition and meal preparation.

Support for parents - Financial assistance allowing the establishment of covers early intervention programs, so that parents can help their young children get a good start in life.

Home-Work Transition - Financial assistance making it possible to provide training to improve skill levels and increase chances of finding work.

Cultural enrichment - Financial assistance to organize traditional cultural training courses and youth support programs. This assistance could be provided to all children of school-age or pre-school age, whether they attend school or not.

The Issues

The initiative aims at providing assistance to low-income families and is targeted to improve all aspects of children's lives. Child poverty is inextricably linked to the opportunities that parents have to access services and programs that will allow them to provide care and support to their children, so that they will be able to reach their full potential.

Poverty is an issue whose causes are many and deep-rooted, which affects families and children in a dramatic way. It is also a cycle from which individuals have a great deal of difficulty escaping. For example, the data [Note 10] shows that Aboriginal women have lower incomes than Aboriginal men and a higher percentage of their income comes from government transfer payments. In 2000, the average income of Aboriginal women represented 75% of the average income of Aboriginal men. While 69% of Aboriginal women's income was from employment, 81% of the income of Aboriginal men was from employment. In addition, approximately one-quarter of Status Indian families is made up of single-parent families headed by a woman. The highest proportion of single-parent families headed by a woman are found amongst Status Indian families (25%), followed by Inuit families (20%).

Among Métis families and other Aboriginal people, these proportions are respectively 15% and 16%, whereas for non-Aboriginal people, the percentage is 12%. Between 1996 and 2001, the proportion of single-parent families headed by a woman increased significantly among the population of Status Indians living on-reserve and among the Inuit population, while it decreased slightly among the Status Indian population living off reserve. As a result, it appears that the Initiative would benefit greatly from a GBA since the projects must provide advantages to children and may include a vast range of projects for parents.

4.3 Component C: Defining Desired / Anticipated Outcomes

4.3.1 Description

What is required is a clear definition of the desired outcomes, in accordance with the realities of women and men, and the different groups of women and men. Too often, the results are not sufficiently clearly defined to allow effective evaluation or monitoring.

4.3.2 Some Considerations

The desired outcomes must:

  1. be attainable, during the available time and with the available resources;
  2. be defined taking into account the gender-equality dimensions, by identifying the results that would minimize inequality between women and men;
  3. allow for aiming at satisfying the needs of women and men, taking into account the relational nature of gender differences; and
  4. be free of stereotypes or prejudices.

Practical Needs, Strategic Interests [Note 11]

Another basic principle of gender-based analysis consists of making a distinction between women's and men's practical needs and strategic interests. "Practical needs" arise from the roles performed by women and men in traditional division of labour.

When women identify practical needs, they typically relate to food, water, health, and children's education, because they are associated with the tasks and responsibilities that correspond to their area of experience and responsibility. They do not spontaneously express the need for social change, but for an immediate improvement in living conditions. Action can therefore address the practical needs of women without however improving their social status. These changes, which are often quickly obtained, are not necessarily lasting, since they do not succeed in reducing people's vulnerability and changing the power relations that create the "need".

On the other hand, women express so-called "strategic interests" when they demand a change in gendered power relations and an improvement in their status. The desired changes often relate to access to and control over resources and benefits. There is a distinction between access to a resource and control over it. One has access to resources or benefits if one can use them (for example, cultivating a plot of land, driving a car, and so on); one controls them if one makes decisions about their acquisition, transfer or use (for example granting or not granting the benefit of a plot of land to another person, buying or selling a car, and so on).

By contributing to the satisfaction of strategic interests of women, we recognize the social and economic relevance of women, their ability to negotiate various aspects of their lives outside the domestic sphere. This assumes a new division of power, duties, and responsibilities between the genders. If a new division cannot be achieved, fostering the entry of women into new fields of activity (social, economic or political) could easily result in burdening them with even more work. However, women, like men, have multiple roles. In relation to gender, the strategic interests of men are less expressed since in most societies they are better served than women. In this vein, we can refer to examples of well-paying jobs, that are generally not acquired, but are more accessible to men rather than women. If we are to look at practical need represented by access to a job, the corresponding strategic interest would be opportunities for training or advancement in relation to employment. That said, it should be noted that men are increasingly claiming rights in the domestic sphere, particularly in child custody, challenging traditional notions of femininity and masculinity.

Practical needs and strategic interests are not contradictory, but are potentially complementary. The resolution of practical needs is often necessary to achieve strategic interests. Responding to practical needs should not be an end in itself, but a component in a process to satisfy strategic interests, and therefore having women's situation evolve in society towards greater equality, control and self-determination.

4.3.3 Some of the Questions to Ask

Some of the Questions to Ask When defining Desired Outcomes
When defining the desired outcomes, have you thought about... check mark image
what the government wants to accomplish with this initiative?  
how do these results fit with the commitments to the socio-economic equality of women and men?  
how can it be measured for practical and statistical purposes?  
how can you determine whether diversity is a factor that is taken into account in the results?  
identifying the information that you are relying on (statistics, research, consultations) to determine these issues?  
the way in which the WIGE Directorate can help you?  
identifying the other results that might be produced by including an analysis based on diversity and gender equality?  
the way in which the GBARs can help you?  
who will be affected by this initiative? How the results will be different for women and men?  
ensuring that the desired outcomes are directly related to your initiative's objectives?  
ensuring that the desired outcomes are fair and equitable for women, men and different groups of women and men?  
ensuring that the needs of the participants in the initiative are taken into account?  
planning alternative measures if you observe negative impacts on the various groups of population that are targeted?  
identifying indicators and an evaluation framework that relate to the objectives and the desired outcomes?  

4.3.4 Implementation

First Example – Fictional Case
Component C: Defining Desired / Anticipated Outcomes

In relation to your national initiative to increase employment, in light of the similarities and differences identified in Component B, what are some of the conceivable outcomes of this initiative?

Conceivable Outcomes of the Initiative
Gender integrated outcomes
(for women and men)
Gender-specific outcomes
(for women)
Gender-specific outcomes 
(for men)
Decrease dependency on social assistance and government transfers Increase in employment income for all women Maintaining the number of men having employment income
Diversification of training offered Increase in the number of women in technical jobs Increase in the number of men in non-traditional jobs (for example, nursing)
An increase in employment for youth aged 15 to 24 Increase in the average income of young women aged 15 to 24 An increase in the number of employed young men
Second example - The NCBR Initiative on Reserve
Component C: Defining Desired / Anticipated Outcomes

The three main objectives of the initiative are:

  1. helping to prevent and reduce child poverty;
  2. to promote workforce participation by ensuring that low-income families with children will always be better off as a result of parents working; and
  3. to reduce overlap and duplication by simplifying governments' administration of benefits for children.

In the context of the NCBR, we expect improvements in the following areas:

  1. children's health and development;
  2. school readiness and ability to learn;
  3. parents' participation in the labour market;
  4. financial independence; and
  5. greater participation in their communities and Canadian society.

These results relate to the desired improvements from various perspectives. They can be enhanced by reference to gender-equality issues. For example, a GBA would make it possible to clarify whether issues relating to health, development, school readiness and ability to learn are different between young boys and young girls. With respect to parents' participation in the labour market, the GBA would help to identify obstacles and challenges depending on the experiences and interests of women and men. In terms of full participation in the community and Canadian society, it is possible that women and men have different aspirations in this regard; consequently, they would require different programs and services, which would help to support the empowerment of women, as well as the empowerment of men, to achieve more active participation.

4.4 Component D: Information Gathering

4.4.1 Description

In relation to the GBA, information gathering is crucial. It will validate or negate the assumptions which the projects are based on and help to identify gaps in the data available so they may be remedied.

In particular, information gathering aims at obtaining basic data that will establish a point of departure for measuring progress to achieving the objectives. This process should not be conducted without making gender distinctions. Frequently it involves prejudices and cultural attitudes that qualify the process.

It is recommended that diversified and non-traditional sources of information be drawn on to obtain the most complete outline of a given situation. These can be a gathering of statistical information from:

  1. the Strategic Research Directorate;
  2. the Corporate Information Management Directorate;
  3. the Gender Issues Directorate;
  4. provincial governments;
  5. various Aboriginal organizations;
  6. your community partners;
  7. various research institutes; and
  8. federal departments and agencies.

Appendix VIII contains a table suggesting a few data collection methods and their advantages.

First Nations and AANDC both have a stake in knowing whether funded programs and policies are having the desired effect and, if not, whether there is a need to devise other options to address the issues more adequately. Success or failure of policies and programs can, in many cases, only be judged by observing results and trends over time. Such trends can only be detected through the collection of uniform and consistent data. To accomplish this, it is imperative that all First Nations and administering authorities report the same information, at the same time and in the same format. If this is not done, the overall program data results could be disproportionate or unreliable [Note 12].

4.4.2 Some Considerations

Quantitative Data

GBA sometimes requires going beyond traditional data collection methods, in order to include gender-equity dimensions. This is a daunting challenge, since the statistical data that are normally collected do not always take into account social, economic, and political factors that play a role in the lives of women and men, and different groups of women and men.

Reality at AANDC, is that the client base is diversified: women and men living on reserve, off-reserve, Inuit, Status Indians, non-Status Indians and Métis. In short, no data make it possible to completely define the current portrait, from every perspective. However, during the implementation of any initiative, efforts must be made to use a range of sources and methods in order to gather as much information as possible on the prevailing context.

