Maa-nulth First Nations Final Agreement






PREAMBLE

WHEREAS:

A. The Maa–nulth First Nations assert that they have used, occupied and governed their traditional territories from time immemorial;

B. The Maa–nulth First Nations have never entered into a treaty or land claims agreement with the Crown;

C. The Constitution Act, 1982 recognizes and affirms the existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada, and the courts have stated that aboriginal rights include aboriginal title;

D. The Maa–nulth First Nations assert that they have an inherent right to self government, and the Government of Canada has negotiated self government in this Agreement based on its policy that the inherent right to self government is an existing aboriginal right within section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982;

E. The Maa–nulth First Nations' existing aboriginal rights are recognized and affirmed by the Constitution Act, 1982, and the Parties have negotiated this Agreement in accordance with the British Columbia treaty process to provide certainty in respect of those rights and to allow them to continue and to have effect and be exercised as set out in this Agreement;

F. Canada and British Columbia acknowledge the perspective of the Maa–nulth First Nations that harm and losses in relation to their aboriginal rights have occurred in the past and express regret if any actions or omissions of the Crown have contributed to that perspective, and the Parties rely on this Agreement to move them beyond the difficult circumstances of the past;

G. Canada and British Columbia acknowledge the aspirations of the Maa–nulth First Nations to preserve, promote and develop the culture, heritage, language and economies of the Maa–nulth First Nations;

H. Canada and British Columbia acknowledge the aspirations of the Maa–nulth First Nations and the Maa–nulth–aht to participate more fully in the economic, political, cultural and social life of British Columbia in a way that preserves and enhances the collective identity of the Maa–nulth–aht as the Maa–nulth First Nations and to evolve and flourish as self sufficient and sustainable communities; and

I. The Parties are committed to the reconciliation of the prior presence of the Maa–nulth First Nations and the sovereignty of the Crown through the negotiation of this Agreement which will establish new government to government relationships based on mutual respect.

NOW THEREFORE THE PARTIES AGREE AS FOLLOWS:




CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1.0 NATURE OF AGREEMENT

1.1.1 This Agreement is a treaty and a land claims agreement within the meaning of sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

1.1.2 This Agreement is binding on the Parties and on all persons.

1.1.3 The Parties and all persons are entitled to rely on this Agreement.

1.1.4 Canada will recommend to Parliament that Federal Settlement Legislation provides that this Agreement is approved, given effect, declared valid and has the force of law.

1.1.5 British Columbia will recommend to the Legislature that Provincial Settlement Legislation provides that this Agreement is approved, given effect, declared valid and has the force of law.

1.1.6 Ratification of this Agreement by the Parties in accordance with Chapter 28 Ratification is a condition precedent to the validity of this Agreement and, unless so ratified, this Agreement is of no force or effect.

1.2.0 REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES

1.2.1 Each Maa–nulth First Nation represents and warrants to Canada and British Columbia that, in respect of the matters dealt with in this Agreement, it represents and has the authority to enter into on behalf of, and enters into this Agreement on behalf of, any and all of those individuals who collectively comprise that Maa–nulth First Nation and who have or may exercise any aboriginal rights, including aboriginal title, or may make any claims to those rights.

1.2.2 Canada represents and warrants to each Maa–nulth First Nation that, in respect of the matters dealt with in this Agreement, it has the authority to enter into this Agreement within its authorities.

1.2.3 British Columbia represents and warrants to each Maa–nulth First Nation that, in respect of the matters dealt with in this Agreement, it has the authority to enter into this Agreement within its authorities.

1.3.0 CONSTITUTION OF CANADA

1.3.1 This Agreement does not alter the Constitution of Canada, including:

a. the distribution of powers between Canada and British Columbia;

b. the identity of Maa–nulth First Nations as aboriginal people of Canada within the meaning of the Constitution Act, 1982; and

c. sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

1.3.2 The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms applies to each Maa–nulth First Nation Government in respect of all matters within its authority.

1.4.0 CHARACTER OF MAA–NULTH FIRST NATION LANDS AND OTHER MAA–NULTH FIRST NATION LANDS

1.4.1 There are no "Lands reserved for the Indians" within the meaning of the Constitution Act, 1867 for any Maa–nulth First Nation and there are no "reserves" as defined in the Indian Act for any Maa–nulth First Nation and, for greater certainty, Maa–nulth First Nation Lands and Other Maa–nulth First Nation Lands are not "Lands reserved for the Indians" within the meaning of the Constitution Act, 1867, and are not "reserves" as defined in the Indian Act.

