Canada's Relationship with Inuit: A History of Policy and Program Development (continued)



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Appendix A

Acronyms

AAMB Aboriginal Area Management Board
ACIA Arctic Climate Impact Assessment
AEPS Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy
ANSCA Alaska Native Claim Settlement Acts
APS Aboriginal Peoples' Survey
AROP Aboriginal Representative Organization Program
CAIPAP Canadian Arctic Indigenous Peoples Against POPs
CAP Canadian Arctic Producers
CINE Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment
CMHC Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation
COILS Career Orientation and Independent Living Skills (Nunavut Sivuniksavut course)
COPE Committee for Original Peoples' Entitlement
DEW Distant Early Warning Line
EARP Environmental Assessment Review Process
FCNQ Federation des Cooperatives du Nouveau-Quebec
FEARO Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office
FNIHB First Nations and Inuit Health Branch
GNWT Government of the Northwest Territories
GREC Gordon Robertson Education Centre
HBC Hudson's Bay Company
HR(S)DC Human Resources (and Skills) Development Canada
ICC Inuit Circumpolar Conference
INAC Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
IQ Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit
IRC Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
ITC Inuit Tapirisat of Canada
ITK Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
JBNQA James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement
KRG Kativik Regional Government
KSB Kativik School Board
LIA Labrador Inuit Association
LIDC Labrador Inuit Development Corporation
LIHC Labrador Inuit Health Commission
N-number Northern-number
NAHO National Aboriginal Health Organization
NAPCC National Action Programme on Climate Change
NCF Nunavut Constitutional Forum
NCP Northern Contaminants Program
NEQA Northeastern Quebec Agreement
NICE National Inuit Council on Education
NIHB Non-Insured Health Benefits
NIYC National Inuit Youth Council
NORAD North American Aerospace Defence Agreement
NQIA Northern Quebec Inuit Association
NRBHSS Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services
NTI Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated
NWMP North West Mounted Police
NWT Northwest Territories
OMS Oceans Management Strategy
POPs Persistent Organic Pollutants
RCAP Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples
RCMP Royal Canadian Mounted Police
RRHP Rural and Remote Housing Program Special
ARDAs Special Agricultural and Rural Development Agreements
TI Tungasuvvingat Inuit
TFN Tungavik Federation of Nunavut
VTS Vocational Training Section (of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada)
WARM Western Arctic Regional Municipality





Appendix B

The History of Inuit Administration in Canada From Contact to the Present

Date Range Administrative Body Comment
1750-1920 Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), and Catholic and Protestant missionary societies These organizations were unofficial administrators of Inuit services. The HBC was given authority from the British Government, and then from the Canadian Government, to record census information and to make reports about the welfare conditions of Inuit. Missionary societies were given government funding to establish schools and hospitals for Inuit. In contrast, the department of the Secretary of State (1867-1869) and the department of the Secretary of State for the Provinces (1869-1873), the department of the Interior (1873-1880), and the department of Indian Affairs (1880-1936) administered First Nations.
1890 Northwest Mounted Police (NWMP) The NWMP established their first posts in the Arctic in 1890. In 1903, a NWMP member was appointed Acting Commissioner of the Northwest Territories (NWT). The NWMP were the official administrators of law and justice in the North but also provided relief to Inuit when necessary.
1905 The Northwest Territories Council, department of the Interior The NWT Amendment Act was passed. A commissioner was stationed in ottawa (also the Financial Comptroller for the NWMP), and with council assistance of four civil servants, administered the territory. The Council had no official mandate to administer Inuit affairs.
1922 Eskimo Affairs unit and NWT Council, Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, department of the Interior The deputy Minister of the department was also the Commissioner of the NWT Council. The director of the NWT and Yukon Branch was given authority to administer daily issues related to Inuit affairs, and oversaw the first federal government offices in the North.
1924 department of Indian Affairs Inuit were brought under the jurisdiction of the indian Act through an amendment. The department was officially given responsibility for Inuit affairs.
1928 Eskimo Affairs unit, Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, department of the Interior An order in Council transferred administrative authority for Inuit to the Commissioner of the NWT Council, and the NWT and Yukon Branch director of the department of the Interior.
1930 Eskimo Affairs unit, Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, department of the Interior The government repealed the 1924 amendment to the indian Act. The NWT Council continued to administer Inuit affairs from ottawa.
1931 dominion lands Branch [lands, Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch], department of the Interior deputy Commissioner of the NWT Council (also Assistant deputy Minister of the department of the Interior) used this branch to administer Inuit affairs. The Branch was renamed the lands, Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch.
1936-1950 Bureau of Northwest Territories and Yukon Affairs; lands, Parks, and Forests Branch; department of Mines and Resources The department of the Interior was disbanded and responsibility for northern affairs was transferred to the new department of Mines and Resources, which continued to administer Inuit affairs after the Supreme Court's 1939 Re Eskimo decision. The Bureau of NWT and Yukon Affairs administered the NWT Council.
1945 department of National Health and Welfare Responsibilities for health of First Nations and Inuit were transferred to this department by order in Council P.o. 1945-6495. Most Inuit affairs continued to be administered by Mines and Resources.
1948-1976 Advisory Committee on Northern development The deputy Minister of Mines and Resources initially chaired this Cabinet committee of deputy ministers. Although this department had responsibility for northern affairs, several other departments had interests in the North. The committee was developed to co-ordinate these interests and the resulting programs.
1950-1953 Northern Administrations Service [Northern Administration and lands Branch], department of Resources and development Responsibility for northern affairs was transferred to the new department of Resources and development, which was renamed the department of Northern Affairs and National Resources in 1953. Northern Administrations Service (1950-1951) administered Inuit affairs and was renamed the Northern Administration and lands Branch (1951-1959).
1951 NWT Council/Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) The NWT Act was amended to include three elected members from the North, in addition to five appointed members, on the NWT Council. The Council alternated meeting locations between ottawa and northern communities. In 1966, two additional elected members, including one from the eastern Arctic, were allowed on the Council. In 1967, Yellowknife became the capital of the NWT, and the Council's administrative centre was moved there. A civil service, the GNWT, developed. In 1976, the Council became fully elected.
1952-1962 Eskimo Affairs Committee The Committee was administered by the department of Resources and development. Attendance included those from various government departments and agencies, churches and the HBC. The goal of the committee was to assist Inuit in maintaining their traditional, self-sufficient way of life insofar as that was possible. The committee was renamed the Eskimo Advisory Board in 1960.
1953-1966 Northern Administration and lands Branch, department of Northern Affairs and National Resources In 1959 the branch was renamed the Northern Administration Branch (1959-1968). From 1965 to 1966, this department included an Indian Affairs Branch to administer programs for First Nations.
1966 Northern Administration Northern development included an Advisory Committee on
Present Branch, department of Indian Affairs and Northern development (now Indian and Northern Affairs Canada) Northern development, and a Northern Co-ordination and Research Centre. The Indian Affairs Branch was moved to this department.

Sources:

Peter Clancy, “The Making of eskimo policy in Canada, 1952-62: The life and Times of the eskimo affairs Committee,” Arctic 40.3 (september 1987: 191-197); Terry Cook, Federal Archives Division, General Inventory Series: Records of the Northern Affairs Program (RG 85) (ottawa: public archives of Canada, 1982); Mark o. dickerson, Whose North? Political Change, Political Development, and Self-Government in the Northwest Territories (Vancouver: University of British Columbia press and The arctic Institute of North america, 1992); Richard diubaldo, A Historical Overview of Government-Inuit Relations, 1900-1980s (ottawa: department of Indian affairs and Northern development, 1992); diamond Jenness, Eskimo Administration: II Canada (Montreal: arctic Institute of North america Technical paper No. 14, 1964); Graham Rowley, The Role of the Advisory Committee on Northern Development in the Development of Policy and the Co-ordination of Federal Government Activities in Northern Canada (ottawa: department of Indian affairs and Northern development, 1992); and Gordon Robertson, Report on the Arctic (ottawa: eskimo advisory Board, department of Northern affairs and National Resources, 1960).






Appendix C

Organization of Inuit Associations in Canada

Organization of Inuit Associations in Canada
This image provides a visual description of the relationships between major Canadian Inuit organizations in Canada. 
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami is linked to Pauktuutit, National Inuit Youth Council, Makivik Corporation, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, Labrador Inuit Development Corporation and Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated. There is also a weaker link to Inuit Circumpolar Conference. Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated is itself linked to Kivalliq Inuit Association, Kitikmeot Inuit Association and Qikiqtani Inuit Association.






Appendix D

 

Inuit Comprehensive Claims Settlements

  James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement Inuvialuit Final Agreement Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement
Negotiating organization Northern Quebec Inuit Association (1971-1978) Committee for original Peoples Entitlement (1970-1984) Tungavik Federation of Nunavut (1982-1993) labrador Inuit Association (1973-?)
Year Land Claim Was Submitted 1973 1974 1977 1977
Land Claim Beneficiary Corporation Makivik Corporation (1978) Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (1984) Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated (1993) labrador Inuit development Corporation (1982)
Year land Claim Settled 1975 1984 1993 2005
Criteria for land Claim Beneficiary Enrolment A person of Inuit ancestry who was born in Quebec or is ordinarily a resident of Quebec, or is a recognized member of an Inuit community covered by the claim. The person may also be an adopted child or descendant of a recognized benefi ciary. A Canadian citizen of Inuvialuit ancestry; someone who is considered Inuvialuit based on custom and tradition; or someone with at least one quarter Inuvialuit blood who was born in the Settlement Region. under the agreement, Inuvialuit are responsible for defi ning who is Inuit for enrolment purposes. A Canadian citizen who identifi es as Inuk, or a person considered an Inuk through Inuit customs and usages and is associated with the Nunavut Settlement Area. under the agreement, Inuit are responsible for defi ning who is Inuit for enrolment purposes. Members of the Aboriginal people of labrador who traditionally used and occupied the lands of the labrador Inuit land Claims Area, and are not benefi ciaries of other Inuit land claims. Someone who has Inuit ancestry or is a Kablunangajuk [Note 687], and is a permanent resident of the labrador Inuit Settlement Area or is connected to the area.
Regional Government Kativik Regional Government (institute of public government (IPG)). [Note 688] None. Nunavut Government (institute of public government), with provisions for increased Inuit participation in government employment in the Nunavut Settlement Area Nunatsiavut Government (ethnically-based government), with public municipal governments in the fi ve Inuit land claim region communities.
Division of Land Within the Settlement Area and Non-Renewable Resource Management Category I lands are for the use and benefi t of Inuit. Category II lands are provincial lands with co-management of hunting, fi shing, trapping, forestry and tourism; and some exclusive rights to hunting, fi shing and trapping for Inuit. Category III lands are public lands with similar regulations for Inuit and non-Inuit. 5,000 square miles divided to seven community plots where Inuit have surface and subsurface ownership. 30,000 square miles where Inuit have title to the surface only. The division of land includes Inuit owned lands, where subsurface rights may be specifi ed; High Arctic Areas exempted from available Inuit owned land; and six land use Regions that include all municipalities in Nunavut. The Nunavut Trust receives an annual share of resource royalties. Inuit have surface rights and a share of subsurface rights to labrador Inuit lands. The Nunatsiavut Government is responsible for the administration and control of these lands, including development and conservation management. The province manages subsurface development in the labrador Inuit Settlement Area. The province and the Nunatsiavut Government jointly manage subsurface interests in labrador Inuit lands.
Environmental and Social Protection The Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee was established to consult and advise other levels of government on potential negative environmental impacts associated with development projects proposed for the land claim area. The Environmental Impact Screening Committee was established to review onshore development projects. The Environmental Impact Review Board was established to conduct community reviews of proposed projects. The Surface Rights Tribunal, the Nunavut Impact Review Board, the Nunavut Planning Commission, and the Nunavut Water Board were established to manage land and resources. The Nunavut Social development Council was established to develop social and cultural policies and programs that refl ect Inuit goals and objectives. Inuit Impact and Benefi t Agreements are required for development and exploitation projects wholly or partly on Inuit owned land. The Regional Planning Authority was established to create a land use Plan for the labrador Inuit Settlement Area. The Nunatsiavut Government has jurisdiction to regulate land use of labrador Inuit lands. Environmental Assessments are required to mitigate the negative impacts of any potential development projects.
Economic development The claim provides support for establishing organizations that promote renewable resource development, and arts and crafts production. Makivik Corporation administers funding for these projects. The Inuvialuit development Corporation was established to deliver goods and services in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Each community within the Settlement Area has a local Inuvialuit development Corporation. The department of Economic development and Transportation was established to develop policies and programs within the Government of Nunavut. The Subsurface Resource Revenue Sharing Committee was established to administer revenue sharing agreements. The Nunatsiavut Government was established to administer economic development policies and programs.
Hunting, Fishing and Trapping The Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee was established to regulate wildlife harvesting. The Committee includes representatives from the Cree, and the provincial and federal governments. The Committee consults with community members in Nunavik, and advises the provincial and federal governments on policy. The Wildlife Management Advisory Council was established to facilitate joint planning. The Inuvialuit Game Council and the community Hunters and Trappers Committees were also established. Inuvialuit have exclusive rights to harvest polar bears, musk ox, furbearers, and other game on Inuvialuit lands, and have preferential rights to harvest all species for subsistence use. The Nunavut Wildlife Management Board was established to regulate access to wildlife in the Nunavut Settlement Area and to conduct the fi ve-year Nunavut Wildlife Harvest Study. local Hunters and Trappers organizations and Regional Wildlife organizations were established to oversee harvesting. Inuit have the right to harvest to limits imposed by the Harvest Study, or in the absence of quotas to the level required by their economic, social, and cultural needs. Inuit have exclusive rights to harvest wildlife and plants in labrador Inuit lands. The Torngat Wildlife and Plants Co-Management Board, with the Nunatsiavut Government, establish the Total Allowable Harvest and Inuit Harvest levels. The Torngat Joint Fisheries Board and the Nunatsiavut Government establish the Inuit domestic Harvest levels for fisheries.
Health and Social Services The Kativik Regional Health Board. The Inuvialuit Social development Program and the Social development Fund were established to improve standards of health, housing, education and living for Inuvialuit. The department of Health and Social Services was established to develop policies and programs within the Government of Nunavut. The Nunavut Housing Corporation was created as a Government Agency. The Nunatsiavut Government is responsible for labrador Inuit lands and the Inuit Communities. This includes provisions for healthcare, social services, housing and justice services.
Education The Kativik Regional School Board was established to provide culturally relevant educational programs. See Health and Social Services. The department of Education was established to develop policy and programs within the Government of Nunavut. This is a responsibility of the Nunatsiavut Government for labrador Inuit lands and the Inuit Communities.

Sources:

Agreement Between the Inuit of the Nunavut Settlement Area and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (ottawa: Indian and Northern affairs, 1993); agreements, Treaties and Negotiated settlements, 31 august 2005, James Bay and Northern Quebec agreement and Complimentary agreements (110010001691111 November 1975), [2 september 2005]; Grand Council of the Cree, 2005, James Bay and Northern Quebec agreement  , [7 september 2005]; Indian and Northern affairs Canada, 2005, principal provisions of the JBNQa and NeQa, [7 september 2005]; Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement (ottawa: Indian affairs and Northern development, 2004); J.M. Keeping, The Inuvialuit Final Agreement (Calgary: Faculty of law, the University of Calgary, 1989); “Negotiation Framework agreement on the amalgamation of Certain Institutions and the Creation of a New Form of Government in Nunavik” (ottawa: Government of Canada, 26 June 2003); donat savoie, Chief Federal Negotiator – Nunavik, department of Indian and Northern affairs Canada, to all Federal departments and agencies, 24 March 2005, “status Report – Nunavik self-Government project”; The Western Arctic Claim: the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (ottawa: Indian and Northern affairs Canada, 1984).




Endnotes:

  1. Rachel Attituq Qitsualik, “Living With Change,”Nunavut '99, [2 September 2005]; Constance Backhouse, Colour Coded: A Legal History of Racism in Canada, 1900-1950 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), 30; Robin McGrath, Canadian Inuit Literature: the Development of a Tradition (Ottawa: National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology Service Paper No. 94, 1984), 1; Canadian Museum of Civilization, 27 September 2001, Canadian Inuit History: A Thousand Year Odyssey,” [19 June 2006]; Patrick Gerald Nixon, “Eskimo Housing Programmes: A Case Study in Representative Bureaucracy” (PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1983), 90-149; and R. Quinn Duffy, The Road to Nunavut: Progress of the Eastern Arctic Since the Second World War (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1988), 16-17. (return to source paragraph)

  2. Canadian Museum of Civilization, 6 March 1997, “The Inuvialuit of the Western Arctic from Ancient Times to 1902,” [19 June 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  3. Inuit and First Nations were commonly referred to as Eskimos and Indians before the 1970s. For consistency, and to comply with Indian and Northern Affairs Canada's guide to appropriate word usage, the terms Inuit and First Nations will be used throughout the report, excepting titles and quotations where another term is used. For guidance on terminology, please refer to “Words First: An Evolving Terminology Relating to Aboriginal Peoples in Canada,” (Ottawa: Communications Branch, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2002). Diamond Jenness, Eskimo Administration: II. Canada (Montreal: Arctic Institute of North America, Technical Paper No. 14, 1964), 9. (return to source paragraph)

  4. Shmuel Ben-Dor, “Eskimos and Settlers in a Labrador Community” (Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1965), 283-284; Jenness, 9; Edward A. Tompkins, Penciled Out: Newfoundland and Labrador's Native People and Canadian Confederation, 1847-1954 (Ottawa: House of Commons, 1988), 5; and Morris Zaslow, The Opening of the Canadian North, 1870-1914, (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971), 251. (return to source paragraph)

  5. C.S. Mackinnon, Keewatin, 1893-1963: Some Aspects of Government Policy Towards the Caribou Inuit (Edmonton: University of Alberta, 1965[?]), 7. (return to source paragraph)

  6. Zaslow, 257. (return to source paragraph)

  7. Renée Fossett, In Order to Live Untroubled: Inuit of the Central Arctic, 1550-1940 (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2001), 184. (return to source paragraph)

  8. Richard Diubaldo, A Historical Overview of Government-Inuit Relations, 1900-1980s (Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1992), 20. (return to source paragraph)

  9. Mark O. Dickerson, Whose North? Political Change, Political Development, and Self-Government in the Northwest Territories (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press and The Arctic Institute of North America, 1992), 31-32; and Jenness (1964), 27-28. (return to source paragraph)

  10. Richard Diubaldo, “The Absurd Little Mouse: When Eskimos Became Indians,” Journal of Canadian Studies 16.2 (Summer 1981), 38; and John Leonard Taylor, Canadian Indian Policy During the Inter-War Years, 1918-1939 (Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1984), 87-88. (return to source paragraph)

  11. Jenness (1964), 33, 52-57.
    Before 1999, the Northwest Territories included the region of the Eastern Arctic that is now the Territory of Nunavut. Unless otherwise specified, any reference to the NWT before 1999 includes Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  12. Backhouse, 35. (return to source paragraph)

  13. Donna Lea Hawley, The Indian Act Annotated (Calgary: Carswell Company Limited, 1984), 8. (return to source paragraph)

  14. C.J. Marshall, Federal Responsibilities in Respect to the Native Population of Labrador (Ottawa: Northern Research Co-Ordination Centre, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, 1957), 4. (return to source paragraph)

  15. Duffy, 16; and Diubaldo (1992), 16. (return to source paragraph)

  16. Hugh L. Keenleyside, Memoirs of Hugh L. Keenleyside: On the Bridge of Time, Vol. 2 (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982), 308-309. (return to source paragraph)

  17. Diubaldo (1992), 35-38; and Jenness (1964), 30-32. (return to source paragraph)

  18. Diubaldo (1992), 30. (return to source paragraph)

  19. R. Gordon Robertson, Memoirs of a Very Civil Servant: Mackenzie King to Pierre Trudeau (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000), 120. (return to source paragraph)

  20. David Damas, Arctic Migrants/Arctic Villagers: The Transformation of Inuit Settlement in the Central Arctic (Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002), 192-193; Nixon, 90-149; Duffy, 16-17; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Backgrounder on Inuit and Housing for Discussion at Housing Sectoral Meeting, [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  21. Diubaldo (1981), 35-38. (return to source paragraph)

  22. Nixon, 149; and R. Gordon Robertson, Report on the Arctic (Ottawa: Eskimo Advisory Board, 1960), 2; and Canada, Health in Canada's North: Brief for the Royal Commission on Health Services (Ottawa: Northern Health Service, Department of National Health and Welfare, 1962), 2. (return to source paragraph)

  23. Dickerson, 87. (return to source paragraph)

  24. Dickerson, 87; and Terry Cook, Records of the Northern Affairs Program, (RG 85) (Ottawa: Public Archives of Canada, Federal Archives Division, General Inventory Series, 1982), 19-24. (return to source paragraph)

  25. Health in Canada's North, 2; Jean-Philippe Chartrand, “Survival and Adaptation of the Inuit Ethnic Identity: The Importance of Inuktitut,” Native People, Native Lands: Canadian Indians, Inuit and Métis, Bruce Alden Cox, ed. (Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1987: 241-255), 241; and Dickerson, 87. (return to source paragraph)

  26. Duffy, 243-246; Qikiqtani Inuit Association, About QIA, [8 February 2005]; “The Native Association's of Canada's Inuit,” Inuttituut (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, May 1976), 12; and Linda A. White, “Political Development and Inuit Self-Government in the Eastern Arctic: The Case of the Baffin Regional Council” (MA thesis, Queen's University, 1991), 18-21. (return to source paragraph)

  27. D.A. Davidson, “The People in the North,” Policies of Northern Development, Nils Orvik, ed. (Kingston: Group for International Politics, Department of Political Studies, Queen's University, 1973), 116-117; and Louis Edmond Hamelin, Political Stirrings Among the Amerindians of the Northwest Territories (Quebec City: Centre D'Etudes Nordiques, Laval University, 1974), 4.
    Although prominent members of Inuit organizations were interviewed during the research for this historical review, the review concerns the history of Inuit political organizations and not the leaders themselves. (return to source paragraph)

  28. Backhouse, 30; McGrath, 1; and Robert McPherson, New Owners in Their Own Land: Minerals and Inuit Land Claims (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2003), 51. (return to source paragraph)

  29. “Timeless Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 4; David R. Newhouse and Yale D. Belanger, “Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: A Review of Literature Since 1960” (Peterborough: Native Studies Department, Trent University, 2001), 2; Institute of Intergovernmental Relations, School of Policy Studies, Queen's University, 2005, Literature Reviews, [17 January 2005]; and H.B. Hawthorn, A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada: Economic, Political, Educational Needs and Policies, Vol. II (Ottawa: Indian Affairs Branch, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1967), 7-9, [10 June 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  30. “Northern Canada in the 1970s,” Inutituut (Autumn 1972:23), 23. (return to source paragraph)

  31. The Northern Strategy, 2005, About the Strategy: Nation Building—Framework for a Northern Strategy,” [16 June 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  32. Alan Braidek, Inuit Relations Secretariat, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, interview by author, 2 February 2005, digital recording, Public History, Ottawa; Dickerson, 101; and Barry A. Hochstein, “New Rights or No Rights? COPE and the Federal Government of Canada” (MA thesis, University of Calgary, 1987), 9. (return to source paragraph)

  33. Newhouse and Belanger, 3.
    Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami was originally called Inuit Tapirisat of Canada but was renamed in 2001. For consistency, the organization will be referred to as ITK throughout this book. Jose A. Kusugak, “The Inuit of Canada: Charting the Future in the New Millennium,” speech given to the National Press Club, Ottawa, 19 January 2005, transcript, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 6; and “Timelines and Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 43. (return to source paragraph)

  34. McPherson, 60-61; and Peter Usher, “The Committee for Original Peoples' Entitlement” (Ottawa: Committee for Original Peoples' Entitlement, 1973), 29. (return to source paragraph)

  35. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004, “The Origin of ITK,” [27 January 2005]; and Michael McGoldrick, Makivik Corporation, interview by author, 10 February 2005, digital recording, Makivik Corporation, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  36. McPherson, 64; Thomas A. Morehouse, Native Claims and Political Development (Anchorage, Alaska: Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1987), 12; Dickerson, 105; and Don Whiteside, Historical Development of Aboriginal Political Associations in Canada: A Documentation (Ottawa: National Indian Brotherhood, 1973), 7. (return to source paragraph)

  37. Hamelin, 11. (return to source paragraph)

  38. Agreements Treaties and Negotiated Settlements Project, June 2004, and use “Search the Database” with search terms “Nunavik,” “Inuvialuit,” and “Nunavut” [15 February 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, “Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities for Discussion at the Economic Opportunities Sectoral Meeting” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 15 November 2004), 2, [6 April 2006]; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 24 June 2005, “Labrador Inuit Land Claims Act Receives Royal Assent,” [11 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  39. Hamelin, 9. (return to source paragraph)

  40. Newhouse and Belanger, 9-14; “NWT Plain Facts On Land and Self-Government: Beaufort-Delta/Gwich'in and Inuvialuit Self-Government Negotiations,” Indian and Northern Affairs, 12 April 2005, Publications, [12 April 2005]; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 13 May 2004, Federal Policy Guide: Aboriginal Self-Government, “The Government of Canada's Approach to Implementation of the Inherent Right and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Self-Government,” [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  41. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 13 May 2004, “Federal Policy Guide: Aboriginal Self-Government: The Government of Canada's Approach to Implementation of the Inherent Right and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Self-Government,” [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  42. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 13 May 2004, “Federal Policy Guide: Aboriginal Self-Government: The Government of Canada's Approach to Implementation of the Inherent Right and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Self-Government,” [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  43. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 19 April 2004, The Case for Inuit Specific: Renewing the Relationship Between the Inuit and Government of Canada, [3 February 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  44. Kusugak speech. (return to source paragraph)

  45. Kusugak speech. (return to source paragraph)

  46. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004, Inuit Respond to Northern Strategy Framework, [4 January 2005]; The Northern Strategy, May 2005, Nation Building—Framework for a Northern Strategy, [11 July 2005]; and Michael McGoldrick, Makivik Corporation, interview by author, 10 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  47. Neil Blair Christensen, Inuit in Cyberspace: Embedding Offline Identities Online (Copenhagen: Museum Tuscalunum Press, University of Copenhagen, 2003), 14; Government of Nunavut, [17 March 2005]; Nunatsiaq News, 11 March 2005, [17 March 2005]; and Shuvinai Mike, Director of Inuit Qaujimajitiqangit, and Aluki Rojas, Director of Policy and Planning, Department of Culture, Language, Elders and Youth, Government of Nunavut, interview by author, 29 April 2005, Trigram Centre, Iqaluit, Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  48. National Aboriginal Health Organization, “Improving Population Health, Health Promotion, Disease Prevention and Health Protection Services and Programs for Aboriginal People: Recommendations for NAHO Activities” (Ottawa: Kinnon Consulting, 2002), 6-7; and Sacha Senecal and Erin O'Sullivan, The Well-Being of Inuit Communities in Canada (Ottawa: Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2005), 1. (return to source paragraph)

  49. William Hipwell, Katy Mamen, Viviane Weitzner, and Gail Whiteman, “Aboriginal Peoples and Mining in Canada: Consultation, Participation and Prospects for Change” (Ottawa: North-South Institute, 2002), 10. (return to source paragraph)

  50. “Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities. For Discussion at the Economic Opportunities Sectoral Meeting, December 13th and 14th, 2004, Ottawa, Ontario” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004), 5. (return to source paragraph)

  51. The term Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (IQ) was developed by the Nunavut Social Development Council. According to a discussion paper prepared by the Council, the term “encompasses all aspects of traditional Inuit culture including values, world-view, language, social organization, knowledge, life skills, perceptions and expectations.” The term was created to replace commonly used terms, such as “Inuit traditional knowledge,” that were thought to have more limited connotations. Following a conference on traditional knowledge in 1998, the Council created a report on the conference and a discussion paper to encourage the Government of Nunavut's efforts to develop and implement policies and programs in accordance with IQ. Jack Anawak, “Report of the Nunavut Traditional Knowledge Conference,” Nunavut Social Development Council, held 20-24 March 1998, Igloolik, Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  52. Mike and Rojas interview (29 April 2005); Tuttarvitt Committee, Government of Nunavut, interview by author, 28 April 2005, Trigram Centre, Iqaluit, Nunavut; and Naullaq Arnaquq, Assistant Deputy Minister, Department of Culture, Language, Elders and Youth, Government of Nunavut, and Peesee Pitsiulak, Campus Director, Nunavut Arctic College, interview by author, 27 April 2005, digital recording, Trigram Centre, Iqaluit, Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  53. Thomas Berger, “Conciliator's Final Report: “The Nunavut Project”"  , Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Implementation Contract Negotiations for the Second Planning Period 2003-2013, 1 March 2006, Nunatsiaq News, 31 March 2006, [19 June 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  54. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Backgrounder on Inuit and Housing for Discussion at Housing Sectoral Meeting, [6 July 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Backgrounder on Inuit Health for Discussion at Health Sectoral Meeting, [19 July 2005]; Chartrand, 241; Robertson (1960), 2; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities or Discussion at the Economic Opportunities Sectoral Meeting, [19 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  55. Sacha Senecal, “The Well-Being of Inuit Communities,” paper presented at the Aboriginal Policy Research Pre-Conference Workshop, 20 March 2006, Ottawa; and Senecal and O'Sullivan. (return to source paragraph)

  56. “Submission of the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,” 44; “Timeless Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 3-4; Kusugak; Report from the September Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit Workshop” (Iqaluit: Department of Culture, Language, Elders and Youth, Government of Nunavut, 1999), 12; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, 2005 Press Archive: Inuit Hold Unique Environment Policy Session as Follow-Up to Canada-Aboriginal Peoples Roundtable, [27 May 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 15 November 2004, Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities for Discussion at the Economic Opportunities Sectoral Meeting, [19 July 2005]; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, “The Case for Inuit Specific: Renewing the Relationship Between the Inuit and Government of Canada”   (Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004), 3, [4 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  57. Backhouse, 30; McGrath, 1; Jacques Cinq-Mars, “The Significance of the Bluefish Caves in Beringian Prehistory,” Canadian Museum of Civilization, 2001, [14 June 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  58. Jenness (1964), 9. (return to source paragraph)

  59. Kaj Birket-Smith, The Eskimos (London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1959); McGrath, 1-3; Keith J. Crowe, A History of the Original Peoples of Northern Canada (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press and The Arctic Institute of North America, 1974), 64-69 and 104-105; and Zaslow, 249. (return to source paragraph)

  60. Ben-Dor, 283-284; Jenness (1964), 9; Tompkins, 5; and Zaslow, 251. (return to source paragraph)

  61. Diubaldo (1992), 2. (return to source paragraph)

  62. Ben-Dor, 274-275; and Crowe, 97. For more on Moravian/Inuit relations in Labrador see Philip D. Ross, “Working on the Margins: A Labour History of the Native Peoples of Northern Labrador” (Ph.D. diss., McGill University, 1986); and David Scheffel, “The Demographic Consequences of European Contact With Labrador Inuit, 1800-1919” (MA thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1981). (return to source paragraph)

  63. Jenness, 10; and Kenneth Delane Jensen, “A Cultural Historical Study of Domination, Exploitation, and Co-Operation in the Canadian Arctic” (Ph.D. diss., Michigan State University, 1975), 27-29. (return to source paragraph)

  64. Mackinnon, 7. (return to source paragraph)

  65. Fossett, 168-176. (return to source paragraph)

  66. Several sources discuss the nature of relationships between whalers and Inuit families. For examples see: Peter Clancy, “Caribou, Fur and the Resource Frontier: a political economy of the Northwest Territories to 1967” (Ph.D. diss., Queen's University, 1985), 210-217; Fossett, 168-176; Jensen, 30-32; Mackinnon, 9; McGrath, 3-6; and Zaslow, 251. (return to source paragraph)

  67. Fossett, 184. (return to source paragraph)

  68. Philip Goldring, “Inuit Economic Responses to Euro-American Contacts: Southeast Baffin Island, 1824-1940,” Interpreting Canada's North, Selected Readings, Kenneth S. Coates and William R. Morrison, eds. (Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1989: 252-277), 261. (return to source paragraph)

  69. Goldring, 252. (return to source paragraph)

  70. Clancy, 206-209; and Jensen, 33-36. (return to source paragraph)

  71. Ben-Dor, 290; and Zaslow, 258. (return to source paragraph)

  72. Peter Lochrie Hoag, “Acculturating Eskimo Arts: the Diffusion of Government Sponsored Production Facilities in Alaska and Canada” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1981), 38. (return to source paragraph)

  73. Ben-Dor, 286; and Jenness, 15-16. For more on Inuit literacy and the cultural assimilation policies of Missionaries, see Barbara Louise Butler, “The Persistence of Traditional Ways in an Inuit Community” (MA thesis, University of British Columbia, 1985); and Katherine Pensyl Madden, “To Be Nobody Else: An Analysis of Inuit Broadcasting Attempts to Produce Culturally Sensitive Video Programming to Help Preserve Inuit Culture” (Ph.D. diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1989). (return to source paragraph)

