Final Agreements Under Negotiation

Final Agreements

Final agreements provide certainty with respect to ownership and management of lands and resources and the exercise of federal, provincial and First Nation governmental powers and authorities. They set out the treaty rights that have been negotiated with the First Nation, create mutually binding obligations and commitments on the three negotiating parties and can be relied on by all persons. Treaty rights and benefits address land, resources, fiscal arrangements and self-government.

Once negotiators at a treaty table reach a final agreement, it is referred to their respective governments for ratification, first by a vote of the First Nation members, then by the British Columbia legislature and finally by the federal parliament.

Following ratification, the parties agree on an implementation date, on which the treaty comes into effect. It is then implemented according to a plan agreed to by all parties.

To date, Final Agreements have been reached with Tsawwassen First Nation, Maa-nulth First Nations, Lheidli T’enneh First Nation, Yale First Nation and Tla’amin (Sliammon) First Nation.

Final Agreements are currently under negotiation with In-SHUCK-ch Nation, K’omoks First Nation and Yekooche First Nation.


Agreements-in-principle (AIP) – stage 4 of the six-stage BC treaty process – provide the basis for a final treaty and contain provisions on land, capital transfer, resource management, culture and governance. AIP negotiations are a complex and time-consuming step in the treaty process. During AIP negotiations, the parties examine the issues in detail and negotiate solutions that work for all sides. They also start planning for treaty implementation, and government negotiators consult with local groups and stakeholders to seek their advice and expertise. The AIP is not legally binding but serves as the basis for a comprehensive treaty.

There are many First Nation groups in AIP negotiations. Fifteen of them are in advanced stages: Kitselas/Kitsumkalum, Wuikinuxv, Te’mexw Treaty Association, Tla-o-qui-aht, 'Namgis, Ktunaxa Kinbasket Treaty Council, Northern Shuswap Treaty Society, Nazko, Katzie, Xwemalhkwu, Ditidaht/Pacheedaht, Sto:Lo Xwexwilmexw Treaty Association and Tsleil-Waututh.