For example, quantitative data could relate to the following [Note 13]:

Income

  1. Labour legislation (equal pay for equal work);
  2. The ratio of female to male wages;
  3. Distribution of and control over income (money, in kind) within the household.

Participation in decision making (strategic interest)

  1. Representation and participation of women and men in governance (administration and management) in employment projects at the national, regional and local level;
  2. Representation and participation of women and men in formal decision-making processes (band councils);
  3. Customs and social attitudes regarding the decision-making pattern at household and community level;
  4. Percentage of women and men that vote.
Qualitative Data

Obviously, statistics do not tell the whole story and they only reflect part of reality. The GBA is significantly enhanced by the gathering and analysis of qualitative data, that is, data that go beyond numbers, to qualify the various aspects of an initiative. For example, in the case of a national consultation on policy, when we examine the participation rate according to gender, we could go even further by identifying why some women and some men have not participated and/or what factors influenced them to participate in the consultation.

When you or your partners gather data, it could be useful to take into account factors that characterize community-based qualitative research, [Note 14] which are defined as follows:

  1. more sensitive to the values and culture of community members;
  2. possibility of gathering the comments of community members, at every component;
  3. use of local expertise including both traditional and academic experts;
  4. better understanding of the question or issues involved;
  5. personal contacts with participants;
  6. emphasis placed on the oral tradition (interviews, focus groups, talking circles, etc.); and
  7. use of interpreters to eliminate language barriers.

Relevant methods should also be used, which can be characterized as follows:

  1. respect for cultural and spiritual values;
  2. allocating the time required for collecting data, so that the participants feel at ease throughout the entire process; and
  3. ensuring that the participants feel that they can express themselves freely.
Gender-Disaggregated Data

Access to gender-disaggregated data is important for conducting a GBA that takes into account all of the factors that affect the targeted client base. Gender-disaggregated data go beyond the total number of women and men identified. Take for example statistics on literacy. They say that 60% of women in a country are literate. Gender-disaggregated data establish that 60% of women are literate, compared to 82% of men, and compared to data from five years ago when 50% of women were literate and 69% of men were literate. Gender-disaggregated data can be qualitative or quantitative.

Quantitative data define the "what" (number of women and men who have participated in a consultation);

Qualitative data identify the “why" (the reasons why people have not participated: for women, because the subject addressed was not perceived as a priority for them and for men because the time of year conflicted with their seasonal activities).

4.4.3 Some of the Questions to Ask

Some of the Questions to Ask While Conducting the Information Gathering
While conducting the information gathering, have you thought about... check mark image
making sure that gender-disaggregated data were available at all levels of the analysis?  
ensuring that data obtained support the GBA, if required?  
during the implementation of the initiative, identifying the mechanism that you will set up to collect qualitative and quantitative gender-disaggregated data?  
asking community partners to collect and compile gender-disaggregated data?  
conducting documentary research on gender equality, by consulting publications, briefs, flyers and Web sites produced by groups of women or men?  
examining whether the AANDC library or the WIGE Directorate's library can help you?  
if you are conducting research, are data collection tools relevant in terms of respect for the dignity of the research participants? Inviting the population groups affected to participate in the development of the research plan?  
the way in which the findings arising from your documentary research take into account differences in experience relating to gender and diversity?  
clearly establishing the objectives of the information gathering?  
involving your partners in the development of the process of collecting gender-disaggregated data, in order to ensure that all aspects of the process respect the targeted populations?  
identifying the gaps with respect to the information available and attempting to rectify it (by requesting precise data from organizations where relevant, by inviting local partners and your colleagues to participate in the collection of gender-disaggregated data)?  
encouraging national, regional and local government partners to identify gender-disaggregated data that are important to gather?  
establishing criteria that ensure that the data collected relate to the same subjects and therefore the information is comparable over time?  

4.4.4 Implementation

First Example – Fictional Case
Component D: Information Gathering

In relation to your national initiative, in the light of the similarities and differences identified in Component B, the results identified in Component C and the data collected to date, what could be the three or four priority issues concerning the collection of information that would enhance the success of the initiative and what would be potential sources of information?

Information Gathering
What do we need to know? What are our questions? What are the sources of quantitative data (facts and statistics)? What are the sources of qualitative data (experiences and opinions)?
What is the participation rate among young people in employment training activities? According to gender? According to the type of training? Statistics Canada Information Analysis Section;
Research and Analysis Directorate, AANDC;
Government partners (Health Canada, Status of Women Canada, etc.);
The Centre for Research and Information on Canada
Agencies working with communities on employment
Aboriginal organizations
In relation to participation in training, what proportion of women experience obstacles related to family obligations? Community training, health, and income assistance partners
What proportion of men is restricted by the support provided to elders? Local project management experts and family services providers
Second example - The NCBR Initiative on Reserve
Component D: Information Gathering

Initiative stakeholders presumably gather information that is useful to them, as part of their accountability activities, particularly at the end of a project. As a result, it could be useful to consult data already gathered by project funding recipients, in order to examine whether there are references to gender-equality dimensions. If this is the case, it might also be useful to create an inventory of GBA practices that have been implemented in connection with various projects. If no data refer to gender-equality issues, it seems that each of the funding categories could be made more effective, by posing the following types of questions:

In the area of childcare:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. In relation to childcare, are there accommodations for single-parent families? What percentage of these families is headed by a woman? By a man?
  3. Do the childcare services take into account the different requirements of the working parents, both from the perspective of women and men (for example, flexibility in schedules, respite services, and so on)?

In relation to child nutrition:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. What is the proportion of girls and boys that participate in nutrition projects?
  3. Are the challenges involved in nutrition different for girls and boys?
  4. What is the proportion of women and men among participating parents?
  5. Have both parents of a family been consulted about their child/children's knowledge and needs in relation to nutrition?

In the area of parent support:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. What is the proportion of women and men among parent participants in the projects?
  3. Have early intervention activities been conducted so that female and male parents are able to participate (place, schedule, and so on.)?
  4. In families headed by two parents, have the needs of mothers and fathers been evaluated and taken into account, during the planning, the implementation and evaluation of the projects?

In the area of home-to-work transition:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. What proportion of women and men participates in capacity development activities?
  3. Are the needs of women and men evaluated and considered in the development of capacity development activities (transportation, daycare, and so on)?

In the area of cultural enrichment:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. What proportion of women and men teach and promote traditional culture among youngpeople? The proportion of adults and elders?
  3. Do the traditions and customs taught reflect both the different but important roles of womenand men in the community?
  4. What proportion of young girls and of young boys participates in cultural activities?
  5. What proportion of young people no longer attending school participates in the projectactivities? Among the latter group, what is the ratio of girls to boys?
  6. Have the needs of girls and boys been evaluated and taken into account during the planning of activities?

4.5 Component E: Development and Analysis of Options

4.5.1 Description

This component involves the analysis of the outcomes obtained in the previous components and the development of various options that could contribute to an effective initiative. The analysis and ultimate choice of the option or options that are favoured will be based on the conditions and context in which the women and men of the targeted community are living.

4.5.2 Some Considerations

When you analyze the options, consider the full range of options, including:

  1. administrative solutions: guidelines, policies, interpretative provisions to guide the exercise ofdiscretionary power, introduction of new discretionary powers, etc.;
  2. program or project initiatives;
  3. public education and information strategies;
  4. partnerships with other departments, jurisdictions, non-governmental organizations;
  5. regulatory reform; and
  6. law reform.

In addition, you could examine the options suggested:

  1. in research findings;
  2. by non-governmental organizations;
  3. by other jurisdictions;
  4. by other federal agencies and departments;
  5. by colleagues; and
  6. during community consultations.

4.5.3 Some of the Questions to Ask

Some of the Questions to Ask During the Development and Analysis of Options
During the development and analysis of the options, have you thought about... check mark image
the way in which the option considered will provide an advantage to some groups or disadvantage others?  
examining the differential impact of the preferred option on women's or men's socio-economic positions?  
obtaining the advice of the WIGE Directorate?  
determined whether the analysis of the option outlines how it supports gender equality and point out where gender equality may be compromised?  
developed innovative solutions to accommodate gender equality and diversity issues?  
sought out solutions from the affected groups, the community, and partners?  
developing a case to justify the choice of an option (the reasons behind your choice) from the perspective of gender equality?  
analyzing the costs and advantages of the preferred option, from the perspective of gender equality?  
examining similar policies or programs, to identify suggestions that you could include, from the perspective of gender equality?  
determining whether women and men of the population's sub-groups support the preferred option?  
organizing the final consultations with the organizations (composed of women, men, young people, elders) and key people in the area, on the way in which each of the options would have affected men and women and the different groups of women and men?  

4.5.4 Implementation

First Example – Fictional Case
Component E: Development and Analysis of Options

Based on what you know from the context of your initiative, identify two or three options that:

  1. Take into account the similarities and differences identified in Component B.
  2. Support the desired outcomes identified in Component C.
  3. Take into account the information gathered in Component D.

For example:

  1. In order to ensure that the needs of young people are taken into account, you can organize information sessions that are specifically directed to them, in which stakeholders would present alternatives that could allow them to receive training that would eventually lead to paid work. These sessions would be offered in cooperation with local agencies, which would provide babysitting services. It would be desirable to hold separate sessions for young women and young men, as you believe that in this way, the members of each group would be able to express themselves more freely.
     