  74. According to Zaslow, 257, whale oil was replaced by petroleum in the late twentieth century. Although bowhead whalebone continued to command high prices for several years afterward ($4.75 per pound in 1883), overfishing had severely depleted the availability of the bowhead. (return to source paragraph)

  75. Crowe, 110-111. (return to source paragraph)

  76. Jenness, 38. (return to source paragraph)

  77. Clancy, 200 and Jensen, 44. (return to source paragraph)

  78. Jensen, 46. (return to source paragraph)

  79. Jensen, 46-52. (return to source paragraph)

  80. According to Clancy, 216, fox furs were worth between $30.00 to $70.00 in the 1920s, and a blue fox fur could command up to $210.00. Crowe, 114-115. (return to source paragraph)

  81. Diubaldo (1992), 20. (return to source paragraph)

  82. Diubaldo (1981), 35. (return to source paragraph)

  83. Between 1918 and 1923, the Department of the Interior's Northwest Territories Branch treated Inuit in the Mackenzie Delta with the same status as First Nations in the region because of their close geographic proximity to one another. Inuit received economic relief, education in mission schools, and the services of a doctor at Herschel Island. Between 1921 and 1931, most government policy related to Inuit was administered by the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch of the Department of the Interior, such as the reindeer-herding program. This program was an economic initiative designed to relieve Inuit from caribou shortage-induced starvation. Dickerson, 31-32; and Jenness (1964), 27-28. (return to source paragraph)

  84. Diubaldo (1981), 38; and John Leonard Taylor, Canadian Indian Policy During the Inter-War Years, 1918-1939 (Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1984), 87-88. (return to source paragraph)

  85. Although Indian Affairs was granted departmental status in 1880, the Minister of the Interior continued to hold the position of Superintendent of Indian Affairs, creating an administrative link between the departments. Dickerson, 33; Diubaldo (1981), 34; and Jenness, 32-33, 53. Please see the attached chart, Appendix B, which shows changes in the Canadian Government's administration of Inuit affairs from European contact to 1972. (return to source paragraph)

  86. In 1936, the Canadian Government diverted some responsibility for Inuit relief to the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), by requiring that applicants for trading licenses agree to take responsibility for the welfare of their Inuit patrons. They also advocated the re-location of Inuit families in impoverished areas to regions with greater resource yields, such as the reopening of trading posts at Port Leopold and Arctic Bay. These posts were closed in 1928 because they violated the boundaries of the Arctic Islands Preserve. The government was willing to lift these regulations to ensure that Inuit maintained their self-sufficiency as much as possible. Jenness, 33, 52-57. (return to source paragraph)

  87. In 1931, the position of Deputy Commissioner of the NWT Council was included in the Assistant Deputy Minister of the Department of the Interior's portfolio, and the Department of the Interior's Dominion Lands Branch was used to administer the daily issues of northern affairs. This Branch was renamed the Lands, Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch. A representative from the Branch made annual visits to the eastern Arctic to re-supply police posts and the Pangnirtung Hospital, and to generally observe conditions of Inuit. Jenness, 49-50. (return to source paragraph)

  88. By 1932, the cost of Inuit relief in Quebec was $9.00 per person annually. Relief for First Nations was funded federally, as First Nations in Canada were wards of the state. The Canadian Government, however, administered Inuit as citizens. Constance Backhouse, Colour-Coded: a Legal History of Racism in Canada, 1900-1950 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), 34; Jenness 32, 40; and Peter Kulchyski, Unjust Relations: Aboriginal Rights in Canadian Courts (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1994), 32. (return to source paragraph)

  89. Backhouse, 21-22; and Kulchyski, 32-33. (return to source paragraph)

  90. Specifically, an 1856 HBC census of northern Quebec classified Inuit (Esquimaux) as Indians. As the Crown had invested the HBC with administrative authority, their description of Inuit was particularly significant to the Supreme Court's decision. Although much of the region inhabited by Inuit was Rupert's Land in 1867, and therefore not part of Canada at Confederation, the Constitution Act, 1867 provided for the addition of territories to Confederation. Rupert's Land was ceded to Canada in 1871. Backhouse, 52-53; Diubaldo (1981), 37; Kulchyski, 32-33; and Brian Slattery and Sheila E. Stelck, Canadian Native Law Cases (Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Native Law Centre, 1987), 123-142. (return to source paragraph)

  91. Of note, neither the Canadian nor Quebec governments invited Inuit to participate in the Re Eskimo proceedings. Backhouse, 35. (return to source paragraph)

  92. The Supreme Court of Canada was created in 1875 but decisions could be appealed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) in London until 1933 for criminal appeals and 1949 for civil appeals. Supreme Court, 19 March 2004, Creation and Beginnings of the Court, [3 November 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  93. Members of the NWT Council and the Minister of the Interior wrote to the Minister of Justice, who wrote to O.D. Skelton, Under Secretary of State for External Affairs, and requested that an appeal be made for a reversal of the decision. Jenness, 40; and Diubaldo (1981), 39. (return to source paragraph)

  94. Backhouse, 55. (return to source paragraph)

  95. In 1936, the Department of the Interior was dismantled and its responsibilities for natural resource management were transferred to the Department of Mines and Resources. Within this department's five branches, the Lands, Parks and Forest Branch administered the Bureau of Northwest Territories and Yukon Affairs. This Bureau was responsible for monitoring northern issues, including schools, hospitals, law and order, liquor regulations, reindeer herds and mining. The NWT Council, under the auspices of the new Bureau, continued to be the dominant administrative body to impart government services for Inuit. Most welfare, healthcare and education services, however, continued to be delivered by Roman Catholic and Anglican missionary organizations. Dickerson, 32, 37-46, 56; and R. Duffy, 11. (return to source paragraph)

  96. The Order in Council transferring responsibility for Inuit and First Nations health to the Department of National Health and Welfare was P.C. 1945-6495. Duffy, 18; and Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 7 February 1997, Administrative Outline of Indian Affairs, [3 November 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  97. Diubaldo (1992), 24. (return to source paragraph)

  98. Dickerson, 70; and Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Looking Forward, Looking Back, Vol. 1 (Ottawa: Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996), 300. (return to source paragraph)

  99. Hawley, 8. (return to source paragraph)

  100.  Re Eskimo was used in a 1957 report for the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, which questioned the Newfoundland Government's legal obligation to Labrador Inuit based on Newfoundland's 1949 entrance to Confederation, ten years after the Re Eskimo decision. Here, the Supreme Court ruling that Inuit were historically classified as Indians was used to employ a 1950 ruling by the Department of Justice. This ruling, that “it is the responsibility of the federal government to formulate and carry out all policies that are directed at dealing with Indians or Indian problems,” demonstrated federal responsibility for Labrador Inuit. Marshall, 4. (return to source paragraph)

  101. Within the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Inuit and First Nations were administered separately. Northern Development included areas such as the Northern Administration Branch, the Advisory Committee on Northern Development, and the Northern Co-ordination and Research Centre. Terry Cook, Federal Archives General Inventory Series: Records of the Northern Affairs Program (RG 85) (Ottawa: Public Archives Canada, 1982), 19-20; F.B. Fingland, “Administrative and Constitutional Changes in Arctic Territories,” The Arctic Frontier, R. St. J. Macdonald, ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966: 130-159), 143. (return to source paragraph)

  102. Diubaldo (1992), 10; and Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Looking Forward, Looking Back, Vol. 1 (Ottawa: Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996), 319. (return to source paragraph)

  103. McGoldrick interview (February 2005). (return to source paragraph)

  104. Nixon, 149. (return to source paragraph)

  105. Duffy, 16. (return to source paragraph)

  106. Diubaldo (1992), 16. (return to source paragraph)

  107. Duffy, 17. For a more detailed discussion of government programs for Inuit housing, healthcare, education, relocation and employment, please refer to the relevant chapters in this historical review. (return to source paragraph)

  108. In the early 1950s, eight federally run schools were established in the Arctic and welfare teachers were sent to communities to teach health, basic education, conservation of resources and physical activities. Between 1922 and 1938, thirteen doctors served as medical officers on the Eastern Arctic Patrol, with little specialized equipment or training. In 1926, the Anglican Church built a hospital at Aklavik, and another at Pangnirtung in 1928. A Catholic hospital was built at Chesterfield Inlet in 1929. Diubaldo (1992), 31-34.
    The Book of Wisdom for Eskimos (1947) was published in English and Inuktitut, and contained information on many issues including the spread of disease, childcare, hygiene, and on programs like Family Allowances. Public History thanks Peter Irniq for donating a copy of this book. Peter Irniq, former Commissioner of Nunavut, interview by author, 27 April 2005, digital recording, Commissioner's House, Iqaluit, Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  109. According to Gordon Robertson, though some social welfare programs were applied to communities across the Arctic, some programs were developed to meet the needs of particular communities. R. Gordon Robertson, former Deputy Minister, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, Government of Canada, interview by author, 9 November 2004, digital recording, Public History, Ottawa. See also: Chartrand, 241; and W.C. Rockwood, Memorandum on General Policy in Respect to the Indians and Eskimos of Northern Labrador (St. Johns: North Labrador Affairs, Department of Public Welfare, 1955), 1-3. (return to source paragraph)

  110. Chartrand, 241. (return to source paragraph)

  111. Dickerson, 63 (return to source paragraph)

  112. Diubaldo (1992), 30. (return to source paragraph)

  113. Robertson (2000), 120. (return to source paragraph)

  114. Committees within the department responsible for Inuit affairs, such as the Advisory Committee on Northern Development (ACND) and the Eskimo Affairs Committee were created throughout the early 1950s to co-ordinate the administration of Inuit affairs among government departments and to facilitate the development of programs and services for Inuit. For example, the Eskimo Affairs Committee, which began in 1950 with representatives from the civil service, RCMP, and Anglican and Roman Catholic missionaries, encouraged and supported Inuit in retaining their traditional way of life insofar as that was possible by creating programs such as the Eskimo Loan Fund. This fund provided loans of up to $40,000 to assist Inuit in purchasing equipment to increase their earning power or to initiate economic development projects. Diubaldo (1992), 36-37. In the 1960s the federal government encouraged Inuit to obtain vocational training for careers in areas such as mechanics and heavy machine operation. This training was often obtained outside the community, at institutes like the Churchill Vocational Centre. Peter Irniq interview (27 April 2005) and The Honourable Charlie Watt, Senator, Senate of Canada, interview by author, 19 May 2005, digital recording, Victoria Building, Government of Canada, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  115. Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Residential School for Indian Acculturation (Ottawa: Indian and Eskimo Welfare Commission, Oblate Fathers in Canada, 1958), 4. (return to source paragraph)

  116. Residents in government housing during the 1960s were required to participate in adult education programs as part of their rental agreement. These programs taught family members, particularly women, how to safely use the appliances that came with the home, how each of the rooms should be used, and how to care for and repair the home. While these programs were primarily intended for safety purposes, and to ensure unnecessary damage was not done to the rental units, they also acculturated Inuit families. The division of rooms in the rental units affected traditional Inuit sleeping patterns, and the use of space for cooking, eating, and performing chores, like skinning seals. Nixon, 2. (return to source paragraph)

  117. Government agencies hired Inuit for employment in northern communities, and provided incentives to businesses, like mining companies, to hire Inuit. Cultural differences in expectations of job performance and employee behaviour often meant that Inuit did not retain employment for long periods of time, which was as much the decision of Inuit as it was their employers. Very successful, however, was the development of co-operatives, which were first established in 1958. In 1959, the Northwest Territories Council passed the Co-Operatives Ordinance. Along with organizations such as the Canadian Handicraft Guild, Inuit administered the creation, marketing, and sale of their products and services, such as prints and carvings, as well as the creation of sport fishing lodges, and commercial fisheries. The government supported Inuit involvement and administration of such organizations because of the experience in entrepreneurship and business management that it provided. Andrew J. Freyman and Graham T. Armstrong, “The Role of Indians and Eskimos in the Canadian Mining Industry,” Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (1969); Marybelle Mitchell, From Talking Chiefs to a Native Corporate Elite: the Birth of Class and Nationalism Among Canadian Inuit (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996); and D.K. Thomas and C.T. Thompson, Eskimo Housing as Planned Culture Change (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1972). (return to source paragraph)

  118. Canada, Health in Canada's North: Brief for the Royal Commission on Health Services (Ottawa: Northern Health Service, Department of National Health and Welfare, 1962), 2. (return to source paragraph)

  119. These churches, with some government assistance, funded the construction and administration of several residential and day schools in the Arctic and northern Quebec, including those located at Akalvik, Fort McPherson, Coppermine, Chesterfield Inlet, Port Harrison and Iqaluit. The federal government sought to create standardized education programs on par with those in the rest of Canada to create literate and employable Inuit. Inuit recognized the acculturative force of the federal government's education system, and by the early 1970s were requesting increases to the amount of culturally relevant curriculum material, as well as increased involvement of Inuit community members in teaching children traditional skills, such as sewing skins, during school hours. While Inuit were willing to adopt some elements of southern Canadian culture, many adults were still illiterate and distrustful of an education system that emphasized their children's need to learn culturally unfamiliar skills and knowledge. Adult education programs and vocational training emphasized literacy, as well as practical skills including nursing, construction work, heavy machine operation, and clerical work. They also taught safety skills associated with operating appliances in government homes, and nutrition and hygiene for maintaining healthy families. These programs assisted Inuit in the transition from a primarily self-sufficient land-based subsistence to wage earning supplemented by traditional activities, like hunting and fishing. Increased contact with southern Canadian culture, through communication mediums like television and radio, also helped to acculturate Inuit to southern Canadian culture. Dickerson , 87. (return to source paragraph)

  120. Dickerson, 87; and Cook, 19-24. (return to source paragraph)

  121. As late as 2000, 22% of Inuit were not employed in the wage economy. Derek Rasmussen, Dissolving Inuit Society Through Education and Money: the Myth of Educating Inuit Out of “Primitive Childhood” and into Economic Adulthood (Montreal: Intercultural Institute of Montreal, 2000), 3-6; and David Omar Born, Eskimo Education and the Trauma of Social Change (Ottawa: Northern Science Research Group, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1970), 40. (return to source paragraph)

  122. Chartrand, 252; and Robertson (1960), 2. (return to source paragraph)

  123. According to Morrison, “it was not that the American Government had conscious designs on Canadian sovereignty; rather, they had a clear idea of what they wanted and needed in the Canadian North, and saw no reason why what was in their interests should not be in the interests of the Canadians as well.” William R. Morrison, “Eagle Over the Arctic: Americans in the Canadian North, 1867-1985,” Interpreting Canada's North: Selected Readings, Kenneth S. Coates and William R. Morrison, eds. (Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1989: 169-184), 176. (return to source paragraph)

  124. Kenneth Coates, Canada's Colonies: A History of the Yukon and Northwest Territories (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, Publishers, 1985), 167-180; and Kenneth C. Eyre, “Forty Years of Military Activity in the Canadian North, 1947-87,” Arctic 40.4 (December 1987: 292-299), 292. (return to source paragraph)

  125. Morrison, 177. (return to source paragraph)

  126. These projects also served Cold War defence needs. Morrison, 177. For a detailed discussion of North American defence in the Canadian Arctic see: Joseph T. Jockel, No Boundaries Upstairs: Canada, the United States, and the Origins of North American Air Defence, 1945-1958 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1987). (return to source paragraph)

  127. Twenty-one DEW Line sites in Canadian territory were decommissioned in the early 1960s and turned over to the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development for their use in the administration of Inuit affairs. The Department of National Defence operated the remaining 21 sites until they were decommissioned in 1993, and replaced by the North Warning System. N.D. Bankes, “Forty Years of Canadian Sovereignty Assertion in the Arctic, 1947-87,” Arctic 40.4 (December 1987: 285-291), 287; and R.J. Sutherland, “The Strategic Significance of the Canadian Arctic,” The Arctic Frontier, R. St. J. Macdonald, ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966: 256-278), 263. (return to source paragraph)

  128. Bankes, 287; Arthur Charo, Continental Air Defence: A Neglected Dimension of Strategic Defence (Lanham, Maryland: Centre for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, 1990), 2-3; Coates 210-211; Duffy, 32-33; Eyre, 294-295; and Sutherland, 269-271. (return to source paragraph)

  129. The NORAD agreement was initially specified for a ten-year period and is now revised at five-year intervals. This regular review “has served to keep NORAD relevant despite the dramatically changing strategic landscape.” D.F. Holoman, NORAD In the New Millenium (Toronto: Canadian Institute of International Affairs and Irwin Publishing, 2000), 12. (return to source paragraph)

  130. Maurice Sauve, Interim Report of the Special Committee of the House of Commons on Matters Relating to Defense (Ottawa: House of Commons, 1963), 20. (return to source paragraph)

  131. Sauve, 21. (return to source paragraph)

  132. These included the Mid-Canada Line and the Pine Tree Line stations, as well as stations located in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and British Columbia. The Pine Tree Line (also called the Continental Air Defense Integration North (CADIN) Line) was located along the northern boundary of the United States and stretched into Newfoundland. The Mid-Canada Line (also called the McGill Fence) was built and operated by Canada along the fifty-fifth parallel. The DEW Line sites were built along the seventieth parallel. They started in Alaska at Cape Lisburne and ran eastward along the coast, crossing to the Arctic islands, then to the Boothia and Melville peninsulas, then to the southeast corner of Baffin Island at Cape Dyer. Duffy, 33; Bankes, 286; Jockel, 2; Morrison, 178-179; and Sauve, 20-21. (return to source paragraph)

  133. For example, many of the airport runways constructed for defence projects have since been turned over to community administration, facilitating the movement of people between northern communities and southern Canada, as well as the delivery of items, like mail and fresh foods. Thomas and Thompson, 10-11. (return to source paragraph)

  134. Duffy, 33; and Eyre, 295-296. (return to source paragraph)

  135. Morrison, 170; and Charo, 7. (return to source paragraph)

  136. Eyre, 292. (return to source paragraph)

  137. National Defence, 31 August 2001, Backgrounder: The Distant Early Warning Line Clean up Project, [5 June 2006]; San Francisco Chronicle, 3 November 2001, Heated Arctic Dispute Greenland. Alaska Natives Balk at New U.S. Military Plans, [14 June 2006]; and Lexum, 4 October 1999, Canado-American Treaties, [14 June 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  138. Inuit were seasonally nomadic, and community size varied according to season and location, making it common for incompatible families to avoid living in camps with one another. Jean Briggs, Never in Anger: Portrait of an Eskimo Family (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1970); Diubaldo (1992), 6-7; and Jenness (1964), 14. (return to source paragraph)

  139. Before 1999, the Northwest Territories included the region of the Eastern Arctic that is now the Territory of Nunavut. Unless otherwise specified, any reference to the NWT before 1999 includes Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  140. As the whalers, traders and missionaries all sought to develop relationships with Inuit, they often learned enough of the local language and customs to facilitate these arrangements. While Inuit culture discouraged direct confrontation, disagreements over such things as money, which were culturally unfamiliar to Inuit, were common. Acculturation to Christian morals included learning norms for property ownership; treatment of family members, such as the inappropriateness of abandoning infants and elderly during periods of food shortage; and consequences for socially inappropriate conduct based on Canadian law. Diubaldo (1992), 3-5; Jenness, 15; and William R. Morrison, Showing the Flag: The Mounted Police and Canadian Sovereignty, 1894-1925 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1985), 85. (return to source paragraph)

  141. The NWMP became the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) in 1920. Canadian law was applicable to the Northwest Territories beginning in 1870 when the territory was acquired from the HBC. At this time, northern Quebec was part of the NWT. Diubaldo (1992), 3; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Historic Treaty Information Site, [24 November 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  142. Jenness (1964), 18-20; Diubaldo (1992), 4-5; and Morrison (1985), 72. (return to source paragraph)

  143. The RCMP did not, however, regulate trade relations between Inuit and whalers or the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), and they did not initially administer any social welfare programs for Inuit. It was illegal to trade or sell liquor to Inuit during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. To assert Canadian sovereignty, RCMP posts were established in the archipelago beginning in 1922 at Pond Inlet on Baffin Island and at Craig Harbour on Ellesmere Island. In 1930, a post was established at the Bache Peninsula. During the first half of the twentieth century, the RCMP were often responsible for distributing emergency relief to Inuit, as they were the only Crown representative stationed in many regions of the Arctic. Where there were no RCMP posts, HBC, missionaries and medical personnel distributed relief. Dickerson, 49, 54; and Morrison (1985), 84-85. (return to source paragraph)

  144. This trial was held in Edmonton. Both men were convicted and sentenced to death, which was commuted to life in prison. Diubaldo (1992), 7. (return to source paragraph)

  145. In both cases, Inuit claimed to have practiced homicide as a means of community protection. To deal with infanticide, the NWMP initiated the distribution of social welfare assistance to Inuit in 1921 through “baby bounties.” These were packages of European consumer goods, including needles, ammunition, kettles, and clothing, intended to discourage infanticide among Inuit. The packages were logistically difficult to deliver, however, and the practice was discontinued in 1926. The 1923 trial was held at Herschel Island as a demonstration of Canadian law for Inuit. Defense and prosecution lawyers, as well as the judge were brought from southern Canada, along with gallows and an executioner. According to Diubaldo, two graves were dug before the judge passed his sentence. Diubaldo (1992), 7-8. (return to source paragraph)

  146. In 1905, the Northwest Territories (NWT) included the regions that are currently the territories of Nunavut and the NWT. The Commissioner, who was also the Financial Comptroller for the NWMP, administered the Council from Ottawa. Four civil servants assisted him. The Council was responsible for ensuring Canadian sovereignty in the North, as well as the maintenance of law and order. As the NWMP were the only representatives of the Canadian Government in the North, they held a variety of responsibilities, including serving as justices of the peace, postmasters, census officers, and occasionally providing health care. Members of the NWMP served on J.E. Bernier's voyages on the Canadian ship Arctic, which patrolled the eastern Arctic coasts and islands between 1905 and 1911, ensuring Canadian sovereignty, and the maintenance of law and order. Bernier's annual tours of the Arctic, which were known as the Eastern Arctic Patrol began again in 1922 and included members of the RCMP. The first commissioner appointed to the NWT Council died in 1920, and was replaced by Deputy Minister of the Department of the Interior. The Deputy Minister of the federal department responsible for northern affairs acted as Commissioner of the NWT Council, until 1963 when a civil servant was appointed to the position full-time. Dickerson, 29; and Jenness (1964), 21-29. (return to source paragraph)

  147. As well as maintaining stationary posts, members of the RCMP were required to patrol large regions of the Arctic to monitor small camps of Inuit. The RCMP mainly visited Inuit camps to register births and deaths, and to record census information. Inuit were first enumerated for the Canadian census in 1911, and much of this work was accomplished by the NWMP, with assistance from the HBC and missionaries. Mitchell, 111-113. (return to source paragraph)

  148. The Northwest Territories Branch of the Department of the Interior was formed to administer natural resource exploitation in the North. Although the Deputy Minister of the Department of the Interior became the Commissioner of the NWT Council, membership of the Council was expanded to include the Assistant Commissioner of the RCMP. Members of the RCMP served on the Eastern Arctic Patrol from its inception in 1922 through to the 1950s, ensuring sovereignty and the maintenance of law and order in the eastern Arctic. In 1964, the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, which administered Inuit affairs, contained seven divisions of its Northern Administration Branch, none of which focused on legal or policing issues. The NWT Council operating budget contained a Police and Justice section in 1965. Dickerson, 64-69; Jenness, 29; and Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, 30 August 2004, Community Profile—Fort Smith, [29 November 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  149. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary (RNC) policed Inuit communities in Labrador from the 1800s to 1935, when the Commission Government instituted the Newfoundland Ranger Force. The Rangers policed remote areas of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Ranger force was dissolved in 1949, when Newfoundland and Labrador entered Confederation and the RCMP took over community policing. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary, 2004, History, [30 November 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  150. Mark Tindall, Constable, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, interview by author, 18 May 2005, Public History, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  151. Through the amended Northwest Territories Act of 1878, the territorial government is responsible for the daily administration of territorial affairs, but the federal government has the authority to veto any territorial legislation and retains a more active role in administration of the territory than it does with provincial governments. Dickerson, 90-93. (return to source paragraph)

  152. The federal and territorial governments have encouraged Inuit to train as RCMP Officers, as a career and to deter crime by providing role models with Inuit officers policing their own communities. Northern communities, however, continue to experience high incidence of some criminal behaviour, including illegal alcohol and drug use, and family violence. Through programs such as the RCMP Aboriginal Youth Training Program and RCMP First Nations Community Policing Services, Inuit are encouraged to participate in the development and implementation of community policing programs. Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 6 October 2004, RCMP Aboriginal Policing, [29 November 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  153. Diubaldo (1992), 6-8. (return to source paragraph)

  154. In the NWT, for example, the crime rate was an average of 3.7 times the crime rate for the rest of Canada each year between 1977 and 1992. The rate of violent crime increased across Canada every year between 1977 and 1992, and within that time doubled, but the NWT, “has accounted for the single highest percentage within the overall Canadian violent crime rates at an average of 29.4 percent of the national violent crime rate.” Allan Lloyd Patenaude, “Crime and Criminal Justice in Nunavut: An Exploration in Aboriginal Peoples and Criminal Justice Policy” (Ph.D. diss., Simon Fraser University, 1997), 263-264. (return to source paragraph)

  155. Please see chapters on housing, healthcare, education, and economic development for more comprehensive discussions on issues contributing to the high northern crime rate. Tina Price, Policy Analyst, Policy and Planning Division, Department of Justice, Government of Nunavut, e-mail to author, 12 September 2005; Harold W. Finkler, The Baffin Correctional Centre, Frobisher Bay, NWT: A Review of Current Programs and Alternatives (Yellowknife: Department of Health and Social Services, Government of the Northwest Territories, 1981), 32-33, and 63-73; Harald W. Finkler, “Policy Issues in the Delivery of Correctional Services in the Northwest Territories,” Paper given to the American Society of Criminology's 34th Annual Meeting, Toronto, November 4-6, 1982a, 4-9, transcript, Northern Social Research Division, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada; Harald W. Finkler, “Violence and the Administration of Criminal Justice in Northern Canada,” Paper given to the Conference on Violence, Justice Center, University of Alaska, Anchorage, October 11-13, 1982b, transcript, Northern Social Research Division, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 3. (return to source paragraph)

  156. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary (RNC) policed Inuit communities in Labrador from the 1800s to 1935, when the Commission Government instituted the Newfoundland Ranger Force. The Rangers policed remote areas of Newfoundland and Labrador but were dissolved in 1949 when Newfoundland and Labrador entered Confederation. Since then, the RCMP has been responsible for community policing. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary, 2004, History, [30 November 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  157. Quebec was originally part of the Northwest Territories when it was acquired from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1870. The Kativik Regional Police Force is the only primary Inuit police force in Canada. Candidates must be bilingual in French and English to be employed as special constables with the force. Mary Crnkovich, “The Role of the Victim in the Criminal Justice System—Circle Sentencing in Inuit Communities,” paper prepared for the Canadian Institute of the Administration of Justice Conference, Banff, Alberta, 11-14 October 1995, transcript, Canadian Association of Sexual Assault Centres, [14 April 2005]; Diubaldo (1992), 3; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Historic Treaty Information Site, [24 November 2004]; and Kativik Regional Government, 13 June 2003, Kativik Regional Police Force, [29 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  158. Harald W. Finkler, Inuit and the Administration of Criminal Justice in the Northwest Territories: The Case of Frobisher Bay (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1975), 1-2. (return to source paragraph)

  159. Aboriginal Peoples and the Criminal Justice System,” Canadian Criminal Justice Association Bulletin. (15 May 2000), Part II, [14 April 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  160. Finkler (1981), 25-26. (return to source paragraph)

  161. In Inuktitut, the Baffin facility was called Ikajurtauvik (“the place to get help”). Finkler (1981), 27. (return to source paragraph)

  162. Finkler (1981), 27-28; and Finkler (1982a), 4. (return to source paragraph)

  163. The program involved several phases for the offender, including natii (“a person who needs to be taught”), where offenders were instructed in traditional land-based skills; eetuk (“someone who has made progress”), where the privileges and responsibilities of offenders were increased; and oiyuna (“a person who has had a full life”), which indicated successful completion of the program. Finkler (1981), 28-30, 73, and 80-81.
    Many criminal offences committed in the North during the 1970s involved alcohol and motor vehicles. Many offences against the person occurred among family members, and included various forms of assault. There was also an increase in non-medical drug use in the North. The high incidence of alcohol use in connection with criminal behaviour characterized many offences in the North as disorderly and antisocial, rather than as premeditated crimes. Finkler (1981), 32-33, and 63-73; Finkler (1982a), 4-9; Finkler (1982b), 3. (return to source paragraph)

  164. Quebec's 1970 Ittoshat judgment, where a judge refused to hear the case of an Inuk in Montreal because defense witnesses from his community could not be produced, prompted a review of how the Quebec justice system dealt with Inuit. Serge Bouchard and Clotilde Pelletier, “Justice in Question: Evaluation of Projects to Create a Local Judiciary in Povungnituk (Northern Quebec)” (Montreal: Consulting Services in Social Sciences, Development, 1986), 12-59; and Susan G. Drummond, Incorporating the Familiar: An Investigation into Legal Sensibilities in Nunavik (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997), 1-20. The federal government largely administered Nunavik until the 1960s, when the Quebec Government established a presence in the North. Consequently, most Inuit in Nunavik speak Inuktitut, with English as a second language. Recently, as more professionals from southern Quebec are employed in Nunavik, educating children in French after Grade 2 has become an increasingly popular choice among Inuit parents. Government of Quebec, Secrétariat aux Affaires Autochtones, Inuit [14 April 2005]; and “In Nunavik, French is becoming the language of success,” Nunatsiaq News, 8 October 1998 [14 April 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  165. Bouchard and Pelletier, 12-59; and Drummond, 58. (return to source paragraph)

  166. Drummond, 3-25. See also: Corinne Jette, “A Survey of the Administration of Justice Respecting the Inuit of NorthernQuebec” (Montreal, LaMaisonWakesun House,1990),Public Safety andEmergency Preparedness Canada, 10 April 2002 [14 April 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  167. “Needs of Native Young Offenders in Labrador in View of the Young Offenders Act: Final Report” (Ottawa: Research and Statistics Section, Policy, Planning and Development Branch, 1985), i and 12-13. (return to source paragraph)

  168. A report by the Canadian Criminal Justice Association using statistics from 1986, states that the suicide rate among Inuit was 54 per 100,000 of the population, compared to 34 per 100,000 for First Nations, and 15 per 100,000 for non-Aboriginal Canadians. “Aboriginal Peoples and the Criminal Justice System,” Canadian Criminal Justice Association Bulletin (15 May 2000) [14 April 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  169. Harald A. Finkler, “Inuit and the Criminal Justice System: Future Strategies for Socio-Legal Control and Prevention,” Paper given to the Inuit Studies Conference, Montreal, 15-18 November 1984, transcript, Office of the Northern Research and Science Advisor, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (return to source paragraph)

  170. John Evans, Robert Hann and Joan Nuffield, “Crime and Corrections in the Northwest Territories,” Prepared for the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Health and Social Services, Government of the Northwest Territories (Vancouver: Management and Policy International, 1998), 1-4. (return to source paragraph)

  171. Naomi Giff, “Nunavut Justice Issues: An Annotated Bibliography” (Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada, 2000), 25-33, and 37-40, [19 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  172. Giff, ii and 3-7; and Tindall interview, 18 May 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  173. Mary Crnkovich, Lisa Adario and Linda Archibald, “Inuit Women and the Nunavut Justice System” (Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada, 2000), [19 January 2005]; Patricia Hughes and Mary Jane Mossman, “Re-Thinking Access to Criminal Justice in Canada: A Critical Review of Needs, Responses and Restorative Justice Initiatives” (Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada, 2001), 46, [19 January 2005]; “Summary of the Inuit Women and the Nunavut Justice System Workshop” (Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Policy Sector, Department of Justice Canada, 1999), 1-8, [19 January 2005].

    The Nunavut Department of Justice is currently conducting a review of policing programs, and is specifically addressing the issues of domestic violence and the empowerment of women. The Nunavut Department of Justice's current top priorities program and policy development are family violence support programming, non-confrontational spousal abuse programming, violence against women programming, and the victim services fund. Tina Price, Policy Analyst, and Clara Evalik, Director, Policy and Planning Division, Department of Justice, Government of Nunavut, interview by author, 25 May 2005, telephone to Iqaluit, Public History, Ottawa.