1.5.0 APPLICATION OF FEDERAL LAW AND PROVINCIAL LAW

1.5.1 Federal Law and Provincial Law apply to the Maa–nulth First Nations, Maa–nulth–aht, Maa–nulth First Nation Citizens, Maa–nulth First Nation Public Institutions, Maa–nulth First Nation Corporations, Maa–nulth First Nation Governments, Maa–nulth First Nation Lands and Other Maa–nulth First Nation Lands.

1.6.0 APPLICATION OF THE INDIAN ACT

1.6.1 Subject to Chapter 15 Indian Act Transition and 19.5.0, the Indian Act has no application to any Maa–nulth First Nation, Maa–nulth First Nation Government, Maa–nulth First Nation Public Institution, Maa–nulth First Nation Corporation and Maa–nulth–aht as of the Effective Date, except for the purpose of determining whether an individual is an "Indian".

1.7.0 INTERNATIONAL LEGAL OBLIGATIONS

1.7.1 After the Effective Date, before consenting to be bound by a new International Treaty which would give rise to a new International Legal Obligation that may adversely affect a right of a Maa–nulth First Nation Government under this Agreement, Canada will Consult with that Maa–nulth First Nation Government in respect of the International Treaty either separately or through a forum that Canada determines is appropriate.

1.7.2 Where Canada informs a Maa–nulth First Nation Government that it considers that a Maa–nulth First Nation Law or exercise of power of that Maa–nulth First Nation Government causes Canada to be unable to perform an International Legal Obligation, that Maa–nulth First Nation Government and Canada will discuss remedial measures to enable Canada to perform the International Legal Obligation. Subject to 1.7.3, the Maa–nulth First Nation Government will remedy the law or other exercise of power to the extent necessary to enable Canada to perform the International Legal Obligation.

1.7.3 Subject to 1.7.5, where Canada and a Maa–nulth First Nation Government disagree over whether a Maa–nulth First Nation Law or other exercise of power of that Maa–nulth First Nation Government causes Canada to be unable to perform an International Legal Obligation, the dispute will be resolved in accordance with the provisions in Chapter 25 Dispute Resolution, and if the dispute goes to arbitration and:

a. if the arbitrator, having taken into account all relevant considerations, including any reservations and exceptions taken by Canada, determines that the Maa–nulth First Nation Law or other exercise of power of the Maa–nulth First Nation Government does not cause Canada to be unable to perform the International Legal Obligation, or that the remedial measures are sufficient to enable Canada to perform the International Legal Obligation, Canada will not take any further action for this reason aimed at changing the Maa–nulth First Nation Law or other exercise of power; or

b. if the arbitrator, having taken into account all relevant considerations, including any reservations and exceptions available to Canada, determines that the Maa–nulth First Nation Law or other exercise of power of that Maa–nulth First Nation Government causes Canada to be unable to perform the International Legal Obligation, or that the remedial measures are insufficient to enable Canada to perform the International Legal Obligation, the Maa–nulth First Nation Government will remedy the law or other exercise of power to the extent necessary to enable Canada to perform the International Legal Obligation.

1.7.4 Canada will Consult the applicable Maa–nulth First Nation Government in respect of the development of positions taken by Canada before an International Tribunal where its Maa–nulth First Nation Law or other exercise of power of that Maa–nulth First Nation Government has given rise to an issue concerning the performance of an International Legal Obligation of Canada. Canada's positions before the International Tribunal will take into account the commitment of the Parties to the integrity of this Agreement.

1.7.5 If there is a finding of an International Tribunal of non-performance of an International Legal Obligation of Canada attributable to a Maa–nulth First Nation Law or other exercise of power of a Maa–nulth First Nation Government, that Maa–nulth First Nation Government will, at the request of Canada, remedy the law or other exercise of power to enable Canada to perform the International Legal Obligation, unless the law or action is in accordance with this Agreement and equivalent to a relevant Federal Law or Provincial Law, as applicable, consistent with the compliance with Canada or British Columbia in respect of that International Legal Obligation.

1.8.0 RELATIONSHIP OF LAWS

1.8.1 This Agreement prevails to the extent of an inconsistency or a Conflict with Federal Law or Provincial Law.

1.8.2 Federal Settlement Legislation prevails over other Federal Law to the extent of a Conflict and Provincial Settlement Legislation prevails over other Provincial Law to the extent of a Conflict.