  2. In order to define the training requirements of women and men, you organize a consultation with stakeholders to determine whether the training subjects or areas are offered to men and women equally, to avoid a situation where the type of training reflects prejudices about the interests of women and men in certain trades and professions.
     
  3. You attempt to reduce obstacles to training (language, geographical location/remoteness, family responsibilities, etc.) for both sexes, to increase the number of participants in capacity development activities.
     
  4. You work with private sector partners to promote the contribution that the targeted populations could have in relation to the community's economic and social life, to the benefit of local businesses.
     
  5. You provide training using a progressive or module-based approach, which allows women to return to training after pregnancy and men to conduct their seasonal occupations.
  6. You integrate into training modules the factors that have contributed to their success (for example, mentoring and the buddy system).
     
Second example - The NCBR Initiative on Reserve
Component E: Development and Analysis of Options

Because of its flexibility, the NCBR funds a wide range of projects. These projects cover a broad range of areas and are quite different from one region to the other. It is perhaps relevant for the NCBR to first dwell on a particular category of funding. Since this category does not seem traditional within the social system framework, it would be interesting to address the category of cultural enrichment. As indicated in the National Manual, this category received the most funding in 2001-2002 (accounting for 56.6% of the 1,100 projects funded). As of March 31, 2005, 475 projects had been initiated under this funding category, reaching 47,378 families and 112,154 children.

It is possible that after having collected and analyzed the gender-disaggregated data, some activities would be modified in order to take into account this new information.

For example, it is possible that some projects have not been examined and have not taken into account the differential impact resulting from the fact that sessions on traditional culture offered to youth was given by women or men. Consequently, there could be an imbalance with respect to traditional learning, with respect to the role of women and men within the community.

Information that takes into account gender differences could result in sessions being held in which men teach hunting and fishing, followed by women exploring methods of tanning and cooking. In addition, sessions can be designed so that women and men present traditional activities that are normally performed by the other gender.

4.6 Component F: Communications

4.6.1 Description

Like all other aspects of government initiatives, this component must be conducted as respectfully as possible of the values and culture of the affected clientele. This is perhaps especially important with respect to communications, since it involves contacts between AANDC and its partners, stakeholders and clientele.

4.6.2 Some Consideration

Effective communications require good timing, a favourable place or medium and the right spokesperson, as well as the best possible way of conveying a message. These factors may vary depending on the gender of the intended audience and from one target audience to another. The GBA will help you to communicate your messages.

Oral presentations that are holistic in nature [Note 15] are an effective way to present research findings to the community. It is essential to prepare different types of presentation formats for a variety of audiences. In general, you might be required to communicate with:

  1. your government partners;
  2. your supervisors;
  3. the community as a whole;
  4. band chiefs;
  5. interest groups (the elderly, women, youth, environmental groups); and
  6. certain experts or stakeholders that are particularly affected by and/or interested in the subject of your communications.

It is therefore essential that you adapt both the message and the distribution method to the various audiences targeted by your messages.

Because any issue or segment in the community affects the other factors within the community, all community members need to know about research results and impacts, and be consulted about the findings and consequences of the initiatives that you are putting forward. The leadership of the community is responsible for the advancement and well-being of community members; therefore, it is imperative that they are fully aware of the findings and implications of any research conducted in their communities.

Presentations should be made to special groups within the community, such as elders, women and youth, who may be interested in, or impacted by specific initiatives. Individuals who were participants in the research definitely should be recognized and informed of research results to which they have contributed. Oral communication and visual formats are most useful in presenting findings. Sharing research results with large groups can be accomplished by incorporating traditional Aboriginal practices. Groups and individual meetings should always be set up on the community members' preferences of where and when they want to meet [Note 16].

Focus groups have shown that we can reach Aboriginal audiences more effectively through broadcast than print media.

Women may be less available for news broadcasts at meal times.

Seasonal workers tend to be men and may be away from home for extended periods; therefore, specialized strategies may be needed to reach them [Note 17].

4.6.3 Questions to Ask

Communications
Questions to Ask in your Communications Work
In your communications work, have you thought about... check mark image
identifying the different impacts, based on gender and diversity and their social and economic costs and how they will be communicated to the people that are responsible for decision-making?  
developing communication strategies so that information is accessible to women and men and the information respects the communities' diversity?  
the way in which you will report on the contribution of women and men to the development of the initiative in your communications?  
identifying the possible communication formats? (you can use speeches, news announcements, posters, flyers, brochures, printed materials like stickers and bookmarks, interviews, live consultations, information sessions, Internet postings, correspondence, E-mail, advertisements, television spots, public service announcements or even event sponsorship).  
using different communication formats to reach different audiences? Does sending an information package to the Chief ensure it reaches community members?  
determining whether there are more effective methods to target individuals in the community, for example, through a radio broadcast rather than printed material?  
adopting a combination of communication strategies?  
relying on a credible spokesperson? Does the non-Aboriginal leader of a women's organization have any credibility when she speaks on behalf of Aboriginal women?  
identifying whether the participation of an AANDC senior executive could give more weight to the intervention and make it possible to achieve the desired outcomes?  

4.6.4 Implementation First Example – Fictional Case

Component F: Communications

Your initiative will involve implementing the following techniques:

Objective of the communication: To promote a national employment initiative intended for Indians, Inuit and Métis.
Target client How? When? Where?
Young women aged 15 to 24 Posters From the beginning of the development of the initiative Community centres
Health clinics
Word of mouth
You obtain the assistance of a well-known singer who records a public-interest message at no charge At the beginning of the initiative and throughout the project Internet
Local media, TV, radio
Aboriginal men – working at seasonal jobs Posters
Radio announcements
Depending on the season Seasonal work environments
Aboriginal women homemakers Radio and television announcements
Flyers, posters
Morning, afternoon, and evening Local media
Community centres
Health clinics
Local government leaders Information sessions
Internet – distribution list
At the beginning of the initiative Internet
Agencies and partners Information sessions
Internet
At the beginning of the initiative Internet
Second example - The NCBR Initiative on Reserve
Component F: Communications

If a funding category was chosen to initiate the GBA, communication by all of the parties to the same affected parties should be established. This would make it possible to view the actual context with regard to the GBA, and would encourage the participation in the prospective implementation of the GBA. It could also promote the integration of the GBA for future projects, which would ensure that the GBA is integrated at the beginning of the initiatives. Under the NCBR, each region is responsible for developing its own regional manual presenting the framework of the reinvestment initiative in the province or territory. In this way, it would be possible to examine the inclusion of the gender equality dimension in these manuals.

4.7 Component G: Evaluation

4.7.1 Description

Evaluation is a crucial component since it makes it possible to measure the progress made in achieving objectives and expected outcomes. It is a process that should be continual in order to monitor changes that may occur during a project or an initiative.

In order for any evaluation to achieve its aims, the initiative's objectives must be clearly defined from the outset, and achievable within a specific time-frame, as well as realistic and measurable. In other words, the more precise the target, the easier it will be to know if you have achieved it.

4.7.2 Some Considerations [Note 18]

Evaluation and Monitoring

Monitoring is the collection, analysis and distribution of data on the various aspects or activities of a given project. Evaluation mechanisms are more focused, and examine whether the objectives and outcomes have been achieved. Since the evaluation is normally guided by the interests of the stakeholders who put forward the initiative, the exercise is to focus on particular questions that are considered crucial for achieving the outcomes that the parties wish to achieve. Accordingly, there must be vigilance since the evaluation process could be biased and neglect certain information about changes that have occurred in gender equality. This is why it is important to promote the continual participation of the target populations in the evaluation process.

The GBA is constantly evolving and its implementation is multi-faceted, taking shape in accordance with the needs and understanding of the various stakeholders. As a result of this situation, the development of tools for measuring and monitoring the progress produced by the GBA has proven to be quite complex. It is crucial that this component be completed in order to proceed with the adjustments that will make it possible for the projects, whatever they may be, to satisfy the objectives and to react to gender issues in order that the desired outcomes may be achieved.

First of all, the techniques that are usually put into place to measure the progress, impacts and outcomes of the initiatives or projects tend not to take into account gender differences. It goes without saying that in order to be able to adequately measure the different impacts that projects have on women, men and different groups of women and men, special mechanisms must be developed.

Evaluation tools taking gender differences into account could be designed or formulated in accordance with the following considerations:

  1. including qualitative and quantitative data and taking contextual factors into account; and
  2. examining empowerment issues (for example, changes in women and men with respect to attitudes, perceptions, practices and knowledge).

How to measure impact, taking gender equality into account. [Note 19]

  1. establish the nature of gender relations in spheres relevant to the initiative's operations (particularly access and control of resources, control over income, household spending patterns) and identify which of these dimensions are most likely to affect the impact of your project;
  2. explore the potential impacts of the project on gender relations;
  3. identify the information you need and design appropriate indicators; and
  4. collect and analyse the data using appropriate techniques and tools (quantitative and qualitative).
The Indicators

In order to ensure an effective evaluation, you must identify the indicators that will allow you to measure progress or setbacks. For example, you could use the dropout rate for an employment program or the nature of cooperation between agencies. The indicators used by the government usually include equity, participation, procedural fairness, and predictability in delivery.

Program indicators must take into account gender differences. Gender-disaggregated data are essential to monitoring and evaluation activities. The information collected by means of the tools is not neutral. It comes from women and men who, even if they agree on issues, can demonstrate significant differences in opinion, if their responses are scrutinized. It would also be useful to disaggregate the data according to other factors such as age, urban or rural environment, on reserve/off reserve, and so on.