    (return to source paragraph)

  174. Don Clairmont, “Review of the Justice System Issues Relevant to Nunavut,” Atlantic Institute of Criminology, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Policy Sector, Department of Justice Canada, 1999), 11. (return to source paragraph)

  175. Clairmont, 11-13; Wills Thomas, Non-Commissioned Officer, Community Policing, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, interview by author, 26 April 2005, digital recording, Government of Canada Building, Iqaluit, Nunavut; and Rosemarie Kuptana, “The Sustainable Development of Canada's North,” speech given to the Second National Capital Colloquium on the Governance of Sustainable Development 2004-2005: Innovations in Governance of Sustainable Development, Centre on Governance, University of Ottawa, 12 April 2005, author's notes. (return to source paragraph)

  176. Clarimont, 13-20; John-Patrick Moore, First Nations, Métis, Inuit and Non-Aboriginal Federal Offenders: A Comparative Profile (Ottawa: Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, 2003), i-iii, [10 March 2005]; David King, “A Brief Report of The Federal Government of Canada's Residential School System for Inuit,” Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2006, [14 June 2006]; and Nathalie L. Quann and Kwing Hung, “Profile and Projection of Drug Prosecutions Jurisdiction Report: Northwest Territories” (Ottawa: Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada, 2000), 2, [19 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  177. Clarimont, 13-20. A 2003 study by Correctional Services Canada comparing Métis, First Nations, and Inuit criminal offenders determined that although many members of each group had considerable numbers of prior convictions, the profiles of offenders from each cultural group were significantly different. Many Inuit offenders (85%) are classified as being of high risk to re-offend when they are brought into the criminal justice system, and many commit sexually based crimes (62%). Large numbers of Inuit offenders were identified as requiring assistance to deal with personal and emotional issues (99%), substance abuse (92%), and marital or family problems (73%). Inuit are also over-represented within Canada for drug related offences, and drug possession in particular. This is compared to First Nations, Métis, and non-Aboriginal offenders convicted of sexual offences (22%, 16%, and 17%, respectively). Predicted rates for high risk to re-offend at intake were First Nations (73%), Métis (68%), and non-Aboriginal (57%). Assessed need for overall assistance managing personal issues was identified to be: 89% for Inuit, 78% for First Nations, 73% for Metis, and 62% for non-Aboriginal offenders. Moore, i-iii, [10 March 2005]. Inuit comprise 0.2% of the population but account for 0.4% of drug related offences. In a 2000 report for the Department of Justice Canada, drug offences in the North were predicted to increase for the next five years. Quann and Hung, 2 [19 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  178. Price and Evalik interview, 25 May 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  179. The Akitsiraq Law School was a one-time program, administered jointly by the University of Victoria Faculty of Law, Nunavut Arctic College, and the Akitsiraq Law School Society. The program was created to ensure that Inuit were trained as lawyers, a priority identified by the Government of Nunavut. The program was based in Iqaluit, with courses offered at Nunavut Arctic College that were instructed by faculty from the University of Victoria. This was a four-year program that began in 2001. Students completing the program earned a Bachelor of Laws degree. The University of Victoria Faculty of Law, 2003, Akitsiraq Law School, [15 August 2005]; and Greg Younger-Lewis, “Akitsiraq Grads Bring Inuit Values to Northern Law,” Nunatsiaq News, 17 June 2005,[15 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  180. The program was conducted in two pilot sessions during 2004 but was so successful that it is now offered to all RCMP in the North, as well as to all Government of Nunavut and to all Government of Canada employees in Nunavut. The program is based on assigned historical readings followed by facilitated discussions. Topics covered in the course were determined through advice provided by high profile Inuit, including Peter Irniq and Jose Kusugak. Thomas interview, 26 April 2005.

    (return to source paragraph)

  181. In their interim report, the RCMP state that they plan to release their final investigation report in May 2006. As of 30 June 2006, the report was not available on their website. The report concluded that socioeconomic upheaval and technological change, such as the introduction of the snowmobile, might have been significant factors in the decision of Inuit families to stop using sled dogs for working purposes. The report describes the high level of maintenance required to keep a sled dog team and notes that if a family was experiencing hardship, it may have found it difficult to keep an active dog team. Further, the report documents incidence of several canine epidemics that wiped out dog populations in parts of the Arctic and the RCMP's attempt to assist Inuit families in re-populating their dog teams. There is also evidence that RCMP sometimes inoculated sled dogs against various diseases. Royal Canadian Mounted Police, “Interim Report: RCMP Review of Allegations Concerning Inuit Sled Dogs” (Ottawa: Operational Policy Section, National Contract Policing Branch, Community, Contract and Aboriginal Policing Services, 22 September 2005), [6 April 2006]; and “Echo of the Last Howl” (Kuujjuaq: Makivik Corporation, 2005). See also: Ian Kenneth MacRury, “The Inuit Dog: Its Provenance, Environment and History”, (MA thesis, Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, 1991; and J. Garth Taylor, “Canicide in Labrador: Function and Meaning of an Inuit Killing Ritual,” Etudes/Inuit/Studies 17.1(1993): 3-13.

    (return to source paragraph)

  182. Inuit-specific programs developed by the federal government to treat and rehabilitate Inuit sexual offenders, such as the Tupiq program, seek to reduce the rate of recidivism and increase the number of Inuit sexual offenders successfully reintegrated to their communities. The Tupiq program was developed in 2000, and is an intensive 16-week program administered from the Fenbrook Institution, a federal penitentiary located in Gravenhurst, Ontario. A 2004 report by Correctional Service of Canada reported that among the 34 initial program participants, there appeared to be some success in minimizing the rate of re-offences and in assisting offenders with their community re-integration. The program provides treatment and counseling for abuse issues, as well as substance abuse counseling, and strategies for managing personal and emotional problems. Shelley Trevethan, John-Patrick Moore and Leesie Naqitarvik, “The Tupiq Program for Inuit Sexual Offenders: A Preliminary Investigation” (Ottawa: Research Branch, Correctional Service of Canada, 2004), [18 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  183. Patenaude, 263-264. See also: Giff, and Moore. (return to source paragraph)

  184. The Arctic Archipelago is comprised of the islands located north of the Arctic mainland and south of the North Pole. In 1870, the Northwest Territories included what are presently the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan and Alberta, as well as the northern parts of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, 1870 Canada—Territorial Evolution Map, http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca, [24 November 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  185. The United States of America purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867, and within two years evicted Canadians from the Hudson Bay Company (HBC) post, Fort Yukon, that was built in 1846 on the Yukon River in Alaska. This episode is an example of America's nineteenth century interest in protecting its northern territory. In 1870, the HBC ceded all interest in the Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories (NWT) to the Government of Canada, giving the government all responsibility for administration and maintenance of Canadian sovereignty in the North. Morrison (1989), 170-171. (return to source paragraph)

  186. The Order in Council was precipitated by a request for a land grant land in Cumberland Sound by an American navy engineer in 1874. The Order in Council did not specify that Canada had a social responsibility for Inuit welfare. Jenness (1964), 17. Morris Zaslow, The Northwest Territories, 1905-1980 (Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association Historical Booklet, No. 38, 1984), 4-5. (return to source paragraph)

  187. Rob Huebert, “Climate Change and Canadian Sovereignty in the Northwest Passage,” Canadian Journal of Policy Research 2.4 (Winter 2001: 86-94), 88, [3 March 2005]; J.L. Granatstein, “A Fit of Absence of Mind: Canada's National Interests in the North to 1968,” The Arctic in Question, E.J. Dosman, ed. (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1976: 13-33), 30; P.A. Lapointe, “International Law and the Arctic,” Policies of Northern Development, Nils Orvik, ed. (Kingston: Group for International Politics, Department of Political Studies, Queen's University, 1973: 143-151), 144; and Andrea Charron, “The Northwest Passage Shipping Channel: Is Canada's Sovereignty Really Floating Away?” paper presented at Canadian Defense and Foreign Affairs Institute 7th Annual Graduate Student Symposium, Royal Military College, 29-30 October 2004, Canadian Defense and Foreign Affairs Institute, PDF [15 April 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  188. Bernier obtained much public support for his voyage, including that of Lord Strathcona, Governor General Minto, and 113 members of Parliament who signed a petition requesting that the government fund Bernier's expedition. The government also funded Vilhalmur Stefansson's explorations of the western Arctic Archipelago from 1913 to 1918. Jenness, 22; D. Soberman, “Report to the Canadian Human Rights Commission on the Complaints of the Inuit People Relocated from Inukjuak and Pond Inlet, to Grise Fiord and Resolute Bay” (Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission, 1991), 55; Zaslow (1971), 263; and Zaslow (1984), 4-5. (return to source paragraph)

  189. The Sverdrup Islands are located west of Axel Heiberg Island. Jenness, 29-30. (return to source paragraph)

  190. The Northwest Mounted Police were renamed the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920. Richard Diubaldo (1992), 3. (return to source paragraph)

  191. A Director of the new Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch of the Department of the Interior, O.S. Finnie (a former Gold Commissioner in the Yukon), was appointed, and two members were added to strengthen the Northwest Territories Council, which continued to operate from Ottawa. Finnie served as Branch Director from 1920 to 1931. As director of the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, Finnie sought to increase the availability of government services for Inuit. An Eskimo Affairs Unit within the Branch allowed Finnie to administer programs regarding healthcare, education, sanitation, arts and crafts, Inuit needs, and to support church-run schools and hospitals. Officially, the Canadian Government continued to encourage Inuit retention of traditional lifeways. Jenness, 29-30. (return to source paragraph)

  192. For a discussion of these projects, please see the chapter “NORAD and DEW Line Defence.” For a more detailed discussion of Canada's Arctic sovereignty concerns, please see Shelagh D. Grant, Sovereignty or Security? Government Policy in the Canadian North, 1936-1950 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1988). (return to source paragraph)

  193. Soberman, 55. (return to source paragraph)

  194. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Looking Forward Looking Back, Volume 1 (Ottawa: Canada Communications Group—Publishing, 1996), 455. (return to source paragraph)

  195. Shelagh D. Grant, “Inuit Relocations to the High Arctic, 1953-1960: “Errors Exposed”, Vol. I, Submission to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Peterborough: Trent University, History and Canadian Studies Department, 1993), iv-v; and Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Looking Forward, Looking Back, 455. (return to source paragraph)

  196. Although the government had success with several small-scale relocations, the 1957 relocation of several Inuit families from Ennadai Lake in the Keewatin District north to Henik Lake failed when caribou herds did not appear; after eight people died the remaining Inuit were returned to Ennadai Lake. In 1934, Inuit from Pangnirtung, Cape Dorset and Pond Inlet were relocated to Devon Island for two years as an experiment. The government wanted to determine how difficult it would be for Inuit to adapt to the High Arctic climate. The experiment was unsuccessful, and the Pangnirtung Inuit returned home in 1936. The Cape Dorset and Pond Inlet Inuit were relocated to Arctic Bay then, in 1937, to Fort Ross. In 1947, they were relocated to Spence Bay. Although Inuit repeatedly requested to return to their homes, the government refused. According to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, “the idea that they could return home if they didn't like the new location was key in getting the Inuit to agree to go in the first place. The failure of the government to keep its promises is a stark example of the arbitrary use of authority.” Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Looking Forward, Looking Back, Vol. 1 (Ottawa: Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996), 456. Other Arctic relocations included the 1949 relocation of Inuit from Ennadai Lake to Nueltin Lake, the movement of Inuit from Garry Lake to Rankin Inlet (“Keewatin Re-establishment Project” or “Itivia”) and Whale Cove in the 1950s, and the 1951 relocation of families from the Mackenzie Delta to Banks Island. Motivation for this move was explicitly to alleviate sovereignty concerns. Labrador Inuit were relocated from Nutak in 1956 and Hebron in 1959 to Okak Bay to centralize their administration and facilitate their transition from an economy based on hunting and fishing to industrial development. Diubaldo (1992), 31-34; Bud Neville, former Indian and Northern Affairs Canada employee, interview by author, 9 November 2004, digital recording, Public History, Ottawa; and Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Looking Forward, Looking Back, Vol. 1 (Ottawa: Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996), 422-425, 460-462. For a more detailed discussion of Inuit relocations see Frank James Tester and Peter Kulchyski, Tammarniit (Mistakes): Inuit Relocation in the Eastern Arctic, 1939-1963 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1994). (return to source paragraph)

  197. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples uses the term “de facto” in their description of the Canadian Government's comfort level with the security of Arctic sovereignty in the early 1950s. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, “Shedding New Light on the Relocation: Summary of the Commission's Conclusions,” Report on High Arctic Relocation (Ottawa: The Commission, 1994: 134-164), 136. (return to source paragraph)

  198. Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC) initially lodged complaints about the relocation with the Canadian Human Rights Commission (CHRC) in 1990. The CHRC referred the matter to the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND), who commissioned the Hickling Corporation to investigate the legitimacy of the claims. Hickling concluded that the government acted properly; in response, ITC appealed to the CHRC. The CHRC arranged for ITC and DIAND to review circumstances of the relocations, leading to the launch of the Royal Commission enquiry. Criticisms of the relocations include concerns that Inuit were not fully prepared to make the adaptations in lifestyle required of them, and consequently experienced food shortages and discomfort. The ITC perceived that Inuit involved in these relocations were part of an “experiment” to see if they could adapt to the climate and live independently through hunting and trapping. This perception explains why little funding or assistance was extended to them in the initial seven years of the project. As Inuit were representing Canadian sovereignty in the High Arctic, the government was reluctant to grant requests for their return to Inukjuak. Grant (1993), iii-iv; and Soberman, 1-3 and 55-57. (return to source paragraph)

  199. Rosemarie Kuptana, “Ilira: Or Why it is Unthinkable for Inuit to Challenge Qallunaat Authority,” paper presented to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 5 April 1993, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  200. Kuptana (1993). (return to source paragraph)

  201. Despite contradiction by former civil servants' testimony, and their caution that the actions of 1953 should not be viewed through the moral lens of 1993, the Commission concluded that relocations were a product of the government's desire to ensure Inuit self-reliance. Although food shortages were not as much of a problem in Inukjuak in the early 1950s, the government was concerned about dropping fox fur prices and the ability of Inuit to compensate for this loss of income on their own. To prevent rising welfare costs to the government, they designed the relocation project to ensure Inuit independence. According to the Commission, this conclusion explains why relocated Inuit were not provided with financial and material support. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. “Commission Releases Report on High Arctic Relocation,” Press Release (Ottawa: The Commission, 1994), 1-2. (return to source paragraph)

  202. During the 1980s, several Inuit requested to be permanently returned to Inukjuak and Pond Inlet from Grise Fiord and Resolute. The Canadian Government funded the relocation, and offered to refund Inuit who had paid for their own relocation several years earlier. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, press release, 3. (return to source paragraph)

  203. Government-sponsored relocations helped to create centralized communities in the Keewatin region more than anywhere else in the North, yet these communities also reflect Inuit agency in their selection of where to settle. David Damas, Arctic Migrants/Arctic Villagers: The Transformation of Inuit Settlement in the Central Arctic (Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002), 192-193; Nixon (1983), 90-149; Duffy, 16-17; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Backgrounder on Inuit and Housing for Discussion at Housing Sectoral Meeting, [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  204. The transfer of the Government of the Northwest Territories from Ottawa to Yellowknife in 1967 meant increasing numbers of federal and territorial administrators in the North, and consequently HBC personnel were no longer employed as representatives of the federal government. Cook (1982), 19-24; and Dickerson, 87. (return to source paragraph)

  205. In 1958, the Eskimo Affairs Committee made recommendations to guide all future Inuit relocations and recommended surveys of several priority regions to determine the future feasibility of relocations. These regions included Keewatin, the east coast of Hudson Bay, the Tuktoyaktuk-Coppermine region, and the north part of Baffin Island. Based on the discovery of mineral and oil deposits in the High Arctic during the 1960s, the federal government created further recommendations for Inuit relocations, suggesting Inuit be housed near weather stations in otherwise uninhabited areas, thereby maintaining Canadian sovereignty of the North and its resource extraction potential. Looking Forward, Looking Back: Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 1 (Ottawa: Canada Communication Group – Publishing, 1996), 422-430, 465-466, and 511-512. (return to source paragraph)

  206. Throughout the 1970s, however, the federal government continued to make decisions about the feasibility of northern communities, which affected their location and survival. Although Inuit at Killiniq in Nunavik were represented in the 1975 James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, between 1975 and 1978 government services to their community, including healthcare and infrastructure maintenance, were gradually reduced or terminated. In February 1978, Inuit at Killiniq were notified by radio that their community would be closed, and that they would be relocated within the same day. The Killiniq Inuit, who were distributed among five Nunavik communities, have since petitioned for the establishment of a community near the original Killiniq site. Makivik Corporation, with the assistance of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, has conducted feasibility studies for this relocation. Although the studies concluded that a community near the original Killiniq site was economically viable, no action has been taken to construct the necessary community infrastructure. Looking Forward, Looking Back, 422-430; 465-466; and 511-512; and The Relocation to Taqpangajuk: a Feasibility Study (Quebec: Makivik Corporation, 1987), i-v. (return to source paragraph)

  207. Gordon W. Smith, “Ice Islands in Arctic Waters” (Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1980), 12. See also: Gordon W. Smith, Canada's Arctic Archipelago: 100 Years of Canadian Jurisdiction (Ottawa: Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1980). (return to source paragraph)

  208. E.J. Dosman, “The Northern Sovereignty Crisis, 1968-1970,” The Arctic in Question, E.J. Dosman, ed. (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1976: 34-57), 34-39. (return to source paragraph)

  209. Dosman, 44. (return to source paragraph)

  210. Dosman, 44 and 194. (return to source paragraph)

  211. Dosman, 194. (return to source paragraph)

  212. Several countries, although not the United States, had already adopted the twelve-mile rule for territorial sea protection. Dosman, 52. See also: Gordon W. Smith, “Ice Islands”. (return to source paragraph)

  213. During the 1970s, Canada was part of international discussions designed to establish legislation requiring foreign nationals to take responsibility for marine pollution caused by their activities in waters administered by other countries or in international waters. These included the 1973 Marine Pollution Conference, the annual Law of the Sea conferences, and the Seabed Committee of the United Nations. Issues of discussion at these meetings included regulations for the exploitation of seabed resources in international waters, extent of the territorial sea, fishery issues, and research and preservation issues. Lapointe, 145-151. (return to source paragraph)

  214. Donat Pharand, Canada's Arctic Waters in International Law (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 144-145. (return to source paragraph)

  215. Donat Pharand, “Canada's Jurisdiction in the Arctic,” A Century of Canada's Arctic Islands, 1880-1980, Morris Zaslow, ed. (Ottawa: The Royal Society of Canada, 1981: 111-130), 117-121; and Pharand (1998), 144-145. (return to source paragraph)

  216. Pharand (1998), xiv-xv. (return to source paragraph)

  217. Pharand (1998), 28. (return to source paragraph)

  218. Despite statements that its objections to American experiments for shipping gas through the Northwest Passage were at least partially environmentally-based, the Canadian Government developed the Arctic Pilot Project in the early 1970s, which was a proposal to ship natural gas from Melville Island east through the Northwest Passage to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Two ships, with superior ice breaking capabilities, minimal fuel usage, and few maintenance requirements were intended to make 16 trips per year each through the Northwest Passage. This proposal was not approved because of concerns about sufficient market demand. Additionally, Inuit political organizations, including Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK), objected to the negative environmental implications of the project. The Berger Commission, which put a moratorium on the construction of a pipeline through the Mackenzie Valley in 1974, further decreased enthusiasm for the Arctic Pilot Project. Although the federal government promoted the project throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s, the National Energy Board hearing into the proposal was cancelled in 1982 when the proposal failed to meet the Board's early scrutiny. Nils Orvik, Northern Development, Northern Security, Northern Studies Series Vol. 1/83 (Kingston: Centre for International Relations, Queen's University, 1983), 30-34; Nils Orvik, Canada's Northern Security: The Eastern Dimension, National Security Series No. 2/82 (Kingston: Centre for International Relations, Queen's University, 1982), 60; and Pharand (1998), xiii and 111. (return to source paragraph)

  219. Huebert, 90-91. (return to source paragraph)

  220. Donald S. Macdonald, White Paper on Defence—“Defence in the ‘70s” (Ottawa: Department of National Defence, 1971), 10. Library and Archives Canada, RG 24, Acc. No. 1997-98/050, Box 3, File: “La Defense Dans Les Anees '70.” (return to source paragraph)

  221. Ian Wahn, “Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on External Affairs and National Defence Respecting the White Paper Entitled ‘Defence in the ‘70s'” (Issue No. 3, 3 March 1972), 22-23. Library and Archives Canada, RG 24, Acc. No. 1997-98/050, Box 3, File “Standing Committee on External Affairs and National Defence.” (return to source paragraph)

  222. R.H. Falls, “Security in the North,” Policies of Northern Development, Nils Orvik, ed. (Kingston: Group for International Politics, Department of Political Studies, Queen's University, 1973: 136-142), 142. (return to source paragraph)

  223. This clause may put Canada in a better position to negotiate sovereignty of the Northwest Passage without American concern for the effects of such an agreement on the sovereignty of American waterways. The International Maritime Organization sets international standards for sea transportation. Interestingly, Canada has not ratified the Convention to which it contributed this clause. Huebert, 91; and Ann MacInnis, “Arctic Underwater Surveillance,” NIOBE Papers: The Canadian Navy in Peace and War in the 1990s, Volume 3 (Ottawa: The Naval Officers' Association of Canada, 1991: 17-39), 33. (return to source paragraph)

  224. National Defence, 23 December 2002, 1994 White Paper on Defence, Chapter 4, [3 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  225. National Defence, 23 December 2002, 1994 White Paper on Defence, Chapter 4, [3 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  226. National Defence, 23 December 2002, 1994 White Paper on Defence, Chapter 4, [3 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  227. Programs such as the Canadian-American Space-Based Radar, Air Defence Initiative, and Strategic Defence Initiative may become increasingly significant to Canada if their claim to sovereignty of the Arctic Archipelago waters is not successful. David Cox, “Ballistic Missile Defences, Cruise Missiles, Air Defences,” Arctic Alternatives: Civility or Militarism in the Circumpolar North, Canadian Papers in Peace Studies, No. 3., Franklyn Griffiths, ed. (Toronto: Science for Peace/Samuel Stevens, 1992: 237-250), 247-249; and National Defence, 22 April 2003, 1 Canadian Ranger Patrol Group, [14 July 1005]; and National Defence, 23 December 2002, 1994 White Paper on Defence, Chapter 4, [3 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  228. Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 30 November 2004, Climate Change in the Arctic: Bringing Inuit Perspectives to Global Attention. (return to source paragraph)

  229. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Canada Aboriginal Peoples Roundtable: Jose Kusugak's Speaking Notes, [11 August 2005]; Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 30 November 2004, Climate Change in the Arctic: Bringing Inuit Perspectives to Global Attention, [3 March 2005]; Sila Alangotok: Inuit Observations on Climate Change (Ottawa: International Institute for Sustainable Development, VHS video, 2001; Kuptana interview, 20 April 2005; and Sheila Watt-Cloutier, International Chair, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, interview by author, 26 April 2005, digital recording, Aeroplex Building, Iqaluit, Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  230. Calgary Working Group, A Report and Recommendations for Canadian Foreign Policy in the Circumpolar Arctic (Calgary: Canadian Centre for Foreign Policy Development, 1998); and Huebert, 86. (return to source paragraph)

  231. Huebert, 88-90; and G.R. Weller, Canada as Circumpolar Power (Thunder Bay: Lakehead Centre for Northern Studies Research report #10, 1989), 1-3. (return to source paragraph)

  232. Huebert, 91-92. (return to source paragraph)

  233. Huebert, 93; and Aqqaluk Lynge, “Inuit Culture and International Policy,” Arctic Alternatives: Civility or Militarism in the Circumpolar North, Canadian Papers in Peace Studies, No. 3., Franklyn Griffiths, ed. (Toronto: Science for Peace/Samuel Stevens, 1992: 94-99). (return to source paragraph)

  234. Huebert, 91-92; and MacInnis, 33. (return to source paragraph)

  235. Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 30 November 2004, ADM Forum on Globalization, Identity and Citizenship, [3 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  236. An example of these initiatives is the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, which is a project sponsored by the Arctic Council, an international lobby organization. The project seeks to study the social, economic, environmental, health, and cultural impacts of climate change. This is a significant undertaking, as many reports on climate change have not addressed the cultural effects, which are fundamental to the traditional Inuit way of life. In this capacity, the Arctic Council provides an important forum in which Inuit can combine scientific and traditional knowledge to contribute a more holistic understanding to a complex global issue. Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 30 November 2004, Climate Change in the Arctic: Bringing Inuit Perspectives to Global Attention, [3 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  237.  The Northern Dimension of Canada's Foreign Policy (Ottawa: Communication Bureau, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 2000), 1. (return to source paragraph)

  238.  The Northern Dimension of Canada's Foreign Policy, 2-9; Charron, 1-2 and 17-18; and Toward a Northern Foreign Policy for Canada: A Consultation Paper (Ottawa: Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 1998), 11-12. (return to source paragraph)

  239. For example, if a female infant was named after her maternal grandfather, the infant's mother could address her child by name, or as “daughter” or “father.” This practice was considered appropriate, since many Inuit believed that namesakes often took on their name-givers personality traits. Given the small sizes of most communities, family genealogies would be well known and such multiple forms of address for each person would not cause confusion among Inuit. Birket-Smith, 138 and 153-163. (return to source paragraph)

  240. For example, the suffixes “apik” (younger) and “ajuk” (elder) indicate the position of an individual relative to another community member with the same name. Names would change throughout a person's life, as suffixes would be added or taken away to reflect a person's relative status within the community. A. Barry Roberts, Eskimo Identification and Disk Numbers: A Brief History (Ottawa: Social Development Division, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, 1975), 1. (return to source paragraph)

  241. For example, Elizabeth became Elisapi and Adam was Atami. Inuit did not use some English language sounds, like “r”, therefore names like “Mary” became “Imellie.” Valerie Alia, Names, Numbers and Northern Policy (Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 1994), 25-28; and Roberts, 2. (return to source paragraph)

  242. The North West Mounted Police became the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920. Diubaldo (1992), 3; and Derek G. Smith, “The Emergence of “Eskimo Status”: An Examination of the Eskimo Disk List System and its Social Consequences, 1925-1970,” Anthropology, Public Policy and Native Peoples in Canada, Noel Dyck and James B. Waldram, eds. (Montreal: McGill- Queen's University Press, 1993: 41-74), 52. (return to source paragraph)

  243. Roberts, 10. (return to source paragraph)

  244. Roberts, 4-7; and Smith, 50. (return to source paragraph)

  245.  Identification and Registration of Indian and Inuit People (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1993), 23; and Roberts, 12-15. (return to source paragraph)

  246. Roberts, 11-24; and Smith, 54-55. (return to source paragraph)

  247. Classifying people as ‘Eskimo' for the purpose of family allowance payments was significant. For Inuit, these payments were issued as lists of goods obtainable from HBC or RCMP posts, rather than as cash, as they were for most Canadians. Roberts, 24-25; and Smith, 57-58. (return to source paragraph)

  248. Although the disks issued in 1941 and 1945 were inscribed “Eskimo Registration Certificate,” according to Department of Mines and Resources correspondence from 1945, they were not intended to be worn by Inuit once the unique identifying numbers stamped on the disks were memorized. As Smith states, it is significant that disks were not intended to be worn because it emphasizes the use of E-numbers for administrative purposes rather than as status markers. For the purposes of issuing E-numbers in 1945, an Eskimo was described as “a person who is listed as an Eskimo on the roll of records, and to whom an identification disk has been issued by the Bureau of the Northwest Territories and Yukon Affairs of the Department of Mines and Resources.” A nomad was described as “a person of mixed Indian or Eskimo blood, residing in the Northwest Territories or the Yukon Territory, who is neither Eskimo nor Indian, but who follows the Indian or Eskimo mode of living.” Although the disks were initially intended to facilitate government administration of Inuit, they became indicators of Inuit status. In the alphanumeric system introduced in 1945, E8-1221 would indicate a number for someone living in northeastern Quebec. Roberts, 24-25; and Smith, 56-58. (return to source paragraph)

  249. Roberts, 26. (return to source paragraph)

  250. Shared given and family names for individuals within communities are a common situation throughout Canada. Therefore, some consider E-number registration as an ethnocentric system imposed on Inuit by administrators who were not willing to learn Inuit names or to understand the subtleties of Inuit naming practices. The disk system has even been criticized for fostering “structured inequalities in Canada, which helped to create a stigmatized ethnic underclass of Northern persons.” Although numeric systems of registration, such as social insurance numbers, are used by government to identify Canadians, they are used in conjunction with given and surnames, not as a replacement. There is some evidence of Inuit resistance to the use of E-numbers, particularly during the 1960s among younger generations of Inuit. Alia, 51-55; Roberts, 27; and Smith, 41 and 57. (return to source paragraph)

  251. Abraham Okpik, a bilingual Inuk, was appointed by the NWT Government to survey every member of every community in the NWT, and to record the first and second names that they chose for themselves. Identification and Registration of Indian and Inuit People (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1993), iv; and Roberts, 26-31. (return to source paragraph)

  252. Canada, Health in Canada's North: Brief for the Royal Commission on Health Services (Ottawa: Northern Health Service, Department of National Health and Welfare, 1962), 2; Chartrand, 241; and Dickerson, 87. (return to source paragraph)

  253. The Baffin Regional Council should not be confused with the Baffin Regional Inuit Association (BRIA) (now known as the Qikiqtani Inuit Association (QIA)). The BRIA was established in 1975 to work with ITK as a regional association. The BRIA was also a member of the BRC. The BRIA dissolved and was reformed as QIA in 1996, to work with Nunavut Tungavik Incorporated in administering local issues associated with the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement. The BRC stopped meeting in 1993. The same year, NTI was created to administer the terms of the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement, and the Baffin region no longer required special representation in the Government of the Northwest Territories. Duffy, 243-246; Qikiqtani Inuit Association, About QIA, [8 February 2005]; “The Native Association's of Canada's Inuit” Inuttituut (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, May 1976), 12; Kuptana interview, 20 April 2005; and White, 18-21. (return to source paragraph)

  254. D.A. Davidson, 116-117; and Hamelin, 4.

    Although prominent members of Inuit organizations were interviewed during the research for this report, the report concerns the history of Inuit political organizations and not the leaders themselves. (return to source paragraph)

  255. Backhouse, 30; McGrath, 1; and McPherson, 51. (return to source paragraph)

  256. McPherson, 57-60. (return to source paragraph)

  257. A 1951 amendment to the Indian Act states that, “a reference in this Act to an Indian does not include any person of the race of aborigines commonly referred to as Eskimos.” Although this amendment specifically excluded Inuit from sharing the status of First Nations, Inuit affairs continued to be administered federally and were included in some funding and programs administered by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, which would have been lost under the White Paper. In 1966, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development was created. Despite their administration within one department, the differential status of First Nations and Inuit continued. In 1950, for example, Inuit gained the right to vote in federal elections, yet First Nations were not extended this same right until 1960. Within the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Inuit and First Nations were administered separately. Northern Development included areas such as the Northern Administration Branch, the Advisory Committee on Northern Development, and the Northern Co-ordination and Research Centre. Cook (1982), 19-20; Dickerson, 70 and 100; Diubaldo (1992), 10; Fingland, 143; Maura Hanrahan, “The Lasting Breach: The Omission of Aboriginal People from the Terms of Union Between Newfoundland and Canada and its Ongoing Impacts” (Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening out Place in Canada, 2003), 267, [17 January 2005]; Hawley, 8; Hochstein, 9; Morehouse, 4; and Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Looking Forward, Looking Back, Vol. 1 (Ottawa: Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1996), 300 and 319. (return to source paragraph)

  258. In 1973, the IEA renamed itself the Canadian Association in Support of Native Peoples (CASNP) and focused its objectives in the support Aboriginal organizations. By 1978, with the founding of Aboriginal organizations nationwide, CASNP dissolved. McPherson, 60-61; “The Native Associations of Canada's Inuit,” 3; “Timelines and Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 26; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, The Origin of ITK, [16 May 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  259. Initially, COPE sought to represent all Aboriginal peoples in the Arctic. McPherson, 60-61; and Usher, (return to source paragraph)

  260.  Coppermine Conference of Arctic Native People. July 14 to 18, 1970 (Edmonton: Indian Eskimo Association, [1970?]), Introduction. (return to source paragraph)

  261. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004, The Origin of ITK, [27 January 2005]; McGoldrick interview, 10 February 2005; Watt interview, 19 May 2005; Irniq interview, 27 April 2005; and Tagak Curley, MLA Rankin Inlet North, interview by author 27 April 2005, digital recording, Government of Nunavut Legislature, Iqaluit, Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  262. McPherson, 64; Morehouse, 12; and Don Whiteside, Historical Development of Aboriginal Political Associations in Canada: A Documentation (Ottawa: National Indian Brotherhood, 1973), 7. (return to source paragraph)