1.8.3 Any licence, permit or other authorization to be issued by Canada or British Columbia as a result of this Agreement will be issued under Federal Law or Provincial Law, as the case may be, and will not be part of this Agreement.

1.8.4 This Agreement prevails to the extent of an inconsistency or Conflict with any provision of a licence, permit or other authorization issued by Canada or British Columbia as a result of this Agreement.

1.8.5 Notwithstanding any other rule of priority in this Agreement, Federal Law or Provincial Law prevails to the extent of a Conflict with Maa–nulth First Nation Law that has an incidental impact on any federal or provincial legislative jurisdiction for which a Maa–nulth First Nation Government:

a. does not have any law-making authority; or

b. does have law-making authority but in respect of which Federal Law or Provincial Law prevails in the event of a Conflict.

1.8.6 Notwithstanding any other rule of priority in this Agreement, Federal Law or Provincial Law prevails to the extent of a Conflict with Maa–nulth First Nation Law that has a double aspect with any federal or provincial legislative jurisdiction for which a Maa–nulth First Nation Government:

a. does not have any law-making authority; or

b. does have law-making authority but in respect of which Federal Law or Provincial Law prevails in the event of a Conflict.

1.8.7 Notwithstanding any other rule of priority in this Agreement, Federal Law in relation to peace, order and good government, criminal law, human rights, the protection of the health and safety of all Canadians, or other matters of overriding national importance, prevails to the extent of a Conflict with Maa–nulth First Nation Law.

1.8.8 Canada will recommend to Parliament that Federal Settlement Legislation include a provision that, to the extent that a Provincial Law does not apply of its own force to a Maa–nulth First Nation, Maa–nulth First Nation Government, Maa–nulth First Nation Public Institution, Maa–nulth First Nation Corporation, Maa–nulth–aht, Maa–nulth First Nation Citizen, Maa–nulth First Nation Lands or Other Maa–nulth First Nation Lands, that Provincial Law will, subject to the Federal Settlement Legislation and any other Act of Parliament, apply in accordance with this Agreement to that Maa–nulth First Nation, Maa–nulth First Nation Government, Maa–nulth First Nation Public Institution, Maa–nulth First Nation Corporation, Maa–nulth–aht, Maa–nulth First Nation Citizen, Maa–nulth First Nation Lands or Other Maa–nulth First Nation Lands, as the case may be.

1.8.9 Unless otherwise provided in this Agreement, Maa–nulth First Nation Law does not apply to Canada or British Columbia.

1.8.10 A Maa–nulth First Nation Law that is inconsistent or in Conflict with this Agreement is of no force or effect to the extent of the inconsistency or Conflict.

1.8.11 For greater certainty, the law-making authority of a Maa–nulth First Nation Government does not include criminal law, criminal procedure, Intellectual Property, official languages of Canada, aeronautics, navigation and shipping or labour relations and working conditions.

1.9.0 OTHER RIGHTS, BENEFITS AND PROGRAMS

1.9.1 Maa–nulth First Nation Citizens and Maa–nulth–aht who are Canadian citizens or permanent residents of Canada continue to be entitled to all of the rights and benefits of other Canadian citizens or permanent residents of Canada, applicable to them from time to time.

1.9.2 Subject to 1.9.3, nothing in this Agreement affects the ability of a Maa–nulth First Nation, Maa–nulth First Nation Government, Maa–nulth First Nation Public Institution or Maa–nulth First Nation Corporation to participate in, or benefit from, programs established by Canada or British Columbia for aboriginal people, registered Indians or other Indians, in accordance with criteria established for those programs from time to time.

1.9.3 Maa–nulth First Nation Citizens and Maa–nulth–aht of a Maa–nulth First Nation are eligible to participate in programs or services established by Canada or British Columbia and to receive programs or services from Canada or British Columbia, in accordance with criteria established for those programs or services from time to time, to the extent that the applicable Maa–nulth First Nation has not assumed responsibility for those programs or services under a Fiscal Financing Agreement or other funding agreement.