Some considerations on the indicators:

  1. Indicators that take gender equality into account have their own limitations, which should be recognized. Sometimes there is a lack of clarity as to what the changes observed should be compared with; for example, if we examine the status of women in a given region, do we use as a scale the situation of men in this region or the situation of women in other regions?
     
  2. Indicators are often developed by experts, in a non-participative manner. This means that the indicators may not reflect consensus within the community or they may not include intercultural dimensions. Women and men in the target groups could measure the progress achieved by comparing it to important cultural or local factors, which may have escaped the experts.

 4.7.3 Some of the Questions to Ask

Some of the Questions to Ask in Conducting the Evaluation
In the course of conducting the evaluation, have you thought about... check mark image
including concerns about gender equality in the evaluation criteria?  
identifying the indicators you will use to measure the impact of the initiative on women and men, and on different groups of women and men?  
identifying the indicators that may be used to evaluate community contributions and to identify the people that have made them?  
identifying the elements that allow you to determine whether the initiative is cost-effective and whether it represents the best way of achieving the expected outcomes?  

Annex IX contains a table presenting a brief overview of a method of evaluating a program.

4.7.4 Implementation

First Example – Fictional Case
Component G: Evaluation

An evaluation normally involves quantitative and qualitative results. The following example refers to the quantitative gender-specific outcomes for women and men identified in Component C.

With reference to young women, some qualitative indicators would consist of identifying their job satisfaction rate or self-esteem and the confidence in their futures that they demonstrate. These factors could be evaluated using surveys or focus groups of young women, which are methods that are conducive to providing the qualitative information that you are seeking.

Please note that the indicators are used to identify what information will assist you in determining whether the desired outcomes have been achieved. The evaluation method itself indicates how and where you will obtain this information.

For your initiative, you will develop the following elements in your evaluation procedure.

Elements in Evaluation Procedure
Gender-specific outcomes Indicator(s) Evaluation method
An increase in the average income of young women aged 15 to 24 Diversification of jobs accessible to young women Analysis of statistics on income according to region, gender and age
An increase in the number of women in technical jobs Diversification of types of training offered to women Increased participation rate of women in training and success rate Analysis of statistics on training relative to non-traditional jobs, according to gender (number, type, number of participants, number of graduates)
An increase in employment income for all women Reduction in the number of women who are social assistance recipients Analysis of statistics on social assistance according to region and gender
Maintaining the number of men with employment income Increased participation rate of men in the active population Analysis of statistics on the active population among Aboriginal peoples, according to gender, geographic region
Increase in the number of men in non-traditional jobs (for example, nursing) Diversification of types of training offered to men Participation rate of men in training and success rate Analysis of statistics on training relative to non-traditional jobs, according to gender (number, type, number of participants, number of graduates)
An increase in the number of employed young men Reduction in the number of young men receiving social assistance Analysis of statistics on social assistance according to region, gender and age
Second Example - The NCBR Initiative on Reserve
Component G: Evaluation

The First Nations are required to report annually on the results of each of their projects. However, it appears that there are certain challenges in relation to this requirement. As indicated in the Progress Report for 2002, on the NCBR: “It should be noted that identifying indicators and evaluating outcomes are among the most challenging areas of this initiative... measuring outcomes represents a critical challenge since reinvestments are often co-mingled with other program funding. Further, NCB reinvestments are often split among several programs, rendering attribution essentially impossible.”

In this respect, the National Manual stresses that indicators will be developed in the context of a joint process with First Nations in order to develop a more realistic approach in relation to documentation on project outcomes. Also mentioned is the fact that the AANDC regions and the First Nations may have to establish new requirements for evaluation, accountability and data collection tools. It seems that these statements represent both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge is to identify appropriate outcomes, indicators, and evaluation mechanisms, the opportunity is to integrate these outcomes, indicators, and evaluation tools that take into account the GBA.




5. Annexes

Annex I – Gender-Based Analysis Glossary [Note 20]

Gender equality
Means that women and men enjoy the same status and have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and potential to contribute to national, political, economic, social, and cultural development, and to benefit from the results. Gender equality is therefore society valuing equally the similarities and the differences between women and men as well as the varying roles they play. This is the ultimate goal of GBA.
 
Gender roles
The behaviour that is learned in a society or a community that determines which activities, tasks, and responsibilities are perceived as appropriate for women and men. Age, social class, race, ethnic origin, religion, or other ideologies have an impact on the roles of each gender. Roles often evolve in response to changes in economic or political circumstances. In a given social context, the roles of each of the genders may be flexible or rigid, similar or different, complementary or conflicting.
 
Gender-inclusive
This is defined by the knowledge and inclusion of the differences in the lives of women and men, particularly those that lead to social and economic inequalities, in the context of an integrated and systematic approach applied to the development and analysis of policies or programs.
 
Gender-sensitive
This notion is illustrated by the recognition of the existence of biological differences or of differences based on gender, between women and men. It also means the inclusion of gender as a socially important variable. Conversely, insensitivity to gender differences is a form of prejudice based on gender, where gender is ignored as an important variable, in a context where in reality it is a significant factor.
 
Gender blindness
A context within which a person, a policy or an institution does not recognize that gender is a determining factor in terms of the life choices offered by society.
 
Gender neutrality
Sometimes erroneously referred to as "non-sexist", this notion assumes that all people are affected by policies and programs in the same way or that the effects of the policies or programs on recipients are neutral, regardless of gender. This notion is based on the theory according to which all persons benefit from equal status, opportunities and outcomes and that as a result they should be treated in an identical manner.
 
Gender disaggregated data
Information presented in a distinct manner and based on factors that are pertinent to women, in the biological sense, or to their roles and to men, in the biological sense, or to their roles.
 
Systemic discrimination
This relates to generalized discrimination, although frequently it may be carried out in a subtle manner. It is often a mixture of actions that are intentional or otherwise, that have a more or less serious (or disproportionate) effect on one group rather than on others. These policies or practices are sometimes based on the idea that they are non-sexist or gender-neutral.
 



Annex II – AANDC's GBA Policy

AANDC's Gender-Based Analysis Policy requires that:

  • Gender-based analysis be integrated in all of AANDC's work, including but not limited to:
    • the development and implementation of departmental policies, programs, communication plans, regulations and legislation;
    • consultations and negotiations (including but not limited to self-government and land claims, treaty land entitlement and devolution);
    • research, dispute-resolution, and guidelines and strategies in relation to litigation.
  • Where gender equality issues arise, solutions be developed and implemented to prevent and remedy any inequality.
  • Where gender-equality issues cannot be addressed or fully addressed, the Gender Issues Directorate should be informed in a timely fashion and the issue should be raised by the program officer with the Deputy Minister and, where appropriate, with the Minister.

AANDC's Policy is broad as it affects all aspects of the operations and projects conducted by the ministry.




Annex III – GBA Representatives' Responsibilities [Note 21]

The GBAR:

  1. participate in training and orientation sessions. The respective branches and regions are responsible for GBAR travel and accommodation costs;
  2. agree to act as the office or regional point of contact for GBA questions or concerns (after having received training);
  3. offer suggestions and resources to colleagues who request assistance conducting GBA;
  4. remain informed on key issues or files involving their branch or region and urge their colleagues to use GBA, suggesting resources and tools when possible;
  5. proactively seek tools, information, networking and capacity building opportunities in relation to GBA;
  6. participate in GBAR network activities on a regular basis in (either through meetings in person or telephone conference calls);
  7. liaise with the Gender Issues Directorate so that the Directorate is kept up to date and informed of branch or regional GBA activities;
  8. on an annual basis, report to the network on the progress made and challenges dealt with by the branch and region in relation to GBA; and
  9. report to the manager or to the Directorate, on a mutually agreeable schedule.

The responsibilities of the WIGE Directorate:

  1. to continually develop and maintain GBA resources, tools and information;
  2. to provide training and orientation sessions on GBA and on the identification of resources and tools to support GBA;
  3. to be available to the GBARs on a regular basis to provide support and direction;
  4. to develop and maintain a roster of GBA consultants who can be contracted by branches or regions to conduct GBA, where in-house skills are not yet available;
  5. to regularly seek capacity building and networking opportunities for GBARs;
  6. to develop effective and communications strategy and communications tools to raise awareness about GBA at AANDC;
  7. to develop a continuous GBA learning strategy at AANDC;
  8. to develop an evaluation framework for GBA strategy;
  9. to provide opportunities to AANDC managers (senior and other) to receive GBA sensitization sessions; and
  10. to keep senior management attentive to GBA through annual reports and any other opportunities for GBA-related activities and updates.



Annex IV – GBA Work Sheets

Component B: Identify the Issues(s)

Expected outcomes from the process:

  • To have determined two or three aspects associated with gender in the project.

In what way are the realities of women and men similar and different and consequently, must be taken into account in connection with the initiative?

Similarities:
women and men
Differences -
Which women?
Differences -
Which men?
     
     
     

As a result, what would the main gender-equality dimensions of this project be?

  1.  
  2.  
  3.  
Component C: Defining the Expected Outcomes

Expected outcomes of the process:

  • To have determined two or three outcomes relating to each gender (or gender specific).

In the case of your project, in light of the similarities and differences identified in Component B, what would be some of the conceivable outcomes of this initiative?