  263. In Inuktitut, the language of Inuit, Tapirisat means “to come together.” Tapiriit, however, means “has come together.” ITC was renamed Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami thirty years after it was established to indicate that it had successfully brought Inuit together. Braidek interview, 2 February 2005; Kusugak, 6; and “Timelines and Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 43. (return to source paragraph)

  264. Hamelin, 11. (return to source paragraph)

  265. The Department of the Secretary of State, which is now Heritage Canada, funded this program. The government thought that, “viable, adequately funded associations have the capacity to develop program and project proposals according to the agenda and the degree of interest of the Native people themselves” (4). David Newhouse, Kevin Fitzgerald, Yale Belanger, “Creating a Seat at the Table: Aboriginal Programming at Canadian Heritage, A Retrospective Study for Canadian Heritage” (Peterborough: Department of Native Studies, Trent University, 31 January 2005), 2-5. (return to source paragraph)

  266. Some Aboriginal groups were concerned about their ability to act autonomously and to effectively lobby the federal government if the government funded their operations. Dickerson, 101; and Hochstein, 9. (return to source paragraph)

  267. These land claim settlements were formalized through provincial or territorial and federal legislation as follows: the James Bay and Northern Quebec Native Claims Settlement Act (1977), the Western Arctic (Inuvialuit) Claims Settlement Act (1984), and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act (1993). The Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement was signed on 22 January 2005 and given Royal Assent in June 2005. An Agreement-in-Principle for the Nunavik Inuit Marine Region was negotiated in 2002. Please see the chapter of Inuit Comprehensive Land Claims for more information on this agreement. Agreements, Treaties and Negotiated Settlements Project, June 2004 and use “Search the Database” with search terms “Nunavik”, “Inuvialuit”, and “Nunavut” [15 February 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, “Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities for Discussion at the Economic Opportunities Sectoral Meeting” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 15 November 2004), 2 [6 April 2006]; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 24 June 2005, “Labrador Inuit Land Claims Act Receives Royal Assent,” [11 July 2005]. Appendix D summarizes key terms of the four Inuit comprehensive land claims. (return to source paragraph)

  268. Please see Appendix C for an explanation of the current structure for Inuit political organizations in Canada. The chapter “Inuit Self-Government and Devolution of Federal Powers” discusses the development of regional Inuit governments and proposals for Inuit self-government. The Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement was finalized in January 2005, but the Labrador Inuit Association will continue to exist once the Nunatsiavut Government is established. Debbie Michelin, Senior Policy Advisor, Intergovernmental Relations Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, interview by author, 14 February 2005, digital recording, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Gatineau; and William Anderson III, President, Labrador Inuit Association, interview by author, 14 March 2005, telephone to Nain, Labrador, from Public History, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  269. Aboriginal peoples in Alaska successfully delayed oil development in order to negotiate a land claim settlement, motivating the establishment of COPE after oil was discovered at Atkinson Point in January 1970. Hamelin, 12; and Usher, 20. (return to source paragraph)

  270. “Political Development in Nunavut,” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 1979), 5. (return to source paragraph)

  271. Usher (1973), 14-20. (return to source paragraph)

  272. Usher (1973), 9-10. (return to source paragraph)

  273. Initially, it was an obstacle for political organizations to operate within a structure recognized by the Canadian Government that was also sensitive to Aboriginal peoples' cultural rules of social conduct. For Inuit, making decisions on behalf of groups and taking leadership roles were unfamiliar positions. COPE required members to have Aboriginal ancestry, at least four generations previously, and to have been resident in the NWT. To ensure access to funding, in 1972 COPE became a regional associate of ITK. Davidson, 123; Hochstein, 9; “The Native Associations of Canada's Inuit,” 9; and Usher (1973), 38. (return to source paragraph)

  274.  COPE assisted the community of Sachs Harbour when the Canadian Government, against Aboriginal peoples' wishes, supported oil exploration companies. Community members stopped exploration by oil companies at Cape Bathurst for nearly a year in 1972 with the assistance of COPE. In 1970, COPE established a Northern Games Association as a centennial project. Usher (1973), 32. (return to source paragraph)

  275. Usher, 32. ITK's first meeting was held in Toronto, in February 1971. The founding conference was held in Ottawa, in August 1971. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, ITC Founding Conference: August 1971, [16 May 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, The Origin of ITK, [16 May 2005]; and “The Native Associations of Canada's Inuit,” 3. (return to source paragraph)

  276. “Speaking for the First Citizens of the Canadian Arctic” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 1977), 1; and William Tagoona, “Inuit Tapirisat of Canada,” Innutituut (Autumn 1972: 31-35), 31-32. (return to source paragraph)

  277. William Tagoona, “I.T.C. Conference in Pangnirtung,” Inutitut (Autumn 1972: 5-6), 5-6. (return to source paragraph)

  278. Since 1970, ITK has received federal funding for its core and regional operations. Two of ITK's regional associates, the Qikiqtani Inuit Association and the Kivalliq Inuit Association, supported ITKs objectives for environmental sustainability by monitoring resource development projects, like the Nanisivik Mines near Arctic Bay and the Polar Gas pipeline impact study, which proposed to bring gas from the Arctic Archipelago south through the Keewatin District. Braidek interview, 2 February 2005; “The Native Associations of Canada's Inuit,” 4-8; and McPherson, 70. (return to source paragraph)

  279. “Speaking for the First Citizens of the Canadian Arctic” (1977), 4-6. (return to source paragraph)

  280. Braidek interview, 2 February 2005; Kusugak interview, 6 April 2005; “The Case for Inuit Specific: Renewing the Relationship Between the Inuit and Government of Canada [4 January 2005]; and McGoldrick, Makivik interview, 10 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  281. Braidek interview, 2 February 2005; and Pauktuutit, 2004, About Us [28 January 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  282. Braidek interview, 2 February 2005; and Pauktuutit, 2004, About Us [28 January 2004]. (return to source paragraph)

  283. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 21 January 2005, Inuit Youth of Canada.  (return to source paragraph)

  284. Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 3 November 2003, ICC's Beginning, ICC (Canada) Overview, Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) [1 February 2005]; Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 3 November 2003, Inuit Circumpolar Conference Organizational Structure, and ICC (Canada) Aims and Objectives [1 February 2005]; Watt-Cloutier interview, 26 April 2005; and Wayne Lord, Director, Aboriginal and Circumpolar Affairs, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, interview by author, 8 June 2005, Lester B. Pearson Building, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  285. Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 3 November 2003, ICC's Beginning, ICC (Canada) Overview, Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) [1 February 2005]; Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 3 November 2003, Inuit Circumpolar Conference Organizational Structure, and ICC (Canada) Aims and Objectives [1 February 2005]; and Watt-Cloutier interview, 26 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  286. The region of Nunavik is also known as the Ungava Peninsula and as Nouveau (New) Quebec. According to former Makivik President, Zebedee Nungak, the Quebec and federal governments did not negotiate with Inuit regarding the provision of services for Nunavik communities. Inuit expressed their preference to retain services provided by the federal government and their opportunities for employment in the federal civil service, rather than to become more fully part of the provincial government system, which they worried would require them to speak French to obtain employment. Mitchell, 208; F.J. Neville and (return to source paragraph)

  287. Mitchell, 197. (return to source paragraph)

  288. The FCNQ intended that Inuit experienced in co-operative business management would become managers in other areas of the economy, and later leaders in the territory, and the education and political system. The federal government, however, often bypassed the FCNQ in its reliance on the regional Inuit councils to represent Inuit politically. Mitchell, 212. (return to source paragraph)

  289. Similarly, the FCNQ complained to Quebec when the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs allowed the newly created Inuit Tapirisat of Canada to determine what regional Inuit organizations would receive federal funding. Quebec and the federal government were not willing to negotiate the creation of a regional government in Nunavik, and Inuit in Nunavik were not interested in joining the Indian Association of Quebec. Assisting Inuit in the creation of their own representative organization provided a vehicle for their self-representation provincially and nationally. Many of the initial leaders of the NQIA were employed in the civil service. Mitchell, 215; Watt interview, 19 May 2005; and McGoldrick interview, 10 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  290. Agreements, Treaties, Negotiations and Settlements, 13 January 2005, Northern Quebec Inuit Association [1 February 2005]. Canadian Museum of Civilization, 27 September 2001, “Canadian Inuit History: A Thousand Year Odyssey,” [1 February 2005]; and Taqramiut Nipingat Incorporated, 22 March 2004, About Us [1 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  291. Donat Savoie, Chief Federal Negotiator – Nunavik, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, to All Federal Departments and Agencies, 24 March 2005, “Status Report – Nunavik Self-Government Project;” “Negotiation Framework Agreement on the Amalgamation of Certain Institutions and the Creation of a New Form of Government in Nunavik” (Ottawa: Government of Canada, 26 June 2003); Donat Savoie, “Convergence and Divergence in North America: Canada and the United States,” paper presented at the 5th Biennial Colloquium, Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 29 to 30 October 2004, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver; and “Nunavik Government: Negotiation Framework Agreement,” Nunavik 01.02 (2005: 3-6), 3. (return to source paragraph)

  292. Whiteside, 7. (return to source paragraph)

  293. Hanrahan, 266; Anderson interview, 14 March 2005; and “Reports on Annual Conference” (Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, Cambridge Bay, NWT, 16-20 September, 1974), 5. (return to source paragraph)

  294. Agreements, Treaties, Negotiations and Settlements, 13 January 2005, Labrador Inuit [1 February 2005]; For information from the same In ternet site on the following organizations, please refer to: Labrador Inuit Association [1 February 2005]; Nunatsiavut Government [1 February 2005]; and Labrador Inuit Constitution [1 February 2005]; and Labrador Inuit Association [1 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  295. Dickerson, 105. (return to source paragraph)

  296. Agreements, Treaties, Negotiations and Settlements, 13 January 2005, Tungavik Federation of Nunavut [1 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  297. Dickerson, 104. (return to source paragraph)

  298. Hamelin, 9; Kuptana interview, 20 April 2005; Irniq interview, 27 April 2005; and Kusugak interview, 6 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  299. Routledge, 2004, Encyclopedia of the Arctic: Watt-Cloutier Sheila [31 August 2005]; Yukon College, 17 September 1998, Nunatsiaq News Circumpolar News: “Russian Inuit Hard Hit by Nation's Economic Woes” [31 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  300. Canadian Women's Health Network, 10 December 2004, “Why Canadian women (and men) should be worried: The Pauktuutit Inuit Women's Association” – Letter to the Prime Minister's Office [31 August 2005]; Denise Rideout, “Inuit Not Getting Fair Share of Aboriginal Money”, 10 May 2002, Nunatsiaq News [31 August 2005]; and “The Case for Inuit Specific: Renewing the Relationship Between the Inuit and Government of Canada,” [4 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  301. The exclusion of Nunavik and Nunatsiavut is of particular concern when devolution of power to Aboriginal governments is an issue in the strategy, and both regions are in the process of forming self-government assemblies within the provinces of Newfoundland and Quebec. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004, Inuit Respond to Northern Strategy Framework [4 January 2005]; The Northern Strategy, May 2005, Nation Building—Framework for a Northern Strategy [11 July 2005]; and McGoldrick interview, 10 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  302. Before 1999, the Northwest Territories included the region of the Eastern Arctic that is now the Territory of Nunavut. Unless otherwise specified, any reference to the NWT before 1999 includes Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  303. Treaty 8 was negotiated in 1899 to provide food for the First Nations and to preserve their land in the form of reserves during the Gold Rush. In 1921, Treaty 11 was negotiated with the Dene and Métis in the Mackenzie Valley after oil was discovered at Fort Norman in 1920. Although the negotiation and settlement of this treaty demonstrated the government's historic recognition of Aboriginal land rights in the North, these were the only Northern treaties negotiated with Aboriginal people before 1970. McPherson, 66-67. (return to source paragraph)

  304. Usher, (1973), 23-25. (return to source paragraph)

  305. Duffy, 235-238. (return to source paragraph)

  306. The Calder decision recognized land rights based on Aboriginal title for the first time. Aboriginal title to land is based on peoples' traditional use and occupancy. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, March 1996, Comprehensive Claims (Modern Treaties) in Canada, [16 February 2005]; and Braidek interview, 2 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  307. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami was originally called Inuit Tapirisat of Canada but was renamed in 2001. Kusugak, 6; and “Timelines and Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 43. (return to source paragraph)

  308. The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Acts recognized American Inuit land claims. Under the agreement, Inuit land rights were extinguished in exchange for financial compensation and royalties from resource development revenues. Instead of creating reserves based on locations of Inuit communities, the ANSCA established regional corporations in communities, who also became shareholders in the resource development projects. Alain-G. Gagnon and Guy Rocher, Reflections on the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (Montreal: Quebec Amerique, 2002), 242. (return to source paragraph)

  309. Mitchell, 343. (return to source paragraph)

  310. Specific claims are not relevant to Inuit circumstances because they deal with unfulfilled legal treaty and land reserve obligations or provisions held in treaties. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Comprehensive Land Claims Branch, [16 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  311. The 1990 Sparrow decision clarified that if Aboriginal title to land had been previously extinguished then the federal government's intent to extinguish title had to have been clear. The 1997 Delgamuukw decision decided that Aboriginal people no longer had to prove that they were organized societies or that their use of land was integral to their way of life. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 2: Restructuring the Relationship, Part 2 Chapter 4 – Lands and Resources, [31 August 2005]; “Timelines and Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 18; and Status of Women Canada, 13 December 2004, “From the Fur Trade to Free Trade: Forestry and First Nations Women in Canada” [31 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  312. Peter Cumming, “Our Land—Our People: Native Rights North of ‘60” (Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, Prepared for the National Workshop on People, Resources and the Environment North of '60, May 1972), 13-14. (return to source paragraph)

  313. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and the Inuvialuit Final Agreements were negotiated quickly to facilitate progress of resource development in the affected regions. Supplementary agreements, involving issues such as regional government, have been added to the agreements since their original settlement. It took 13 years for the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement-in-Principle to be negotiated, and 24 years for the Labrador Land Claim Agreement-in-Principle. Mitchell, 343. (return to source paragraph)

  314. Appendix D summarizes key terms of the four Inuit comprehensive land claims. The Inuit comprehensive land claim agreements have been settled in roughly ten-year intervals. These land claims were formalized through provincial or territorial and federal legislation as follows: the James Bay and Northern Quebec Native Claims Settlement Act (1977), the Western Arctic (Inuvialuit) Claims Settlement Act (1984), the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act (1993), and the Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement Act (2005). Regarding the Nunavik Inuit Marine Region Agreement-in-Principle, portions of the claim area were included in the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement or were considered part of Labrador. The 2002 agreement addresses only the Nunavut portion of the claim. The Labrador portion has been accepted as a claim by Canada but has not yet been negotiated. This agreement is concerned with clarifying use and ownership rights of lands and resources in the specified region, and the inclusion of Inuit from Nunavik in economic development in the marine region. Marine Region Agreement-in-Principle 2002 – Agreements Database Agreement [14 February 2005]; and Agreements Treaties and Negotiated Settlements Project, June 2004 and use “Search the Database” with search terms “Nunavik,” “Inuvialuit,” and “Nunavut” [15 February 2005]; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, “Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities for Discussion at the Economic Opportunities Sectoral Meeting” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 15 November 2004), 2 [6 April 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  315. Inuit self-government has not been successfully negotiated within a comprehensive land claim settlement, although the recent Nunatsiavut claim comes the closest. Issues regarding the structure of governance within Inuit land claim settlement areas is discussed in the chapter entitled “Inuit Self-Government and Devolution of Federal Powers.” Upon settlement of each land claim, the Inuit organizations conducting the negotiations have dissolved and re-formed as regional development corporations, responsible for managing the terms and funds generated by the comprehensive claim settlement. These corporations have also pursued commercial business opportunities on behalf of their Inuit beneficiaries. The Inuit regional development corporations are: the Labrador Inuit Development Corporation (LIDC) in northern Labrador, Makivik Corporation in northern Quebec, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated (NTI) in Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC) in the western Arctic. The Inuit regional corporations work with national and international organizations, like ITK and the Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC), to ensure that Inuit interests are represented outside land claim regions. Michelin interview, 14 February 2005; and Wendy Moss, “Aboriginal Land Claims Issues” (Ottawa: Law and Government Division, Research Branch, Library of Parliament, 1991), 5-6. (return to source paragraph)

  316. Eric Gourdeau, “Genesis of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement,” Reflections on the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, Alain-G. Gagnon and Guy Rocher, eds. (Montreal: Quebec Amerique, 2002: 17-23), 19-21; and Watt interview, 19 May 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  317. Denis Chatain, “Compatibility of Native Rights and Northern Development: the Significance of the James Bay Agreement” (Calgary: Energy, Rights and Responsibilities Conference, 21-23 March 1976), 3. (return to source paragraph)

  318. Nunavik, the region of Quebec north of the 55th parallel inhabited by Inuit, became part of Quebec in 1912 but was largely administered federally because of the substantial Aboriginal population. In the late 1960s, Quebec sought to exert more influence over the province, and began to implement social service programming, including education and healthcare. Until this time, many Inuit in Nunavik did not realize they were part of a province, and continued to request Aboriginal-specific programs delivered by the federal government. Minnie Grey and Robert Lanari, “The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement: A Native Perspective” (Canada/USSR Arctic Science Exchange Programme, 16 March 1987), 4-5; Watt interview, 19 May 2005; and McGoldrick interview,10 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  319. The transfer of service provision from federal to provincial responsibility specified in the JBNQA was part of an ongoing transfer of services that had begun in the late 1960s. Neville and Robitaille; and Grey and Lanari, 4. (return to source paragraph)

  320. Chatain, 3. (return to source paragraph)

  321. Within the JBNQA, land was classified into three categories and specific regulations for Aboriginal peoples' use, interest, and influence were assigned to each category. Category I lands are for exclusively Aboriginal use and include the 22 communities north of the 49th parallel. Aboriginal peoples administer residency, access and development on these lands. Aboriginal peoples retained exclusive hunting, fishing and trapping rights to Category II lands. Non-Aboriginal development is allowed, subject to approval for environmental impact mitigation plans. In Category III lands, Aboriginal peoples retain privileges for hunting, fishing, and trapping but the rest of the population is also permitted to access these lands, subject to provincial regulations. Chatain, 5-7; Gourdeau, “Genesis,” 22; and Eric Gourdeau, “Synthesis of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement,” Reflections on the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, Alain-G. Gagnon and Guy Rocher, eds. (Montreal: Quebec Amerique, 2002: 25-38), 29-30. (return to source paragraph)

  322. This region is called Nunavik and houses 13 communities where the population is overwhelmingly Inuit. The Inuit population in Nunavik is approximately 5,000. Eric Gourdeau, “Genesis,” 17. (return to source paragraph)

  323. Makivik Corporation is currently pursuing a self-government agreement with the federal and provincial governments, which would amalgamate these three entities. This agreement is discussed in the Devolution Issues section. Chatain, 7-10; Gourdeau, “Synthesis,” 32; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, “Toward an Inuit Action Plan, Phase I, Review of DIAND Policies, Programs and Services to Inuit” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, March 2000), 10; James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and Complementary Agreements (Sainte-Foy, QB: Les Publications de Quebec, 1998 Edition); and “Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political Organizations in Nunavik 1975-1994: The Implementation of the JBNQA Unit” (Quebec: Kativik School Board Secondary Social Studies Programme, 1995), 3. (return to source paragraph)

  324. René Morin, “The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and the Development of Aboriginal Rights,” Reflections on the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, Alain-G. Gagnon and Guy Rocher, eds. (Montreal: Quebec Amerique, 2002: 39-47), 42. (return to source paragraph)

  325. The Coolican Report was completed in 1985. The current method of negotiation, however, is not substantially different from the original process. Moss, 6-9. (return to source paragraph)

  326. A successful example of this policy revision is the differentiation between Labrador Inuit Lands and the Labrador Inuit Settlement Area, and the specific responsibilities of government and Inuit for each in the recent Labrador Inuit Land Claim Agreement. Moss, 9-10. (return to source paragraph)

  327. In 1983, a secretariat was created in the Ministry of Indian Affairs and Northern Development to address issues arising in the JBNQA's implementation. Several issues have been identified in the legal security of Inuit access to country food resources under the JBNQA. These issues include conservation quotas for animal harvesting, conflicts between Aboriginal animal harvesting and public safety, federal powers of expropriation on Inuit-owned land for public use purposes, provincial development of Category II lands for resource development projects, and legislation or regulation prohibiting animal harvesting on category III lands. Gagnon and Rocher, 244; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, March 1996, Comprehensive Claims (Modern Treaties) in Canada, [16 February 2005]; Stephen Hendrie, “The Supreme Court Decision on Quebec Secession,” Makivik Magazine 48 (Fall 1998: 16-17); McGoldrick interview, 10 February 2005; Watt interview, 19 May 2005; Morin, 42; Agreements, Treaties, and Negotiated Settlements Project, 2 February 2005, Nunavik Inuit Marine Region Agreement-in-Principle 2002 – Agreements Database Agreement [14 February 2005]; Agreements, Treaties, and Negotiated Settlements Project, 13 December 2004, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and Complimentary Agreements (11 November 1975) [13 July 2005]; Agreements Treaties and Negotiated Settlements Project, June 2004 and use “Search the Database” with search terms “Nunavik”, “Inuvialuit”, and “Nunavut” [15 February 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, “Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities for Discussion at the Economic Opportunities Sectoral Meeting” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 15 November 2004), 2 [6 April 2006]; and Ghislain Otis, Inuit Subsistence Rights Under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement: A Legal Perspective on Food Security in Nunavik (Montreal: GETIC, Universite Laval, 2000), 2-6. See also: Gerard Duhaime, The Governing of Nunavik: Who Pays for What? (Montreal: Groupe D'Etudes Inuit et Circumpolaires, University Laval, 1993). (return to source paragraph)

  328. William R. Morrison, A Survey of the History and Claims of the Native Peoples of Northern Canada (Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1985), 65-67. (return to source paragraph)

  329. T.R. Berger, Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, Revised Edition (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1988), 254. (return to source paragraph)

  330. In the Alaska and Quebec settlements, Aboriginal peoples had agreed to extinguish their claim to large portions of land in return for money and titles for smaller parcels surrounding their communities. Communities included in this claim are Inuvik, Aklavik, Tuktoyaktuk, Sachs Harbour, Paulatuk, and Holman Island. McPherson, 68-69, and 77. (return to source paragraph)

  331. For Category I lands, Inuvialuit sought surface and subsurface rights to ownership. Class II lands required the same principles of ownership but would allow any development lease agreements to be honoured. Class III lands would remain under Crown ownership, but any development would require consultation with community corporations, and hunter and trapper organizations. McPherson, 76-78. (return to source paragraph)

  332.  COPE/Government Working Group, Joint Position Paper on the Inuvialuit Land and Rights Claim (Ottawa: Indian Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 1978), 3; McPherson, 76-78; and Morrison (1988), 77. (return to source paragraph)

  333. McPherson, 79. (return to source paragraph)

  334. The Inuvialuit Final Agreement provides Inuit with 91,000 square kilometers of land and $45 million paid over 13 years. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, March 1996, Comprehensive Claims (Modern Treaties) in Canada, [16 February 2005]; and Janet M. Keeping, The Inuvialuit Final Agreement (Calgary: The Canadian Institute of Resources Law, University of Calgary, 1989); McPherson, 80-81; and Morrison (1988), 77-78. (return to source paragraph)

  335. Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, “Political Development in Nunavut” (Igloolik: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada Annual General Meeting, 3-7 September 1979), 4-6. (return to source paragraph)

  336.  ITK did not pursue home-rule, similar to the Aboriginal administrative model in Greenland, because it would place the territory outside the framework of federalism. Inuit Taprisat of Canada, “Political Development,” 11-15. (return to source paragraph)

  337. Milton R. Freeman, Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project, Volume I (Land Use and Occupancy), Volume II (Supporting Studies), and Volume III (Land Use Atlas) (Ottawa: Thorn Press, 1976); and McPherson, 65; Curely interview, 27 April 2005; and Kusugak interview, 6 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  338. McPherson, 69-71; Morrison (1988), 79; Curely interview, 27 April 2005; and Kusugak interview, 6 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  339. Voter turn out was particularly high for this referendum. Immigrants from southern Canada populate the western Arctic in higher levels and have full participation in the local and territorial governments; hence Inuit in the western Arctic were not achieving the same autonomy of those in the east from the division of the Northwest Territories. Franklyn Griffiths and Justin Peffer, Turning Point in Canadian Policy Towards the Circumpolar North: Implications for Aboriginal Peoples (Ottawa: Report to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1993), 15. (return to source paragraph)

  340. This included the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement Act and the Nunavut Act. The Nunavut Act provides for the creation of the Territory of Nunavut, encompassing two million square kilometers. The land claim settlement control of 350,000 square kilometers to Inuit, including mineral rights on 36,000 square kilometers.Asbeneficiaries of thelandclaim agreement, Inuit inNunavut will receive morethan $1.17 billion over 14 years. Within the settlement, Inuit “owned lands” were designated to promote traditional pursuits, including hunting, fishing and trapping, as well as mineral extraction and tourism. These lands were identified to contain significant deposits of carving stone, areas of archaeological importance, areas of traditional wildlife exploitation, regions with potentially significant mineral deposits, and the land contained in and around the 23 communities in Nunavut. The land claim agreement provided for the creation of such institutions such as the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, the Nunavut Planning Commission, the Nunavut Impact Review Board, and the Nunavut Water Board to monitor and manage the administration of lands and resources. Agreement Between the Inuit of the Nunavut Settlement Area and Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1993); and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, The Nunavut Land Claim Settlement, [15 February 2005]; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, March 1996, Comprehensive Claims (Modern Treaties) in Canada, [16 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  341. “Tunngavik” means, “a multi-layered organism or foundation.” Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, December 2004, History and Overview of N.T.I. [15 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  342. The Government of Nunavut is an institute of public government, and is comprised of elected officials representing regions of Nunavut in the territory's Legislative Assembly. Similar to the Northwest Territories, the Government of Nunavut employs a civil service to administer its departments and carry out its programs and policies. Like Makivik Corporation, NTI administers the terms and funds generated by the land claim settlement on behalf of Inuit in Nunavut. Braidek interview, 2 February 2005; Government of Nunavut, The Road to Nunavut: A Chronological History [2 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  343. The LIA was cautious, however, as Inuit communities in Nunatsiavut have a long history of economic relations with the Department of National Defence, through the construction of DEW Line sites in the 1950s to the more recent low-level flight training projects. Although the influx of people provides economic support for Inuit communities, low-level flight affect wildlife habitats through noise pollution, and erosion of culture and lifestyle. Significantly, the Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement gives Inuit a stronger role in negotiating conditions for national and international flight training. Maura Hanrahan, “The Lasting Breach: The Omission of Aboriginal People from the Terms of Union Between Newfoundland and Canada and its Ongoing Impacts” (Ottawa: Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening out Place in Canada, 2003), 249 [17 January 2005]; and Mitchell 361-363. (return to source paragraph)

  344. On behalf of its 5,300 members, the LIA negotiated a claim for jurisdiction over a tract of 72,500 square kilometres of land and 48,690 square kilometres of ocean in northern Labrador. The claim also included 9,600 square kilometres of land encompassing the Torngat Mountains National Park Reserve, $140 million compensation, and $156 million to cover the cost of implementation. The LIA land claims agreement is the first settled land claim in the province. The LIA represents Inuit who live mainly in the communities of Nain, Hopedale, Postville, Makkovik, and Rigolet, and the Upper Lake Melville region. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 22 January 2005, Labrador Inuit Land Claims [17 February 2005]; Hanrahan, 231; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 28 January 2005, Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement Signed [17 February 2005]; and “Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement-in-Principle in Brief” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2001[?]), 1-2. (return to source paragraph)

  345. Labradorite is mined mainly for export to Italy, and is used in marble fireplaces and floor coverings. Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 14 November 2003, 9th General Assembly and 25th Anniversary of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference [16 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  346. Hanrahan, 249; and “Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement-in-Principle in Brief” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2001[?]), 1-6. (return to source paragraph)

  347. The provincial government and the Nunatsiavut Government jointly regulate use of mineral resources. Inuit are entitled to portions of the mineral extraction revenue in both the Settlement Area and the Inuit Lands, and for established projects like Voisey's Bay. Specific Material Land is designated for 3,950 square kilometres of the settlement area, and gives Inuit complete rights to quarry certain resources, such as soapstone for carving. Similar to restrictions and revenue agreements for land use, the Labrador Inuit Land Claim Agreement includes regulations for water use and fisheries harvesting rights. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 28 January 2005, Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement Signed [17 February 2005]; and “Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement-in-Principle in Brief,” 3-6. (return to source paragraph)

  348. The Constitution of the Labrador Inuit specifies the government's structure, which will include a President, Executive Council, and an Assembly of Representatives from seven constituencies in Nunatsiavut. The seven constituencies are: Nain (the administrative capital), Hopedale (the legislative capital), Makkovik, Rigolet, Postville, Upper Lake Melville, and Canada. Representatives will be elected to the Assembly for terms of four years. Seven community councils will be elected to administer municipal issues. Agreements, Treaties, Negotiations and Settlements, 13 January 2005, Nunatsiavut Government [1 February 2005]; Nunatsiavut, 2005, Land Claims Ratification [2 February 2005]; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 24 June 2005, “Labrador Inuit Land Claims Act Receives Royal Assent,” [11 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  349. Gagnon and Rocher, 245; “Land Claim Implementation Talks Grind to a Halt,” Nunatsiaq News, 14 January 2005 [14 January 2005]; and John Bainbridge and Philippe Lavallee, Policy Analysts, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, interview by author, 25 April 2005, digital recording, Igluvut Building, Iqaluit, Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  350. Berger (2006). (return to source paragraph)

  351. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004, 2004 Press Release Archive: Uukkarujjaujuq! [31 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  352. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 16 April 2004, 2004 Press Release Archive/Aboriginal Summit [13 July 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004, 2004 Press Release Archive: Uukkarujjaujuq! [31 August 2005]; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004, ITK 2003/2004 Annual Report [13 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  353. Linda Archibald and Mary Crnkovich, “If Gender Mattered: A Case Study of Inuit Women, Land Claims and the Voisey's Bay Nickel Project” (Ottawa: Status of Women Canada, 1999) [31 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  354. Kusugak interview, 6 April 2005; Curely interview, 27 April 2005; Hagar Idlout-Sudlovenick, Director, Intergovernmental Affairs and Inuit Relations Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada—Iqaluit, interview by author, 22 February 2005, telephone to Iqaluit, Public History, Ottawa; Irniq interview, 27 April 2005; and Kuptana interview, 20 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  355. Duffy, 20-21; Michael Corley Richardson, “Community Development in the Canadian Eastern Arctic: Aspects of Housing and Education” (MA thesis, University of Alberta, 1976), 88; and Thomas and Thompson, 9. (return to source paragraph)

  356. The Northwest Mounted Police became the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920. Diubaldo (1992), 3. As well as their traditional housing, Inuit used spare wood, such as packing crates, to create more permanent housing. Duffy, 22; and Richardson, 90. (return to source paragraph)

  357. Inuit settlement in communities facilitated the administration of government funds through, for example, family allowance and welfare payments. As well as providing access to medical attention and improved school attendance, the Canadian Government was concerned about high levels of respiratory illness, like tuberculosis, and infant mortality in Inuit communities, which it linked to housing conditions. According to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, the Canadian Government had de facto concerns for its Arctic sovereignty during the 1950s. Duffy, 22; Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, “Shedding New Light on the Relocation: Summary of the Commission's Conclusions,” Report on the High Arctic Relocation (Ottawa: The Commission, 1994), 134-164; Thomas and Thompson, 23; and Robert Robson, “Housing in the Northwest Territories,” Urban History Review XXIV.1 (October 1995:3-20): 3. (return to source paragraph)

  358. Duffy states that, “the government's objective was to meet a minimum requirement of 50 square feet of floor space per person at a capital cost of not more than 20 cents per square foot per year during the life of the building and a heating cost related to the consumption of not more than two gallons of fuel a day.” Duffy, 31. (return to source paragraph)

  359. During the 1950s and 1960s, the government adopted a generally pragmatic approach to developing infrastructure, as well as programs and services in Inuit communities. Programs were adapted to needs and circumstances in each community. R. Gordon Robertson, former Deputy Minister, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, Government of Canada, interview by author, 9 November 2004, digital recording, Public History, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  360. The styrofoam was translucent enough to allow light to enter the structure, even when seams were sealed and the entire structure was painted with an ultra violet-resistant coating. Although the Department of Northern Affairs and Natural Resources conducted a variety of tests to improve the durability of these structures, they could not be made effective enough to warrant distribution outside of Cape Dorset and were not manufactured after 1959. In 1957, the government conducted tests on several other types of structures at Iqaluit, including a styrofoam based structure with canvas walls called a quonset, and double-walled tents with wooden frames similar to those used by the RCMP. Duffy, 31; Nixon, 120-121. (return to source paragraph)