1.10.0 COURT DECISIONS

1.10.1 If a superior court of a province, the Federal Court of Canada or the Supreme Court of Canada finally determines any provision of this Agreement to be invalid or unenforceable:

a. the Parties will make best efforts to amend this Agreement to remedy or replace the provision; and

b. the provision will be severable from this Agreement to the extent of the invalidity or unenforceability and the remainder of this Agreement will be construed, to the extent possible, to give effect to the intent of the Parties.

1.10.2 No Party will challenge, or support a challenge to, the validity of any provision of this Agreement.

1.10.3 A breach of this Agreement by a Party does not relieve any Party from its obligations under this Agreement.

1.11.0 CERTAINTY

Full and Final Settlement

1.11.1 This Agreement constitutes the full and final settlement in respect of the aboriginal rights, including aboriginal title, of each Maa–nulth First Nation.

Exhaustively Set Out Rights

1.11.2 This Agreement exhaustively sets out the Maa–nulth First Nation Section 35 Rights of each Maa–nulth First Nation, their attributes, the geographic extent of those rights and the limitations to those rights to which the Parties have agreed, and those rights are:

a. the aboriginal rights, including aboriginal title, modified as a result of this Agreement, of that Maa–nulth First Nation in and to its Maa–nulth First Nation Lands and other lands and resources;

b. the jurisdictions, authorities and rights of its Maa–nulth First Nation Government; and

c. the other Maa–nulth First Nation Section 35 Rights of that Maa–nulth First Nation.

Modification

1.11.3 Notwithstanding the common law, as a result of this Agreement and the Settlement Legislation, the aboriginal rights, including the aboriginal title, of each Maa–nulth First Nation, as they existed anywhere before the Effective Date, including their attributes and geographic extent, are modified, and continue as modified, as set out in this Agreement.

1.11.4 For greater certainty, the aboriginal title of each Maa–nulth First Nation anywhere that it existed before the Effective Date, including its attributes and geographic extent, is modified and continues as the estates in fee simple to those areas identified in this Agreement as the Maa–nulth First Nation Lands and Other Maa–nulth First Nation Lands of that Maa–nulth First Nation.

Purpose of Modification

1.11.5 The purpose of the modification referred to in 1.11.3 is to ensure that as of the Effective Date:

a. each Maa–nulth First Nation has, and can exercise, its Maa–nulth First Nation Section 35 Rights set out in this Agreement, including their attributes, geographic extent, and the limitations to those rights, to which the Parties have agreed;

b. Canada, British Columbia and all other persons can exercise their rights, authorities, jurisdictions and privileges in a manner consistent with this Agreement; and

c. Canada, British Columbia and all other persons do not have any obligations in respect of any aboriginal rights, including aboriginal title, of each Maa–nulth First Nation to the extent that those rights, including title, might be in any way other than, or different in attributes or geographic extent from, the Maa–nulth First Nation Section 35 Rights of each Maa–nulth First Nation set out in this Agreement.

Release of Past Claims

1.11.6 Each Maa–nulth First Nation releases Canada, British Columbia and all other persons from all claims, demands, actions or proceedings, of whatever kind, whether known or unknown, that that Maa–nulth First Nation ever had, now has or may have in the future, relating to or arising from any act or omission before the Effective Date that may have affected, interfered with or infringed any aboriginal right, including aboriginal title, of that Maa–nulth First Nation.

Indemnities

1.11.7 Each Maa–nulth First Nation will indemnify and forever save harmless Canada or British Columbia, as the case may be, from any and all damages, losses, liabilities or costs, excluding fees and disbursements of solicitors and other professional advisors, that Canada or British Columbia, respectively, may suffer or incur in connection with or as a result of any suit, action, claim, proceeding or demand initiated or made before or after the Effective Date relating to or arising from:

a. the existence of an aboriginal right, including aboriginal title, of that Maa–nulth First Nation that is determined to be other than, or different in attributes or geographical extent from, the Maa–nulth First Nation Section 35 Rights of that Maa–nulth First Nation set out in this Agreement; or

b. any act or omission by Canada or British Columbia, before the Effective Date, that may have affected, interfered with or infringed any aboriginal right, including aboriginal title, of that Maa–nulth First Nation.

1.11.8 A Party who is the subject of a suit, action, claim, proceeding or demand that may give rise to a requirement to provide payment to that Party pursuant to an indemnity under this Agreement:

a. will vigorously defend the suit, action, claim, proceeding or demand; and

b. will not settle or compromise the suit, action, claim, proceeding or demand except with the consent of the Party who has granted the indemnity, which consent will not be arbitrarily or unreasonably withheld or delayed.