Gender integrated outcomes
(for women and men)
Gender-specific outcomes
(for women)
Gender-specific outcomes
(for men)
     
     
     
Component D: Gathering Information

Expected outcomes of the process:

  • To have determined three or four issues in relation to which data are collected in order to improve the likelihood of the project's success.
  • To identify sources of data through research and consultations.
  • Note the differences between gender-disaggregated data, respectively in relation to gender (in terms of social relations) and to gender (biologically speaking).

In the case of your project, in light of the similarities and differences Identified in Component B, the outcomes identified in Component C and the data collected to date, what would be the three or four priority issues concerning the collection of information that would enhance the success of the initiative and what would be potential sources of information?

What do we need to know?
What are our questions?
What are the sources of quantitative data
(facts and statistics)?
What are the sources of qualitative data
(experience and opinions)?
     
     
     
Component E: Development and Analysis of Options

Expected outcomes of the process:

On the basis of what you know from the context of your project, to have identified two or three options that:

  • Take into account the similarities and differences identified in Component B.
  • Support the desired outcomes identified in Component C.
  • Take into account the information gathered in Component D.
Take into account the similarities and differences identified in Component B Support the desired outcomes identified in Component C Take into account the information gathered in Component D
     
     
     
Component F: Communications

Expected outcomes of the process:

  • To have determined three or four types of target audiences of women and men, to whom the information concerning the project must be communicated.
  • To have determined means of communicating with each of the audiences.
Target audience Message
(What?)
How? When? Where?
         
         
         
Component G: Evaluation

Expected outcomes of the process:

  • To have determined three or four indicators that take into account gender equality.
  • To have determined the evaluation methods that are relevant to each indicator.
Gender-specific outcomes Indicator(s) Evaluation method
     
     
     

What will the main indicator be for the project with regard to gender equality?




Annex V – Example of a GBA

First Example – Fictional Case
Component A: Consultations

You are working on a national initiative to foster job opportunities for Aboriginal and northern communities. The program has been established to facilitate integration into the labour market and capacity development particularly in youth aged 15 to 24.

Consultations
Consultation objective: To define the needs of Aboriginal women and men in relation to employment.
Target client How? When?
Young women aged 15 to 24 Semi-structured discussion groups During the planning phase
During implementation of the initiative
Aboriginal women homemakers Informal meetings During the planning phase
During implementation of the initiative
Aboriginal men working at seasonal jobs Discussion groups, according to job types During the planning phase
During implementation of the initiative
Local government leaders Written survey
Telephone follow-up
During the planning phase
Agencies and partners Written survey
Telephone follow-up
During the planning phase
Component B: Defining the Issues(s)

You are working on a national initiative to foster job opportunities for Aboriginal and northern communities. The program has been established to facilitate integration into the labour market and capacity development particularly in youth aged 15 to 24.

In what way are the realities of men and women similar and different and consequently, must be taken into account in connection with the initiative? [Note 22]

Similarities:
women and men
Differences -
Which women?
Differences -
Which men?
The Aboriginal population continues to be much younger than the non-Aboriginal population. Even though the fertility rate is gradually declining among Aboriginal women, it is still almost double the rate of Canadian women generally. The largest numbers of Aboriginal women are found in four major fields of study:
  1. Commerce, Management and Business, Administration (27%);
  2. Health Professions (17%);
  3. Social Sciences (16%); and
  4. Education (15%).
75% of Aboriginal men are found in three fields:
  1. Technologies and Trades (53%);
  2. Social Sciences (12%); and
  3. Commerce (10%).
There is little difference between Aboriginal women and men in the time devoted to seniors care. Aboriginal women tend to occupy semi-skilled occupations, especially sales and service occupations. Aboriginal women are also frequently found in clerical and professional occupations. Aboriginal men are frequently found in crafts, trades, manual labour and management occupations.
  For all identity groups, women's average incomes are very low among youth aged 15 to 24 years of age. While 69% of Aboriginal women's income was from employment, 81% of the income of Aboriginal men was from employment.
  Larger proportions of Aboriginal women are engaged in housework and child care, for greater amounts of time, compared to Aboriginal men.  

As a result, what would be the main gender-equality dimensions of this initiative?

  1. Income and job opportunities are lower for Aboriginal women than for Aboriginal men.
  2. The time devoted to the elderly is similar for women and men, but women spend more time on childcare and housework.
  3. Young Aboriginal women experience uncertain economic conditions.
  4. It remains to be seen whether the types of jobs held by women and men are related to a lack of training and support allowing women to access technical trades and allowing men to hold administrative posts (check whether the programs are based on erroneous assumptions in relation to the interests of women and men in "non-traditional" trades and professions).
Component C: Defining Desired / Anticipated Outcomes

In the case of your national initiative to increase employment, in light of the similarities and differences identified in Component B, what are some of the conceivable results of this initiative?

Gender integrated outcomes
(for women and men)
Gender-specific outcomes
(for women)
Gender-specific outcomes
(for men)
A decrease in dependence on social assistance and government transfers An increase in employment income for women in general Maintaining the number of men having employment income
Diversification of training offered An increase in the number of women in technical jobs Increase in the number of men in non-traditional jobs (for example, nursing)
An increase in employment for young people aged 15 to 24 An increase in the average income of young women aged 15 to 24 An increase in the number of employed young men
Component D: Information Gathering

In the case of your national initiative, in light of the similarities and differences identified in Component B, the outcomes identified in Component C and the data collected to date, what are the three or four priority questions concerning information gathering that would enhance the success of the initiative and what would be potential sources of information?

What do we need to know? What are our questions? What are the sources of quantitative data
(facts and statistics)?
What are the sources of qualitative data
(experience and opinions)?
What is the participation rate of young people in employment training activities? According to gender? According to the type of training? Statistics Canada
Information Analysis Section;
Corporate Information Management Directorate, AANDC;
Government partners (Health Canada, Status of Women Canada, etc.); and
The Centre for Research and Information on Canada
Agencies working with communities on employment
Aboriginal organizations
In relation to participation in training, what proportion of women experience obstacles related to family obligations? Community training, health and income assistance partners
What proportion of men is restricted by the support provided to elders? Local project management experts and family services providers
Component E: Development and Analysis of Options

Based on what you know from the context of your initiative, identify two or three options that:

  1. Take into account the similarities and differences identified in Component B.
  2. Support the desired outcomes identified in Component C.
  3. Take into account the information gathered in Component D.

For example:

  1. In order to ensure that the needs of young people are taken into account, you can organize information sessions that are specifically directed to them, in which stakeholders would present alternatives that could allow them to receive training that would eventually lead to paid work. These sessions will be offered in cooperation with local agencies, which will provide babysitting services. It would be desirable to hold separate sessions for young women and young men, as you believe that in this way, the members of each group would be able to express themselves more freely.
  2. In order to define the training requirements of women and men, you organize a consultation with stakeholders to determine whether the training subjects or areas are offered to women and men equally, to avoid a situation where the type of training reflects prejudices about the interests of women and men in certain trades and professions.
  3. You try to minimize obstacles to training; (language, geographic distance, family responsibility, and so on) for both genders, in order to increase the number of participants in capacity development activities.
  4. You work with private sector partners to promote the contribution that the targeted populations could have in relation to the community's economic and social life, to the businesses' benefit.
  5. You provide training using a progressive or module-based approach, which allows women to return to training after pregnancy and men to conduct their seasonal occupations.
  6. You integrate into training modules the factors that have contributed to their success (for example, mentoring and the buddy system).
Component F: Communications

Your initiative will involve the implementation of the following techniques.

Communications
Objective of the communication: To promote a national employment initiative intended for Indians, Inuit and Métis.
Target client How? When? Where?
Young women aged 15 to 24 Posters From the beginning of the development of the initiative Community centres
Health clinics
Word of mouth
You obtain the assistance of a well-known singer who records a public-interest message at no charge At the beginning of the initiative and throughout the project Internet, Local media, TV, radio
Aboriginal men – working at seasonal jobs Posters
Radio announcements
Depending on the season Seasonal work environments
Aboriginal women homemakers Radio and television announcements
Flyers, posters
Morning, afternoon, and evening Local media
Community centres
Health clinics
Local government leaders Information sessions, Internet – distribution list At the beginning of the initiative Internet
Agencies and partners Information sessions, Internet At the beginning of the initiative Internet
Component G: Evaluation

An evaluation normally involves quantitative and qualitative results. The following example takes the quantitative gender-specific outcomes for women and men identified in Component C.

With reference to young women, some qualitative indicators would consist of identifying their job satisfaction rate or self-esteem and the confidence in the future that they demonstrate. These factors could be evaluated using surveys or focus groups of young women, which are methods that are conducive to providing the qualitative information that you are seeking.

Note that the indicators are used to identify what information will assist you in determining whether the desired outcomes have been achieved. The evaluation method itself indicates how and where you will obtain this information.

In connection with your initiative, you will develop the following elements in the evaluation procedure.