  361. Rigid digit homes were purchased by Inuit on a payment installment plan. In northern Quebec, structures made of sod, stone and wood with moss chinking were tested. Bud Neville, former Indian and Northern Affairs Canada employee, interview by author, 9 November 2004, digital recording, Public History, Ottawa; Leo Bereza, “Rigid Frame Houses,” Northern Affairs Bulletin VI.4 (September-October 1959: 38), 38; and Nixon, 122-125, 140. (return to source paragraph)

  362. This style of home provided no separate areas for quiet study or cleaning caribou skins, thereby impeding the educational progress of Inuit children and their parents' efforts at maintaining household hygiene. Nixon, 130-132, 141. (return to source paragraph)

  363. Richardson, 104-105; and Robson, 4-5. According to Nixon, Inuit were not consulted about the design or manufacture of the government houses built in their communities. Heating and sanitation were often inadequate, rendering these houses little better than traditional Inuit homes for their ability to lower mortality rates and the spread of respiratory disease. Nixon, 141 and 157-158. In Labrador, housing programs for Inuit were developed by the provincial government to assist the recovery of tuberculosis patients and in regions with economic potential, such as southern Labrador. This region had trees to construct homes and burn for heat, as well as the Goose Bay airport to provide industrial employment opportunities. W.C. Rockwood, Memorandum on General Policy in Respect to the Indians and Eskimos of Northern Labrador (St. Johns, Newfoundland: Department of North Labrador Affairs, 1955), 3-8. (return to source paragraph)

  364. Thomas and Thompson, 9. (return to source paragraph)

  365. Many Inuit had opted to purchase the smallest of the model homes, which were 280 square feet. By 1965, 800 Eskimo families had signed agreements to purchase homes on payment plans, yet 90% of those families defaulted on payments and 50% made only one payment toward the purchase of homes. Nixon, 141 and 157-158; Richardson, 92-93; and Thomas and Thompson, 10. (return to source paragraph)

  366. According to Robson, the initiative's focus on the eastern Arctic, where 83% of new housing stock was constructed, and in particular the communities of Frobisher Bay (Iqaluit) and Baker Lake, which received 23% of the new housing stock, reflected the federal government's plan to centralize the Inuit population at two administrative centres. In total, 864 housing units were constructed under the Eskimo Rental Housing Program, with 784 units being constructed in the NWT and 80 units constructed in northern Quebec. Of the 784 units constructed in the NWT, 655 were constructed in the eastern Arctic, with Frobisher Bay receiving 101 units and Baker Lake receiving 79 units. The remaining 475 units were constructed in communities throughout the Frobisher Bay and Keewatin regions. Robson notes that few new housing units were constructed in the western Arctic, mainly because of the relocation projects at Aklavik, Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk, which precluded the need for additional housing projects in those communities. Robson, (return to source paragraph)

  367. Jean Bruce, “Arctic Housing,” North XVI.1(January-February 1969: 1-9), 3. (return to source paragraph)

  368. All tenants were required to pay some rent, and most rents ranged between $37 and $67 per month, based on the size of the house and each family's ability to pay. Richardson, 95. (return to source paragraph)

  369. Tenants within a community elected the Housing Authority for a term of one year. Depending on the size of the community and the number of rental units, the Housing Authority was comprised of between three and nine elected members. A government employee, whose position on the committee was reduced as the elected members became familiar with their roles and responsibilities, initially chaired the Housing Authority. The rental program, which subsidized the cost of heating and hydro, discouraged Inuit ownership of homes; ownership of homes required full payment for these services. Duffy, 45-46; Nixon, 146-149; Richardson, 10-11 and 101-102; and Thomas and Thompson, 11, 23. While housing was initially segregated, with government employees restricted to certain types of housing in certain neighbourhoods, these rules were lifted in the late 1960s, facilitating the development of friendlier relations among Inuit and government employees, based on their neighbourly accommodations. Duffy, 50; and Richardson, 102 (return to source paragraph)

  370. G.H. Caldwell, et al. “Report No. 1970-5, Far North Housing Construction Northwest Territories (Keewatin)” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1970), 1; and “Housing in Nunavik: From the Igloo to Multi-Bedroom Modern Dwellings,” paper presented by Makivik Corporation to Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, August 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  371. In 1966, responsibility for the administration of Inuit affairs was transferred to the newly created Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Shortly afterwards, the Government of the Northwest Territories (NWT) was moved to Yellowknife, creating a territorial civil service responsible for many issues. The NWT Housing Corporation administered Inuit housing. Nixon, 155-156; and Thomas and Thompson, 11. (return to source paragraph)

  372. Under the Northern Rental Purchase Program, which replaced the earlier ethnically-based housing programs, the federal and territorial governments intended to construct 1,558 housing units within 43 northern communities. In reality, 1,378 housing units were constructed. Unlike earlier housing initiatives that had focused on the eastern Arctic, this program included housing units for the Dene in the NWT and focused on the western Arctic, and in particular the region surrounding Yellowknife. Through the rental purchase program, rents were applied to home down payments. By 1987 this program had largely ended, as any houses left from the initial construction were in such poor condition that they were no longer saleable. Robson, 7. (return to source paragraph)

  373. In the Keewatin region for 1968 to 1970, construction of federal government staff housing cost an average of $39,730 per unit and homes built for Inuit under the Northern Rental Housing Program cost an average of $12,250 per unit. Caldwell et al, 23; Duffy, 40-46; and R.C. Redgrave, “Helping Both Ways in the Housing Administration: Inuit Middlemen in the Arctic” (MA thesis, University of Calgary, 1985), 45-46. (return to source paragraph)

  374. E.J. Buchanan, “Arctic Housing: Problems and Prospects” (MA thesis, University of British Columbia, 1979), 112-114; and Caldwell et al., 12. (return to source paragraph)

  375. Duffy, 46-48. (return to source paragraph)

  376. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 3, Gathering Strength, Chapter 4, “Housing,” [22 March 2005]; and Robson, 11. (return to source paragraph)

  377. R.D. Brown, “Statistical Report: Listing of Information Related to the Housing Needs Analysis—1977” (Ottawa: Program Support Group, Indian and Inuit Affairs Program, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1977), 34-37. (return to source paragraph)

  378. Robson, 3-10. (return to source paragraph)

  379. Peter C. Dawson, “Examining the Impact of Euro-Canadian Architecture on Inuit Families Living in Arctic Canada,” paper given at the Proceedings of the 4th International Space Syntax Symposium, London, 2003 [19 January 2005]; and Peter C. Dawson, “An Examination of the Use of Domestic Space by Inuit Families Living in Arviat, Nunavut” (Ottawa: Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 2004) [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  380. Dawson (2003) 3-15; and Dawson (2004). (return to source paragraph)

  381. Redgrave, 46. (return to source paragraph)

  382. Buchanan, 19-27; and Brown, 1. (return to source paragraph)

  383. Homes constructed by the NWT Housing Corporation include single-family detached homes and row homes, which are built from prefabricated designs or are constructed on-site. Redgrave, 5 and 47-48; Peter Scott, President, Nunavut Housing Corporation, interview by author, 27 April 2005, digital recording, Parnaivik Building, Iqaluit, Nunavut; and Robson, 10-11. (return to source paragraph)

  384. Activities of housing associations are guided by the Housing Association Operating Manual, which was developed by the Housing Corporation's main office to ensure that housing associations consistently implemented administrative policies. Housing associations prepare annual budgets, which are approved regionally, to ensure that they are operating according to centrally standardized regulations and in accordance with the management agreements. A large portion of housing associations' budgets are used to offset the costs of maintaining and renovating housing units, and providing utilities, including electricity, heat, water, and sewage disposal. Housing association tenants and a board of directors, which is elected annually from among the tenants, staff the local associations. The board chairperson is elected from among the members annually. Each rental unit is allowed one vote for issues raised at association meetings. Although the NWT Housing Corporation central office in Yellowknife has a mandate to devolve administrative responsibility for local decision making to the local associations, the regional and central offices are often reluctant to grant much latitude for local autonomy because of concerns that local offices are often influenced by traditional modes of social organization. These social traditions involve alliances and reciprocal trade arrangements among extended family and community members. Such traditional social partnerships have affected housing association administration through preferential treatment in rent collection and overdue payments, housing unit allocations, and housing maintenance and renovations. By the mid-1980s, devolution of authority to local housing associations had not occurred effectively, and was not predicted to occur until the regional and central offices ensured that local associations were operating without traditional modes of patronage. Redgrave, 6-10, 54-60. (return to source paragraph)

  385. Duffy, 48-50. (return to source paragraph)

  386. Duffy, 46-48. (return to source paragraph)

  387. Buchanan, 85-86; and Robson, 13-16. (return to source paragraph)

  388. Under the NTRPP, the owner of the home had to also be the occupant. Although Inuit purchased many homes, the program did not require that the purchaser be Inuit. In Iqaluit, the last house was sold through this program in 1992. Robson, 9-11; and Peter Scott, President, Nunavut Housing Corporation, e-mail to author, 1 September 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  389. Robson, 3-10. (return to source paragraph)

  390. “Research on Native and Northern Housing From CMHC” (Ottawa: Research Division, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1986), 2-6. (return to source paragraph)

  391. In some Nunavik communities, the rental discrepancies for similar-sized dwellings are between $300 per month for rent in a subsidized dwelling and $2,500 per month for rent in a privately leased dwelling. Pauktuutit Inuit Women's Association, Inuit Women: The Housing Crisis and Violence (Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1995), 3-4. (return to source paragraph)

  392. Pauktuutit Inuit Women's Association, 4-5. (return to source paragraph)

  393. Pauktuutit Inuit Women's Association, 1 and 15. (return to source paragraph)

  394. Pauktuutit Inuit Women's Association, 2-3; and Peter Williamson, “The Housing Crisis in Canada's Inuit Communities: Final Report” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 1995), 1-6. (return to source paragraph)

  395. Dawson (2004), 75-78. (return to source paragraph)

  396. Regionally, the names of some programs vary although they provide the same services for Inuit. All names of similar regional programs are indicated on the table. Pauktuutit Inuit Women's Association, 3; Northwest Territories Housing Corporation, 1999, Programs [12 August 2005]; Newfoundland and Labrador Housing Corporation, 1998, Provincial Home Repair Program [12 August 2005]; Société d'habitation Quebec, Home Ownership for Residents of the Kativik Region [12 August 2005]; and Karen Bolt, Senior Officer, Aboriginal Capacity Building, Aboriginal Housing Division; Janet Neves, Senior Analyst, Aboriginal Affairs, Distinct Housing Needs Group, Policy and Research Division; and Randy Risk, Manager, Aboriginal Delivery and Capacity Development, Aboriginal Housing Division, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, interview by author, 20 March 2006, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  397. Lack of housing quantity over housing quality is a pattern specific to Inuit communities. Elsewhere in Canada, including First Nations communities, it is often housing quality that is of more concern than housing quantity. Data for this report was compiled using 2001 Canadian Census data. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, “The Well-Being of Inuit Communities in Canada” (Ottawa: Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2005), 5, 11. (return to source paragraph)

  398. Bacterial infections in homes, such as E.Coli, are largely the result of overcrowding and insufficient sanitation within the home. Dawson, 1-3; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 1 November 2004, Backgrounder on Inuit and Housing for Discussion at Housing Sectoral Meeting [7 July 2005]; and “Housing Need Among Inuit in Canada, 1991.” (return to source paragraph)

  399. The creation of north-specific positions at the CMHC is designed to increase capacity for research and technical expertise by centralizing and streamlining research priorities. The CMHC involves multiple stakeholders in its research and seeks to serve the research needs of businesses, agencies, communities, and professionals by assessing housing issues such as technical challenges of northern construction, construction costs, climate and the cultural appropriateness of housing. An issue currently occupying CMHC research resources is melting permafrost, which causes foundational shifting and shoreline erosion in northern communities. Bolt, Neves and Risk interview, 20 March 2006. (return to source paragraph)

  400. Pauktuutit Inuit Women's Association, 1; Scott interview, 27 April 2005; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Backgrounder on Inuit and Housing for Discussion at Housing Sectoral Meeting [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  401. “The Case for Inuit-Specific: Renewing the Relationship Between the Inuit and Government of Canada” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004), 5 [4 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  402. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 1 November 2004, Backgrounder on Inuit and Housing for Discussion at Housing Sectoral Meeting [7 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  403. “Housing in Nunavik”, (Quebec: Government of Quebec, 2001), 22-24; and “New Five-Year Housing Agreement,” Makivik 73 (Summer 2005), 50-52. (return to source paragraph)

  404. “Social Housing,” paper presented by Makivik Corporation to Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, August 2005; and Bolt, Neves and Risk interview, 20 March 2006. (return to source paragraph)

  405. In January 2005, the federal government announced a $40 million joint funding project with the Nunavut Housing Corporation for the construction of a further 160 subsidized housing units across Nunavut. The homes are intended for low-income seniors, families, and single people, and will be constructed to exceed standards for energy efficiency set by the National Energy Code for Houses. The housing project is expected to provide local employment and training opportunities for Inuit in the construction industry, as well as providing social, cultural, environmental, and economic benefits to communities. This project is within the objectives of Prime Minister Martin's Northern Strategy for creating, “housing that is suitable, adequate and affordable,” to ensure that communities are healthy, safe and sustainable. The federal funding for the project is derived from Canada's Strategic Infrastructure Fund as part of the New Deal for Cities and Communities, but the project will be administered federally by the CMHC. According to Peter Scott, President of the Nunavut Housing Corporation, the announcement of this funding is a re-announcement, as the funding was originally promised to Nunavut in 2004. Scott interview, 27 April 2005; Infrastructure Canada, 20 January 2005, Agreement Provides Funding for 160 New Social Housing Units in 25 Nunavut Communities [24 January 2005]; Sara Minogue, “Where Housing is Concerned, Even Old News in Good News,” Nunatsiaq News, 28 January 2005 [28 January 2005]; Office of the Prime Minister, 20 December 2004, First Ministers Partner on Northern Strategy [1 February 2005]; and The Northern Strategy, Nation Building Framework for a Northern Strategy [2 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  406.  Nunavut Ten-Year Inuit Housing Action Plan (Nunavut: Government of Nunavut (Nunavut Housing Corporation) and Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, 2004); and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 1 November 2004, Backgrounder on Inuit and Housing for Discussion at Housing Sectoral Meeting [7 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  407. According to ITK's “Backgrounder Inuit and Housing,” created for discussion at the Aboriginal Peoples' Roundtable Housing Sectoral Meeting held in April 2004, overcrowding among Inuit is at 68% in Nunavik, 54% in Nunavut, 28% in Nunatsiavut, and 35% in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 1 November 2004, Backgrounder on Inuit and Housing for Discussion at Housing Sectoral Meeting [7 July 2005]. According to the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, rates of overcrowding declined in each of the Inuit land claim regions except Nunavik. Statistics Canada, “ Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2001 – Initial Findings: Well-Being of the Non-Reserve Aboriginal Population,” [8 November 2005].

    The buildings designated as “in core housing need” housed 47% of the Canadian Inuit population. Regionally, core-housing need was lowest in Nunavik, where 29% of homes were below standard, and was highest in Nunavut, where 55% of homes were in core need. Among Inuit, rental housing is predominant in Nunavik and Nunavut, where 96% and 91% of households live in rental accommodations. Although more Inuit in Labrador than elsewhere are home owners, in large part through the federal Rural and Native Housing Program, 30% of Labrador Inuit are in core housing need, as many homes lack sewage disposal amenities and running water. “Housing Need Among Inuit in Canada, 1991”; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 3, Gathering Strength, Chapter 4, “Housing”. (return to source paragraph)

  408.  Nunavut Ten-Year Inuit Housing Action Plan (Nunavut: Government of Nunavut (Nunavut Housing Corporation) and Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, 2004); Scott interview, 27 April 2005; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 1 November 2004, Backgrounder on Inuit and Housing for Discussion at Housing Sectoral Meeting [7 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  409. Jenness (1964), 139-143. (return to source paragraph)

  410. Diseases such as influenza, measles, small pox, chicken pox and poliomyelitis were particularly detrimental to Inuit populations. Medical supplies were left with community “distributors”, such as the RCMP and Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) personnel, as well as the Roman Catholic and Anglican missionary hospitals. The eastern Arctic Patrol began in 1922 on the Canadian ship Arctic, captained by J.E. Bernier. (return to source paragraph)

  411. Nine of these facilities were located in the western Arctic, and only two were in the eastern Arctic, with one also serving Inuit in northern Quebec. Eldorado Mining and Refining Ltd. at Great Bear Lake, and Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. at Yellowknife owned the mining company facilities. These facilities were quite small and mainly treated their employees but would also take outside patients. The two hospitals in the eastern Arctic were the Catholic facility at Chesterfield Inlet and the Anglican St. Luke's Hospital and Industrial Home at Pangnirtung, which also served northern Quebec. Duffy, 52. (return to source paragraph)

  412. According to staff within the Bureau of Northwest Territories and Yukon Affairs, local government control of welfare, including the distribution of food, clothing, and assistance with shelter, was required to supplement medical care and prevent poor health among Inuit. Nixon, 89-90. (return to source paragraph)

  413. In 1974, the Department of National Health and Welfare released the Policy of the Federal Government Concerning Indian Health Services, which sought to ensure that healthcare was available to Aboriginal people, and that they had financial assistance to cover the cost of medical treatment. Similarly, the 1979 Indian Health Policy included provisions for the payment of Aboriginal people's non-insured health benefits by the federal government. “The policy also recognized the need for community development, a strong relationship between Indian people, the federal government, and the Canadian health system.” Health Canada, 23 July 2001, First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, History of Providing Health Services to First Nations and Inuit People [21 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  414. Common conditions among Inuit included eye disease, skin diseases (lice, scabies, andimpetigo), pneumonia and intestinal infection. Many of these illnesses were spread through unsanitary living conditions in traditional and government housing, as well as through increased contact caused by community living. Following this, medical services were expanded throughout the North, including nursing stations located at Cape Dorset and Lake Harbour, as well as improved services for x-rays, immunizations, dental and eye care, and nutritional assessments for many Inuit. Duffy, 56-57, 91. (return to source paragraph)

  415. In a 1960 article published in the Northern Affairs Bulletin, Abraham Okpik (who later led Project Surname on behalf of the federal government) wrote about the two years of tuberculosis care that he received at the Misericordia Hospital in Edmonton and then at the Charles Camsell Hospital. According to Okpik, the federal government's intervention during the 1940s tuberculosis epidemic was the beginning of the transition period, from a traditional way of life to one influenced by southern Canadian culture, for Inuit. As Okpik states, “none of us Eskimo people ever had time to ask how the Government of Canada got interested in our general health.” Abraham Okpik, “What do the Eskimo People Want,” Northern Affairs Bulletin VII.2 (March-April 1960: 38-42), 38-39. (return to source paragraph)

  416. Hospitals used for treatment of Inuit included the Mountain Sanatorium in Hamilton, St. Boniface in Winnipeg, and Charles Camsell in Edmonton. Hospitalizing Inuit in large groups helped them to cope with the isolation and cultural shock involved in the transition from northern camps to southern hospitals, yet the large number of Inuit leaving northern communities created difficulties for remaining community members. By 1965, there were only 90 new, active tuberculosis cases in the Northwest Territories, and by 1982, the rate of incidence had dropped to 59.02 cases per 100,000. Federal government improvements to Inuit housing during the 1950s and 1960s did much to lessen the incidence of tuberculosis and other communicable diseases. Tuberculosis and other epidemics were largely eradicated in northern Canada by the 1960s, but many people were traumatized by the experience of being sent south for healthcare while they were ill, causing them to loose communication with their families, sometimes for years. Young children who were sent to sanatoriums were often not able to communicate with their parents in their Inuit language when they returned. Duffy, 70-75; Maundrell and Graham-Cumming, 139; and P.G. Nixon, “Early Administrative Development in Fighting Tuberculosis among Canadian Inuit: Bringing State Institutions Back In,” Northern Review 2 (Winter 1988: 67-84), 67. See also: Elizabeth Anarye Blake, “Negotiating Health and Illness: an Inuit Example” (Ph.D. diss., University of Alberta, 1978); Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Tuberculosis Among Indians and Eskimos, 1950-1952 (Ottawa: Institutions Sections, Health and Welfare Division, Department of Trade and Commerce, 1956); and Pat Sandiford Grygier, A Long Way From Home: the Tuberculosis Epidemic Among the Inuit (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994). (return to source paragraph)

  417. For example, in 1946, 37 children under age 15 died on southern Baffin Island, and approximately 20 children died in the Cumberland Sound area. Most of these children were undernourished and lived in what administrators considered “poorer” camps. Most children died between December and March when food was in shortest supply. Between 1956 and 1958, infant mortality rates across Canada averaged 31 per 100,000. Among Inuit, however, the infant mortality rate was 230 per 100,000. Mortality rates among infants between two and twelve months old were higher than for newborns under one month of age, leading the Northern Health Services Office to conclude that inadequate housing with poor heating, unsanitary living conditions, exposure to viruses and bacteria, lack of parental hygiene education, and inaccessible medical care were the main causes of infant mortality. By the mid-1960s, however, Canadian Medical Service studies continued to show high rates of mortality, now mainly among bottle-fed children. The introduction of powdered food suitable for infants discouraged mothers from breast feeding, lowering their infants' resistance to gastro-intestinal infection, respiratory problems, middle ear problems and anemia. A study by the Department of Pensions and National Health in 1944 determined that Inuit in remote areas with little access to the HBC, and reliant on country diets, were generally healthier than Inuit living near HBC posts. Although the government made substantial efforts toward improving access to medical care and housing for Inuit during the 1950s and 1960s, educational programs in nutrition did not develop at the same rate, leading to deficiencies, such as iron, calcium, and vitamins C and D, and widespread illness. Duffy, 74-86. See also: Richard J. De Boer, “Observations of the Maternal-Infant Caretaking Modalities Among the Netsilik Eskimo of the Central Canadian Arctic” (Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1968). (return to source paragraph)

  418. Duffy, 59-61. (return to source paragraph)

  419. In 1962, the leading cause of death among Inuit was pneumonia, followed by senility and unknown causes (many people died without receiving medical care), then infant diseases, injuries, gastro-intestinal diseases, cardiovascular diseases, other infectious and parasitic diseases, nervous system diseases, and tuberculosis. Nursing stations provided immediate and preliminary care, and could arrange for patient transportation to larger health care facilities in the North or in southern Canada as was required. Community involvement in health care, such as training Inuit as doctors, nurses, and for other types of community health care has contributed to improved levels of health education among Inuit. Canada, Health in Canada's North: Brief for the Royal Commission on Health Services (Ottawa: Northern Health Service, Department of National Health and Welfare, 1962), 3; and John D. O'Neil, “The Politics of Health in the Fourth World: a Northern Canadian Example,” eds. Kenneth S. Coates and William R. Morrison, Interpreting Canada's North: Selected Readings (Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1989: 279-298), 283-287. (return to source paragraph)

  420. The Department of Mines and Resources was given administrative authority for First Nations health when the Department of Indian Affairs was dismantled in 1936. The Northwest Territories Branch was originally part of the Department of the Interior, and was invested with responsibility for Inuit in 1905. Health Canada, 10 April 2003, First Nations and Inuit Health Branch: History of Providing Health Services to First Nations and Inuit People [21 February 2005]; and Library and Archives of Canada, Medical Services Branch sous-fonds, Search for “Medical Services Branch” in title category of General Inventory [7 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  421. The prevalence of these issues have contributed to northern Canada's labeling as a “Fourth World.” According to O'Neil, fourth worlds are “structured as internal colonies in relation to the larger nationstate, …[where] the populations involved are the original inhabitants of the area, whose lands have been expropriated and who have become subordinate politically and economically to an immigrant population. Fourth World peoples generally inhabit marginal geographic regions relative to central metropolitan areas, and their resources have historically been exploited by the dominant group without local consultation. …Fourth world situations continue to be structured by colonial policies. Most importantly, Fourth World peoples are often aggressively involved in ethnonationalist movements.” O'Neil, 280. (return to source paragraph)

  422. Housing issues are discussed in the previous chapter of the historical review, devoted to programs, policies and infrastructure concerns associated with northern housing. (return to source paragraph)

  423. Duffy, 66. (return to source paragraph)

  424. Duffy, 64-66; Health Status of Canadian Indians and Inuit (Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada, 1990), 21; and NWT Health Status Report (Yellowknife: Government of the Northwest Territories, 1999) [24 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  425. Senecal. (return to source paragraph)

  426. Duffy, 93-94; “Guidelines for the Delivery of HIV/AIDS Programs and Services by Medical Services Branch” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Health Services Directorate, Medical Services Branch, Health Canada, 1995); and Health Status of Canadian Indians and Inuit, 47-48. See also: Alan D. Bowd, “Otitis Media: Its Health, Social and Educational Consequences Particularly for Canadian Inuit, Métis and First Nations Children and Adolescents,” Centre of Excellence for Children and Adolescents With Special Needs, Learning and Communication (Thunder Bay: Lakehead University, 2002), [18 January 2005]; Lloyd Brunes, “The Seniors of Canada's Far North,” Expression: Bulletin of the National Advisory Council on Aging 17.2 (Spring 2004: 1-8); Peter Collings, “‘If You Got Everything, Its Good Enough:' Perspectives on Successful Aging in a Canadian Inuit Community,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 16.2 (2001: 127-155) [18 January 2005]; “Interjurisdictional Coordination on HIV/AIDS and Aboriginal Populations: Issues and Approaches” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Health Services Directorate, Medical Services Branch, Health Canada, 1995); T.K. Young et al, “Cardiovascular Diseases in a Canadian Arctic Population,” American Journal of Public Health 83.6 (1993: 881-887) [17 January 2005]; and T.K. Young, “Obesity, Central Fat Patterning, and Their Metabolic Correlates Among the Inuit of the Central Canadian Arctic,” Human Biology 68.2 (1996: 245-263) [17 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  427. In contrast, diseases of the circulatory system are the leading cause of death among the general Canadian population, followed by cancer, diseases of the respiratory system, injury and poisoning, diseases of the digestive system, nutritional and metabolic diseases, and infectious and parasitic diseases. Health Status of Canadian Indians and Inuit, 18-19, 47-49. (return to source paragraph)

  428. David Helwig, “NWT Residents are Accident Prone, Live Shorter Lives,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 162.5 (7 March 2000)[24 January 2005]; and NWT Health Status Report [24 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  429.  Diabetes Among Aboriginal People in Canada: the Evidence (Ottawa: Health Canada, Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative, 2000), 7-8. See also: T. Kue Young et al, “Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Canada's First Nations: Status of an Epidemic in Progress,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 163.5 (5 September 2000) [17 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  430. Incidences of gonorrhea, for example, were at 5,577 per 100,000 among Inuit, compared to 200 per 100,000 for the rest of Canada. Duffy, 93-94; “Guidelines for the Delivery of HIV/AIDS Programs and Services by Medical Services Branch” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Health Services Directorate, Medical Services Branch, Health Canada, 1995); and Health Status of Canadian Indians and Inuit, 47-48. See also: Bowd; Brunes; “Interjurisdictional Coordination on HIV/AIDS and Aboriginal Populations: Issues and Approaches” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Health Services Directorate, Medical Services Branch, Health Canada, 1995); T.K. Young et al; and T.K. Young. (return to source paragraph)

  431. Many northern church leaders and government administrators objected to the policy of removing Inuit to the south for tuberculosis treatment. They focused on the benefits of constructing northern treatment centers, thereby preventing cultural loss. Health and Welfare personnel, however, expressed concerns about retaining qualified medical staff at northern facilities. Duffy, 67-71. See also: Stefan Grzybowski and Edward A. Allen, “Tuberculosis: 2. History of the Disease in Canada,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 160.7 (6 April 1999: 1025-1028). Infant mortality continues to exist in higher levels among Aboriginal Canadians than the population in general, with 16.3 per 1,000 deaths among Inuit infants compared to 7.3 per 1,000 for the rest of Canada. Duffy, 80; and H.L. MacMillan et al., “Aboriginal Health,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 155.11 (1996): 1569-1578 [17 January 2005]. See also: Jennifer Blythe, “Maternal-Child Health Care Programs for Aboriginal People: A Review of the Literature” (Ottawa: Department of National Health and Welfare, 1995). (return to source paragraph)

  432. By 1982, there were only 59.02 new cases per 100,000 of tuberculosis in the Northwest Territories. The rate of infant mortality decreased from 86.5 per 1,000 live births to 38.5 per 1,000, and by 1978, the rate of infant mortality had dropped to 17.6 per 1,000 births in the eastern Arctic. Russel Lawrence Barsh, “Canada's Aboriginal Peoples: Social Integration or Disintegration,” Canadian Journal of Native Studies 14.1 (1994: 1-46), 17 [17 January 2005]; and Duffy, 67-71. (return to source paragraph)

  433. Low Income Measures (LIMs) were identified from secondary source data collected on a community, and in accordance with Statistics Canada methods of establishing poverty levels. Marcelle Chabot, “Socio-Economic Status and Food Security of Low-Income Households in Kuujjuaq” (Pontiac, Quebec: Community Health Research Program, 2004), iii-v. (return to source paragraph)

  434. While the Inuit birth rate is steadily growing, the birth rate for the rest of Canada is declining. In 1973, the birth rate for Inuit was 33.8 per 1,000 of the population, compared to 15.5 per 1,000 for the rest of Canada. By 1988, the birth rate for Inuit was 36.7 per 1,000 of the population, while it was 14.5 per 1,000 for the rest of Canada. The Medical Services Branch (now the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch) of Health Canada generated these statistics. Only Inuit in the Northwest Territories (including what is now Nunavut) were included in these statistics. Health Status of Canadian Indians and Inuit, 12. See also: Anna Banerji et al., “Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Inuit Infants on Baffin Island,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 164.13 (26 June 2001)[24 January 2005]; Alan Cass, “Health Outcomes in Aboriginal Populations,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 171.6 (14 September 2004) [24 January 2004]; Louise Seguin et al., “Effects of Low Income on Infant Health,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 168.12 (10 June 2003: 1533-1538) [17 January 2005]; Wanda Wenman et al., “A Prospective Cohort Study of Pregnancy Risk Factors and Birth Outcomes in Aboriginal Women,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 171.6 (14 September 2004) [24 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  435. The 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey indicates that 70% of adult Inuit engaged in traditional harvesting activities during the year that the survey was conducted. Traditional harvesting was most frequent among middle aged adult males, and in the regions of Nunavik (81% of adults), Labrador (76%) and Nunavut (70%). In the Inuvialuit Region, 55% of adult Inuit engaged in traditional harvesting activities. In Nunavik, traditional foods comprised a significant portion of the diet, as 78% of households harvested at least half of the meat and fish that they consumed. “Harvesting and Community Well-Being Among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic: Preliminary Findings from the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey – Survey of Living Conditional in the Arctic,” 6 March 2006, Statistics Canada [9 March 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  436.  Contaminants in Northern Ecosystems and Native Diets: Summary of an Evaluation Meeting (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 28 February to 2 March 1989), 5. See also: P. Ayotte, et al., “PCBs and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Plasma of Adult Inuit Living in Nunavik (Arctic Quebec,” Chemosphere 34.5-7 (March-April 1997: 1459-1468) [17 January 2005]; and Gina Muckle et al., “Determinants of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Methylmercury Exposure in Inuit Women of Childbearing Age,” Environmental Health Perspectives 109.9 (September 2001: 957-963) [17 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  437. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Description of the NCP [1 June 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  438. In one study of country food contamination, however, many Inuit claimed having abilities to detect contamination in animals, based on their behaviour and appearance. C. Furgal et al., Country Foods: Benefits and Risks: A Resource Document for Nunavik and Labrador (Waterloo: Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo, 1999), Fact Sheet 3-1. (return to source paragraph)

  439. Barsh, 20. (return to source paragraph)

  440. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada administers this program in partnership with Canada Post. Luc L. Ladoceur and Frederick Hill, “Results of the Survey on Food Quality in Six Isolated Communities in Labrador, March 2001” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, January 2002); and Judith Lawn, “An Update on Nutrition Surveys in Isolated Northern Communities” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2002). (return to source paragraph)

  441. A program evaluation noted that hunting should be more broadly conceptualized to include processing activities, which would mean subsidizing the cost of items like sewing machines. This would be of direct benefit to women, who are often the people most involved in processing activities. When hunters have to rely on others to take them hunting, the entire family does not benefit from the exercise as much as when they are able to hunt as a unit. Archibald and Crnkovich. (return to source paragraph)