Specific Claims

1.11.9 Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, nothing in this Agreement precludes a Maa–nulth First Nation from pursuing claims in accordance with Canada's Specific Claims Policy.

1.11.10 For greater certainty, claims referred to in 1.11.9 will not result in any land being declared to be, or being set aside as "Lands reserved for the Indians" within the meaning of the Constitution Act, 1867 for a Maa–nulth First Nation, or an Indian Reserve for the use and benefit of a Maa–nulth First Nation.

1.12.0 OTHER ABORIGINAL PEOPLES

1.12.1 Nothing in this Agreement affects, recognizes or provides any rights under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 for any aboriginal people other than Maa–nulth First Nations.

1.12.2 If a superior court of a province, the Federal Court of Canada or the Supreme Court of Canada finally determines that any aboriginal people, other than a Maa–nulth First Nation, has a right under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 that is adversely affected by a provision of this Agreement:

a. that provision will operate and have effect to the extent it does not adversely affect that right; and

b. if the provision cannot operate and have effect in a way that it does not adversely affect that right, the Parties will make best efforts to amend this Agreement to remedy or replace that provision.

1.12.3 If Canada or British Columbia enters into a treaty or a land claims agreement, within the meaning of sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, with any other aboriginal people and that treaty or land claims agreement adversely affects Maa–nulth First Nation Section 35 Rights as set out in this Agreement, Canada or British Columbia, or both, as the case may be, will provide the applicable Maa–nulth First Nation with additional or replacement rights or other appropriate remedies.

1.12.4 At the request of the applicable Maa–nulth First Nation, the Parties will negotiate and attempt to reach agreement on the provision of those additional or replacement rights or other appropriate remedies contemplated by 1.12.3.

1.12.5 If the Parties are unable to reach agreement on the provision of the additional or replacement rights or other appropriate remedies as contemplated by 1.12.4, the provision of those additional or replacement rights or remedies will be determined in accordance with Stage Three of Chapter 25 Dispute Resolution.

1.13.0 PERIODIC REVIEW

1.13.1 The Parties recognize and acknowledge that this Agreement provides a foundation for an ongoing relationship among the Parties and commit to conducting a periodic review of this Agreement in accordance with 1.13.2 through 1.13.8.

1.13.2 Sixty days before each Periodic Review Date, each Party will provide the other Parties with notice if it wishes to discuss a matter contemplated by 1.13.3 and if none of the Parties provide notice the Parties will forego engaging in a review for that Review Period.

1.13.3 The purpose of the periodic review is to provide an opportunity for the Parties to meet and discuss:

a. the practicability of the harmonization of each Maa–nulth First Nation legal and administrative systems, including law-making authorities that are being exercised by the applicable Maa–nulth First Nation Government, in accordance with this Agreement, with those of British Columbia and Canada;

b. the practicability of processes established by the Parties in accordance with this Agreement; and

c. other matters in respect of the implementation of the provisions of this agreement as the Parties may agree in writing.

1.13.4 Unless the Parties otherwise agree, the discussions contemplated by 1.13.3 will take place on the Periodic Review Date and such other dates as the Parties agree, but will not exceed the applicable Review Period, and within 60 days of the end of that discussion each Party will provide the other Parties with its response on any matter discussed during that Review Period.

1.13.5 The periodic review contemplated by 1.13.0 and all discussions and information relating to the matters of the periodic review are without prejudice to the respective legal positions of the Parties, unless the Parties otherwise agree, and nothing made or done in respect of a periodic review, including the discussions or the responses provided by the Parties, except for the amendments made in accordance with 1.13.7, creates any legally binding rights or obligations.

1.13.6 Except for the Parties' commitment to meet and provide responses as described in 1.13.4, neither the periodic review process contemplated by 1.13.0, nor the decisions and actions of the Parties relating in any way to the periodic review process are:

a. subject to the process described in Chapter 25 Dispute Resolution; or

b. reviewable by a court or in any other forum.

1.13.7 For greater certainty, none of the Parties is required to agree to amend this Agreement or any agreement contemplated by this Agreement as a result of the periodic review contemplated by 1.13.0. Where the Parties agree to amend this Agreement, any such amendment will be made in accordance with 1.14.0. Where the Parties agree to amend an agreement contemplated by this Agreement it will be amended in accordance with its terms.

