Measuring Success

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Evaluating Land Claims Implementation

The Government of Canada remains committed to strengthening the economic self-reliance of Aboriginal people through the successful implementation of land claims and self-government agreements, as well as national policy initiatives.

To support this, a number of evaluations have been done to determine the status and effectiveness of implementation activities to date. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) is working with other government departments to address specific concerns.

AANDC Audit and Evaluation Report

An internal AANDC audit and evaluation report, “Impact Evaluation of Comprehensive Land Claim Agreements,” presented findings on the impacts of comprehensive land claim agreements (CLCAs) or modern treaties, and on the extent to which the objectives for the CLCAs have been achieved.

A number of recommendations were made and the department has already undertaken measures to address many of them. The evaluation concluded that the basic elements of the agreements are in place with land and financial transfers completed on schedule, and that Agreements have:

  • Brought clarity and certainty to the settlements areas in terms of land ownership, access and regulatory requirements for development
  • Contributed to a positive environment for investment
  • Enabled Aboriginal groups to position themselves to take advantage of development
  • Positively impacted the role of Aboriginal people in the economy of the settlement areas and their relations with industry
  • Provided Aboriginal groups with a meaningful and effective voice in decision making on land and resource management

Office of the Auditor General – 2007 Report Recommendations

In 2007 the Office of the Auditor General (OAG) released a report on the status of the implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement.

The OAG recommended that Canada improve in the area of land transfers, contracting and procurement activities, communication amongst federal government departments, and economic development opportunities.

To date, AANDC has made significant progress in the implementation of these recommendations, which has improved the relationship between Canada and the Inuvialuit.

Standing Committee on Public Accounts – 2009 Evaluation Report

The Standing Committee on Public Accounts (SCOPA) evaluation report presents findings on the impacts of comprehensive land claim agreements (CLCAs), and on the extent to which CLCA objectives have been achieved.

Overall, the evaluation report found that Canada has fulfilled the terms and objectives of the four Agreements it reviewed (the Inuvialuit Final Agreement, The Gwich'in CLCA, the Sahtu Dene and Metis CLCA, and the Northeaster Quebec Agreement with the Naskapi) with respect to the transfer of funds, rights to land recognized, and the establishment of management bodies as agreed to under the Agreements.