  442. Stella van Rensburg and Alice Isnor, “Primary Health Care 2000 in Kitikmeot, Nunavut, Canada: “Polar Bare Facts” (Melbourne, Australia: International Conference, Primary Health Care 2000, “Creating Healthy Communities”, 17-20 April 2000: 1-6), 3 [24 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  443. Health Canada, 20 August 2002, Non-Insured Health Benefits [19 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  444. Health Canada, 28 May 2005, Non-Insured Health Benefits Program, Annual Report, 2003-2004 [15 June 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  445. Within the NIHB Directorate, there is a Program Analysis and Planning Division, an Operational Support Division, Benefit Management Division, and a First Nations/Inuit Liaison/Policy, Program Development Division. Health Canada, 20 August 2002, Non-Insured Health Benefits [19 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  446. Inuit status cards are generated by each of the four land claim beneficiary corporations, and hence, are not nationally standardized in their appearance or in the information that they contain. None of the four beneficiary corporations currently provides its members with cards that include photographic identification. The lack of photo ID, which is included on First Nations status cards, and the different appearance of the cards means that they are often not recognized as legitimate by pharmacies and other healthcare services in Canada. This means that Inuit have to pay for healthcare, and then seek reimbursement from Health Canada. Lemchuk-Favel and Richard Jock, “Aboriginal Health Systems in Canada,” Journal of Aboriginal Health (January 2004: 28-51), 35-37 [17 January 2005]; and Michelin interview, 14 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  447. Health Canada, 28 January 2003, Northern Secretariat [21 February 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  448. Roberta E. Stewart, Voices from Communities: First Nations and Inuit (West Vancouver: SAGALTS' APKW Community Development Group, 1995), 4-5. (return to source paragraph)

  449. Daily costs to run the hospitals vary between the eastern and western Arctic, and also vary yearly based on types of care required. Duffy, 64-65. (return to source paragraph)

  450.  First Nations and Inuit Regional Health Survey (Ottawa: First Nations and Inuit Regional Health Survey Steering Committee, 1999), 224 [18 January 2005]; and Lemchuk-Favel and Jock, 44-45. (return to source paragraph)

  451. Lemchuk-Favel and Jock, 44-45. (return to source paragraph)

  452. Beginning with the administration of a single program, the LIHC has overseen the NIHB program since 1989, the FNIHB federal health transfer since 1996, and provincial community and public health services since 1997. Lemchuk-Favel and Jock, 47-48. (return to source paragraph)

  453.  First Nations and Inuit Regional Health Survey, 227. (return to source paragraph)

  454. In some cases, language barriers between expectant mothers and hospital staff increase the women's sense of loneliness and isolation, and cause increased levels of stress. Inuit Women's Health: Overview and Policy Issues (Ottawa: Pauktuutit Inuit Women's Association of Canada, 2000), 2-3 and 13. (return to source paragraph)

  455.  First Nations and Inuit Regional Health Survey, 227; and “The Inuulitsivik Maternity: Issues Around the Return of Inuit Midwifery and Birth to Povungnituk, Quebec” (Montreal: Report Submitted to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, November 1993), 1-22, 2, 22-30, 45-46. (return to source paragraph)

  456.  First Nations and Inuit Regional Health Survey, 229. See also: “Agenda for First Nations and Inuit Mental Health” (Ottawa: Steering Committee, Medical Services Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, 1991); Lucy J. Boothroyd et al., “Completed Suicides Among the Inuit of Northern Quebec, 1982-1996: a Case-Control Study,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 165.6 (18 September 2001)[24 January 2005]; and Nancy K. McGrath-Hanna et al., “Diet and Mental Health in the Arctic: Is Diet and Important Risk Factor For Mental Health in Circumpolar Peoples?—A Review,” International Journal of Circumpolar Health 62.3 (2003: 228-241) [18 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  457. Carlos R. Quinonez, “A Political Economy of Oral Health Services in Nunavut,” Circumpolar Health (2003: 324-329), 325 [17 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  458. Although dental care for Inuit is covered under the NIHB program, there is significant criticism by Aboriginal people regarding the transfer of these services from federal to Aboriginal administration and the post-transfer level of funding assigned for these services. Dentists, too, have expressed concerns regarding the NIHB program and, “the levels of oral health experienced by those it is meant to insure.” The predominance of private dental practices rather than public dental clinics throughout the North compounds the need for preventative oral health education and greater access to dental care services. Quinonez, 326-7. (return to source paragraph)

  459. Pauktuutit was established in 1984 and provides hands-on healthcare programming and educational campaigns for Inuit. Although Pauktuutit is the national organization representing Inuit women, and therefore focuses on health issues of particular concern to women, such as family violence and breast cancer, Pauktuutit recognizes that health issues affecting individual family members have repercussions for the entire family and seek to work with entire families and communities holistically in resolving health issues. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami also has a health division and focuses their efforts on healthcare policies. Martha Greig, President, Pauktuutit, interview by author, 9 February 2006, digital recording, Pauktuutit, Ottawa; and Inuit Women's Health: Overview and Policy Issues (Ottawa: Pauktuutit Inuit Women's Association of Canada, 2000), 12-22. (return to source paragraph)

  460. Lemchuk-Favel and Jock, 28-36. (return to source paragraph)

  461. The Aboriginal Healing Institute was officially incorporated as the Organization for the Advancement of Aboriginal Peoples' Health, and will conduct research on health information, traditional health and healing, and health policy. Projects funded by the Foundation in Nunavut include those for women survivors of residential schools, family counseling initiatives, and training youth/peer counselors. Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2004, Funded Projects – Nunavut [21 February 2005]; Health Canada, 23 July 2001, First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, “History of Providing Health Services to First Nations and Inuit People,” [21 February 2005]; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 4 November 2004, “Gathering Strength -Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan,” [21 February 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Backgrounder on Inuit Health for Discussion at Health Sectoral Meeting [19 July 2005]; and McGoldrick interview, 10 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  462. A recent study by the Canadian Co-operative Association demonstrates that establishing healthcare cooperatives in isolated, Aboriginal, and northern communities has the potential to address many of the healthcare issues currently concerning Inuit, including providing Inuit-specific and culturally-sensitive programming and services, developing preventative healthcare services as well as offering curative services, using strengths of Inuit communities and building on them rather than focusing on elements lacking in northern communities, and providing opportunities for local development and administration of healthcare services. Similar to economic co-operatives, which have successfully provided opportunities for Inuit to learn business skills, created year-round and sustainable jobs for Inuit, and contributed to local economies, healthcare co-operatives would be member operated, thereby facilitating the development of community directed programs. Shannon Rohan, “Opportunities for Co-operative Health Provision in Rural, Remote and Northern Aboriginal Communities” (Canadian Co-Operative Association, November 2003), 2-3. (return to source paragraph)

  463. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Backgrounder on Inuit Health for Discussion at Health Sectoral Meeting [19 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  464. Thomas interview, 26 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  465. Lemchuk-Favel and Jock, 45; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, 2004 Press Release Archive: “Inuit Youth experiencing Alarming Suicide Rates Take Responsibility and Action to Restore Hope,” [19 July 2005]; and Thomas interview, 26 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  466. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, “Inuit Embrace Life, Motivate Others to Follow Suit: Commemorating World Suicide Prevention Day,” 6 September 2005 [9 November 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  467. Lack of healthcare providers is a significant problem in the North. In 1998, for example, fewer Aboriginal peoples in the NWT had seen medical specialists or dentists than the rest of the Canadian population. More Aboriginal peoples in the NWT, however, had seen nurses and social workers than the rest of the Canadian population. First Nations and Inuit Regional Health Survey (Ottawa: First Nations and Inuit Regional Health Survey Steering Committee, 1999), 227 [18 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  468. David Helwig, “NWT Report urges Recognition for Aboriginal Healers,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 162.13 (27 June 2000) [24 January 2005]; Lemchuk-Favel and Jock, 45; and Michelin interview, 14 February 2005. See also: Claudette Dumont-Smith, “Information Session of Proceedings on The National First Nations and Inuit Working Group on the Non-Traditional Use of Tobacco for Medical Services Branch, Health Canada” (Ottawa: Medical Services Branch, Health Canada, 1995); Heather Kent, “MDs Get Crash Course in Inuit Culture as Young Patients Arrive in Ottawa,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 162.10 (16 May 2000) [17 January 2005]; and Barbara Sibbald, “Inuit Physician Aims to Inspire,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 162.12 (13 June 2000), http://www.cmaj.ca/ [24 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  469. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Backgrounder on Inuit Health for Discussion at Health Sectoral Meeting [19 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  470. Three of the residential schools were Catholic and were located at Aklavik, Fort Resolution, and Fort Providence. One residential school, also at Aklavik, was Anglican. Only one of the day schools, an Anglican run facility at Pangnirtung, was located in the eastern Arctic. Of the remaining eight day schools, five were Catholic, one was Anglican and two were public. The schools accommodated Aboriginal (Inuit, Métis and First Nation) and non-Aboriginal students. Missionary societies were granted $400 per year to operate residential schools, $200 to $250 annually for day schools, and $500 to $1,500 was given to operate public day schools. The eastern Arctic received its first two federal day schools from the Department of Mines and Resources in 1949 and 1950. The schools were located in Coral Harbour and Cape Dorset. Canada, Education in the North (Ottawa: Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, 1965), 2; and Duffy, 95-96; Patrick Flanagan, “Schooling, Souls and Social Class: the Labrador Inuit” (MA thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1984), ii-iii, 54-56; and Ben-Dor, 297-301. (return to source paragraph)

  471. Duffy, 95-97, 105. (return to source paragraph)

  472. The Department of Resources and Development sent a representative on the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's (RCMP) annual Eastern Arctic Patrol to assess the level of education then provided to Inuit and to make recommendations for their future needs. The government realized it was impractical for Inuit to maintain traditional subsistence practices, and that some degree of assimilation to southern Canadian culture would be required for their successful participation in the wage economy. Duffy, 102. (return to source paragraph)

  473. Hostel accommodations were established in Iqaluit, Great Whale River, Churchill, Inuvik and Yellowknife. As well as residential schools and hostels, some Inuit children were boarded in private homes. Children living in residential schools found it physically difficult to adjust to meat-based diets and outdoor living after spending ten months in school residences. Parents expressed concern about their children's lack of respect for the family and culture. By 1959, residential schools with vocational training and teachers' quarters had opened in Iqaluit, Fort Macpherson, Fort Smith and Aklavik. Between 1960 and 1967, similar facilities were constructed at Pangnirtung, Broughton Island, Arctic Bay, Resolute Bay, Clyde River, Igloolik, Pond Inlet, Grise Fiord, Padloping, Lake Harbour and Hall Beach. Residential schools were found to be “diseducative” for students returning to camp life or even very rural communities. The experiences of residential school were often so different from community life that students did not carry over skills or knowledge they had acquired. To the frustration of students, they were often required to repeat the same grade several times as the length of the school year was shorter for Inuit students, because of parents' need to move to summer camps, than was needed to complete grade-level curriculum. Duffy, 97, 105; Charles W. Hobart, “Report on Canadian Arctic Eskimos: some consequences of residential schooling,” Journal of American Indian Education 7.2 (1968: 7-17), 13-17; David King, “A Brief Report of The Federal Government of Canada's Residential School System for Inuit,” Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2006 [14 June 2006]; and D.W. Simpson and D.K.F. Wattie, “The Role and Impact of the Educational Program in the Process of Change in Canadian Eskimo Communities,” 19th Alaskan Science Conference (Whitehorse, 26-30 August 1968), 1. (return to source paragraph)

  474. The dual system of education continued in Quebec into the early 1970s. Dwight Louis Moodie, “Federal and Provincial Initiatives and Conflicts in Arctic Quebec Inuit Education” (MA thesis, University of Calgary, 1975), iii-iv. (return to source paragraph)

  475. Ben-Dor, 297-301. (return to source paragraph)

  476. Duffy, 114-116; John K. Naysmith, “The Impact of Technology Upon Native People and their Traditional Pursuits,” (Buenos Aires, Argentina: Seventh World Forestry Congress, October 1972); and Arnaquq and Pitsiulak interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  477. Duffy, 106; and Simpson and Wattie, 2. (return to source paragraph)

  478. Abraham Okpik, “Ancient People in a Changing World,” Imperial Oil Review 44 (October 1960: 17-20), 17-20. (return to source paragraph)

  479. These assistants are the first example of Inuit as classroom teachers. Teachers were expected to participate in community activities after school hours and were often leaders of recreational and organized activities, such as Girl Guide and Boy Scout groups. Many northern teachers had one year of experience and were between the ages of 26 and 30. By 1960, all northern teachers had at least a first class teaching certificate. Canada, Education in the North: Ten Years of Progress (Ottawa: Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, 1961), 5-6, 13; D.K.F. Wattie, “Education in the Canadian Arctic,” The Polar Record (return to source paragraph)

  480. By 1968, there were 67 schools serving Inuit students in the NWT and northern Quebec. Sixty two schools were federal, three were municipal (Yellowknife and Hay River) and two were run by mining companies (Discovery, located near Yellowknife; and Tungsten, located near the Yukon border). As schools were often the largest buildings in northern communities, the government ensured the inclusion of large multipurpose rooms in schools for community events and meetings as well as students' physical activities. There were nine large student residences operating in the North; two were federally run, while administration of the other seven was contracted to Roman Catholic and Anglican missionary organizations. These residences were: Fleming Hall (Fort McPherson), Bompas Hall (Fort Simpson), Lapointe Hall (Fort Simpson), Breynat Hall (Fort Smith), Grollier Hall (Inuvik), Stringer Hall (Inuvik), Akaitcho Hall (Yellowknife), Turquetil Hall (Chesterfield Inlet), and a vocational school residence (Fort Churchill, Manitoba). One hundred and three students were also housed in seven hostels located in smaller communities. Wattie, 297-298. (return to source paragraph)

  481. In 1955, 15% of six to fifteen year olds attended school in the NWT. By 1964, this number had risen to 75% for the same age group. Many more students than the government predicted remained in school after the compulsory age of 15, to complete some level of secondary education. The average length of time for secondary study was three years. In 1965, the Education Division of the Northern Administration Branch, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources stated that its objectives for education in the North were to provide, “basic elementary education and secondary education for all children in the Northwest Territories and vocational and adult education for those beyond school age.” The Department's goal was to have all school-aged children in the NWT and northern Quebec in the education system by 1970. Canada,1; Duffy, 111-12; and Wattie, 293-294. (return to source paragraph)

  482. Elijah Menarik, “Eskimo Viewpoint,” The Northian 4.2(Spring 1967: 125-128), 125-126; Irniq interview, 27 April 2005; and Watt interview, 19 May 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  483. Raising the literacy rate of Inuit was a slow process complicated by many factors, including the lack of tradition for formal education among Inuit, and the continued predominance of Inuit languages spoken in most homes. Duffy, 112-115. (return to source paragraph)

  484. In 1963, the NWT Council passed legislation to provide free university tuition to northern residents, with the condition that they reside in the NWT for three years upon completion of their degree. Scholarships, bursaries, grants, student aid and correspondence courses improved education levels. Throughout the late 1960s, and continuing to the present, the government departments responsible for Inuit education have expanded the range and types of vocational training available to include apprentice training, and programs in areas including teaching, communications, construction, and tourism. The first Inuk elected to the NWT Council in 1966 was a carpenter from Iqaluit with experience in his local housing authority and the co-operative business movement. Canada (1965), 3-4; and Duffy, 114-116. See also: Robert Richard O'Reilly, Northern Students Attending Post-Secondary Institution in Canada, 1966-1967: A Preliminary Study (Ottawa: Education Division, Northern Administration Branch, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1968[?]). (return to source paragraph)

  485. The government also realized the importance of providing at least some education during early grades in traditional languages to ease the transition of young children from home to school, and continued to expand programming that utilized languages, such as Inuktitut, the Inuit language spoken in the eastern Arctic. Born, 1. (return to source paragraph)

  486. Inuit from the western Arctic were more likely to be hired for work at DEW Line sites, even those sites located in the eastern Arctic, because their literacy rates were generally higher than those of Inuit in the eastern Arctic. This situation prompted the construction of day schools in smaller communities to encourage elementary schooling while allowing children to live with their parents. As secondary schools were only located in the largest communities, however, most of these students had to live in hostels, boarding homes, or residences to obtain education. Two elected Inuit members also served on the NWT Council, the governing body of the NWT. Duffy, 102-115. (return to source paragraph)

  487. Before 1999, the Northwest Territories included the region of the Eastern Arctic that is now the Territory of Nunavut. Unless otherwise specified, any reference to the NWT before 1999 includes Nunavut. (return to source paragraph)

  488. Duffy, 111-114; Welsman, 21; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Backgrounder on Inuit and Education for Discussion at Life Long Learning Sectoral Meetings, 20 October 2004 [19 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  489. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami was originally called Inuit Tapirisat of Canada but was renamed in 2001. Kusugak, 6; “Timelines and Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 43; and Duffy, 118-119. (return to source paragraph)

  490. The Inuit Cultural Institute is a branch organization of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, whose objective is to preserve and promote traditional Inuit languages and cultures. Duffy, 118-121. (return to source paragraph)

  491.  NICE lacked funding, however, only met once and did not establish any alternative educational programming for Inuit. Duffy, 121. (return to source paragraph)

  492. The President of the Education Society in Igloolik suggested that he would rather have children in the eastern Arctic attend secondary schools in southern Canada than GREC in Iqaluit when it meant exposing impressionable youth to social problems without their parents present to guide their behaviour. Duffy, 118-120. (return to source paragraph)

  493. Duffy, 118-121; Welsman, 35-37; Curley interview, 27 April 2005; and Irniq interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  494. Man in the North Project, Education in the Canadian North: Three Reports, 1971-1972 (Montreal: The Arctic Institute of North America, 1973), v, 7-9. (return to source paragraph)

  495. Man in the North Project, 57, 115-125. (return to source paragraph)

  496. Ann Vick-Westgate, Nunavik: Inuit-Controlled Education in Arctic Quebec (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2002), 85; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Backgrounder on Inuit and Education for Discussion at Life Long Learning Sectoral Meetings, 20 October 2004 [19 July 2005]; Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Vol. 3 Gathering Strength, Ch. 5 Education, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, [21 March 2005]; and Michael Mills, Senior Policy Analyst, Education Policy and Planning, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, interview by author, 23 January 2006, telephone to Public History, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  497. Before the Kativik School Board initiated development of secondary school facilities in Nunavik, Inuit were sent to secondary schools in Ontario or Churchill, Manitoba. Vick-Westgate, 86. (return to source paragraph)

  498. The Kativik School Board is comprised of representatives from each of the fourteen communities, a counsellor appointed by the Kativik Regional Government, and an executive drawn from the members of the board, who are elected every three years. Vick-Westgate, 89-90. (return to source paragraph)

  499. Arnaquq and Pitsiulak interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  500. Vick-Westgate, 96; Welsman, 32-33; and Arnaquq and Pitsiulak interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  501. The NTEP is accredited through McGill University and has graduated over 280 students with 3-year certificates and another 103 students with four-year degrees since 1981. Although not all NTEP graduates seek employment as educators, the high population growth rate in the North means that many teachers who speak Inuktitut are needed as educators, particularly to teach primary grades. Mark MacKay, Director of Policy, Department of Education, and Louise Flaherty, Director, Northern Teacher Education Program, Government of Nunavut, interview by author, 26 April 2005, digital recording, Sivumut Building, Iqaluit, Nunavut; and Arnaquq and Pitsiulak interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  502. This study also noted the need for employees to participate in positive, community oriented activities during non-work hours, as many were lonely away from home for their training and initial employment, and were prone to alcoholism and other self-destructive behaviour. Naysmith, 13-17; and Irniq interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  503. MacKay and Flaherty interview, 26 April 2005; and Arnaquq and Pitsiulak interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  504.  INAC's post secondary support for Aboriginal students is designed to increase student participation in post-secondary education and to improve future employment opportunities. In northern Quebec and Labrador, third party agreements are used to fund the program, which is administered by the land claim beneficiary organizations. Regional INAC offices administer the third party agreements and transfer funding. Generally, Inuit in Nunavut and the NWT are ineligible for INAC's post-secondary support as they receive comparable support from territorial student financial support programs. Inuit who have relocated to southern Canada for several years and are ineligible for territorial programs can access postsecondary support from INAC. Mills interview, 23 January 2006; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 13 May 2004, Post-Secondary Education for Status Indians and Inuit: December 2000, [9 November 2005]; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 27 April 2004, Post-Secondary Education Program, [9 November 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  505. The Anik-B project was discontinued in 1981 because it lacked funding. Duffy, 126-127; Federal Programs for Status Indians, Métis and Non-Status Indians and Inuit (Ottawa: Intergovernmental Affairs Branch, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1980), C7; Kenny, 49-51; Native Broadcasting in the North of Canada: A New and Potent Force (Ottawa: European Joint Study on the Role of Communications in the Cultural Development of Rural Areas, Canadian Commission for UNESCO, 1986); and Welsman, 32-33. (return to source paragraph)

  506.  Learning, Tradition and Change in the Northwest Territories (Yellowknife: Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly, Special Committee on Education, 1982), 11-22; Duffy, 126-127; and Welsman, 32-33. (return to source paragraph)

  507. Vick-Westgate, 125-126; and Silatunirmut: The Pathway to Wisdom: Final Report of the Nunavik Educational Task Force (Lachine, Quebec: Makivik Corporation, 1992). (return to source paragraph)

  508. Additionally, parents' language ability in English and French is often better in terms of their reading and comprehension rather than their speaking and writing. Interestingly, as parents' capacity in second languages increased, they perceived their children's capacity for their traditional language to decrease. (return to source paragraph)

  509. Providing up to date curriculum material in traditional languages is difficult because this material cannot be ordered from most educational publishers in Canada. In Nunavut, for example, the Department of Education writes the curriculum for each grade and also has to create its own textbooks in Inuktitut. Writing, updating, and publishing textbooks is time consuming and costly for the Department of Education. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Backgrounder on Inuit and Education for Discussion at Life Long Learning Sectoral Meetings, 20 October 2004 [19 July 2005]; MacKay and Louise interview, 26 April 2005; and Arnaquq and Pitsiulak interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  510.  Northern Indicators 2000 (Ottawa: Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 2000), 2-4, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca, [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  511. In 1980, the total Inuit population was 15,489 And there were 552 Inuit high school students in the NWT. Duffy, 127. (return to source paragraph)

  512. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Government of Canada Provides $279,000 in Funding for Nunavut Students to Attend Nunavut Sivuniksavut Training Program [7 March 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Inuit Youth and Education [7 March 2005]; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Post-Secondary Education Programs, [7 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  513. Approximately 2% of Inuit have university degrees or certificates. Statistics generated from the 2001 Canadian census show that, generally, levels of education decrease with age among Inuit. Jeremy Hull, “Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Labour Market Outcomes Canada, 2001” (Winnipeg: Prologica Research Inc., 2004), 8-10; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, March 2005, Northern Indicators 2004, http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca, [9 November 2005]; and “Measuring Inuit Well-Being” (Ottawa: Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate and Inuit Relations Secretariat, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2005). (return to source paragraph)

  514. Gunilla Johansson, Chris Paci, Sylvi Stenersen Hovdenak, “Education”, Arctic Human Development Report, p. 180, November 2004 [26 May 2005]; The University of Victoria Faculty of Law, 2003, Akitsiraq Law School [15 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  515. A recent study on the demographics of people entering training in medical and related fields in Canada indicates that Aboriginal peoples and people from rural areas are under-represented, and that these people and areas are likely to be under served by physicians in the future. Irfan A. Dhalla, Jeff C. Kwong, David L. Streiner, Ralph E. Baddour, Andrea E. Waddell and Ian L. Johnson, “Characteristics of First Year Students in Canadian Medical Schools,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 166.8 (16 April 2002: 1029-1035) [17 January 2005]; and Welsman, 40-41. (return to source paragraph)

  516. Mills, interview, 23 January 2006. (return to source paragraph)

  517. Johansson et al. (return to source paragraph)

  518. Inuktitut is spoken primarily in the eastern Arctic, while Inuit in Nunavik speak a dialect of Inuktitut called Inuttitut. Inuinnaqtun is the dialect spoken by Inuit in the western Arctic. These languages are similar enough that speakers of one language can understand speakers of another, yet some words do differ entirely in their meaning. In Nunavik there are no colleges or universities, requiring those seeking postsecondary education to take some form of correspondence or distance education, or to relocate outside of Nunavik. MacKay and Flaherty interview, 26 April 2005; Silatunirmut: The Pathway to Wisdom: Final Report of the Nunavik Educational Task Force (Lachine, Quebec: Makivik Corporation, 1992), 5-10; Hull, 8-10; Johansson et al.; and Northern Indicators 2000 (Ottawa: Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 2000), 2-4, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca, [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  519. Anne S. Douglas, “Recontextualizing Schooling Within an Inuit Community,” Canadian Journal of Education 19.2 (1994: 154-164), 154-155 [8 March 2005]; Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 22 January 2005, Labrador and Aboriginal Affairs [7 March 2005]; Michelin interview, 14 February 2005; and Welsman, 40-41.

    In Nunavik, the Kativik School Board was created through the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and is responsible for providing a system of education with standards comparable to the Quebec provincial system. Under the Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement, the Nunatsiavut Government will be responsible for providing education to Inuit in a system comparable to the Newfoundland and Labrador provincial system. Mills interview, 23 January 2006. (return to source paragraph)

  520. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 12 May 2005, First Nations and Inuit Youth Employment Strategy, [9 November 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  521. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Backgrounder on Inuit and Education for Discussion at Life Long Learning Sectoral Meetings, 20 October 2004 [19 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  522. MacKay and Flaherty interview, 26 April 2005; and Arnaquq and Pitsiulak interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  523. Berger (2006). (return to source paragraph)

  524. The mine at Cumberland Sound produced 14.5 tonnes of mica, graphite and other minerals worth $120,000. Many of these mines were operated until the early twentieth century, with some remaining open until quite recently. Jonathan L. Pierce, Aboriginal People and Mining in Nunavut, Nunavik, and Northern Labrador (Ottawa: Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1994), 5-7. (return to source paragraph)

  525. Keenleyside, 308-309. (return to source paragraph)

  526. John Diefenbaker, One Canada: Memoirs of the Right Honourable John G. Diefenbaker: The Years of Achievement, 1957-1962 (Toronto: MacMillan of Canada, 1976), 11-17, 84-85; Freyman and Armstrong, 644; and Patrick Kyba, Alvin: A Biography of the Honourable Alvin Hamilton, P.C. (Regina: Canadian Plains Research Centre, 1989), 104-105. See also: Sheila D. Grant, “Northern Nationalists: Visions of “A New North”, 1940-1950,” For Purposes of Dominion:Essays in Honour of Morris Zaslow, Kenneth S. Coates and William R. Morrison, eds. (North York: Captus Press, Inc., 1989: 47-70). (return to source paragraph)

  527. No agreement on administration of Inuit and First Nation affairs was made with the federal government when Newfoundland and Labrador joined Confederation in 1949. In 1950, however, the federal government departments of Resources and Development as well as Citizenship and Immigration, began reimbursements to the provincial government for their administration of First Nation and Inuit affairs. The federal Department of National Health and Welfare also began reimbursements for the cost of administering healthcare and education to First Nations and Inuit. Reimbursements were issued to the provincial government as well as to the Grenfell Association, which had provided medical assistance to Labrador Inuit. The Moravian missionaries supported Labrador Inuit in the development of cod fisheries, fur trade, and lumber industries, and later with their participation in mining and hydro development. Open pit mines were developed at Schefferville, Labrador City and Wabush during the 1950s and 1960s. Freyman and Armstrong, 1969, 644; Marshall, 1; Pierce, 10; and Rockwood, 3-6. (return to source paragraph)

  528. The government goal was to have Inuit replace skilled workers from southern Canada in the resource development industry by the mid-1960s. To this end, the government expanded the range of available vocational programs and the locations where the programs were offered. A sub-committee to discuss northern economic problems within the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources was developed to educate other government departments and industry businesses in the need to hire Inuit. Mines in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut included the North Rankin Nickel Mine, the Nanisivik Mine, the Hope Bay Mine, the Polaris Mine, the Cullaton Lake Mine, and the Lupin Mine. The Asbestos Hill Mine was located in northern Quebec, and several mines between Labrador City and Schefferville, and a mine at Nain operated in Labrador. Diubaldo (1992), 36-37; and Pierce, 8-9. See also: Andrew J. Freyman and Graham Armstrong, Employment of Indigenes in the Territorial Mining Industry (Ottawa: Economic Staff Group, Development Branch, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1968); D.S. Stevenson, Problems of Eskimo Relocation for Industrial Development (Ottawa: Northern Science Research Group, 1968); Edward R. Weick, Economic Development of the Canadian North and its Consequences for the Canadian Eskimo Society (Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1969); and Edward R. Weick, “The Eskimos of Canada's Northwest Territories: a Problem of Northern Development” (MA thesis, University of Ottawa, 1971). (return to source paragraph)

  529. Through community partnerships, however, some projects were nearly completely staffed by Inuit, such as Gulf Oil of Canada's exploration work at Coppermine on Coronation Gulf. These resource exploitation projects helped to create roads and other infrastructure that aided community development, including communication and transport, to support the establishment of other industries within Arctic communities. The Coppermine project provided much employment for the community and raised the standard of living for families. Increased wages, however, facilitated an influx of alcohol to the community, increasing levels of family violence. Bruce Alden Cox, “Changing Perceptions of Industrial Development in the North,” Native People, Native Lands: Canadian Indians, Inuit and Metis, Bruce Alden Cox, ed. (Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1987: 223-231), 224; and Charles W. Hobart and George Kupfer, “Impact of Oil Exploratory Work on an Inuit Community” (Toronto: Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association Meetings, 1974), 1, 23-25. (return to source paragraph)

  530. Freyman and Armstrong (1969), 643-645. The collapse of the fur trade in the 1930s and the increasing development of Inuit communities during the 1940s meant high levels of Inuit unemployment in concentrated areas, as described in the 1950 Cantley Economic Report on Eskimo Affairs. The first local Eskimo Council Meeting was held at Baker Lake in 1957. Following this meeting, local councils were created in Rankin Inlet, Great Whale River, Port Harrison, Povungnituk, Fort Chimo and Sugluk. Such councils assisted Inuit in presenting organized and representative requests to government bodies regarding their community development. Similarly, the Committee on Eskimo Co-operatives held its first meeting in 1957, culminating in the development of co-operatives in Port Nouveau in northern Quebec, and at Port Russell at Cape Dorset. These co-operatives assisted Inuit entrepreneurs, and industrial development of char fishing, logging, boat building, handicrafts, carving, retail operations, graphic art, baking and fur marketing. By 1963, there were 16 co-operatives throughout the Canadian North. Vocational programs included training in use of heavy construction equipment, auto mechanics, home economics, and clerical and secretarial programs. In 1959, two Inuit addressed the Eskimo Affairs Committee, and requested government assistance in economic development and vocational training. After visiting Greenlandic communities and witnessing their prosperity, the Canadian Inuit were inspired to create a similar quality of life in their own communities. J. Cantley, The Cantley Economic Report on Eskimo Affairs: Survey of Economic Conditions Among the Eskimos of the Canadian Arctic (Ottawa: Department of Resources and Development, 1950), 31-36; Diubaldo (1992), 37-47. For more on the development of Inuit co-operatives see: Mitchell. (return to source paragraph)

  531. Since Inuit often lacked training for skilled positions, they were employed as unskilled labourers. Cox, 1987, 224; and Hobart and Kupfer, 1 and 23-25. (return to source paragraph)

  532. Information presented in Table 3 is from: Freyman and Armstrong (1968), 24-26. In 1961, the total population of the NWT was 22,098, and 14,030 of those were Aboriginal people. In a 1968 study of mine management and the employment of Aboriginal peoples, researchers reported that 2,002 people were employed in eleven mines throughout the NWT and northern Quebec, and 4.5% (91 people) of the workforce was Aboriginal. Aboriginal employees were largely segregated into unskilled positions, as they lacked the education and technical skills to be promoted further. Mine management denied ethnic profiling and discrimination in their hiring practices, yet stated that Aboriginal employees worked best when grouped with other Aboriginal people, and opined that, “the indigenous employee is unreliable, prone to absenteeism, and ‘good for only one paycheque.'” In a study of senior Aboriginal high school students, however, mining was ranked low among desirable professions. Inuit students ranked mining 38th and First Nation students ranked mining 39th out of a possible 45 professions they were interested in pursuing. Freyman and Armstrong conclude that both the government and the mining industry failed to adequately advertise and train Aboriginal students for skilled positions in the mining industry. Consequently, it was often Aboriginal people with few other options who sought employment in the mining industry. Inuit cultural values relating to family and money also differed substantially from the perspectives of southern Canadians. Generally, Inuit did not value financial compensation highly enough to reside in the bunkhouses provided for mine employees if it meant social isolation from their families and communities. Additional considerations, such as time off for hunting, were important to Inuit, but were not often allowed by employers. In 1961, Aboriginal people comprised 63.5% of the NWT's population, and by the late 1960s, an estimated 70% of wages paid to those working in the North were directly and indirectly the result of mineral exploitation projects. Freyman and Armstrong (1969), 643-645. (return to source paragraph)