1.13.8 Each of the Parties is responsible for its own costs in relation to the periodic review process.

1.14.0 AMENDMENT PROVISIONS

1.14.1 Except for any provision of this Agreement that provides that an amendment requires the consent of only the Maa–nulth First Nations and either Canada or British Columbia, all amendments to this Agreement require the consent of all Parties to the Agreement.

1.14.2 Canada will provide consent to an amendment to this Agreement by order of the Governor-in-Council.

1.14.3 British Columbia will provide consent to an amendment to this Agreement by resolution of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia.

1.14.4 If federal or provincial legislation is required to give effect to an amendment to this Agreement, Canada or British Columbia will recommend to Parliament or the Legislature, as the case may be, that the required legislation be enacted.

1.14.5 The consent of each Maa–nulth First Nation is required for an amendment to this Agreement. Each Maa–nulth First Nation will provide consent to such amendment by a special resolution of its Maa–nulth First Nation Government.

1.14.6 A special resolution, for the purpose of 1.14.5, means a resolution passed by the legislative branch of a Maa–nulth First Nation Government by at least two thirds of its members and will be the same resolution for each Maa–nulth First Nation Government.

1.14.7 Each Maa–nulth First Nation will provide a certified copy of the special resolution to each of Canada and British Columbia and each of Canada and British Columbia is entitled to rely on that resolution as conclusive evidence of compliance with 1.14.5.

1.14.8 An amendment to this Agreement takes effect on a date agreed to by the Parties to the amendment, but if no date is agreed to, on the date that the last Party required to consent to the amendment provides its consent.

1.14.9 Notwithstanding 1.14.1 to 1.14.8, if:

a. this Agreement provides:

i. that any of the Parties will negotiate and attempt to reach agreement in respect of a matter that will result in an amendment to this Agreement, including a change to a Schedule or an Appendix; and

ii. that if the Parties are unable to reach agreement, the matter will be finally determined by arbitration in accordance with Chapter 25 Dispute Resolution; and

b. those Parties have negotiated an agreement or the matter is determined by arbitration,

this Agreement is deemed to be amended on the date that agreement or arbitrator's decision takes effect, as the case may be.

1.14.10 Notwithstanding 1.14.1 to 1.14.8, if this Agreement provides that a provision of this Agreement is amended upon the happening of an event, this Agreement is deemed to be amended on the happening of that event.

1.14.11 In respect of amendments contemplated by 1.14.9 and 1.14.10, the applicable Parties will:

a. provide notice to the other Parties of any agreement reached or arbitrator's decision contemplated by 1.14.9 or the happening of an event referred to in 1.14.10; and

b. agree on the wording or form of the deemed amendment.

1.14.12 In the case of an arbitrator's decision contemplated by 1.14.9, if the Parties are unable to agree, the wording or form of the deemed amendment will be finally determined by the arbitrator.

1.14.13 Amendments to this Agreement will be published in the Canada Gazette, the British Columbia Gazette and each Maa–nulth First Nation's registry of laws, contemplated by 13.5.0.

1.14.14 Before the Parties sign this Agreement, the chief negotiator on behalf of Canada, the chief negotiator on behalf of British Columbia and the lead negotiator of the Maa–nulth First Nations may agree to minor amendments to this Agreement.

1.15.0 INTERPRETATION

1.15.1 Except where this Agreement provides "notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement", a provision of this Chapter prevails to the extent of an inconsistency or Conflict with any other provision of this Agreement.

1.15.2 No agreement, plan, guideline or other document made by a Party or Parties that is referred to in or contemplated by this Agreement, including an agreement that is reached as a result of negotiations that are required or permitted by this Agreement, is:

a. part of this Agreement; or

b. a treaty or land claims agreement, or recognizes or affirms aboriginal or treaty rights, within the meaning of sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.

1.15.3 If an authority of British Columbia referred to in this Agreement is delegated from Canada and:

a. the delegation of that authority is revoked; or

b. if a superior court of a province, the Federal Court of Canada or the Supreme Court of Canada finally determines that the delegation of that authority is invalid,

the reference to British Columbia is deemed to be a reference to Canada.

1.15.4 If an authority of Canada referred to in this Agreement is delegated from British Columbia and:

a. the delegation of that authority is revoked; or

b. if a superior court of a province, the Federal Court of Canada or the Supreme Court of Canada finally determines that the delegation of that authority is invalid,

the reference to Canada is deemed to be a reference to British Columbia.

