Fact Sheet - Kanesatake

Since 1990, progress has been achieved at Kanesatake in order to address the historical grievances of the Mohawks of Kanesatake and bring greater certainty in the Kanesatake/Oka area and the surrounding municipalities.

March 6, 1991 Agreement concluded on the Agenda and Process Negotiations between Kanesatake and Canada that set out the framework and issues for negotiations to resolve land-related grievances.

Between 1991 and 2007 Purchase of 179 properties by Canada to be integrated as part of the interim land base including lands in the area known as "The Pines" for the extension of the Mohawk cemetery at the heart of the Oka crisis. The purchase of these properties was one of the subject matters identified in the Agenda and Process Negotiations to respond to the uniqueness of the community's checkerboard land base, with a view to creating a unified land base.

July 20, 1992 and August 20,1993 Implementation of two healing processes along with a modification to the processes in March 5, 1997.

December 19, 1994 Signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between Kanesatake and Canada to create a framework for resuming negotiations in an attempt to settle the grievances of the Mohawks of Kanesatake related to the Seigneury of the Lake of Two Mountains. This included, among other things, the acquisition of land to complete a territorial land base and discuss issues of policing and peacekeeping.

1994 to 1995 Construction of a health centre.

April 1996 Resumption of formal negotiations between Canada and the Mohawks of Kanesatake. Negotiations continued up to April 2008. The negotiations were temporarily placed in abeyance due to a governance dispute in Kanesatake.

December 19, 1996 An Interim Tripartite Policing Agreement concluded between the Mohawk Council of Kanesatake, the Government of Québec and the Government of Canada. It established the authority of the Kanesatake Mohawk police force to maintain peace, order and public security within a patrol zone agreed to by the parties. The agreement provided Kanesatake with professional and culturally sensitive policing services. The Agreement was extended for one year in 1997.

November 1, 1997 Inauguration of the Kanesatake Mohawk police station.

June 30, 1999 Property Management Agreement between Canada, the Kanesatake Orihwáshon:a Development Corporation and the Mohawk Council of Kanesatake led to the establishment of the Corporation. It was responsible for the management of all properties purchased by Canada for the use and benefit of the Corporation and the Mohawk Council of Kanesatake. This Agreement was amended in 2001 at the request of the Mohawk Council of Kanesatake to permit the development of a transparent and open allotment process.

August 19, 1999 Permanent Tripartite Policing Agreement was concluded and extended in March 31, 2002 and March 26, 2003.

October 2, 1999 Inauguration of an Elders Home in Kanesatake.

December 1999 Mohawks of Kanesatake take over responsibility for elementary education services and school facilities.

October 13, 2000 Construction of a youth centre.

June 21, 2000 Initialing of the Land Governance Agreement. The Land Governance Agreement recognized an interim land base for Kanesatake as well as their legal status under section 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867. The Agreement called for the harmonization of certain Kanesatake laws and Municipality of Oka by-laws, and brought legal certainty over the status of those lands.

December 21, 2000 Signing of the Land Governance Agreement.

October 14, 2001 Ratification of the Land Governance Agreement by the band membership.

June 14, 2001 Royal Assent of The Kanesatake Interim Land Base Governance Act, which gave effect to the Land Governance Agreement.

March 19, 2004 The Mohawk Council of Kanesatake, the Government of Québec and the Government of Canada concluded new Tripartite Policing Agreement.

November 2006 Mohawk Council of Kanesatake tabled their legal arguments in support of their claim to the Seigneury of the Lake of Two Mountains claim.

January 15, 2007 Acquisition of an additional 34.7 hectare property that was set aside for the use and benefit of Kanesatake and added to the interim land base, as per the 1991 agreement concluded on the Agenda and Process Negotiations.

March 2007 The Municipality of Oka and the Mohawk Council of Kanesatake concluded an Agreement-in-Principle for the harmonization of laws and by-laws for the Mohawk and non-Mohawk lands in the Village of Oka. The parties have not yet signed the agreement.

April 14, 2008 The Government of Canada accepted Kanesatake's Specific Claim to part of the Seigneury of the Lake of Two Mountains.

January 15, 2009 Appointment of a Chief Federal Representative in order to conduct exploratory discussions on the current grievances of the Mohawks of Kanesatake regarding the Seigneury and their willingness to negotiate the claim under the Specific Claims policy.

August 14, 2009 Appointment by Canada of a Chief Federal Representative to outline scope of acceptance and parameters of the Seigneury specific claim.

May 1, 2010 Appointment of a Chief Federal Representative to work with the Mohawk Council of Kanesatake and departmental representatives to identify the unresolved issues of the 1991 agreement on the Agenda and Process Negotiations and the 1994 Memorandum of Understanding.

July 9, 2010 Appointment of Fred Caron as Chief Federal Negotiator for negotiations on the Mohawks of Kanesatake's Seigneury of Lake of Two Mountains specific claim.