  533. This data was obtained from the 1961 Census. Freyman and Armstrong (1968), 27. (return to source paragraph)

  534. James Houston, an Ontario artist, brought several sculptures from northern communities on his 1948 return trip from a summer of painting in the North. The Canadian Handicrafts Guild requested more sculptures. Houston was able to sell 1,000 Inuit soapstone sculptures in Montreal in 1949, and 10,000 sculptures in 1950. It was not until 1959, however, that the first Inuit art-based cooperative was developed at Povungnetuk on the west coast of the Ungava Peninsula. Following this, Inuit cooperatives were developed throughout the Arctic, including Iqaluit and Cape Dorset on Baffin Island. The HBC was supportive of Inuit cooperative business, and assisted Inuit by providing financial and business advice. As well as art, cooperatives were developed to provide commodities and services including food, hunting supplies, gasoline and telephone service. The Canadian Arctic Cooperative Federation Ltd. was established at Yellowknife in 1972. Duffy, 164-165, 168-174. (return to source paragraph)

  535. Inuit had a traditional, at least seasonal, orientation to coastal settlements, and in some regions, such as Labrador, fishing afforded a large part of the diet for many people. In more northerly regions, however, hunting for seal and other marine mammals was often preferred to fishing. The Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources gave government assistance in association with the Department of Fisheries. Fishery co-operatives to manage the commercial operations were developed beginning in 1958 in several communities. Commercial fishery operations were dependent on demand for products from southern Canada, ability of Inuit to supply fish to southern markets, and sustainability of fish populations. J.M. Jacobsen, The History, Development and Potential of Eskimo Commercial Fisheries (Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1965), 4-7. (return to source paragraph)

  536. By 1967, there were 22 Inuit co-operative businesses across the North. Co-operatives provided an opportunity for Inuit to gain business management advice, and facilitated Inuit acculturation to Canadian business culture. The knowledge and organizational experience gained through co-op management motivated Inuit to develop representative political organizations, such as Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) in 1969. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami was originally called Inuit Tapirisat of Canada but was renamed in 2001. Such organizations were developed in each of the four northern regions inhabited by Inuit -the western Arctic, the eastern Arctic, northern Quebec, and Labrador -to advocate on behalf of Inuit for their perceived land and resource rights. Kusugak, 6; and “Timelines and Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 43. (return to source paragraph)

  537. This organization suffered, however, from a lack of communication among its member co-ops, lack of management expertise, and acceptance of too much product below saleable standards. The consequent excess of Inuit art on the market during the 1970s resulted in financial losses for the CAP and Inuit artbased co-operative businesses. One of the largest art co-ops in the North, the West Baffin Co-op in Cape Dorset, established its own marketing department, “Dorset Fine Arts,” in 1978 in Toronto. This step allowed the co-op to market its artwork directly to an international market. “Annual Report, 1982-1983” (Ottawa: Canadian Eskimo Arts Council, 1983); Lesley Boyd, “Producers' Co-Ops: The West Baffin Eskimo Co-operative in Cape Dorset,” Community Economic Development in Canada's North (Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, 1990: 137-140), 137-139; and Canadian Eskimo Arts Council Program Evaluation (Ottawa: Bureau of Management Consulting, Social and Cultural Development Division, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1979). See also: “Inuit Fine Art Task Force Report” (Yellowknife: Department Economic Development and Tourism, 1985). (return to source paragraph)

  538. Duffy, 164-174; Lon David Duncombe, “Co-Operatives and Cultural Change in the Canadian Arctic: A Case Study” (MA thesis, University of Manitoba, 1978); Jayati Ghosh and Bob Sharpe, “Co-Operative Enterprises in the Canadian Arctic and India: A Comparative Analysis” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada Departmental Library, 1995), 10-15; Inter-American Development Bank, the Canadian International Development Agency, and the Canadian Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, “Cooperative Development Assistance in Support of Arctic Co-operatives,” paper presented at a Seminar on Handicraft Development, National Conference Centre, Ottawa, 16-20 June 1975, transcript; Jacobsen, 4-7; Kusugak, “The Inuit of Canada”; Native Broadcasting in the North of Canada: A New and Potent Force (Ottawa: European Joint Study on The Role of Communication in the Cultural Development of Rural Areas, Canadian Commission for UNESCO, 1986); and John Stager, Inuit Co-Operatives and Change in the Canadian North (London: Canadian High Commission, Canada House Lecture Series, No. 16, 1982). See also: Mitchell. (return to source paragraph)

  539. Freyman and Armstrong (1968), 24-27; and Freyman and Armstrong (1969), 643-645. (return to source paragraph)

  540. As secondary and tertiary industries were predicted to require more employees between 1968 and 1981, the study reported that INAC was creating training programs to assist Inuit in obtaining the education requisite for employment positions in the NWT. Such programs were intended to reduce Inuit reliance on social assistance. D.C. Emerson Mathurin, Indian and Eskimo Labour Force Projections to 1981, Northwest Territories (Ottawa: Economic Staff Group, Resource and Economic Development Group, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1968), 1-3. (return to source paragraph)

  541. Michael I. Asch, “Capital and Economic Development: A Critical Appraisal of the Recommendations of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Commission,” ed. Bruce Alden Cox, Native People, Native Lands: Canadian Indians, Inuit and Metis (Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1987: 232-240), 234-235; Bruce Alden Cox, “Prospects for the Northern Canadian Native Economy,” Native People, Native Lands: Canadian Indians, Inuit and Metis, Bruce Alden Cox, ed. (Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1987: 256-264), 256-257; Cox, 224-225; and Robertson (1960), 1-6. (return to source paragraph)

  542. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]. A 1974 study quantified barriers to equal opportunity employment for Inuit as legal, administrative and attitudinal. Legally, the study concluded that, equal opportunity hiring practices were not considered valid, “unless all Canadians have also had an equal opportunity to obtain the education, training, and experience (both work and social) needed to compete on equal terms for job opportunities.” As the tradition of formal education was less than twenty years old in many parts of the NWT during the early 1970s, few Inuit could hope to compete equally for employment in the civil service. In terms of administration, Inuit-friendly hiring practices, such as restricting the geographic region of applicants, and requiring local knowledge of culture and environment, were suggested to compensate for lack of formal education and experience, thereby increasing the number of Inuit qualified for employment in the civil service. The attitudes of Inuit towards employment in the civil service, as well as the attitudes of departments seeking to hire employees, were reinforced based on their behaviour towards each other. The study recommended encouraging awareness of cultural diversity within the civil service to overcome stereotypical attitudes towards Inuit. Kalmen Kaplansky, Constraints on the Employment of Native Northerners in the Northern Public Service Community (Ottawa: Special Staff Group, Northern Employment and Economic Opportunities, 1974), 3. (return to source paragraph)

  543.  Development of an Employment Policy for Indian, Inuit and Métis People (Ottawa: Employment and Immigration Canada, 1978), 5-9; and Kaplansky, 2-14. See also E. R. Weick, Kathleen Shaw and Dale McIntyre, Development Agencies for the Northwest Territories: Preliminary Discussion Paper (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1972). (return to source paragraph)

  544. The federal government's 1988 policy statement on northern economic development aimed to transfer administrative responsibility for provincial-type programs and management of natural resources to the territorial and provincial governments. These transfers provided many employment opportunities in the public service for Inuit. In some northern communities, up to 70% of jobs were in the public sector. Many of these jobs were in education and healthcare provision, or in local government administration. The advisory boards ruling on project approvals were comprised of equal numbers Aboriginal and territorial, provincial and federal representatives. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, “Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities. For Discussion at the Economic Opportunities Sectoral Meeting, December 13th and 14th, 2004, Ottawa, Ontario”, 5, [30 January 2006]; “Federal Programs for Status Indians, Métis, Non-Status Indians, and Inuit: Northwest Territories” (Ottawa: Intergovernmental Affairs Branch, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1980), E13; “Federal Programs and Services to Aboriginal Peoples” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1987), 3-4 and 7-9; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]; and Helen Young, Acting Senior Economic Analyst, Strategic Management and Economic Analysis Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, interview by author, 15 March 2005, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Gatineau. (return to source paragraph)

  545. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]. See also: Thomas R. Berger, Northern Frontier Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Enquiry, Volumes I and II (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1977). (return to source paragraph)

  546. According to a report by Peter Usher, Inuit attitudes toward employment in the public service were affected by their traditional subsistence, which involved harvesting practices that reinforced Inuit cultural values and characteristics, including equality, flexibility, personal autonomy, community consensus in decision-making, and transmission of skills and knowledge through generations. In contrast, employment in the public service, industries, and even small businesses emphasized rigid adherence to regulations and routines, group conformity, hierarchical organization, and competition for jobs and salaries. Schools facilitated Inuit introduction to labour force culture, by teaching skills and knowledge, as well as emphasizing individual achievement for compensation, regular hours of attendance and conformity to routine. Workplace compensation, which is usually based on individual achievement and takes the form of money, has created differences in income levels among Inuit, within households and throughout communities. Where elder care and sharing of food resources within a community were once fundamental to group cohesion, wage labour's emphasis of individuality has encouraged more people to enter the labour market and to retain jobs for longer periods of time. Differences in achievement and level of economic income have affected traditional Inuit values of reciprocity, and have required adaptations to generational and gender roles. Peter J. Usher, “Assessing the Impact of Industry in the Beaufort Sea Region” (Ottawa: Beaufort Sea Alliance, 1982), 29-33. (return to source paragraph)

  547. As Canadians, Inuit were eligible for social assistance payments but in some cases required surnames and social insurance numbers before such payments could be issued. Registration for these forms of identification was completed in the North by 1972. Identification and Registration of Indian and Inuit People (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1993) iv; Roberts, 26-31; and Usher (1982), 11-12. (return to source paragraph)

  548. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  549. Men tended to be employed seasonally, and more often in jobs requiring physical labour, while women were hired for in full or part time employment with the public service, at a corporation or at a resource development project base camp. This employment for women, however, was often only found in larger communities. Usher, 7-18. (return to source paragraph)

  550. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  551. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]; and Aboriginal Co-Operatives in Canada: Case Studies (Ottawa: Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2001), 2, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 27 May 2004, Aboriginal Co-Operatives in Canada, [23 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  552. Sadie Popovitch-Penny, “Working With Government Regulators for Successful Commercial Harvesting of Caribou in Labrador,” Community Economic Development in Canada's North (Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, 1990: 141-144). (return to source paragraph)

  553. Fisheries and Aquaculture Management – Seals and Sealing in Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 28 March 2006 [7 April 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  554. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  555. Successful co-operative businesses in the Arctic include Arctic Co-operatives Limited, which sells northern works of art throughout southern Canada, and has department stores in northern communities. Ikaluktutiak Co-operative Limited, which is based in Cambridge Bay and includes a char fishery, a retail store, a taxi service, a hotel and a cable service. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]; Colin Irwin, “Lords of the Arctic: Wards of the State: The Growing Inuit Population, Arctic Resettlement, and Their Effects on Social and Economic Change,” CARCNorthern Perspectives 17.1(January-March 1989), Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, 1989 [23 August 2005]; and Peter J. Usher, Gerard Duhaime, and Edmund Searles, “The Household as an Economic Unit in Arctic Aboriginal Communities, and its Measurement by Means of a Comprehensive Survey,” Social Indicators Research 61(2003: 175-202). (return to source paragraph)

  556. The Commission pointed out that, “mining is also the single largest private sector, goods-producing, export dollar activity in the North.” Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  557. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]; and Usher, 1-3. (return to source paragraph)

  558. Currently, most royalties generated from non-renewable resource development projects in the North go to the federal government. The territorial governments have requested a share of these profits to decrease their reliance on federal transfer payments. Through the Prime Minister's announcement of a Northern Strategy in November 2004, the territorial governments hope to develop agreements, whereby they will receive a share of non-renewable resource profits. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 4, Section 6, The North, [10 March 2005]; Usher (1982), 1-3; Anna Maria Tremonti, “Pipeline Seems Closer to the Horizon Today,” The Current (CBC-Radio), National, 14 February 2005, Bowdens Media Monitoring Limited, Ref # 44F1CB-2, transcript; The Northern Strategy, May 2005, Nation Building— Framework for a Northern Strategy [11 July 2005]; and John Sallenave, “Giving Traditional Ecological Knowledge its Rightful Place in Environmental Impact Assessment,” CARCNorthern Perspectives 22.1(Spring 1994) [26 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  559. Significant to this action was criticism by two women's organizations, the Tongamiut Inuit Annait and the Ad Hoc Committee on Aboriginal Women and Mining in Labrador, who criticized the mining companies' environmental impact statement for failing to account for women's perspectives with regards to mining development, and for insufficiently responding to the environmental assessment guidelines. William Hipwell, Katy Mamen, Viviane Weitzner, and Gail Whiteman, “Aboriginal Peoples and Mining in Canada: Consultation, Participation and Prospects for Change” (Ottawa: North-South Institute, 2002), 42-43.

    Currently, Inuit of Baker Lake, Nunavut are seeking to negotiate impact and benefit clauses directly with Cumberland Resources Ltd., who is proposing to construct the Meadowbank gold mine 70km outside of the hamlet. Under the Nunvut Impact Review Board regulations, mine developers must negotiate impact and review agreements with the regional Inuit associations. The hamlet of Baker Lake, however, is not satisfied with the agreement that the Kivalliq Inuit Association is preparing with Cumberland, and is seeking to ensure that their resources and community are protected through direct negotiation. Jim Bell, “Impact and Benefit Agreement Not Enough For Us, Baker Lake Says,” Nunatsiaq News, 1 July 2005 [5 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  560. Significantly, however, the agreement provided no quota for Inuit employment. Since 1995, Inuit have never comprised more than 20% of mine employees, and frequently assert that they are subjected to racism and discrimination in their workplace. Hipwell et al., 46-48. (return to source paragraph)

  561. Under the Inuvik project, called Inuvik Gas Limited, 600 out of 800 customers have switched from diesel to natural gas since 1999. This has reduced toxic environmental emission levels and reduced the cost to customers for heating their homes. The project sells gas to customers in Inuvik and to the Northwest Territories Power Corporation. Inuvik Gas Limited is owned by the Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation, Enbridge and AltaGas. “Partners in Building a Stronger North” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2003), 3, http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca, [9 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  562. The annual nominations are conducted on a regional basis that includes the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea, the Arctic Archipelago and the central Mackenzie Valley. Benefit plans are designed to give Northerners and their businesses first consideration in training, hiring and business contracts. Given the high proportion of Aboriginal people comprising the population of the NWT and Nunavut, Aboriginal peoples often benefit directly from these agreements. INAC requires benefit plans for development on Inuit owned land, although they try to ensure their harmonization with land claim settlements to ensure that the relevant Inuit receive maximum benefit from these agreements. Wayne Greenall, Economic Policy Advisor, Oil and Gas Management, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, interview by author, 31 March 2005, digital recording, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Gatineau; and Greenall e-mail to author, 30 September 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  563.  Aboriginal Communities and Non-Renewable Resources Development (Ottawa: National Roundtable on the Environment and the Economy, 2001), xvii-xxiv and 103. (return to source paragraph)

  564. Marilyn J. Lumsden, Program Manager, Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnerships, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, e-mail to author, 7 October 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  565. Idlout-Sudlovenick interview, 22 February 2005; “Partners in Building a Stronger North” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2003), 3-5, http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca, [9 March 2005]; “Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities”, 8-9; and “Indian and Inuit Services: Programs and Services Guide” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2001)[25 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  566. Hull, xix; and Jeremy Hull, Occupational Characteristics of Aboriginal People in Canada, 2001, manuscript in process of publication (Winnipeg: Prologica Research Inc., 2005), viii-x and 37-38. (return to source paragraph)

  567. The rate of land claim beneficiary employment in full-time permanent employment decreased by 2% between 1993 and 1995. In 1993, 34% of jobs required a college diploma, trade certificate or university degree. By 1995, the rate of jobs requiring such educational attainment was 40%. Denis Lefebvre, Jobs in Nunavik (Nunavik: Employment and Training Department, Kativik Regional Government, 1996), 193-194. (return to source paragraph)

  568. Nunavut 1999 Consulting, “In Their Own Words”: Turnover and Retention Amongst Inuit Employees in the Northwest Territories (Iqaluit: Department of Education, Culture and Employment, Government of the Northwest Territories, 1996), 5-13. (return to source paragraph)

  569.  ITK's first two priorities for economic development are guaranteed as Articles within the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement but require federal assistance for implementation. The third priority is included in some sense within all four Inuit comprehensive land claim agreements. “Backgrounder on Economic Opportunities,” 6-12. (return to source paragraph)

  570. Anna Maria Tremonti, “Newfoundland and Labrador Resource Revenues,” The Current (CBC-Radio), National, 15 February 2005, Bowdens Media Monitoring Limited, Ref # 44FD95-9, transcript. (return to source paragraph)

  571. Tremonti, 14 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  572. Tremonti, 15 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  573. Hipwell, 47-49. (return to source paragraph)

  574. The Hawthorn Report described the poverty experienced by many Aboriginal peoples and the discrepancies in living standards between Aboriginal peoples and other Canadians. The White Paper, “A Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy”, recommended the assimilation of Aboriginal Canadians by terminating their status under the Indian Act. “Timelines and Milestones: 30 Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Special Edition of Inuit Today (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 4; Newhouse and Belanger, 2; and Hawthorn. (return to source paragraph)

  575. Other Aboriginal organizations, such as the National Indian Brotherhood, had formed several years earlier, and influenced the formation of a national Inuit organization. Newhouse and Belanger, 3. (return to source paragraph)

  576. The existence of Aboriginal rights pre-1982 was further entrenched in Canadian law precedence by the 1990 Sparrow decision. The Sparrow decision affirmed that Aboriginal rights were protected under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. Through the 1997 Supreme Court of Canada Delgamuukw decision, Aboriginal peoples were provided two legal arguments for claiming historic title to land, that “title is presumed from possession” and that, “possession is title as against anyone who cannot prove that he or she has a better title.” Where no treaties were established with Aboriginal peoples, such as in the four regions inhabited by Inuit, title to land was unextinguished. Hence, the federal government sought extinguishment of land title through the comprehensive claims process. Newhouse and Belanger, 12-13, 23, and 31-32. See also: “In All Fairness: A Native Claims Policy, Comprehensive Claims,” National and Regional Interests in the North: Third National Workshop on People, Resources, and the Environment North of 60º (Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, 1984: 57-70), 57-62. (return to source paragraph)

  577. Newhouse and Belanger, 16 and 24. (return to source paragraph)

  578. Newhouse and Belanger, 27. (return to source paragraph)

  579. Newhouse and Belanger, 27-28. (return to source paragraph)

  580. “Submission of the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 1994), 22-23. (return to source paragraph)

  581. Historically, under Canadian common law, Crown sovereignty of Aboriginal peoples has stemmed from the discovery and settlement of land. This theory, however, ignores the pre-existence of Aboriginal peoples, as well as their legal and governance systems. Although Crown sovereignty of Canada is fact, and therefore not an issue for debate in the court system, some recent scholarship has demonstrated continuity in Aboriginal law and governance systems pre and post imposition of Crown sovereignty. This observation casts doubt on the settlement thesis, and has assisted Aboriginal peoples in questioning the Crown's historic affect on their sovereignty and on their rights. Emphasis in original. “Submission of the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,” 9-11, 22-23 and 31. (return to source paragraph)

  582. In 1991, the Inuit Assembly on the Constitution adopted the Pangnirtung Accord, which called for recognition of the Inuit inherent right to self-government, full and equal participation of Inuit in the process of federal constitutional reform, and for recognition of Aboriginal government as one of three orders of government in Canada. Based on geographic, demographic, and historic factors, as well as the specifics of each of the four comprehensive land claim agreements negotiated with Inuit, the Accord sought recognition for Inuit as a distinct people, and recognition that self-government structures in each of the Inuit regions should be unique and require specific negotiations regarding their form and structure. The 1992 Charlottetown Accord would have provided a national framework to negotiate and implement Aboriginal self-government structures, and its defeat required Inuit to adopt new strategies for mobilizing self-government negotiations with the Government of Canada. Privy Council Office, 1 April 2001, The Charlottetown Accord (1992) Summary [22 April 2005]; and “Submission of the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,” 48-49. (return to source paragraph)

  583. As the Calder decision recognized Aboriginal rights as separate from those of other Canadians, the Government of Canada had to adopt a direction for Aboriginal policy that further retracted from its 1969 White Paper policy of assimilation. Section 35 of the Constitution also recognized comprehensive land claim agreements with the same protection as treaties. Newhouse and Belanger, 9-14; “NWT Plain Facts On Land and Self-Government: Beaufort-Delta/Gwich'in and Inuvialuit Self-Government Negotiations,” Indian and Northern Affairs, 12 April 2005, Publications, ; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 13 May 2004, Federal Policy Guide: Aboriginal Self-Government, “The Government of Canada's Approach to Implementation of the Inherent Right and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Self-Government,” [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  584. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 13 May 2004, “Federal Policy Guide: Aboriginal Self-Government: The Government of Canada's Approach to Implementation of the Inherent Right and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Self-Government,” [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  585. These revisions did not include provisions for subsurface resource management. Claimants have joint management of environmental assessments for resource development projects but no rights to explore or develop subsurface resources on federal Crown land. Terry Fenge, “Political Development and Environmental Management in Northern Canada: The Case of the Nunavut Agreement,” Etudes/Inuit/ Studies 16.1-2 (1992: 115-141), 118-119. (return to source paragraph)

  586. Other issues negotiated by the federal government under self government agreements include structures and processes for establishing constitutions and laws, and for conducting elections and selecting leaders; creating membership eligibility; marriage; adoption and child welfare; education; language, culture and religious regulations; health and social services; policing; property rights; land and resource management; taxation; infrastructure management; housing; business management and licensing; and local transportation. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 13 May 2004, “Federal Policy Guide: Aboriginal Self-Government: The Government of Canada's Approach to Implementation of the Inherent Right and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Self-Government,” [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  587. The Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement was ratified by the Government of Canada on 23 June 2005. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 13 May 2004, “Federal Policy Guide: Aboriginal Self-Government: The Government of Canada's Approach to Implementation of the Inherent Right and the Negotiation of Aboriginal Self-Government,” [22 March 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  588. The KRG was established through an agreement between the Province of Quebec and the Inuit of Nunavik, the 1978 Kativik Act. According to The Honourable Charlie Watt, who was President of the Northern Quebec Inuit Association during the JBNQA negotiations, the Government of Quebec was reluctant to call the KRG a “government” and preferred the term “administration”. Watt interview, 19 May 2005; McGoldrick interview, 10 February 2005; Mark O. Dickerson and Robert Shotton, “Northern Self-Government: Statism vs. Community Empowerment—A Choice of Futures” (Ottawa: Prepared for the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1993), 27-31; Donat Savoie, “The Challenges for a Northern Dimension Foreign Policy in International Relations,” paper presented to the Cultural Identities and Northern Dimensions Symposium, Canadian Studies Centre, State University of West Georgia, 3 to 5 March 2005, Atlanta, Georgia; and Savoie (29 to 30 October 2004). (return to source paragraph)

  589. The negotiations did not begin for ten years, and were further delayed by the 1995 Quebec referendum on potential secession. Negotiations resumed in 1997, and included representatives from the federal government. Negotiations for the Agreement-in-Principle for the Government of Nunavik concluded in January 2005. The Agreement is currently undergoing consultation within the Government of Canada, Makivik Corporation and the Government of Quebec. Savoie (24 March 2005); “Negotiation Framework Agreement on the Amalgamation of Certain Institutions and the Creation of a New Form of Government in Nunavik” (Ottawa: Government of Canada, 26 June 2003); Savoie (2004); and “Nunavik Government: Negotiation Framework Agreement,” Nunavik 01.02 (2005: 3-6), 3. (return to source paragraph)

  590. “Submission of the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,” 48. In his paper, Savoie notes that Canada is currently negotiating 77 self-government and land claims agreements. Although the majority of Aboriginal self-government proposals are for ethnic governments, in all four Inuit regions non-ethnic structures of self-government are being negotiated or have been established. Donat Savoie, “The Challenges for a Northern Dimension Foreign Policy in International Relations,” paper presented to the Cultural Identities and Northern Dimensions Symposium, Canadian Studies Centre, State University of West Georgia, 3 to 5 March 2005, Atlanta, Georgia; Donat Savoie, “Indigenous Movements in Plural Societies: The Canadian Inuit and the Ainu of Japan,” paper presented at the International Symposium, National Museum of Ethnology, 13 to 15 January 2005, Osaka, Japan; and Robert M. Bone, “Final Report: The Importance of Creating a Nunavik Statistics Office,” (Saskatoon: Signe Research Associates Limited, 2004), 4.

    The 2001 Nunavik Commission's Report recommended that the Nunavik Assembly contain 15 members, with one elected from each community and one member elected from the Naskapi Region. Communities with populations in excess of 2,000 people may be allowed to elect a second representative. The Nunavik Assembly would adopt a Constitution, would have exclusive law-making power for Inuit language and culture in Nuanvik, and would have final veto on any decisions regarding natural resource development within Nunavik. The Commission's report also recommended the creation of a Council of Elders to advise the Assembly. Elders would be elected from the 14 communities on Nunavik, as well as Chisasibi. Rather than the present system of an itinerant court, the Commission's report recommends creating a permanent judicial district within Nunavik, including a resident judge, Crown attorney, community justice committees and detention facilities. Further, the Commission's report recommended that Nunavik have seats in the Quebec National Assembly and the Parliament of Canada, and that the Government of Nunavik should be given latitude to develop autonomous relationships with other governments, such as those of Nunavut and Greenland. “Amiqqaaluta: Let Us Share: Mapping the Road Toward a Government for Nunavik” (Ottawa: Nunavik Commission, 2001), i-iii, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, [20 June 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  591. “Nunavik Symposium,” Nunavik (a special edition of Makivik magazine) 07(2005): 1-2. (return to source paragraph)

  592. The legislative executive, including the premier, is elected from among the members of the legislature. The Government of the Northwest Territories gained two additional elected members in 1966, but was not fully elected until 1976. Dickerson and Shotton, 8-17. (return to source paragraph)

  593. Former NWT Commissioner John Parker's 1991 report on territorial division recommended amending the location of the boundary line. Following the release of Parker's report, the Bourque Commission was established to draft an interim report on the new western territory's constitution. Fifty four percent of people in the Northwest Territories voted in favour of the boundary line identified by John Parker to create Nunavut. Michael Asch and Shirleen Smith, “Consociation Revisited: Nunavut, Denendeh and Canadian Constitutional Consciousness,” Etudes/Inuit/Studies, 16.1-2(1992: 97-114), 105-106; Curley interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  594. The government would be based on representation from municipal districts comprised of one or more communities throughout the western Arctic. Districts would have the powers of territorial governments, which they could decide to devolve to a central governing authority (like the GNWT) if they chose. Districts comprised primarily of Aboriginal communities could decide to forgo a relationship with the GNWT in favour of a self-government arrangement with the federal government. Composition of districts would be determined by the communities concerned and would not have to be of similar size. In reality, the current structure of the GNWT is very similar to what it was before territorial division. Dickerson and Shotton, 13-17 and 57-61. (return to source paragraph)

  595. Within their comprehensive land claim agreements, both the Gwich'in and the Inuvialuit received title to land. Their title to subsurface rights of this land, however, is limited to one quarter (Gwich'in) and one seventh (Inuvialuit). “NWT Plain Facts On Land and Self-Government: Beaufort-Delta/Gwich'in and Inuvialuit Self-Government Negotiations,” Indian and Northern Affairs, 12 April 2005, Publications. (return to source paragraph)

  596. NWT Plain Facts On Land and Self-Government: Beaufort-Delta/Gwich'in and Inuvialuit Self-Government Negotiations,” Indian and Northern Affairs, 12 April 2005, Publications; and “Submission of the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,” 48-49. (return to source paragraph)

  597. Many of the responsibilities currently being negotiated for transfer to the GNWT have already been successfully transferred to territorial management in the Yukon. The transfer of provincial-like responsibilities to the territories has been a long-term objective of the federal and territorial governments, yet there is no current plan to negotiate the transfer of provincial-type responsibilities to the GNWT that are currently managed by federal departments other than INAC. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Backgrounder – Devolution in the Northwest Territories [29 August 2005]; Curley interview, 27 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  598. Fenge, 120-123. In 1997, the Nunavut Implementation Commission held a referendum on the proposed structure of the Legislative Assembly. Initially, it had proposed to have gender parity through the election of one male and one female member to the legislative assembly for each electoral riding. The proposal for gender parity was supported and opposed by both prominent Inuit men and women. Support for the proposal recognized inherent barriers for women in the political system and sought to ensure their participation. Detractors of the proposal viewed it as paternalistic and identified Inuit cultural expectations for women as major barriers. They sought to change cultural perceptions and expectations for women to encourage political participation. The proposal was rejected, however, as 57% of respondents voted against it. Lisa Young, “Gender Equal Legislatures: Evaluating the Proposed Nunavut Electoral System,” Canadian Public Policy XXIII.3 (1997: 306-315), 306-308, Canadian Public Policy, 2002, Online Archive [18 January 2005]; and Carole Cancel, “Inuit Women Reach a Deadlock in the Canadian Political Arena: A Phenomenon Grounded in the Iglu,” paper presented at the Aboriginal Policy Research Conference, 21 to 23 March 2006, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  599. The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement-in-Principle and the final land claims agreement was a comprehensive land claim negotiated by the federal government and the TFN to include land, social and economic benefits in return for the extinguishment of Aboriginal title to land in Nunavut. The Nunavut Political Accord was negotiated among the GNWT, the federal government, and the TFN to establish the date for creating Nunavut (1 April 1999) and the process of shifting jurisdictional authority from the GNWT to the Government of Nunavut. The Nunavut Act represents the Government of Canada's ratification of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. Asch and Smith, 100-103. (return to source paragraph)

  600. Please see the chapter on Inuit political organizations for more information on regional organizations. Although regional associations with limited authority were established in the eastern Arctic during the 1970s as part of the GNWT's decentralization and devolution of authority, residents of the eastern Arctic and Inuit in particular, continued to push for the division of the Northwest Territories and the creation of a government in the eastern Arctic that would be responsive to the specific needs of the eastern Arctic's population. The Baffin Regional Council (BRC) is an example of a successful organization that was largely Inuit administered. It was established in 1977 as the first regional council in the Northwest Territories but was soon followed by the creation of six other similar bodies. These councils included the Keewatin, Kitikmeot, South Slave, Beau-Del, Deh Cho, Sahtu, and Dogrib Regional Councils. Regional councils are not regional governments, as they have no law-making abilities. Rather, they are bodies comprised of local government representatives and members of the Government of the Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly who meet to advise the territorial government with a united voice on local issues. Fenge, 123-125; Duffy, 243-246; Qikiqtani Inuit Association, About QIA [8 February 2005]; Linda (return to source paragraph)

  601. The members of the legislature elect the cabinet and the premier from amongst themselves. Peter Jull, “The Making of Northern Territories & Canada's Indigenous Hinterlands,” Norwegian Polar Institute, 2001 [17 January 2005]; Idlout-Sudlovenick interview, 22 February 2005; and Dickerson and Shotton, 65. (return to source paragraph)

  602. “Submission of the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,” 48-50. The Clyde River Protocol was signed by Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated and the Government of Nunavut to establish roles and responsibilities of each organization in governing the Territory of Nunavut and managing implementation of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. IQ representatives sit on the Tuttarviit Committee, which oversees the government's implementation of IQ, and are advised by an elders' council called, Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit Katimajiit. Arnaquq and Pitsiulak interview, 27 April 2005; Mike interview, 29 April 2005; Tuttarviit Committee, Government of Nunavut, interview by author, 28 April 2005, Trigram Centre, Iqaluit, Nunavut; Irniq interview, 27 April 2005; Louis Tapardjuk, “Report of the Nunavut Traditional Knowledge Conference,” Nunavut Social Development Council, held 20-24 March 1998, Igloolik, Nunavut; and Jull (2001); and Government of Nunavut, “The Clyde River Protocol,” [28 June 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  603. Although the municipal governments in the Inuit communities of Hopedale, Nain, Rigolet, Postville and Makkovik are elected in the same way as other municipal governments within the province, these communities have historically received funding for Inuit-specific programs and services. Veryan Haysom, “The Struggle for Recognition: Labrador Inuit Negotiations for Land Rights and Self-Government,” Etudes/ Inuit/Studies 16.1-2(1992: 179-197), 190-192. (return to source paragraph)