1.15.5 The provisions of this Agreement are not presumed to be interpreted in favour of any Party.

1.15.6 Nothing in this Agreement will be construed as an admission or recognition by Canada or British Columbia as to the nature, scope or location of any aboriginal rights, including aboriginal title, of any Maa–nulth First Nation before the Effective Date.

1.15.7 In this Agreement, unless otherwise expressly provided for or unless otherwise clear from the context:

a. a reference to a statute or a regulation includes every amendment to it, every regulation made under that statute, any law enacted in substitution for it or in replacement of it;

b. the use of the singular includes the plural, and the use of the plural includes the singular;

c. "or" is used in its inclusive sense, meaning A or B, or both A and B;

d. "and" is used in its joint sense, meaning A and B, but not either alone;

e. a reference in a Chapter to a "Schedule" means a Schedule of that Chapter;

f. where applicable, a reference to an "Appendix" includes the authoritative version of a map or plan as set out in the Atlas;

g. "will" denotes an obligation that, unless this Agreement provides to the contrary, must be carried out as soon as practicable after the Effective Date or the event that gives rise to the obligation;

h. "may" is to be construed as permissive, but the use of the words "may not" is to be construed as disempowering;

i. "including" means "including, but not limited to";

j. headings and subheadings are for convenience only, do not form a part of this Agreement, and in no way define, limit, alter or enlarge the scope or meaning of any provision of this Agreement;

k. where a word is defined in this Agreement or described in 1.15.7, other parts of speech and grammatical forms of the same word have corresponding meanings;

l. a reference to a heading number or subheading number is a reference to the paragraphs under that heading or subheading, as applicable;

m. "harvest" includes an attempt to harvest; and

n. "provincial" refers to the province of British Columbia.

1.15.8 This Agreement has been made in English and French, and both versions of this Agreement are equally authoritative, in accordance with the Official Languages Act.

1.15.9 Notwithstanding 1.1.2, this Agreement is not binding on territories or provinces other than British Columbia on matters within their jurisdiction without their consent.

1.15.10 For greater certainty, nothing in this Agreement is intended to affect any aboriginal rights that the Maa–nulth First Nations may have in a foreign state.

1.16.0 CONSULTATION

1.16.1 Neither Canada nor British Columbia has any obligation to consult with any Maa–nulth First Nation except:

a. as provided for in this Agreement;

b. as may be provided for in federal or provincial legislation;

c. as may be provided for in an agreement with a Maa–nulth First Nation other than this Agreement; and

d. as may be required at common law in relation to an infringement of a Maa–nulth First Nation Section 35 Right.

1.16.2 Nothing in this Agreement, nor any action or authority taken, exercised or carried out by Canada or British Columbia in accordance with this Agreement is, or will be interpreted to be, an infringement of a Maa–nulth First Nation Section 35 Right.

1.17.0 INFORMATION AND PRIVACY

1.17.1 For the purposes of federal and provincial access to information and privacy legislation, information that a Maa–nulth First Nation Government provides to Canada or British Columbia in confidence is deemed to be information received or obtained in confidence from another government.

1.17.2 If a Maa–nulth First Nation Government requests disclosure of information from Canada or British Columbia, the request will be evaluated as if it were a request by a province for disclosure of that information, but Canada and British Columbia are not required to disclose to that Maa–nulth First Nation Government information that is only available to a particular province or particular provinces or that is not available to any provinces or that is not available to any province.

1.17.3 The Parties may enter into agreements in respect of any one or more of the collection, protection, retention, use, disclosure and confidentiality of personal, general or other information in accordance with any applicable legislation, including federal and provincial access to information and privacy.

1.17.4 Canada or British Columbia may provide information to a Maa–nulth First Nation Government in confidence if that Maa–nulth First Nation Government has made a law or the applicable Maa–nulth First Nation has entered into an agreement with Canada or British Columbia, as the case may be, under which the confidentiality of the information will be protected.

1.17.5 Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement:

a. Canada and British Columbia are not required to disclose any information that they are required to or authorized to withhold under any Federal Law or Provincial Law, including under sections 37 to 39 of the Canada Evidence Act;

b. if federal or provincial legislation allows the disclosure of certain information only if specified conditions for disclosure are satisfied, Canada and British Columbia are not required to disclose that information unless those conditions are satisfied; and

c. the Parties are not required to disclose any information that may be withheld under a privilege at law.