Gender-specific outcomes Indicator(s) Evaluation method
An increase in the average income of young women aged 15 to 24 Diversification of jobs accessible to young women Analysis of statistics on income according to region, gender and age
An increase in the number of women in technical jobs Diversification of types of training offered to women Increased participation rate of women in training and success rate Analysis of statistics on training relative to non-traditional jobs, according to gender (number, type, number of participants, number of graduates)
An increase in employment income for all women Reduction in the number of women who are social assistance recipients Analysis of statistics on social assistance according to region and gender
Maintaining the number of men with employment income Increased participation rate of men in the active population Analysis of statistics on the active population among Aboriginal peoples, according to gender, geographic region
Increase in the number of men in non-traditional jobs (for example, nursing) Diversification of types of training offered to men Participation rate of men in training and success rate Analysis of statistics on training relative to non-traditional jobs, according to gender (number, type, number of participants, number of graduates)
An increase in the number of employed young men Reduction in the number of young men receiving social assistance Analysis of statistics on social assistance according to region, gender and age



Annex VI – Example of a GBA

Second Example – The National Child Benefit Reinvestment (NCBR) Initiative on Reserve
Component A: Consultations

The NCBR Initiative aims to make it easier for families to break the cycle of poverty by ensuring that no family has to choose between a job and benefits for their children. AANDC and the First Nations are responsible for coordinating the "reinvestment" component of the initiative. This Initiative is designed to benefit all Canadian children equally, including First Nation children living on reserves. The funding granted to the Reinvestment Fund relates to five categories: childcare, child nutrition, support for parents, home-work transition and cultural enrichment.

Consultations

GBA consultations may be conducted with all interested parties, under each of the financing categories, since the participants already have common interests in their respective areas, on approaches and tools, taking into account gender equality which could be used or are already used to enhance the impact and effectiveness of their projects.

As indicated inthe NCBR National Manual, AANDC and First Nations should work together to improve the initiative. One recommendation would be to convene regular conferences where First Nations participants can share their NCBR experience and knowledge, both with AANDC and each other. First Nations should be encouraged to identify innovative approaches to meeting the needs of children in low income families. During these meetings, the GBA could be presented and discussed and it could be included as an item on the agenda for each event of this kind. These kinds of meetings would seem to be good opportunities to ensure that GBA becomes an integral part of projects financed by the NCBR.

Component B: Identifying the issue

The NCBR Initiative aims to make it easier for families to break the cycle of poverty by ensuring that no family has to choose between a job and benefits for their children. AANDC and the First Nations are responsible for coordinating the "reinvestment" component of the initiative.

The NCBR Initiative is designed to benefit all Canadian children equally, including First Nation children living on reserves. The financing granted to the Reinvestment Fund relates to five categories:

Child care - Financial assistance allowing the development and improvement of daycare facilities to allow more families with low incomes to gain access to daycare spaces, or to have their share of child care costs reduced.

Child nutrition - Financial assistance to improve to the health and well being of children by providing nutritious snack or meal programs for children, as well as education to parents on family nutrition and meal preparation.

Support for parents - Financial assistance allowing the establishment of covers early intervention programs, so that parents can help their young children get a good start in life.

Home-Work Transition - Financial assistance making it possible to provide training to increase skill levels and their chances of finding work.

Cultural enrichment - Financial assistance to establish as traditional cultural training courses and youth support programs. This assistance could be provided to all children of school-age or pre-school age, whether they attend school or not.

The issues

The initiative aims at providing assistance to low-income families and is targeted to improve all aspects of children's lives. Child poverty is inextricably linked to the opportunities that parents have to access services and programs that will allow them to provide care and support to their children, so that they will be able to reach their full potential.

Poverty is an issue whose causes are many and deep-rooted, which affects families and children in a dramatic way. It is also a cycle from which individuals have a great deal of difficulty escaping. For example, the data [Note 23] shows that Aboriginal women have lower incomes than Aboriginal men and a higher percentage of their income comes from government transfer payments. In 2000, the average income of Aboriginal women represented 75% of the average income of Aboriginal men. While 69% of Aboriginal women's income was from employment, 81% of the income of Aboriginal men was from employment. In addition, approximately one-quarter of Status Indian families is made up of single-parent families headed by a woman. The highest proportion of single-parent families headed by a woman are found amongst Status Indian families (25%), followed by Inuit families (20%).

Among Métis families and other Aboriginal people, these proportions are respectively 15% and 16%, whereas for non-Aboriginal people, the percentage is 12%. Between 1996 and 2001, the proportion of single-parent families headed by a woman increased among the population of Status Indians living on-reserve and among the Inuit population, while it decreased slightly among the Status Indian population living off reserve. As a result, it appears that the initiative would benefit greatly from a GBA since the projects must provide advantages to children and may include a vast range of projects for parents.

Component C: Defining Desired / Anticipated Outcomes

The three main objectives of the initiative are:

  1. helping to prevent and reduce child poverty;
  2. to promote workforce participation by ensuring that low-income families with children will always be better off as a result of parents working; and
  3. to reduce overlap and duplication by simplifying governments' administration of benefits for children.

In the context of the NCBR, we expect improvements in the following areas:

  1. children's health and development;
  2. school readiness and ability to learn;
  3. parents' participation in the labour market;
  4. financial independence; and
  5. greater participation in their communities and Canadian society.
These results relate to the desired improvements on various levels. They can be enhanced by reference to gender-equality issues. For example, a GBA would make it possible to clarify whether issues relating to health, development, school readiness, and ability to learn are different between young girls and young boys. With respect to parents' participation in the labour market, the GBA would help to identify obstacles and challenges depending on the experiences and interests of women and men. In terms of full participation in the community and Canadian society, it is possible that women and men have different aspirations in this regard; consequently, they would require different programs and services, which would help to support empowerment of women, as well as the empowerment of men, to achieve more active participation.
Component D: Information Gathering

Stakeholders presumably gather information that is useful to them as part of their accountability activities, particularly at the end of a project. As a result, it could be useful to consult data already gathered by project funding recipients, in order to examine whether there are references to gender-equality dimensions. If this is the case, it might also be useful to create an inventory of GBA practices that have been implemented in connection with various projects. If no data refer to gender-equality issues, it seems that each of the funding categories could be made more effective, by posing the following types of questions:

In the area of childcare:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. In relation to childcare, are there accommodations for single-parent families? What percentage of these families is headed by a woman? By a man?
  3. Do the childcare services take into account the different requirements of the working parents, both from the perspective of women and men (for example, flexibility in schedules, respite services, and so on)?

In relation to child nutrition:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. What is the proportion of girls and boys that participate in nutrition projects?
  3. Are the challenges involved in nutrition different for girls and boys?
  4. What is the proportion of women and men participants among parents?

In the area of parent support:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. What is the proportion of women and men among parents participating in the projects?
  3. Have early intervention activities been conducted so that female and male parents are able to participate (place, schedule, and so on)?
  4. In families headed by two parents, have the needs of mothers and fathers been evaluated and taken into account during the planning, the implementation, and evaluation of the projects?

In the area of home-to-work transition:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. What is the proportion of women and men participating in capacity development activities?
  3. What are the needs of women and men evaluated and considered in the development of capacity elaboration activities (transportation, daycare, and so on)?

In the area of cultural enrichment:

  1. What types of projects are funded under this category?
  2. What proportion of women and men teach and promote traditional culture among young people? The proportion of adults and elders?
  3. Do the traditions and customs taught reflect both the different but important roles of women and men in the community?
  4. What proportion of young girls and of young boys participates in cultural activities?
  5. What proportion of young people no longer attending school participates in the project activities? Among the latter group, what is the ratio of girls to boys?
  6. Have the needs of girls and boys been evaluated and taken into account during the planning of activities?
Component E: Development and Analysis of Options

Because of its flexibility, the NCBR funds a wide range of projects. These projects cover a broad range of areas and are quite different from one region to the other. It is perhaps relevant for the NCBR to first look at a particular category. Since this category does not seem “traditional” within the social system framework, it would be interesting to address the category of cultural enrichment. As indicated in the National Manual, this category received the most funding in 2001-2002 (accounting for 56.6% of the 1,100 projects funded). As of March 31, 2005, 475 projects had been initiated under this funding category, reaching 47,378 families and 112,154 children.

It is possible that after having collected and analyzed the gender-disaggregated data, some activities would be modified in order to take into account this new information.

For example, it is possible that some projects have not been examined and have not taken into account the differential impact resulting from the fact that sessions on traditional culture offered to youth were given by women or men. Consequently, this may result in an imbalance with respect to learning traditional roles of women and men within the community.

Information that takes into account gender differences could result in sessions being held in which men teach hunting and fishing, followed by women exploring methods of tanning and cooking. In addition, sessions can be designed so that women and men present traditional activities that are normally performed by the other sex.

Component F: Communications

If a funding category was chosen to initiate the GBA, the communication by all of the parties to the same affected parties should be established. This would make it possible to view the actual context with regard to the GBA, and would encourage the participation in the prospective implementation of the GBA. It could also promote the integration of the GBA for future projects, which would ensure that the GBA is integrated at the beginning of the initiatives. Under the NCBR, each region is responsible for developing its own regional manual presenting the framework of the reinvestment initiative in the province or territory. In this way, it would be possible to examine the inclusion of the gender equality dimension in these manuals.

Component G: Evaluation

The First Nations are required to report annually on the results of each of their projects. However, it appears that there are certain challenges in relation to this requirement. As indicated in the Progress Report for 2002, on the NCBR: “It should be noted that identifying indicators and evaluating outcomes are among the most challenging areas of this initiative... measuring outcomes represents a critical challenge since reinvestments are often co-mingled with other program funding. Further, the reinvestments are often split among several programs, rendering attribution essentially impossible.”

In this respect, the National Manual stresses that indicators will be developed in the context of a joint process with First Nations in order to develop a more realistic approach in relation to documentation on project outcomes. Also mentioned is the fact that the AANDC regions and the First Nations may have to establish new requirements for evaluation, accountability, and data collection tools.