  604. In 1982, the LIA successfully negotiated an agreement to directly administer the Labrador Inuit Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program, under federal funding from the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program. In 1989, the LIA established the Labrador Inuit Health Commission to administer the community health representative program and non-insured health benefits, which also received direct federal funding. LIA administration of post-secondary assistance funding has been similarly successful. The LIA has primarily administered these programs since 1987 and 1989, respectively. Haysom, 190-193. The municipal governments are comprised of an elected chief executive officer and councilors. Nunatsiavut, 2005, Nunatsiavut Government [27 June 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  605. The Nunatsiavut Government is comprised of a president, an executive council and an assembly. The assembly provides a forum for debate, it enacts laws, and it monitors work of the executive council. By forming non-profit community corporations, and electing a chairperson and executives, predominantly Inuit communities outside the settlement area can have representation in the Nunatsiavut Assembly. Nunatsiavut, 2005, Nunatsiavut Government [27 June 2005]; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 11 February 2005, Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement, [4 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  606. Asch and Smith, 102-104. Tremonti, 14 February 2005; Watt interview, 19 May 2005; and James Dean, “Reconsidering Equalization for the Canadian Territories,” Aboriginal Health, Identity and Resources, Jill Oakes et al., eds. (Winnipeg: Department of Native Studies and Zoology and Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Manitoba, 2000: 305-323), 307-314. (return to source paragraph)

  607. Office of the Prime Minister, 20 December 2004, Prime Minister of Canada: First Ministers Partner on Northern Strategy News Release [29 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  608. Office of the Prime Minister, 20 December 2004, Prime Minister of Canada: First Ministers Partner on Northern Strategy News Release [29 August 2005]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004, Inuit Respond to Northern Strategy Framework [29 August 2005]; McGoldrick interview, 10 February 2005; Kusugak interview, 6 April 2005; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 18 April 2005, Bulletin – Minister's Update on Aboriginal and Northern Initiatives, [29 August 2005]; Government of Nunavut, 12 May 2005, Honourable Paul Okalik, Premier of Nunavut, Keynote Address: “Realizing the Nunavut Dream”, The Empire Club of Canada [29 August 2005]; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 31 October 2001, Backgrounder: Yukon Devolution and the Proposed New Yukon Act [16 June 2006]; Canadian Broadcasting Corporation North, 26 May 2006, Devolution for Nunavut Still Stalled in Ottawa [16 June 2006]; Canadian Broadcasting Corporation North, 13 August 2004, PM Leaves Nunavut Premier Smiling [16 June 2006]; and Canadian Broadcasting Corporation North, 1 April 2003, It's Official: Yukon Devolution in Effect [16 June 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  609. “Submission of the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples,” 44; “Inuit Tapiriiksakkut Kanatami, “Timeless Milestones: Thirty Years With ITC,” Inuktitut: Inuit Today Special Edition (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 2001), 4; Kusugak interview, 6 April 2005; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, “The Case for Inuit Specific: Renewing the Relationship Between the Inuit and Government of Canada” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2004), 3 [4 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  610. Alan D. McMillan, Native Peoples and Cultures of Canada (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1995), 257 (return to source paragraph)

  611. Kuptana, 12 April 2005, author's notes. (return to source paragraph)

  612. Kuptana interview, 20 April 2005; Sila Alangotok: Inuit Observations on Climate Change (Ottawa: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2001), 42 minutes; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Backgrounder on the Environment for Discussion at the Environment Sectoral Meeting [11 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  613. The Northwest Territories Branch was created to administer natural resources after oil was discovered at Fort Norman in the Northwest Territories. Jenness, (1968), 29; and J.G. Nelson and Sabine Jessen, Planning and Managing Environmentally Significant Areas in the Northwest Territories: Issues and Alternatives (Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, 1984), Preface. (return to source paragraph)

  614. Curley interview, 27 April 2005; and Watt interview, 19 May 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  615. Through the settlement of four comprehensive land claims in Canada, regional environmental management boards were created to assess the implications of economic development. The regional boards function in association with the land claim beneficiary corporations under the terms of the land claim agreements, but also work with the provincial or territorial governments on co-management committees. These committees have identified several issues that impede their effective functioning, such as high turnover of membership and length of time required arriving at decisions. Evelyn J. Peters, “Views of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Co-Management Bodies in Nunavik, Quebec,” Polar Record 39.208 (2003: 49-60), 49-59. (return to source paragraph)

  616. Philip Goldring, Historical Services Branch, Parks Canada, interview by author, 23 February 2005, digital recording, Public History, Ottawa. (return to source paragraph)

  617. The Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry lasted from 1974 to 1976 and involved consultations with many Aboriginal communities potentially impacted by the pipeline's construction. Thomas R. Berger, Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Inquiry (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1977). (return to source paragraph)

  618. Although these committees are designed to advise government on policy, the committees often administer resource management as well. Leslie Treseder et al., Northern Eden: Community Based Wildlife Management in Canada (Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1999), 12-13; and Peters, 49-59. (return to source paragraph)

  619. These committees are the Hunting, Fishing, Trapping Coordinating Committee; Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee; the Kativik Environmental Quality Commission; and the Federal Review Committee North. A study conducted in 2000 to assess the use of traditional knowledge by the committees concluded that Inuit committee members are actively trying to incorporate traditional knowledge into the committees' work but it is often viewed as local knowledge and more funding is needed to collect and document traditional knowledge so that it can be evaluated with scientific knowledge on a broader geographic scale. In 1982, the Beverly-Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board was established in the NWT, as one the first Canadian/Aboriginal environmental joint management board. Peters, 51-59; Treseder, 12-13; Peter J. Usher, “The Beverly-Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board: An Evaluation of the First Ten Years and Recommendations for the Future” (Ottawa: P.J. Usher Consulting Services for the Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board, 1991); and Susan Cosens, “The History and Subsistence of Hunting and Management of Bowhead Whales in Canada,” Issues in the North, Vol. II, Jill Oakes and Rick Riewe, eds. (Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1997: 9-15), 9. See also: Circumpolar Aboriginal People and Co-Management Practice: Current Issues in Co-Management and Environmental Assessment (Calgary: Arctic Institute of North America and Joint Secretriat—Inuvialuit Renewable Resource Committees, 1996). (return to source paragraph)

  620. William MacLeod, Water Management in the Canadian North: the Administration of Inland Waters North of 60° (Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, 1977), 1-11 and 103-104. (return to source paragraph)

  621. Bowheads were considered a protected species in Canada beginning in 1935 under the Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Although the International Whaling Commission had permitted subsistence whaling beginning in 1950, they cancelled this practice in 1977, fearing that over harvesting was negatively affecting whale populations, and created a quota system solely for Aboriginal subsistence hunting. The Hunters and Trappers Committee and the Inuvialuit Game Council are also part of joint federal resource management strategies. Cosens, 9-12. (return to source paragraph)

  622. In the eastern Arctic, subsistence bowhead whaling continued throughout the twentieth century until 1979 when it was restricted. Under the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, Inuit negotiated provisions for a traditional knowledge study that would assess the contemporary bowhead whale population and set quotas for their harvest. The federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans collaborated with the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board to conduct the study, which concluded that hunters' assertions of bowhead whale population health were generally correct. Cosens, 12-14; Mats Ris, “Inuit Bowhead Whaling: Canadian Inuvialuit Response to History, Tradition, and Modern Management,” Issues in the North, Vol. I, Jill Oakes and Rick Riewe, eds. (Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1998: 203-207), 203-207. See also: Evelyn Peters, Sustainable Development, Food Security and Aboriginal Self-Government in the Circumpolar North (Quebec: GETIC, Universite Laval, 2000). (return to source paragraph)

  623. Other federal legislation, including the Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy, also provides opportunities for Inuit to become involved in the management of northern fisheries. The 1997 Canada Oceans Act mandates that federal agencies use traditional knowledge in their decision-making processes. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, “Ensuring the Health of the Oceans and Other Seas” (Ottawa, 1997), Environment Canada, 30 April 2002, Sustainable Development [12 April 2005]; Terry Fenge, “The Inuit and Climate Change,” Isuma 2.4 (Winter 2001), 1-4 [3 May 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  624. Lyle Lockhart and Gary Stern, “Chemical Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic,” Pushing the Margins: Native and Northern Studies, Jill Oakes, Rick Riewe, Marlyn Bennett and Brenda Chisholm, eds. (Winnipeg: Native Studies Press, 2001: 356-367), 356-357. (return to source paragraph)

  625.  Communicating About Contaminants in Country Food: The Experience in Aboriginal Communities (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 1995), i-vi; and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Northern Environmental Contaminants [27 May 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  626. Radioactive isotopes in the Canadian Arctic have been linked to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In particular, high levels of PCBs have been found concentrated in the breast milk of Inuit women, and high levels of mercury have been found in the blood of northern Aboriginal peoples. Both synthetic organic compounds and mercury have also been found concentrated in marine mammals and fish, which are significant Inuit food resources and a major opportunity for these contaminants to become concentrated in humans. Lockhart and Stern, 357-366. (return to source paragraph)

  627. In 1989, the federal government initiated a large-scale DEW Line site cleanup project through the Department of National Defence. To date, four of 21 sites have been cleaned up, and seven sites are undergoing cleanup measures. The federal government plans to complete the cleanup project in 2008. National Defence, 6 June 2005, DEW Line Cleanup Project [16 June 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  628. Rob Huebert, “The Canadian Arctic and the International Environmental Regime,” Issues in the North, Vol. II, Jill Oakes and Rick Riewe, eds. (Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1997: 45-53), 45-46; and Derek Muir, “Arctic Contaminants: Implications for the Environment and Indigenous Peoples in the Arctic,” Issues in the North, Vol. II, Jill Oakes and Rick Riewe, eds. (Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1997: 55-66), 55. (return to source paragraph)

  629. The issue of country food contamination is discussed in greater detail in the Healthcare chapter. The slow metabolism characteristic of many northern mammals, and the presence of third-level carnivores, such as polar bears, within the food chain, means increased opportunity for biomagnification of contaminants within the food chain. Several studies of Inuit traditional food resources have been conducted to determine if ingested quantities of POPs are within Canadian tolerable daily intake (TDI) levels. Lactating women and their infants have also been studied in northern communities to determine if POPs passed through the placenta and breast milk are placing infants at increased risk of negative health affects. Muir, 55-65. See also: C. Furgal et al., Inuit Perspectives on Environmental Contaminants: Report on Avativut/Ilusivut Risk Management Workshops in Nunavik and Labrador (Waterloo: Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo, 1995). (return to source paragraph)

  630. Until 1999, the Territory of Nunavut was included within the Northwest Territories. Hence, any reference in this report to the NWT preceding 1999 includes the eastern Arctic unless otherwise specified. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Description of the NCP [1 June 2006]; Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, Northern Contaminants Program [27 May 2005]. See also: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 13 May 2004, Northern Affairs Program—Contaminated Sites Program Performance Report 2001-02, November 2002, [12 April 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  631.  Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report II, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Northern Contaminants Program—Publications, [24 January 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  632. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Description of the NCP [1 June 2006]. (return to source paragraph)

  633. Sustainable Development Information, 30 September 2003, Indigenous Peoples and Sustainable Development in the Canadian Arctic Towards a Sustainable Future (5 May 2000) [12 April 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  634. A more detailed discussion of climate change and its effects on Canadian sovereignty of the Northwest Passage and Arctic Archipelago is found in the chapter on Arctic Sovereignty. (return to source paragraph)

  635. F. Berkes, Sacred Ecology: TEK and Resource Management (London and Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 1999) in Dyanna Riedlinger, “Inuvialuit Knowledge of Climate Change,” Pushing the Margins: Native and Northern Studies, Jill Oakes, Rick Riewe, Marlyn Bennett and Brenda Chisholm, eds. (Winnipeg: Native Studies Press, 2001: 346-355), 346-347. (return to source paragraph)

  636. Riedlinger, 346-348. (return to source paragraph)

  637. Riedlinger, 348-351; and Sila Alangotok: Inuit Observations on Climate Change (Ottawa: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2001), 42 minutes. (return to source paragraph)

  638. The Mackenzie Basin Impact Study was conducted over six years and was completed in 1997 by government, university and private sector researchers. The research objective was to determine the potential affects of climate change on the Mackenzie Region, which include an earlier spring season, reduced water levels and ice cover, and permafrost thaw and land erosion in coastal areas (Beaufort Sea) and the Mackenzie Valley. These changes would have potential affects on the traditional way of life for Inuit living in the Mackenzie Region by changing the time and location where particular animal and other resources were available. This study was completed between 1991 and 1997. Stewart Cohen, “What if the Climate Warms? Implications for the Mackenzie Basin,” Issues in the North, Vol. I, Jill Oakes and Rick Riewe, eds. (Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1996: 199-201), 199-200. See also: Stewart J. Cohen, “Adaptation and Impacts Research Group: Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS) Final Report: Summary of Results,” 1996, Environment Canada, 18 December 2002 [12 April 2005]; and John Yackel and David Barber, “Arctic Climate Change: A Case of Mounting Evidence,” Pushing the Margins: Native and Northern Studies, Jill Oakes, Rick Riewe, Marlyn Bennett and Brenda Chishom, eds. (Winnipeg: Native Studies Press, 2001: 338-345), 344-345. (return to source paragraph)

  639. Sheila Watt-Cloutier, “Inuit and Arctic Perspectives on Global Environmental Issues,” remarks given at The World Bank Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Week, Washington DC, 30 March 2005, transcript, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 4 April 2005, Media Room [15 April 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  640. Early objectives for the organization included identifying major environmental pollutants, identifying existing initiatives designed to protect the environment, and identifying potential initiatives that could be implemented to mitigate environmental damage. Under the amended 1995 Auditor General Act, federal departments are required to adopt sustainable development strategies. The departments tabled their first strategies in 1997 and are required to update them every three years. The implementation, management, and impact of the strategies are monitored by the Auditor General's office. This federal initiative is part of Canada's commitment to the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The revised strategy produced by INAC in 2001 demonstrates a federal response to some Inuit concerns about the environment, and includes targets, action, and performance measures taken to address each of the department's objectives. Particular INAC initiatives include sustainable utilization of northern natural resources, holistic approaches used in land and resource management, improved nutrition and health in northern communities, mitigating health effects from contaminants, active involvement of Aboriginal peoples in addressing issues related to climate change, and use of traditional knowledge in INAC decisions that affect communities. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2005, Publications—Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006; “Action Plan North of 60ºN” (Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2001), Publications; Huebert (1997), 45-48; and Rob Huebert, “The Arctic Council and Northern Aboriginal Peoples,” Issues in the North, Vol. III, eds. Jill Oakes and Rick Riewe (Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1998: 141-151), 144. See also: Peter Jull. “The Politics of Sustainable Development: Reconciliation in Indigenous Hinterlands,” paper given at the Indigenous Peoples, Power and Sustainable Development in the Global World, University of Tromso, Norway, 11 October 2002, transcript, The University of Queensland Australia, 4 February 2004, Cybrary [24 May 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  641. Huebert (1998), 142-146. (return to source paragraph)

  642. In 1994, Canada appointed Mary Simon as Ambassador of Circumpolar Affairs, with a mandate to conduct bilateral discussions with Arctic states and Aboriginal organizations regarding the creation of the Arctic Council. Mary Simon is a past President of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference. Huebert (1998), 142-145. (return to source paragraph)

  643. Although Canada sought to include Arctic security in the issues addressed by the Arctic Council, it was specifically excluded in the Arctic Council's declaration at the request of the United States of America. Huebert (1998), 146. The Arctic Council working groups are: The Sustainable Development Working Group; The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program; Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment; Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna; and Emergency, Prevention, Preparedness and Response. As well as its five working groups, the Arctic Council also has the Arctic Council Plan to Eliminate Pollution of the Arctic and recently completed the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Study. The Arctic Council works closely with several international bodies, including the European Union and the United Nations Environment Program. Arctic Council, 2004 [24 May 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  644. International organizations who are observers to the Arctic Council are the Conference of the Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, International Union for the Conservation of nature, Nordic Council of Ministers, Northern Forum, North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, United National Environment Program, and the United Nations Development Program. NGOs who are observers to the Arctic Council are the Advisory Committee of Protection of the Seas, the Association of World Reindeer herders, the Circumpolar Conservation Union, the International Arctic Science Committee, the International Arctic Social Sciences Association, the International Union for Circumpolar Health, the International Working Group for Indigenous Affairs, the University of the Arctic, and the Worldwide Fund for Nature. Council membership was comprised of ministers of foreign affairs from circumpolar nations, three Aboriginal organizations with status as Permanent Participants, and official observers. The original permanent participants were the Inuit Circumpolar Conference; the Saami Council; and the Association of Indigenous Minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation. Recently, the Aleut International Association, the Arctic Athabaskan Council, and the Gwich'in Council International have joined these organizations as permanent participants. Permanent participant status provides for inclusion in all discussions and consultation on decisions but no voting capacity. Five European states (France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom) and several international organizations and NGOs are official observers to the Arctic Council. With increasing ice melt in the Northwest Passage and predictions that it could eventually be used as a shipping route, China and Japan have expressed interest in the Northwest Passage and in becoming official observers to the Council. While permanent participants do not enjoy the same privileges as states within the Council, they have successfully encouraged the Council to adopt their agendas on several occasions. The ICC, for example, compiled the principles of sustainable development adopted by the Council. The Canadian Government recognizes the importance of the ICC and provides it with operational base funding. Arctic Council, 2004, Observers [24 May 2005]; Fenge (2001), 1-2; Kuptana interview, 20 April 2005; Watt-Cloutier (2005); and Watt-Cloutier interview, 26 April 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  645. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 2004, Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Highlights of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment [15 April 2005]; and Unikkaaqatigit: Putting the Human Face on Climate Change (Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at Universite Laval, the Ajunnginiq Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization; Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, Makivik Corporation, Labrador Inuit Association, 2005). (return to source paragraph)

  646. Yackel and Barber, 338. (return to source paragraph)

  647. Sheila Watt-Cloutier was recently appointed to the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Office of the Prime Minister, 4 March 2005, “Prime Minister Announces Appointments to the National Round Table in the Environment and the Economy” (16 February 2005) [15 April 2005]; and Sheila Watt-Cloutier, remarks given to the Circumpolar Cooperation Panel, Northern Strategy, Ottawa, 22 March 2005, transcript, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 4 April 2005, Media Room [15 April 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  648.  ITK's objective for the session was to provide the federal government with a better understanding of the issues faced by Inuit, to facilitate the creation of Inuit-specific policies that will close the gap of living standards between Inuit and other Canadians. Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, 2005, 2005 Press Release Archive/ Climate Change Plan: Inuit Seek Consultation Commitments and Ways to Adapt Plan for the Arctic [27 May 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  649. Cohen (1996), 199. (return to source paragraph)

  650. Rosemarie Kuptana supports education that will encourage Inuit to perform roles as executives and middle managers in the federal and territorial governments, land claim beneficiary corporations, private companies, and non-governmental organizations, which she predicts will positively impact the development of policies and programs for northern environmental protection and management. Kuptana (2005). (return to source paragraph)

  651. The North West Mounted Police became the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920. Dickerson, 63-88; Robert G. Williamson and Terrence W. Foster, “Eskimo Relocation in Canada” (Ottawa: Social Research Division, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, 1975), 9-11; and Diubaldo (1992), 3-6, 30. (return to source paragraph)

  652. Nobuhiro Kishigami, “Life and Problems of Urban Inuit in Montreal: Report of 1997 Research” Osaka, Japan: National Museum of Ethnology, 1999: 81-109), 88-89. Inuit Rights in the City: A Guide to Understanding the Rights of Inuit Living in the Ottawa Area (Ottawa: Tungasuvvingat Inuit, 2000), 5. (return to source paragraph)

  653. Makivik Corporation, for example, has its head office in Kuujjuaq but also maintains offices in Montreal and Ottawa. Inuit Rights in the City, 5. (return to source paragraph)

  654. Statistics Canada, “2001 Census: Analysis Series. Aboriginal Peoples of Canada: A Demographic Profile,” [8 November 2005]; Community Centre: Tungasuvvingat Inuit, 2005, Inuit of Ontario [6 July 2005]; A. Siggner and R. Costa, “Inuit Population and Profile: Canada and Nuanvik” (Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, 2005), 3; and Christopher M. Reid, “Urban Aboriginal Communities in Canada,” paper presented to the Pacific Business & Law Institute Conference, Ottawa, 28 to 29 April 2004; and Inuit Rights in the City, 4. (return to source paragraph)

  655. The Wabano Centre uses traditional and western medicine to create a more comprehensive approach to healthcare that is culturally sensitive to Aboriginal peoples. Wabano Center for Aboriginal Health, 2003 [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  656. The Odawa Native Friendship Centre in Ottawa, for example, offers parenting and family support services, a criminal court-worker program, youth programming, Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, employment training programs and a volleyball league. Odawa Native Friendship Centre, 2005, Programs [6 July 2005]; and Canadian Heritage, 28 May 2004, Aboriginal Friendship Centre Program [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  657. Inuit Community Centre: Tungasuvvingat Inuit, 2005 [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  658. The Churchill Vocational Centre was closed in 1970 when the Government of the Northwest Territories assumed responsibility for education in the territory, and began to construct smaller high schools in northern communities. The Kativik Regional School Board's residential secondary school was located at Dorval, near Montreal. A combination of poor planning and organization, and high student drop out rates forced the school's closure after only six months. Instead, the Kativik Regional School Board began offering grades 9 and 10 in Nunavik's elementary schools, and grades 11 and 12 in a few of the larger communities. “Within the South: Inuit Education, Training, Employment,” (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 1980), 5-9; and Marsha Kaplansky, Inuit in the South (Ottawa: Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, 1981), 5, 15-16. (return to source paragraph)

  659. Watt interview, 19 May 2005; and Curley interview, 27 April 2005; Michelin interview, 14 February 2005; Williamson and Foster, 2; “Within the South: Inuit Education, Training, Employment,” 1-4; Paul Welsman, “Education of Native Peoples in the Northwest Territories: A Northern Model,” The North in Transition, Nils Orvik, ed. (Kingston: Centre for International Relations, Queen's University, 1976: 21-47), 35-37; and Duffy, 118-121. (return to source paragraph)

  660. Kaplansky, 5-7. (return to source paragraph)

  661. “So You're Going to School in Ottawa,” Inutitut (Autumn 1972:8-12), 8-12. (return to source paragraph)

  662. Although these students were often the first generation of their family to attend secondary or postsecondary education in urban centres, they were not the first in their family to experience culture shock associated with urban living. In many cases, the movement of families from rural camps to communities through the North during the 1950s and 1960s produced culture shock associated with the adaptation to life in urban centres. (return to source paragraph)

  663. Additionally, no programs were provided for students returning to the North or to rural communities, and these students often experienced significant culture shock upon their return home. “Within the South: Inuit Education, Training, Employment,” 1-12. (return to source paragraph)

  664. Although more Inuit were pursuing secondary and post-secondary education in the 1980s, their completion rate for these programs was low relative to completion rates across Canada. In their 1980 report, ITK cited a lack of Inuit involvement in the design and delivery of education as a factor in low education completion rates. To address the gaps in knowledge identified by many Inuit pursuing secondary and post-secondary studies, and to promote confidence, self-esteem, and cultural pride, ITK recommended creating a program through VTS that would be accredited, and would facilitate school instruction in topics such as Inuit literature, art, language, and history, and in northern and southern life skills. “Within the South: Inuit Education, Training, Employment,” 17-19. The Tungavik Federation of Nunavut was renamed Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated in 1993. (return to source paragraph)

  665. This program provides funds for tuition, books, living expenses, and travel to eligible students enrolled in recognized post-secondary programs. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 April 2004, Post-Secondary Education Programs, [7 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  666. Hull, xii. (return to source paragraph)

  667. Kaplansky, 12-13. (return to source paragraph)

  668. In 1980, about 400 Inuit were sent to hospitals in southern Canada for treatment lasting an average of between one and three weeks. Kaplansky, 31-35. (return to source paragraph)

  669. A recent article in the Nunatsiaq News, for example, described the circumstances of a man from Nunavut who required kidney dialysis, which was not available in Nunavut. This man needed to live in Ottawa to receive medical care but had no housing and experienced difficulty accessing the support services that he required. As a beneficiary of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, the man stated that he was entitled to a better level of healthcare closer to home. Jane George, “Abandoned in Ottawa,” Nunatsiaq News, 8 July 2005 [8 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  670. Kaplansky, 31-35; Inuit Rights in the City, 4-5. (return to source paragraph)

  671. For a more comprehensive discussion of the NIHB program, see the Healthcare Issues section. Health Canada, 8 June 2004, Non-Insured Health Benefits [6 July 2005]; and Michelin interview, 14 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  672. Jane George, “Healing Foundation Gives $2 Million to Ottawa Inuit Program: Mamisarvik Healing Centre One of Nine Inuit Projects to Get Money,” 25 January 2005, Health News Digest, http://www.qcna.org/ healthstories99.html [6 July 2005]; and Inuit Community Centre: Tungasuvvingat Inuit, 2005, Programs and Services [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  673. Health Canada, 16 April 2003, National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program [6 July 2005]; and Public Health Agency of Canada, 16 February 2004, Division of Childhood and Adolescence: Program Overview [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  674. National Aboriginal Health Organization, 2005, About NAHO [6 July 2005]; and “Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative: Métis, Off-Reserve Aboriginal, and Urban Inuit Prevention and Promotion Program Framework,” (Ottawa: Health Canada, 2000); and Inuit Community Centre: Tungasuvvingat Inuit, 2005, Programs and Services [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  675. According to the report, the majority of Inuit lived in government housing at a site near Churchill called Akudlik, where extensive kinship ties served as a cohesive bond for the community, despite the differences in dialect and sub-culture among Inuit from the western Arctic and Nunavik. Inuit at Churchill were able to pursue traditional activities in their leisure time, including hunting and fishing, and the Government of Canada provided soapstone to Inuit for carving purposes, with completed projects purchased by the administration at Akudlik for re-sale. Akudlik was built in the 1950s as a transitional centre for Inuit migrating to southern Canada, and then became the Government of Canada's administrative centre for the District of Keewatin in the 1960s. The report stated that all adult Inuit males living in Churchill were employed at the time of the study. Williamson and Foster, 26-28. (return to source paragraph)

  676. Within northern communities, on-the-job training for Inuit was offered through the Kativik Regional School Board's teacher-training program, the Government of Northwest Territories, and ITK. Although vocational programs had been offered at facilities in Churchill and at Fort Smith, many Inuit who participated in these programs did not find employment in their chosen field of study, leading to discontent with the education process and reluctance of younger Inuit to enroll in vocational programs. “Within the South: Inuit Education, Training, Employment,” 24-26. (return to source paragraph)

  677. In addition, families of Inuit employed in southern Canada cited boredom as a problem. Kaplansky, 17-20. (return to source paragraph)

  678. According to the 2001 Census of Canada data, rural Inuit earn an average of $16,940 while urban Inuit earn an average of $20,982. Both of these figures are less than non-Aboriginal people, who earn an average of $30,023 per year. Approximately 7% of Inuit live in urban cities. Siggner and Costa, 7 and 20; Mary Jane Norris and Stewart Clatworthy, “Aboriginal; Mobility and Migration Within Urban Canada: Outcomes, Factors and Implications” in Not Strangers in the These Parts: Urban Aboriginal Peoples, ed. David Newhouse and Evelyn Peters (Ottawa: Policy Research Initiative, 2000: 51-78), 54; and Inuit Community Centre: Tungasuvvingat Inuit, 2005, Inuit of Ontario [6 July 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  679. When pharmacies and healthcare providers do not recognize NIHB cards, Inuit must pay for services and then apply for reimbursement from the NIHB program. Michelin interview, 14 February 2005. (return to source paragraph)

  680. In 1991, Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) began providing funding for specific programs and services to Aboriginal peoples in urban centres through its Pathways to Success program. The program was offered nationwide, but locally administered. In urban centres without Aboriginal governing structures, Aboriginal Area Management Boards were created with representation from relevant Aboriginal groups to administer Pathways programs. With the 1996 revisions to the Pathways program, funding for Aboriginal peoples was divided among three national organizations, Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (now Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK)), the Assembly of First Nations, and the Métis National Council, rendering the management boards obsolete. The lack of service for urban Aboriginal peoples was challenged in the 2002 Misquadis case, which determined that Aboriginal peoples in urban centres do have structures of governance with the organizational and decision-making capacity to administer HRDC programs, and that urban Aboriginal peoples are entitled to equity of service with those living in Aboriginal communities. Reid, 28-29 April 2004.
    In Ottawa, Inuit are negotiating with the Algonquin First Nations for permission to hunt and fish in the Ottawa area. In Nunavut, for example, post-secondary assistance funding can be accessed from the Government of Nunavut's Financial Assistance for Nunavut Students (FANS). For beneficiaries who have lived outside of Nunavut for more than one year previous to submitting their funding application, FANS funding may be difficult to obtain. Tungasuvvingat Inuit, Akiurvik (Winter 2004), 3 [6 July 2005]; and Inuit Rights in the City, 24-35. (return to source paragraph)

  681. According to 1996 Census of Canada data, 1,330 Inuit household moves were between rural communities; 1,175 moves were from rural to urban communities; 1,150 moves were from urban to urban communities; and 920 moves were from urban to rural communities. In fact, the 2001 Census of Canada data indicate that population redistribution of Inuit between rural and urban communities has changed little since 1996. Norris and Clatworthy, 59 and 74. (return to source paragraph)

  682. Inuit in Ottawa, for example, are currently seeking to have their population, which is consistent with the population of a mid-sized northern community, recognized by the provincial government. Inuit refer to the Ottawa Inuit community as “Ottawamiut.” Although Section 35 of the Constitution guarantees Inuit protection of their Aboriginal and treaty rights, Ontario law does not recognize specific Inuit rights. Within Ontario, the government can designate official “Native communities,” allowing them to take responsibility for some areas of provincial jurisdiction, including child welfare and community services. The federal government uses the term “Aboriginal” to refer to First Nations, Métis and Inuit, and the Province of Ontario uses the term “Native.” At present, the Province of Ontario only officially recognizes First Nations communities by designating them as Native communities. Taking responsibility for social service provision is particularly important for Inuit, who have experienced significant legal difficulties in having their system of customary adoption recognized provincially. Although Inuit agencies, such as Tungasuvvingat Inuit in Ottawa, have worked with social workers, to inform them about Inuit cultural practices and to facilitate customary adoptions with the Children's Aid Society's knowledge, the precarious legal status of customary adoptions has meant adoptive parents face difficulty registering children in school, and obtaining documentation, such as birth certificates, provincial health cards, and passports. Inuit Rights in the City, 1-3 and 10-18; and Calvin Hanselmann, “Ensuring the Urban Dream: Shared Responsibility and Effective Urban Aboriginal Voices,” Not Strangers in These Parts: Urban Aboriginal Peoples, David Newhouse and Evelyn Peters, eds. (Ottawa: Policy Research Initiative, 2003: 167-177), 172-173; and John Loxley and Fred Wien, “Urban Aboriginal Economic Development,” Not Strangers in These Parts: Urban Aboriginal Peoples, David Newhouse and Evelyn Peters, eds. (Ottawa: Policy Research Initiative, 2003: 217-242), 223. (return to source paragraph)

  683. The lack of legal recognition for Inuit customary adoptions is similar to other Inuit experiences of cultural misunderstanding. Inuit interactions with the police and other urban service providers are made more difficult when consistent and adequate translation services are not available. Many Inuit, particularly elderly people, still have Inuktitut as their primary or only language of interaction, and require interpretive services on a regular basis within the urban community. In Ottawa, the Inuit community is working with officers from the Diversity and Race Relations Section of the Ottawa-Carleton Regional Police Force to improve relations. Inuit Rights in the City, 4-25. (return to source paragraph)

  684. Government of Canada Privy Council Office, 25 November 2003, Backgrounder – Urban Aboriginal Strategy [9 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  685. Hanselmann 170; Government of Canada Privy Council Office, 25 November 2003, Backgrounder – Urban Aboriginal Strategy [9 August 2005]; Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 23 June 2005, Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians – Urban Aboriginal Strategy, [9 August 2005; and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 19 January 2005, Backgrounder – Urban Aboriginal Strategy, [9 August 2005]. (return to source paragraph)

  686. Tungasuvvingat Inuit, National Urban Inuit “One Voice” Workshop (Ottawa: Inuit Relations Secretariat, 26-27 October 2005), 1. (return to source paragraph)

  687. A Kablunangajuk is a person who is designated as an Inuk in accordance with Inuit traditions. This can be someone with Inuit ancestry or someone who has no Inuit ancestry but has lived in the Labrador Inuit Land Claims Area since 1940 or is the descendant of someone fitting this description (and was born before 30 November 1990). Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement (Ottawa: Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 2004), 30-31. (return to source paragraph)

  688. Negotiations for an Agreement-in-Principle to create the Nunavik Government concluded in January 2005. This will be an institute of public government and will include elected members from each community. Savoie, 24 March 2005, “Status Report – Nunavik Self-Government Project”; “Negotiation Framework Agreement on the Amalgamation of Certain Institutions and the Creation of a New Form of Government in Nunavik” (Ottawa: Government of Canada, 26 June 2003). 689 A list of the interviews conducted is included in the Bibliography. (return to source paragraph)