1.18.0 OBLIGATION TO NEGOTIATE

1.18.1 Whenever the Parties are obliged under any provision of this Agreement to negotiate and attempt to reach agreement, unless the Parties otherwise agree, all Parties will participate in the negotiations.

1.18.2 Except as provided in 1.12.5, whenever this Agreement provides that the Parties, or any of them, "will negotiate and attempt to reach agreement", those negotiations will be conducted as described in Chapter 25 Dispute Resolution, but the Parties, or any of them, are not obliged to proceed to Stage Three of Chapter 25 Dispute Resolution unless, in a particular case, they are required to do so under 25.9.1.

1.19.0 ENTIRE AGREEMENT

1.19.1 This Agreement is the entire agreement among the Parties in respect of the subject matter of this Agreement and, except as described in this Agreement, there is no representation, warranty, collateral agreement, condition, right or obligation affecting this Agreement.

1.19.2 The Schedules and Appendices to this Agreement including, for greater certainty, the authoritative version of the maps and plans set out in the Atlas, form part of this Agreement.

1.20.0 NO IMPLIED WAIVER

1.20.1 A provision of this Agreement, or the performance by a Party of an obligation under this Agreement, may not be waived unless the waiver is in writing and signed by the Party or Parties giving the waiver.

1.20.2 No written waiver of a provision of this Agreement, or performance by a Party of an obligation under this Agreement, or of default by a Party of an obligation under this Agreement, is a waiver of any other provision, obligation or subsequent default.

1.21.0 ASSIGNMENT

1.21.1 Unless otherwise agreed to by the Parties, this Agreement may not be assigned, either in whole or in part, by any Party.

1.22.0 ENUREMENT

1.22.1 This Agreement enures to the benefit of and is binding upon the Parties and their respective permitted assigns.

1.23.0 NOTICE

1.23.1 In 1.23.2 to 1.23.6, "communication" includes a notice, document, request, response, approval, authorization, confirmation or consent.

1.23.2 Unless otherwise described in this Agreement, a communication between or among the Parties under this Agreement will be in writing and will be:

a. delivered personally or by courier;

b. transmitted by fax; or

c. mailed by prepaid registered post.

1.23.3 A communication is considered to have been given, made or delivered, and received:

a. if delivered personally or by courier, at the start of business on the next business day after the business day on which it was received by the addressee or a responsible representative of the addressee;

b. if transmitted by fax and the sender receives confirmation of the transmission, at the start of business on the business day next following the day on which it was transmitted; or

c. if mailed by prepaid registered post in Canada, when the postal receipt is acknowledged by the addressee.

1.23.4 In addition to the provisions of 1.23.2 and 1.23.3, the Parties may agree to give, make or deliver a communication by means other than those provided in 1.23.2.

1.23.5 The Parties will provide to each other addresses for delivery of communications under this Agreement and will deliver a communication to the address provided by each Party.

1.23.6 If no other address for delivery of a particular communication has been provided by a Party, a communication will be delivered to, mailed to the address or transmitted to the fax number of, the intended recipient as set out below:

For: Canada

Attention: Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
House of Commons
Room 583, Confederation Building
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0A6
Fax Number: (819) 953-4941

For: British Columbia

Attention: Minister of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation
Room 310, Parliament Buildings
PO Box 9052 Stn Prov Govt
Victoria, British Columbia  
V8W 9E2
Fax Number: (250) 356-6595

For: Huu-ay-aht First Nations

Attention: Chief Councillor
Box 70
Bamfield, British Columbia
V0R 1B0
Fax Number: (250) 728-1222

For: Ka:'yu:'k't'h'/Che:k'tles7et'h' First Nations

Attention: Chief Councillor
General Delivery
Kyuquot, British Columbia
V0P 1J0
Fax Number: (250) 332-5210

For: Toquaht Nation

Attention: Chief Councillor
Box 759
1316 Pine Street
Ucluelet, British Columbia
V0R 3A0
Fax Number: (250) 726-4403

For: Uchucklesaht Tribe

Attention: Chief Councillor
Box 1118
Port Alberni, British Columbia
V9Y 7L9
Fax Number: (250) 724-1806

For: Ucluelet First Nation

Attention: Chief Councillor
Box 699
Ucluelet, British Columbia
V0R 3A0
Fax Number: (250) 726-7552