It seems that these statements represent both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge is to identify appropriate outcomes, indicators, and evaluation techniques. This opportunity is to integrate these outcomes, indicators, and evaluation tools that take into account the GBA.




Annex VII – GBA and AANDC'S Operations [Note 24]

Here is an overview of the way in which GBA is being incorporated into AANDC's various operations.

GBA and Negotiations

Guiding Principles

  1. It is advisable that all parties to negotiations recognize gender-equality issues throughout the negotiation process.
  2. If there is uncertainty as to whether gender-equality issues are raised by the content or process of the new self-government agreement, ask legal counsel to review the document to ensure it is consistent with DIAND's Gender-Based Analysis Policy.
  3. In instances where the rights and interests of Aboriginal women are irreconcilable with those of a third party, further policy work may be required to assist negotiators.
  4. Consider whether issues of gender equality form part of the federal or joint communications strategy.

GBA and Land Claim Negotiations

You are preparing for negotiations with a First Nations community. When preparing to negotiate new agreements, you should make every reasonable effort to include your gender-equality analysis preparatory work.

Ask yourself:

  1. Have the issues and information concerning gender equality been clearly articulated in an understandable format to all the potentially affected parties?
  2. What kind of accountability mechanisms are included in the agreement you are negotiating:
    • transparency of decision making?
    • redress mechanisms?
    • disclosure mechanisms?
    • appeal mechanisms?
  3. Will beneficiaries, residents, citizens or claimant groups have equal access to:
    • monies?
    • lands?
    • programs?
    • resources?
    • other things?
  4. Will both women and men's groups be able to have a say on the agreement and in the decisions that affect their rights?
  5. How are beneficiaries ratifying the agreement? How do you ensure that the opinions of different groups of women and men are heard?
  6. Are there any disparities in influence between the third-party lobbying groups? Is this disparity related to gender? To age? To geographic location?
  7. What dispute resolution mechanisms are being set up? Do they take gender equality into account?

GBA and Communications

Analysing the Public Environment

  1. Have the perspectives of both women and men been incorporated into your communications plan?
  2. Can you expand the public environment to include gender-specific information on the issue?
  3. Is there an alternative to mainstream media coverage that can help communicate your messages to the masses?
  4. Are there other government departments you may be able to work with to ensure the message is delivered effectively to women and men?

Identifying Target Audiences

  1. Should you distinguish between female and male audiences?
  2. Do the target audiences identified include adequate representation of both women and men?

Developing Messages

  1. Do the communications objectives advance gender equality?
  2. Should separate objectives be established for women and men?
  3. Is the source quoted credible for women and men?
  4. Do the sources of input have genuine authority to speak for women and men?
  5. Is the visual and verbal language used meaningful for women and men?

Delivering Messages

  1. Have you considered using different formats to reach different audiences?
  2. Does sending an information package to all First Nation Chiefs ensure the message reaches community members?
  3. Could a radio broadcast more effectively target your specified audience?
  4. Is there a direct-mail approach that may help you reach your targets more effectively?

Implementing and Evaluating

  1. Does your evaluation mechanism confirm your messages were heard, and believed?
  2. Does the media coverage represent a broad range of perspectives?
  3. Is there an evaluation mechanism, such as a specific follow-through plan with groups of women, men, elders, and Aboriginal youth, that you can implement that will actively solicit their response?

Gender-Sensitive Language

  1. Have you used inclusive synonyms for words which use (e.g. Use ‘person' rather than ‘man' to refer to a mixed gender group of individuals)?
  2. Does your text contain stereotypes or loaded words?
  3. Are the metaphors and comparisons inclusive? Will they resonate with women as much as with men?

GBA and Dispute Resolution Issues

In the Department, there are files that deal with civil or criminal litigation or dispute resolution over a wide range of issues. A variety of processes are used to deal with them, such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration and litigation

The Department of Justice drafters, editors, revisers, and jurilinguists prepare and review government bills and regulations from client departments and agencies. Ensuring proposed regulations and bills are compatible or compliant with the federal government's gender-equality analysis policy is an integral part of a drafter's function.

It is also part of the editor's, reviser's, and jurilinguist's responsibility to examine, throughout the process, the substance, form, and language of draft bills and regulations for consistency, clarity and conformity with drafting and grammar conventions and to refer potential problems to the instructing officers at AANDC for action. When you are involved in the development of AANDC's legislation and regulations, as an instructing officer, your role includes ensuring bills and regulations are drafted in a gender-sensitive fashion. Your role is to seek solutions to potential problems identified by drafters, and ensure drafting is gender sensitive.




Annex VIII – Data Collection Methods

When you carry out data collection, it is important to identify the objectives underlying the collection and to identify the most relevant methods to do so. The following table presents an overview of the possibilities in this regard.

Method Advantages Important
Statistical Research Allows you to sketch a portrait of various situations based on numbers. The interpretation of the data: you should ensure that it is free of erroneous assumptions or bias.
Documentary Research Allows you to find out the viewpoints of the various groups concerned by the questions and issues involved. Consult the documents whose information is up to date.
Written Surveys Allows you to gather qualitative information quickly, in particular with regard to the level of satisfaction of clients and partners. The language used and the response rate which is usually quite low.
Individual Interviews Allows you to gather precise information and can create a sense of belonging in relation to an initiative. Ensure that your experts are aware of the gender and cultural dimensions of the initiative.
Focus Groups Allows you to take advantage of the synergies created by different opinions. Create groups so that they are representative of the target population and the stakeholders that have an interest in relation to the issue raised.
Public Consultations Makes it possible for a large number of persons or groups to voice their viewpoints. Complete these consultations by following up with key persons that were not able to attend the consultation.
Direct observation Allows you to identify the dynamics and power relations at play in a given area. May give rise to interpretation, unless it is subsequently validated.
Semi-Structured Discussions (circles) This method is sensitive to the values and traditional culture. Ensure that interpreters are available who will be able to eliminate any language or cultural barriers.
Workshop with Key Stakeholders Allows you to gather information, as well as to distribute information that clarifies the issues and the various aspects of an initiative. Do not allow a few people to monopolize the discussion, so as to minimize comments from people that represent groups that are less structured or smaller in number.



Annex IX – Overview: Program Assessment

The following table presents a brief overview of the evaluation of a program, by identifying previously established indicators.

Health and Nutrition Program for Families [Note 25]
Objective of the initiative Obstacles to achieving the objective based on gender Activities to reduce the obstacles Indicators to make it possible to measure progress in reducing the obstacles
Generate better knowledge on highly nutritious food that is currently available. Women's differential access to sources of information (restricted mobility or resources, limited time to devote to travelling to the site). Deal with mobility restrictions by providing transportation; reorganize services to other sites; inform women about growth by increasing their capabilities in terms of nutrition.
  1. Changes in the transportation norms (number of women participants).
  2. Clients' perception about the effectiveness of the program.
  3. Ability of women to make more healthy decisions about food.
Men's access to sourcesof information isdiminished by the fact that,traditionally, they do notassume responsibility forproviding care for andfeeding family members. Make educational services morewelcoming for men; enhance therole played by men and theircontribution (which receives littlerecognition); Support initiatives tomodify men's behaviour inrelation to the choice of food in the home.
  1. Number of men participating in health and nutrition workshops.
  2. Theperceptions of men and women concerning men's roles.
  3. The increased time that men spend feeding their children.



6. Resources for Exploring this Issue

6.1 AANDC Resources

Gender Issues Directorate:

  1. AANDC's Gender-Based Analysis Policy
  2.  AANDC's Gender-Based Analysis Working Guide
  3. Gender-Based Analysis Representatives (GBAR)
  4. On-line training on GBA
  5. A general PowerPoint presentation on GBA can easily be adapted to the context of your Branch or Region
  6. Information on the next GBA training opportunities
  7. Frequently asked questions
  8. Links to sites that deal with gender equality issues and GBA

GBAR Network

One of the main resources for AANDC staff is a network of Gender-Based Analysis Representatives (GBARs). Almost all regional offices and branches at headquarters have one person trained in GBA.

The GBARs are ready and able to give you advice on GBA. These people have agreed to take on many responsibilities, in particular as contacts in the directorates or regional offices to answer questions and respond to concerns of colleagues and managers. However, the GBARs are not GBA analysts and therefore cannot conduct your GBA for you.

6.2 Federal Resources

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)  

Status of Women Canada   

Department of Justice Canada - The Aboriginal Justice Strategy  

Aboriginal Human Resources Development Strategy   

The Gender Analysis and Policy Directorate   

Health Canada  
In particular, a gender-based analysis applied to wait times.

Statistical Profile on the Health of First Nations in Canada  

First Nations and Inuit Health  

Statistics Canada  
This entirely bilingual site is very useful for obtaining up-to-date statistical information on Canada. There are social statistics, a research tool and summaries of research documents published by Statistics Canada.

