The Atlantic Regional Office of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada encompasses four provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador. There are thirty-three (33) First Nations in the Atlantic Region with a registered population of 19,077 on reserve and 12,468 off reserve, for a total population of 31,545 as of December 31, 2008. Within the Atlantic Region there are also five Inuit communities located in Labrador.
In general, AANDC has primary, but not exclusive, responsibility for meeting the federal government's constitutional, treaty, political and legal responsibilities to First Nations, Inuit and Northerners. The Federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians works to further the efforts of Métis, Non-Status Indians and urban Aboriginal people.