Agreements and Legislation
Before Confederation, the Dominion of Canada signed treaties with First Nations. Since Confederation, the Government of Canada continues to negotiate modern treaties. Between 1701 and 1923, over 70 Indian treaties were negotiated in Canada.
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) is the federal department responsible for negotiating and implementing treaties, including comprehensive and specific land claims.
The Indian Act
The Indian Act is the Canadian federal legislation, first passed in 1876, that sets out certain federal government obligations, and regulates the management of Indian reserve lands, Indian moneys and other resources. The Act has been amended several times, most recently in 1985.
The Indian Act currently requires the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada to manage certain moneys belonging to First Nations and Indian lands and to approve or disallow First Nations by-laws.
Treaties are solemn agreements between the Government of Canada and First Nations that set out promises and benefits for both parties.
Of the over 70 treaties in Canada, three – Treaty 6, 7 and 8 – cover most of Alberta. The province consists of a combined 140 reserves spread over 812,771 hectares of land.
Use the links below to access specific Alberta treaty documents and the corresponding Treaty Guides.
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