6.3 External Resources

On the Web…

Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action (FAFIA)   

World Bank   

Gender Net, World Bank   

Human Rights Research and Education Centre (University of Ottawa)   

The Centre for Research and Information on Canada, Aboriginal Peoples   

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe   

Commonwealth Secretariat Gender Site  

First Nations Educational Council   

DIANA International Human Rights Database (United States)   

Womenspace   

Feminist Majority Foundation (United States)   

United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)   

Gender at Work  

Genre en Action - Information and resource portal on gender and development  

20 Key Gender Websites in French    
(Web site not available in English) edited by Paola Brambilla

Gender and Budgets Overview Report, Helena Hofbauer Balmori    

Human Rights Internet  

Institute for Research on Women and Gender (United States)   

Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
University of Sussex,
Gender Information Exchange   

Mainstreaming Equality, Scottish Executive   

NativeWeb (United States)   

NetFemmes   

 Observatoire sur le développement régional et l'analyse différenciée selon les sexes   

Online Feminist Resources—UNB Women's Studies   

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)   

International Labour Organization  

PAR-L - A Canadian Electronic Feminist Network   

First Nations Schoolnet  

Canadian Women's Health Network   

Social Development Network   

Virtual Sisterhood   

Women's Resources on the Internet (United States)   

Women Watch   




7. Bibliography

The following resources and documents have been reviewed and were used in the preparation of the Gender-Based Analysis Working Guide.

A Framework To Identify Gender Indicators For Reproductive Health and Nutrition Programming     
Prepared Under the Auspices of the Interagency Gender Working Group, Subcommittee on Research and Indicators, by Nancy Yinger with Anne Peterson, Michal Avni, Jill Gay, Rebecca Firestone, Karen Hardee, Elaine Murphy, Britt Herstad, and Charlotte Johnson-Welch, October 2002.

A Guide to Gender Equality Analysis, Un guide pour faire l'analyse de l'égalité entre les sexes, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 1999.

Béatrice Borghino, seeking to clarify the differences between "gender" and "sex", Web site of Genre en action – Portail d'information et de ressources sur genre et développement   (Information and resource portal on gender and development)
(Web site not available in English).

A Holistic Framework for Aboriginal Policy Research, Carolyn Kenny, Contributors: Emily Faries, Jo-Anne Fiske, Carolyn Kenny, and Cora Voyageur, Policy Research Fund, Status of Women Canada, October 2004.

Women in Canada, Fifth Edition, A Gender-based Statistical Report, Statistics Canada, Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division., March 2006.

Gender Analysis as a Method for Gender-based Social Analysis, The World Bank, The World Bank Participation Sourcebook, Washington DC, 1999.

Gender and Monitoring: A Review of Practical Experiences  
Paper prepared for the Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation (SDC), Paola Brambilla, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, June 2001.

Gender Impact Assessment in Microfinance and Microenterprise: Why and How, Development in Practice, Johnson, S., Vol. 10, No. 1, February 2000.

 Gender-based analysis: Building Blocks for Success , Report of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women, Anita Neville, M.P., Chair, April 2005.

Gender-based Analysis and Policy-Making, Training Participation Guide, Status of Women Canada, 2001.

Les relations femmes-hommes comme enjeu de développement  (Web site not available in English) (Male and female relations as a development issue), Elisabeth Hofmann, Coordinator, Genre en Action network.

Observatoire sur le développement régional et sur l'analyse différenciée selon les sexes    (Web site not available in English) (Observatory on regional development and gender-based analysis ) ORÉGAND.

Gender-based Analysis Policy, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2006.

 Preliminary Gender Equality Analysis of AANDC's Social Development Programs, Social Policy and Programs Branch, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, April 2006.

Government response to the second report of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women, "Gender-Based Analysis: Building Blocks for Success", May 2006.

Overview of DIAND Program Data, Information Analysis Section, Corporate Information Management Directorate, Information Management Branch, DIAND, June 2000.




GBA Working Guide Evaluation Form

The following form will be used to improve the Working Guide on GBA over time. Your comments would be appreciated and you can send them by e-mail to gbainfo@aadnc-aandc.gc.ca.

Evaluation Form
Working Guide on GBA
Overview
  1
+ useful
2 3 4 5
– useful
On a scale of 1 to 5, how useful was the Working Guide on GBA to you?          
The most useful parts? Why?
 
The least useful? Why?
 
Please circle the number corresponding to the extent to which you agree or disagree with the  following statements.
  1
Agree strongly
2
Agree
3
Agree somewhat
4
Disagree
5
Strongly
disagree
I will use some of the Guide's components  in my work          
I already knew this information, but I would like to know more about it.          
The information is clearly presented.          
The Guide is difficult to read.          
The Guide is relevant to my work.          
If I were to add something to the Guide, it would be:

 


 

Footnotes:

  1. Excerpt of the Government response to the second report of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women, "Gender-Based Analysis: Building Blocks for Success", May 2006. (return to source paragraph) 

  2. Data from Aboriginal Women. A Profile from the 2001 Census, Jeremy Hull, Prologica Research, Winnipeg, Manitoba, for the Women's Issues and Gender Equality Directorate, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, February 2006. (return to source paragraph) 

  3. Taken from Gender-based analysis: Building Blocks for Success, Report of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women, Anita Neville, M.P., Chair, April 2005 and from Observatoire sur le développement régional et sur l'Analyse différenciée selon les sexes (Observatory on regional development and gender-based analysis), ORÉGAND   (Web site not available in English)).
    (return to source paragraph) 

  4. Text written by Béatrice Borghino, seeking to clarify the differences between "gender" and "sex". Genre en action web site   (Web site not available in English) – Information and resource portal on gender and development.
    (return to source paragraph)

  5. This section is taken and adapted from material developed by Pam Roper, in connection with her workshop, Getting the Fuller Picture: Understanding and Applying Gender-based Analysis in Your Work, held at AANDC in March 2003. (return to source paragraph) 

  6. Taken and adapted from Gender-based analysis and policies, Training Participation Guide;, Status of Women Canada, 2001. (return to source paragraph) 

  7. This example is adapted from a preliminary GBA described in Preliminary Gender Equality Analysis of AANDC's Social Development Programs, Social Policy and Programs Branch, AANDC, April 2006. (return to source paragraph) 

  8. For easier reading, the words "project" or "initiative" are used in the Guide, to refer to the various programs carried out by AANDC staff. (return to source paragraph) 

  9. Data from Aboriginal women. A Profile from the 2001 Census, Jeremy Hull, Prologica Research, Winnipeg, Manitoba, for the Women's Issues and Gender Equality Directorate, February 2006. (return to source paragraph) 

  10. Data from Aboriginal women. A Profile from the 2001 Census, Jeremy Hull, Prologica Research, Winnipeg, Manitoba, for the Women's Issues and Gender Equality Directorate, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, February 2006. (return to source paragraph)

  11. Adapted from Les relations femmes-hommes comme enjeu de développement, by Elisabeth Hofmann, Coordinator, Genre en Action    (Web site not available in English) network. (return to source paragraph) 

  12. Taken from Overview of DIAND Program Data, Information Analysis Section, Corporate Information Management Directorate, Information Management Branch, AANDC, June 2000. (return to source paragraph)

  13. Taken and adapted from Gender and Monitoring: A Review of Practical Experiences, for the Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation (SDC), Paola Brambilla, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, June 2001. (return to source paragraph) 

  14. Taken from A Holistic Framework for Aboriginal Policy Research, by Carolyn Kenny, Emily Faries, JoAnne Fiske, Carolyn Kenny, and Cora Voyageur, Status of Women Canada, October 2004. (return to source paragraph) 

  15. Taken from A Holistic Framework for Aboriginal Policy Research, by Carolyn Kenny, Emily Faries, JoAnne Fiske, Carolyn Kenny, and Cora Voyageur, Status of Women Canada, October 2004. (return to source paragraph) 

  16. Taken and adapted from A Holistic Framework for Aboriginal Policy Research, by Carolyn Kenny and Emily Faries, Jo-Anne Fiske, Carolyn Kenny, Cora Voyageur, Status of Women Canada, October 2004. (return to source paragraph) 

  17. Taken from A Guide to Gender Equality Analysis, Un guide pour faire l'analyse de l'égalité entre les sexes, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 1999. (return to source paragraph) 

  18. Taken in part from Gender and Monitoring: A Review of Practical Experiences, for the Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation (SDC), Paola Brambilla, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, June 2001. (return to source paragraph) 

  19. Source: Johnson, S., 2000, Gender Impact Assessment in Microfinance and Microenterprise: Why and How, Development in Practice, Vol. 10, No. 1, February 2000. (return to source paragraph) 

  20. Taken from the Gender-based Analysis Policy, AANDC and from Gender-based analysis Participant Handbook, Status of Women Canada, 2001. (return to source paragraph) 

  21. Taken from a document produced by AANDC's Gender Issues Directorate. (return to source paragraph) 

  22. Data taken from Aboriginal Women. A Profile from the 2001 Census, Jeremy Hull, Prologica Research, Winnipeg, Manitoba, for the Women's Issues and Gender Equality Directorate, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, February 2006. (return to source paragraph)

  23. Data taken from Aboriginal women. A Profile from the 2001 Census, Jeremy Hull, Prologica Research, Winnipeg, Manitoba, for the Women's Issues and Gender Equality Directorate, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, February 2006. (return to source paragraph) 

  24. Taken from A Guide to Gender Equality Analysis, Un guide pour faire l'analyse de l'égalité entre les sexes, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.1999. (return to source paragraph)

  25. Adapted from A Framework To Identify Gender Indicators For Reproductive Health and Nutrition Programming, Prepared Under the Auspices of the Interagency Gender Working Group, Subcommittee on Research and Indicators, by Nancy Yinger with Anne Peterson, Michal Avni, Jill Gay, Rebecca Firestone, Karen Hardee, Elaine Murphy, Britt Herstad, and Charlotte Johnson-Welch, October 2002. (return to source paragraph)